WorldWideScience

Sample records for coercivity magnetic stripes

  1. Performance of Halbach magnet arrays with finite coercivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, C.R.H.; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    of the magnetic material and the fact that the coercivity is not infinite will limit the attainable field. The presented method is able to predict when and where demagnetization will occur, and these predictions are compared with the analytical solution for the case of infinite coercivity. However, the approach...... presented here also allows quantification of the decrease in flux density and homogeneity for a partially demagnetized magnet. Moreover, the problem of how to realize a Halbach cylinder geometry using a mix of materials with different coercivities without altering the overall performance is addressed. Being......A numerical method to study the effect of finite coercivity on the Halbach cylinder geometry is presented. Despite the fact that the analytical solution available for this geometry does not set any limit to the maximum air gap flux density achievable, in real life the non-linear response...

  2. Performance of Halbach magnet arrays with finite coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insinga, A.R.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Bjørk, R.; Smith, A.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical method to study the effect of finite coercivity on the Halbach cylinder geometry is presented. Despite the fact that the analytical solution available for this geometry does not set any limit to the maximum air gap flux density achievable, in real life the non-linear response of the magnetic material and the fact that the coercivity is not infinite will limit the attainable field. The presented method is able to predict when and where demagnetization will occur, and these predictions are compared with the analytical solution for the case of infinite coercivity. However, the approach presented here also allows quantification of the decrease in flux density and homogeneity for a partially demagnetized magnet. Moreover, the problem of how to realize a Halbach cylinder geometry using a mix of materials with different coercivities without altering the overall performance is addressed. Being based on a numerical approach, the presented method can be employed to analyze the demagnetization effects due to coercivity for any geometry, even when the analytical solution is not available. - Highlights: • The effect of the finite coercivity on the performance of the Halbach cylinder geometry is analyzed • FEM predictions of demagnetization are in agreement with the analytical calculations. • Performance in the non-linear regime is quantified by the average and uniformity of the field • We show which regions in the geometry are more likely to experience non-linear behavior. • We provide a recipe for the fabrication of a multi-material Halbach cylinder

  3. High coercivity rare earth-transition metal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Ferromagnetic compositions having intrinsic magnetic coercivities at room temperature of at least 1,000 Oersteds are formed by the controlled quenching of molten rare earth -transition metal alloys. Hard magnets may be inexpensively formed from the lower atomic weight lanthanide elements and iron. The preferable compositions lie within: at least one of Fe, Ni, Co (20 to 70 atomic percent); and at least one of Ce, Pr, Na, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y (80 to 30 atomic percent). (author)

  4. High coercivity rare earth-transition metal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Ferromagnetic compositions having intrinsic magnetic coercivities at room temperature of at least 1,000 Oersteds are formed by the controlled quenching of molten rare earth-transition metal alloys. Hard magnets may be inexpensively formed from the lower atomic weight lanthanide elements and iron. The preferable compositions lie within: at least one of Fe, Ni, Co; 20 - 70 atomic percent: at least one of Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y; 80 - 30 atomic percent. (author)

  5. High-coercive garnet films for thermo-magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzhansky, V N; Danishevskaya, Y V; Nedviga, A S; Milyukova, H T

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using high-coercive of garnet films for thermo-magnetic recording is related with the presence of the metastable domain structure, which arises due to a significant mismatch of the lattice parameters of the film and the substrate. In the work the connection between facet crystal structure of elastically strained ferrite garnets films and the domain structure in them is established by methods of phase contrast and polarization microscopy. (paper)

  6. Angular dependence of coercivity derived from alignment dependence of coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Matsuura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of the alignment dependence of the coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets showed that the angle of magnetization reversal for anisotropically aligned magnets was bigger than that obtained from the theoretical results calculated using the postulation that every grain independently reverses its magnetization direction following the 1/cos θ law. The angles of reversed magnetization (θ1 for Nd13.48Co0.55B5.76Febal. with alignment α=0.95 and for Nd12.75Dy0.84B5.81Co0.55Febal. with α=0.96 were 30° and 36°, respectively, which were very similar to that of an ideal magnet with a Gaussian distribution (σ=31° and 44°, respectively of the grain alignment. In this model, we postulated that every grain independently reversed according to the 1/cos θ law. The calculation results for the angular dependence of the coercivity using the values θ1=ω1(0°=30°, σ=31° and θ1=ω1(0°=36°, σ=44° could qualitatively and convincingly explain the observed angular dependence of the coercivity of Nd14.2B6.2Co1.0Febal. and Nd14.2Dy0.3B6.2Co1.0Febal.. It is speculated that the magnetic domain wall is pinned at grains tilted away from the easy magnetization direction, and when the magnetic domain wall de-pins from the tilted grains, the magnetic domain wall jumps through several grains. We suggest that the coercive force of the aligned magnet behaves like a low-aligned magnet owing to the magnetization reversal of the crust of the grains induced by the pinning and subsequent jumping of the magnetic domain wall.

  7. Angular dependence of coercivity derived from alignment dependence of coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Sumitani, Kazushi; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Tamura, Ryuji; Osamura, Kozo

    2018-01-01

    Experimental results of the alignment dependence of the coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets showed that the angle of magnetization reversal for anisotropically aligned magnets was bigger than that obtained from the theoretical results calculated using the postulation that every grain independently reverses its magnetization direction following the 1/cos θ law. The angles of reversed magnetization (θ1) for Nd13.48Co0.55B5.76Febal. with alignment α=0.95 and for Nd12.75Dy0.84B5.81Co0.55Febal. with α=0.96 were 30° and 36°, respectively, which were very similar to that of an ideal magnet with a Gaussian distribution (σ=31° and 44°, respectively) of the grain alignment. In this model, we postulated that every grain independently reversed according to the 1/cos θ law. The calculation results for the angular dependence of the coercivity using the values θ1=ω1(0°)=30°, σ=31° and θ1=ω1(0°)=36°, σ=44° could qualitatively and convincingly explain the observed angular dependence of the coercivity of Nd14.2B6.2Co1.0Febal. and Nd14.2Dy0.3B6.2Co1.0Febal.. It is speculated that the magnetic domain wall is pinned at grains tilted away from the easy magnetization direction, and when the magnetic domain wall de-pins from the tilted grains, the magnetic domain wall jumps through several grains. We suggest that the coercive force of the aligned magnet behaves like a low-aligned magnet owing to the magnetization reversal of the crust of the grains induced by the pinning and subsequent jumping of the magnetic domain wall.

  8. τ-MnAl with high coercivity and saturation magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, high purity τ-Mn54Al46 and Mn54−xAl46Cxalloys were successfully prepared using conventional arc-melting, melt-spinning, and heat treatment process. The magnetic and the structural properties were examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD, powder neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. A room temperature saturation magnetization of 650.5 kAm-1, coercivity of 0.5 T, and a maximum energy product of (BHmax = 24.7 kJm-3 were achieved for the pure Mn54Al46 powders without carbon doping. The carbon substituted Mn54−xAl46Cx, however, reveals a lower Curie temperature but similar saturation magnetization as compared to the carbon-free sample. The electronic structure of MnAl shows that the Mn atom possesses a magnetic moment of 2.454 μB which results from strong hybridization between Mn-Al and Mn-Mn. We also investigated the volume and c/a ratio dependence of the magnetic moments of Mn and Al. The results indicate that an increase in the intra-atomic exchange splitting due to the cell volume expansion, leads to a large magnetic moment for the Mn atom. The Mn magnetic moment can reach a value of 2.9 μB at a volume expansion rate of ΔV/V ≈ 20%.

  9. Large coercivity in nanocrystalline TbMn6Sn6 permanent magnets prepared by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongwei; Zhao Tongyun; Zhang Jian; Rong Chuanbing; Zhang Shaoying; Shen Baogen; Li Lu; Zhang Ligang

    2003-01-01

    Isotropic TbMn 6 Sn 6 was prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent annealing. Although the crystalline grain size was a little larger than 15 nm, no remanence enhancement resulting from intergrain exchange coupling was observed. The coercivity μ 0 H c = 0.96 T at 293 K was much larger than that expected from magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The smallest effective anisotropy constant is suggested to be 0.25 MJ m -3 when the coercivity mechanism is controlled by coherent rotation of magnetization in a single-domain grain. The contributions of shape anisotropy and magnetoelastic anisotropy are considered in order to explain the large coercivity in the magnets

  10. Recoil curve properties and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp; Kitai, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Rintaro; Natsumeda, Toshimitsu; Hoshijima, Jun

    2013-11-15

    It is examined that whether a reverse domain and magnetic domain wall exist in a lower demagnetization area than the coercive force and whether the observed demagnetization ratio curve can be explained using the alignment distribution function or not. From measurements of the recoil curve in the low demagnetization field, it was confirmed that minor demagnetization occurred in every demagnetization field and magnets of every grade of coercive force. The alignment distribution of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains was also measured by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The alignments and the coercive force decrease ratios were calculated using these alignment distributions. These data were compared against the results obtained from magnetization measurements. From EBSD data, it was found that the alignment distributions of magnets used in this experiment were close to a Gaussian distribution. It was also found that there was no difference in the alignment distribution between magnets with Dy and without Dy, even though the coercive force decrease ratios were Dy dependent. The calculated alignments using the alignment distribution functions were close to the values of magnetization measurements. However, it was found that the calculated coercive force decrease ratios were different from the results obtained from magnetization measurement. - Highlights: • Reverse magnetic domains already exist lower magnetic field than coercive force. • Demagnetization happens not only from surface but also from inside of magnets. • Calculated alignment agrees well with that of the magnetic properties measurement. • Coercive force decrease ratio could not explain from alignment distribution. • We could not find any difference with and without Dy magnets in alignment distribution.

  11. High coercivity in rare-earth lean nanocomposite magnets by grain boundary infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madugundo, Rajasekhar, E-mail: mraja@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Salazar-Jaramillo, Daniel [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Manuel Barandiaran, Jose [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Department of Electricity & Electronics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Hadjipanayis, George C., E-mail: hadji@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A significant enhancement in coercivity was achieved by grain boundary modification through low temperature infiltration of Pr{sub 75}(Cu{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.75}){sub 25} eutectic alloy in rare-earth lean (Pr/Nd)–Fe–B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets. The infiltration procedure was carried out on ribbons and hot-deformed magnets at 600–650 °C for different time durations. In Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe ribbons, the coercivity increased from 5.3 to 23.8 kOe on infiltration for 4 h. The Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe hot-deformed magnet shows an increase in coercivity from 5.4 to 22 kOe on infiltration for 6 h. The increase in the coercivity comes at the expense of remnant magnetization. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the presence of both the hard Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft α-Fe phases. A decrease in the soft α-Fe phase content was observed after infiltration. - Highlights: • Enhancement in coercivity was achieved by grain boundary modification. • Coercivity increased from 5.3 to 23.8 kOe in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe on infiltration. • Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe deformed magnet shows an increase in coercivity from 5.4 to 22 kOe. • The increase in the coercivity comes at the expense of remnant magnetization. • A decrease in the soft α-Fe phase content was observed after infiltration.

  12. Magnetic coercivity and intensity of Mars crust: Dichotomy formation via unicellular convection mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Ness, F. N.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 52 (2005), GP43A-0884 ISSN 0096-3941. [American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. 05.12.2005-05.12.2005, San Francisco] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetic coercivity * magnetic intesity * plate tectonics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. Coercivity degradation caused by inhomogeneous grain boundaries in sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hansheng; Yun, Fan; Qu, Jiangtao; Li, Yingfei; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Fang, Ruhao; Ye, Zhixiao; Ringer, Simon P.; Zheng, Rongkun

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative correlation between intrinsic coercivity and grain boundaries in three dimensions is critical to further improve the performance of sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. Here, we quantitatively reveal the local composition variation across and especially along grain boundaries using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography. We also estimate the saturation magnetization, magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, and exchange stiffness of the grain boundaries on the basis of the experimentally determined structure and composition. Finally, using micromagnetic simulations, we quantify the intrinsic coercivity degradation caused by inhomogeneous grain boundaries. This approach can be applied to other magnetic materials for the analysis and optimization of magnetic properties.

  14. Investigation of energy losses in low-coercivity resin-bonded magnets in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milov, E. V.; Sipin, I. A.; Milov, V. N.; Andreenko, A. S.; Balan, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    Energy losses during alternating remagnetization of low-coercitivity resin-bonded magnets and commercially produced electrical steels were studied experimentally. The studies were conducted on several samples of resin-bonded magnets with different manufacturing technologies and samples of electrical steel sheets of various thicknesses. The static and dynamic magnetic properties of the samples were measured on a vibration magnetometer and a specially designed apparatus, respectively. It was found that the studied samples of bonded magnets have a relatively high level of hysteresis losses associated with high coercivity, which reaches a value of 4-5 Oe. At the same time, the remagnetization losses due to the Foucault currents in the bonded magnets are considerably lower than in electrical steels. The measurement results show that bonded magnets at high frequencies of remagnetization, especially in high-rpm motors, can be competitive in comparison with electrical steels.

  15. Spatially correlated disorder in striped precursor magnetic modulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Marcel; Castan, Teresa; LLoveras, Pol; Planes, Antoni; Saxena, Avadh

    2007-01-01

    We use a Ginzburg-Landau model that includes long-range dipolar interactions and spatially correlated quenched-in disorder coupled to the local magnetization to study the properties of the precursor magnetic modulations as a function of the characteristics of the disorder. We find that although the modulation pattern is very robust and does not depend on details of the pair correlation function G(r), the scaling behaviour of the characteristic length of the striped magnetic modulations depends on the behaviour of G(r) for small values of r

  16. Study of high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, G. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Xi' an Institute of Technology, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Gao, R.W. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)]. E-mail: gaorwbox@sdu.edu.cn; Sun, Y. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Han, G.B. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, B. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Baotou Rare Earth Research Institute, Batou 014030 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using an advanced processing method including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling and rubber isotropic press. The effects of Dy, Ga and Co addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been investigated. By adopting a suitable component ratio and adjusting proper technological parameters, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with hard magnetic properties of {sub j} H {sub c}=25.6 kOe, B {sub r}=13.2 kG and (BH){sub max}=39.9 MGOe. The temperature coefficient of coercivity of the magnets (between 20 and 150 deg. C) is -0.53% deg. C. The magnetic properties at high temperature satisfy the needs of permanent magnet motors.

  17. Study of high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, G.; Gao, R.W.; Sun, Y.; Han, G.B.; Wang, B.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using an advanced processing method including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling and rubber isotropic press. The effects of Dy, Ga and Co addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been investigated. By adopting a suitable component ratio and adjusting proper technological parameters, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with hard magnetic properties of j H c =25.6 kOe, B r =13.2 kG and (BH) max =39.9 MGOe. The temperature coefficient of coercivity of the magnets (between 20 and 150 deg. C) is -0.53% deg. C. The magnetic properties at high temperature satisfy the needs of permanent magnet motors

  18. Anisotropy and Microstructure of High Coercivity Rare Earth Iron Permanent Magnets, List of Papers Published

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    hardly influences both the pared by three different production technologies, absolute value of HA and its temperature dependence. The permanent magnets...ing reverse domains [2]. pared from 99.5% pure cast material supplied by The application of these magnets has been Rare Earth Products. The...the c/ re 3b Fig.. E ncrographs showingthe celular precipitation structure of precipitation hardened SmCo 2:17 magnets (a). In low coercivity magnets

  19. Angular dependence of coercivity in isotropically aligned Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Sumitani, Kazushi; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Tamura, Ryuji; Osamura, Kozo

    2018-05-01

    In order to understand the coercivity mechanism in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets, the angular dependence of the coercivity of an isotropically aligned Nd15Co1.0B6Febal. sintered magnet was investigated through magnetization measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. These results are compared with the angular dependence calculated under the assumption that the magnetization reversal of each grain follows the Kondorskii law or, in other words, the 1/cos θ law for isotropic alignment distributions. The calculated angular dependence of the coercivity agrees very well with the experiment for magnetic fields applied between angles of 0 and 60°, and it is expected that the magnetization reversal occurs in each grain individually followed the 1/cos θ law. In contrast, this agreement between calculation and experiment is not found for anisotropic Nd-Fe-B samples. This implies that the coercivity of the aligned magnets depends upon the de-pinning of the domain walls from pinning sites. When the de-pinning occurs, it is expected that the domain walls are displaced through several grains at once.

  20. Coercivity enhancement in Nd-Fe-B sintered permanent magnet by Dy nanoparticles doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.Q., E-mail: liuweiqiang77@hotmail.co [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Sun, H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yi, X.F. [Anhui Earth-panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd., Anhui 231500 (China); Liu, X.C.; Zhang, D.T. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhang, J.X. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2010-07-02

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with a small amount of Dysprosium (Dy) nanoparticles doping were prepared by conventional sintered method, and the microstructure and magnetic properties of the magnets were studied. Investigation shows that the coercivity rises gradually, while the remanence decreases simultaneously with increased Dy doping amount. As a result, the magnet with 1.5 wt.% Dy exhibits optimal magnetic properties. Further investigation presumed that Dy is enriched as (Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase in the surface region of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix grains indicated by the enhancement of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy field of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase. As a result, the magnet doped with a small amount of Dy nanoparticles possesses remarkably enhanced coercivity without sacrificing its magnetization noticeably.

  1. Formation and characterization of magnetic barium ferrite hollow fibers with low coercivity via co-electrospun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gui-fang, E-mail: guifang777@163.com; Zhang, Zi-dong, E-mail: 1986zzd@163.com; Dang, Feng, E-mail: dangfeng@sdu.edu.cn; Cheng, Chuan-bing, E-mail: 807033063@qq.com; Hou, Chuan-xin, E-mail: 710313782@qq.com; Liu, Si-da, E-mail: superliustar@hotmail.com

    2016-08-15

    BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} fibers and hollow fibers were successfully prepared by electrospun and co-electrospun. A very interesting result appeared in this study that hollow fibers made by co-electrospun showed low coercivity values of a few hundred oersteds, compared with the coercivity values of more than thousand oersteds for the fibers made by electrospun. So the hollow fibers with high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and while comparatively low coercivity (H{sub c}) exhibited strong magnetism and basically showed soft character. And this character for hollow fibers will lead to increase of the permeability for the samples which is favorable for impedance matching in microwave absorption. So these hollow fibers are promised to have use in a number of applications, such as switching and sensing applications, electromagnetic materials, microwave absorber. - Highlights: • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} fibers were prepared via electrospinning successfully. • The coercivity has a value of a few hundred oersteds for the hollow fibers made by coaxial electrospun. • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with high saturation magnetization and low coercivity shows great potential in microwave absorbing application.

  2. Magnetic stripes in the UCoGe superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Pablo de la [Departemento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-542, 04510 Mexico DF, Mexico and Institute de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia (Mexico); Navarro, O, E-mail: delamora@unam.m [Instituto de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The magnetic superconductor UCoGe is analyzed with an electronic structure package, spin-orbit coupling and intra-atomic repulsion (via Hubbard U{sub H}) were included. The possibility of an antiferromagnetic configuration is studied, but it is found to be unstable, also the non-collinear magnetization seems to be ruled out. The magnetization is given mainly by the Co-atoms with M = 0.6 mu{sub B}/f.u. The U-atoms have two magnetic moments; M = 0.07 and 0.32 mu{sub B}/f.u. arranged in an alternated planes along the b-direction forming magnetic stripes.

  3. Coercivities of hot-deformed magnets processed from amorphous and nanocrystalline precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xin; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.; Hono, K.

    2017-01-01

    Hot-deformed magnets have been processed from amorphous and nanocrystalline precursors and their hard magnetic properties and microstructures have been investigated in order to explore the optimum process route. The hot-deformed magnets processed from an amorphous precursor exhibited the coercivity of 1.40 T that is higher than that processed from nanocrystalline powder, ∼1.28 T. The average grain size was larger in the magnets processed from amorphous precursor. Detailed microstructure analyses by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Nd + Pr concentrations in the intergranular phases were higher in the hot-deformed magnet processed from the amorphous precursor, which is considered to lead to the enhanced coercivity due to a stronger pinning force against magnetic domain wall motion.

  4. Perspectives for high-performance permanent magnets: applications, coercivity, and new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Satoshi; Nishino, Masamichi; Miyashita, Seiji

    2017-03-01

    High-performance permanent magnets are indispensable in the production of high-efficiency motors and generators and ultimately for sustaining the green earth. The central issue of modern permanent magnetism is to realize high coercivity near and above room temperature on marginally hard magnetic materials without relying upon the critical elements such as heavy rare earths by means of nanostructure engineering. Recent investigations based on advanced nanostructure analysis and large-scale first principles calculations have led to significant paradigm shifts in the understandings of coercivity mechanism in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, which includes the discovery of the ferromagnetism of the thin (2 nm) intergranular phase surrounding the Nd2Fe14B grains, the occurrence of negative (in-plane) magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Nd ions and some Fe atoms at the interface which degrades coercivity, and visualization of the stochastic behaviors of magnetization in the magnetization reversal process at high temperatures. A major change may occur also in the motor topologies, which is currently overwhelmed by the magnetic flux weakening interior permanent magnet motor type, to other types with variable flux permanent magnet type in some applications to open up a niche for new permanent magnet materials. Keynote talk at 8th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (IWAMSN2016), 8-12 November 2016, Ha Long City, Vietnam.

  5. Modulation of magnetic coercivity in Ni thin films by reversible control of strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Chin, E-mail: wclin@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chia-Wei; Ting, Yi-Chieh; Lo, Fang-Yuh [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Chern, Ming-Yau [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the magnetoelectric control of magnetic thin films. (111)-textured Pd/Ni/Pd thin films were prepared on mica/lead zirconium titanate (PZT) substrates for the investigation. The reversible modulation of magnetic coercivity in Ni films was observed through the electric-voltage-controlled strain variation from the PZT substrate. For 14 nm Ni film, the applied electric field of ±350 V/m led to ±0.5% strain variation of PZT, which was transferred to ±0.4% strain variation of Pd/Ni/Pd thin films on mica, and resulted in ∓17 Oe (∓5% of the preliminary magnetic coercivity). The reversible modulation of magnetic coercivity is supposed to be caused by the voltage-controlled strain through the magneto-elastic effect. - Highlights: • The magnetoelectric control of the magnetic coercivity of Pd/Ni/Pd thin films was demonstrated. • The ±0.4% strain variation of 14 nm Ni thin films resulted in ±17 Oe change of H{sub c}. • The reversible modulation of H{sub c} is supposed to be caused by the magneto-elastic effect.

  6. On the angular dependence of the coercivity of NdFeB hard magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, L.; Christoph, V.; Pastuschenko, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to test the model assumptions on hard magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB magnets, a comparison of the measured and calculated values of the magnetization and remanence coercivities H C and H R , respectively, as a function of the angle between texture axis and external field θ in Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 and (Nd 0.9 Tb 0.1 ) 16 Fe 76 B 8 is given and explained qualitatively

  7. Magnetization reversal mechanism and coercivity enhancement in three-dimensional granular Nd-Fe-B magnets studied by micromagnetic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Choe, Jinhyeok; Hwang, Shinwon; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2017-08-01

    We studied the mechanism of magnetization reversals and coercivity enhancements in three-dimensional (3D) granular Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets using finite-element micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization reversals in the hard magnets consisting of hard-phase grains separated by relatively soft-phase grain boundaries were analyzed with reference to the simulation results for the magnetic field-dependent distributions of the local magnetizations. The saturation magnetization of the grain-boundary phase plays a crucial role in the transition between nucleation- and domain-wall-propagation-controlled reversal processes. The smaller the saturation magnetization of the grain-boundary phase is, the more preferable is the nucleation-controlled process, which results in a larger coercivity. The exchange stiffness of the grain-boundary phase determines the preferred paths of domain-wall propagations, whether inward into grains or along the grain boundaries for relatively small and large exchange stiffness, respectively. However, the exchange stiffness of the grain-boundary phase alone does not significantly contribute to coercivity enhancement in cases where the size of hard-phase grains is much greater than the exchange length. This work paves the way for the design of high-performance hard magnets of large coercivity and maximum-energy-product values.

  8. Hard magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of melt-spun Misch Metal-Fe-B alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Ningtao; Luo, Yang, E-mail: eluoyang@foxmail.com; Yan, Wenlong; Yuan, Chao; Yu, Dunbo; Sun, Liang; Lu, Shuo; Li, Hongwei; Zhang, Hongbin

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Melt-spun MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} alloy shows that the distributions of the La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Fe and B elements is uniformly distributed, and the grain size is in the range of 30–40 nm, it can be seen that Pr-rich and La-rich phases concentrated on grain boundaries, which resulted in the coercivity augment with the increase of MMFe{sub 2} content, and the grain size is around 40–50 nm in MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6}. • There is a significant formation of MMFe{sub 2} with abundant Pr and La, and a small amount of Ce and Nd enriched at the interfacial region in MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6}, thus an inhomogeneous region was formed. It is considered that the inhomogeneous region is effective in increasing the coercivity. • The optimum-quenched MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} alloy have been shown to exhibit a coercive force of 6.9 kOe and an energy product of 8.5 MGOe, which is superior to anisotropic ferrite magnets of 4.5 MGOe. - Abstract: Magnetic and structural properties of Misch Metal (MM)-Fe-B alloys, were examined in the melt-spun ribbons. Melt-spun MM-Fe-B samples were prepared at the surface velocities of 18–30 m/s. Crystalline structure and their room-temperature magnetization characteristics were analyzed, and the optimum surface velocity of 20 m/s and nominal composition of MM{sub 13}Fe{sub 81}B{sub 6} were obtained. Microstructural analyses indicate that the grain size is approximately 30–50 nm in the alloys with the optimum characteristics. In the MM{sub 16}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 6} alloys, Pr-rich and La-rich phases concentrated on grain boundaries, which resulted in the coercivity augment with the increase of MMFe{sub 2} content. Dependence of coercivity on applied magnetic field suggested that the mechanism of coercivity in moderate MM-content samples was inhomogeneous domain wall pinning type. The melt-spun ribbons in the optimum condition exhibit a coercive force of 6.9 kOe and an energy product of 8.5 MGOe, which can be used as

  9. High magnetic coercivity of FePt-Ag/MgO granular nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghani, R.; Sebt, S. A.; Khajehnezhad, A.

    2018-06-01

    L10-FePt ferromagnetic nanoparticles have a hight coercivity of Tesla order. Thus, these nanoparticles, with size of 10 to 15 nm and uniform surface distribution, are suitable in magnetic data storage technology with density of more than 1GB. In order to improve structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles, some elements and combinations have been added to compound. In this research, we show that due to the presence of the Ag, the phase transition temperature of FePt from fcc to L10-fct phase decreases. The presence of Ag as an additive in FePt-Ag nanocomposite, increases the magnetic coercivity. This nanocomposite, with 10% Ag, was deposited by magnetron sputtering on the MgO heat layer. VSM results of 10 nm nanoparticles show that coercivity has increased up to 1.4 T. XRD and FESEM results confirm that the size of the L10-FePt nanoparticles are 10 nm and their surface distribution are uniform. Ag gradually form nano scale clusters with separate lattice and FePt-Ag nanocomposite appears. The result of this process is emptiness of Ag position in FePt-fcc lattice. So, the mobility of Fe and Pt atoms in this lattice increases and it can be possible for them to move in lower temperature. This mechanism explain the effect of Ag on decreasing the transition temperature to fct-L10 phase, and hight coercivity of FePt nanoparticles.

  10. Relation between Nd2Fe14B grain alignment and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Hoshijima, Jun; Ishii, Rintaro

    2013-01-01

    It was found that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grain alignment improves. Because of this phenomenon, studies looked at the relation between this alignment and the coercive force decrease ratio. In experiments, it was expected that the coercive force of perfectly aligned magnet reached 0.7 of coercive force in istotropically aligned magnet. When it is postulated that the coercive force is determined by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, coercive force increases as the alignment improves and it becomes difficult to explain our experimental data. On the other hand, when the coercive force is determined by magnetic domain wall motion, the coercive force decreases as the alignment improves and the coercive force of the perfectly aligned magnet reaches 1/√(2) of the isotropically aligned magnet. This tendency and value was very close to our data. It strongly suggests that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets is determined by the domain wall motion. - Highlights: ► Coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as grains alignment improves. ► Coercive force decrease ratio reaches −30% at the perfect aligned magnet. ►These experimental results are different from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. ► The magnetic domain wall motion could explain this coercive force decrease ratio

  11. Relation between Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain alignment and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp [Hitachi Metals Ltd., NEOMAX Division, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Hoshijima, Jun; Ishii, Rintaro [Hitachi Metals Ltd., NEOMAX Division, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    It was found that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain alignment improves. Because of this phenomenon, studies looked at the relation between this alignment and the coercive force decrease ratio. In experiments, it was expected that the coercive force of perfectly aligned magnet reached 0.7 of coercive force in istotropically aligned magnet. When it is postulated that the coercive force is determined by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, coercive force increases as the alignment improves and it becomes difficult to explain our experimental data. On the other hand, when the coercive force is determined by magnetic domain wall motion, the coercive force decreases as the alignment improves and the coercive force of the perfectly aligned magnet reaches 1/√(2) of the isotropically aligned magnet. This tendency and value was very close to our data. It strongly suggests that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets is determined by the domain wall motion. - Highlights: ► Coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as grains alignment improves. ► Coercive force decrease ratio reaches −30% at the perfect aligned magnet. ►These experimental results are different from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. ► The magnetic domain wall motion could explain this coercive force decrease ratio.

  12. A cage position monitor based on magnetically striped rope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V M

    1978-01-01

    Following the winding disaster at Markham Colliery in July 1973 recommendations to monitor the position of the cage directly at all times throughout the winding cycle, and to provide a system of communication with persons in the conveyance were made. The system adopted by MRDE was the 'magnetically striped rope'. An experimental system was installed at Maltby Colliery, South Yorkshire, and has been working successfully for well over a year. Magnetic marking of a hoist or guide rope can be carried out using permanent magnets but a much more convenient method has been devised using a pulsed electromagnet sliding on the rope. Detection is achieved by two static magnetic sensors spaced to give quadrature output. By processing the signals and using an up/down counter it is possible to sense the direction of movement and the distance travelled by the cage from a given datum. The information can be further processed to indicate velocity, overspeed and overwind, and when referenced to drum revolutions may be used to monitor rope slip in friction winders or slack rope in drum winders. When the guide rope is magnetically marked and sensed, the information must be transmitted from the cage to the surface. Such a data communication link, developed by MRDE, also provides a base for a general shaft communication system.

  13. The origin of the coercivity reduction of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnet annealed below an optimal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiya, T.; Sasaki, T.T.; Ohkubo, T.; Une, Y.; Sagawa, M.; Kato, H.; Hono, K.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the origin of the coercivity reduction in a sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet that is annealed below an optimal annealing temperature, we performed focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy tomography of post-sinter annealed magnets. A number of grain boundary cracks were observed between Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains and Nd-rich phases in the sample annealed below the optimal temperature. We deduced micromagnetic parameters α and N eff by fitting the temperature dependence of the coercivity. While α was constant regardless of the annealing conditions, N eff increased in the sample annealed below the optimal temperature with the reduced coercivity. This indicates that the reduction of the coercivity is due to the local stray field at the cracks. - Highlights: • We performed FIB/SEM tomography of post-sinter annealed magnets. • A number of grain boundary cracks were observed in the low-coercivity sample. • Parameters α and N eff were deduced from the temperature dependence of coercivity. • While α was constant, N eff increased in the low-coercivity sample. • The reduction of the coercivity is due to the local stray field at the cracks

  14. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Valdés-Bango

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  15. Magnetic stripes and holes: Complex domain patterns in perforated films with weak perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Bango, F.; Vélez, M.; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Alameda, J. M.; Martín, J. I.

    2017-05-01

    Hexagonal antidot arrays have been patterned on weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy NdCo films by e-beam lithography and lift off. Domain structure has been characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy at remanence. On a local length scale, of the order of stripe pattern period, domain configuration is controlled by edge effects within the stripe pattern: stripe domains meet the hole boundary at either perpendicular or parallel orientation. On a longer length scale, in-plane magnetostatic effects dominate the system: clear superdomains are observed in the patterned film with average in-plane magnetization along the easy directions of the antidot array, correlated over several antidot array cells.

  16. Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Xianjun

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → We investigate striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs). → For the single-impurity and two-impurity cases, modulated checkerboard pattern and stripe-like structures are induced. → When more magnetic impurities are inserted, more complex modulated structures could be induced, including rectilinear and right-angled stripes and quantum-corral-like structures. → Impurities could induce complex striped morphologies in DSCs. - Abstract: We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t' - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.

  17. Enhanced coercivity in α-(Fe,Co)/(Nd,Pr)2Fe14B nanocomposite magnets via interfacial modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Li Lanlan; Li Xiaohong; Sun Hongyu; Zhang Xiangyi

    2008-01-01

    We have prepared α-(Fe,Co)/(Nd,Pr) 2 Fe 14 B nanocomposite magnets having a high coercivity H c = 7.5 kOe and a large energy product (BH) max = 22.7 MGOe by interfacial modification using an intergranular amorphous phase, as compared with the corresponding values obtained without the intergranular phase, H c = 5.5 kOe and (BH) max = 16.1 MGOe. The enhanced coercivity is attributed to the increase in the nucleation field for magnetization reversal due to interfacial modification. This demonstrates a counter-intuitive approach for enhancing the magnetic properties of nanocomposite magnets

  18. Coercivity enhancement in Ce-Fe-B based magnets by core-shell grain structuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-based R2Fe14B (R= rare-earth nano-structured permanent magnets consisting of (Ce,Nd2Fe14B core-shell grains separated by a non-magnetic grain boundary phase, in which the relative amount of Nd to Ce is higher in the shell of the magnetic grain than in its core, were fabricated by Nd-Cu infiltration into (Ce,Nd2Fe14B hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity values of infiltrated core-shell structured magnets are superior to those of as-hot-deformed magnets with the same overall Nd content. This is attributed to the higher value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the shell phase in the core-shell structured infiltrated magnets compared to the homogeneous R2Fe14B grains of the as-hot-deformed magnets, and to magnetic isolation of R2Fe14B grains by the infiltrated grain boundary phase. First order reversal curve (FORC diagrams suggest that the higher anisotropy shell suppresses initial magnetization reversal at the edges and corners of the R2Fe14B grains.

  19. Coercivity enhancement of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets by the eutectic grain boundary diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lihua; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Shoji, T.; Hono, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nd-M (M = Al, Cu, Ga, Zn, Mn) alloys with compositions close to eutectic points were investigated as diffusion sources for the grain boundary diffusion process to hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets. Coercivity enhancement was observed for most of the alloys. Among them, the sample processed with Nd 90 Al 10 exhibited the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. However, the sample processed with Nd 70 Cu 30 exhibited the highest coercivity of 0.7 T at 200 ° C. Microstructural observations using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) showed that nonferromagnetic Nd-rich intergranular phase envelops the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains after the diffusion process. Abnormal grain growth and the dissolution of Al into the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains were observed in the sample processed with Nd 90 Al 10 , which explains its inferior thermal stability of coercivity compared to the sample processed with Nd 70 Cu 30 . The coercivity enhancement and poor thermal stability of the coercivity of the Nd 90 Al 10 diffusion-processed sample are discussed based on microstructure studies by transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Coercivity of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets is enhanced by the infiltration of various R-TM eutectic alloys. • The sample infiltrated with Nd 90 Al 10 shows the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. • At 200 °C, Nd 70 Cu 30 diffusion-processed sample possesses the highest coercivity of 0.7 T.

  20. Coercivity enhancement of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets by the eutectic grain boundary diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lihua [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Shoji, T. [Toyota Motor Corporation, Advanced Material Engineering Div., Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-05-05

    Nd-M (M = Al, Cu, Ga, Zn, Mn) alloys with compositions close to eutectic points were investigated as diffusion sources for the grain boundary diffusion process to hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets. Coercivity enhancement was observed for most of the alloys. Among them, the sample processed with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} exhibited the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. However, the sample processed with Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} exhibited the highest coercivity of 0.7 T at 200 {sup °}C. Microstructural observations using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) showed that nonferromagnetic Nd-rich intergranular phase envelops the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains after the diffusion process. Abnormal grain growth and the dissolution of Al into the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains were observed in the sample processed with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10}, which explains its inferior thermal stability of coercivity compared to the sample processed with Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}. The coercivity enhancement and poor thermal stability of the coercivity of the Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} diffusion-processed sample are discussed based on microstructure studies by transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Coercivity of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets is enhanced by the infiltration of various R-TM eutectic alloys. • The sample infiltrated with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} shows the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. • At 200 °C, Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} diffusion-processed sample possesses the highest coercivity of 0.7 T.

  1. Magnetization reversal and coercivity of Fe3Se4 nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, S. J.; Zhou, Y. T.; Bai, Y.; Zhu, Y. L.; Ren, W. J.; Long, G.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-05-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe3Se4 nanowire (NW) arrays in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane are studied. Cross-sectional SEM and plane-view TEM images show that the mean wire diameter (dw) and the center-to-center spacing (D) of Fe3Se4 nanowires are about 220 nm and 330 nm, respectively. The field-cooled magnetization dependent on the temperature indicates a Curie temperature around 334 K for the Fe3Se4 nanowires. The coercivities of Fe3Se4 nanowires at 10 K, obtained from the in-plane and out-of-plane hysteresis loops, are as high as 22.4 kOe and 23.3 kOe, which can be understood from the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the magnetization reversal process.

  2. Micromagnetic simulation of the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujisaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the micromagnetic simulation study about the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets. A multigrain object with a large number of meshes is introduced to analyze such anisotropic grain boundaries and the simulation is performed by combining the finite element method and the parallel computing. When the grain boundary phase parallel to the c-plane is less ferromagnetic the process of the magnetization reversal changes and the coercivity of the multigrain object increases. The simulations with various magnetic properties of the grain boundary phases are executed to search for the way to enhance the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets.

  3. Topology optimization of reduced rare-earth permanent magnet arrays with finite coercivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyber, R.; Trevizoli, P. V.; Christiaanse, T. V.; Govindappa, P.; Rowe, A.

    2018-05-01

    The supply chain risk of rare-earth permanent magnets has yielded research efforts to improve both materials and magnetic circuits. While a number of magnet optimization techniques exist, literature has not incorporated the permanent magnet failure process stemming from finite coercivity. To address this, a mixed-integer topology optimization is formulated to maximize the flux density of a segmented Halbach cylinder while avoiding permanent demagnetization. The numerical framework is used to assess the efficacy of low-cost (rare-earth-free ferrite C9), medium-cost (rare-earth-free MnBi), and higher-cost (Dy-free NdFeB) permanent magnet materials. Novel magnet designs are generated that produce flux densities 70% greater than the segmented Halbach array, albeit with increased magnet mass. Three optimization formulations are then explored using ferrite C9 that demonstrates the trade-off between manufacturability and design sophistication, generating flux densities in the range of 0.366-0.483 T.

  4. Low-energy mechanically milled τ-phase MnAl alloys with high coercivity and magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Niu, Junchao; Wang, Taolei; Xia, Kada; Xiang, Zhen; Song, Yiming; Zhang, Hong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The high cost of rare earth elements makes the use of high-performance permanent magnets commercially very expensive. MnAl magnetic material is one of the most promising Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets due to its obvious characteristics. However, the coercivity of MnAl alloys produced by melt spinning followed by appropriate treatment is relatively low. In this investigation, a high coercivity up to 5.3 kOe and saturation magnetization of ∼62 emu/g (with an applied magnetic field of 19.5 kOe) were obtained in the mechanically milled τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy. As milling time goes on, the coercivity firstly increases and then decreases, leading to the formation of knee-point coercivity, while the saturation magnetization decreases simultaneously. The structural imperfections such as disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties of τ-phase MnAl alloys processed by low-energy mechanical milling. The present results will be helpful for the development of processing protocols for the optimization of τ-phase MnAl alloys as high performance Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets. - Highlights: • Successful fabrication of pure τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy by melt spinning and low-energy ball milling processes. • High coercivity (~5.3 kOe) and magnetization (~62 emu/g) were obtained in τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy. • Disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties.

  5. Low-energy mechanically milled τ-phase MnAl alloys with high coercivity and magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei, E-mail: weilu@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 Japan (Japan); Niu, Junchao; Wang, Taolei; Xia, Kada; Xiang, Zhen; Song, Yiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi [Research Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 Japan (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    The high cost of rare earth elements makes the use of high-performance permanent magnets commercially very expensive. MnAl magnetic material is one of the most promising Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets due to its obvious characteristics. However, the coercivity of MnAl alloys produced by melt spinning followed by appropriate treatment is relatively low. In this investigation, a high coercivity up to 5.3 kOe and saturation magnetization of ∼62 emu/g (with an applied magnetic field of 19.5 kOe) were obtained in the mechanically milled τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy. As milling time goes on, the coercivity firstly increases and then decreases, leading to the formation of knee-point coercivity, while the saturation magnetization decreases simultaneously. The structural imperfections such as disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties of τ-phase MnAl alloys processed by low-energy mechanical milling. The present results will be helpful for the development of processing protocols for the optimization of τ-phase MnAl alloys as high performance Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets. - Highlights: • Successful fabrication of pure τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy by melt spinning and low-energy ball milling processes. • High coercivity (~5.3 kOe) and magnetization (~62 emu/g) were obtained in τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy. • Disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties.

  6. Coercivity of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets produced by the spark plasma sintering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Saito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nd-Cu alloy powder addition on the microstructures and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets produced by the spark plasma sintering (SPS method were investigated. The addition of a small amount of Nd-Cu alloy powder, up to 2%, significantly increased the coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets without deteriorating the crystallographic alignment of the Nd2Fe14B phase. The Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnet with 2% Nd-Cu alloy powder had the same remanence value as the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnet without Nd-Cu alloy powder addition, but the magnet with 2% Nd-Cu alloy powder exhibited higher coercivity and a higher maximum energy product than the magnet without Nd-Cu alloy powder addition.

  7. Thermal effect on magnetic parameters of high-coercivity cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, E. F., E-mail: efchagas@fisica.ufmt.br; Ponce, A. S.; Prado, R. J.; Silva, G. M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá-MT (Brazil); Bettini, J. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 Urca. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-07-21

    We prepared very high-coercivity cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by a combustion method and using short-time high-energy mechanical milling to increase strain and the structural defects density. The coercivity (H{sub C}) of the milled sample reached 3.75 kOe—a value almost five times higher than that obtained for the non-milled material (0.76 kOe). To investigate the effect of the temperature on the magnetic behavior of the milled sample, we performed a thermal treatment on the milled sample at 300, 400, and 600 °C for 30 and 180 min. We analyzed the changes in the magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles due to the thermal treatment using the hysteresis curves, Williamson-Hall analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal treatment at 600 °C causes decreases in the microstructural strain and density of structural defects resulting in a significant decrease in H{sub C}. Furthermore, this thermal treatment increases the size of the nanoparticles and, as a consequence, there is a substantial increase in the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}). The H{sub C} of the samples treated at 600 °C for 30 and 180 min were 2.24 and 1.93 kOe, respectively, and the M{sub S} of these same samples increased from 57 emu/g to 66 and 70 emu/g, respectively. The H{sub C} and the M{sub S} are less affected by the thermal treatment at 300 and 400 °C.

  8. High coercivity in Fe-Nb-B-Dy bulk nanocrystalline magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziolkowski, Grzegorz; Chrobak, Artur; Klimontko, Joanna [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Chrobak, Dariusz; Rak, Jan [Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1, 41-500, Chorzow (Poland); Zivotsky, Ondrej; Hendrych, Ales [Department of Physics, VSB-TU Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    The paper refers to structural and magnetic properties of the (Fe{sub 80}Nb{sub 6}B{sub 14}){sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} (x = 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, 0.16) bulk nanocrystalline alloys prepared by making use of the vacuum suction casting technique. The samples are in a form of rods with different diameters d = 1.5, 1, and 0.5 mm. The phase structure was investigated by XRD technique and reveals an occurrence of magnetically hard Dy{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B as well as other relatively soft Dy-Fe, Fe-B, and Fe phases dependently on the Dy content. The alloys show hard magnetic properties with high coercive field up to 5.5 T (for x = 0.12 and d = 0.5 mm). The observed magnetic hardening effect with the increase of cooling rate (decrease of sample diameter d) can be attributed to a formation of ultra-hard magnetic objects as well as increasing role of low dimensional microstructure. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. The preparation of sintered NdFeB magnet with high-coercivity and high temperature-stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, G H; Chen, R J; Ding, Y; Guo, S; Lee, Don; Yan, A R, E-mail: yangh@nimte.ac.cn [Zhejiang province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The NdFeB magnets with high intrinsic coercivity have been produced by using the conventional powder metallurgy method (including SC, HD and JM) of sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of grain boundary phases on the microstructure and magnetic properties of as-sintered and annealed magnets have been tried to investigate. Also the Curie temperature of the magnets was studied. By adopting suitable component ratio of some heavy rare-earth atoms and some micro-quantity additives, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with magnetic properties of {sub j}H{sub c}=36.3kOe, B{sub r}=11.7kGs and (BH){sub max}=34.0MGOe. The temperature coefficient of residual magnetic flux of the magnets (between 20 and 200 deg. C) is -0.113%/deg. C, while the temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity -0.355%/deg. C. The Curie temperature of the magnets is about 342 deg. C.

  10. The preparation of sintered NdFeB magnet with high-coercivity and high temperature-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, G H; Chen, R J; Ding, Y; Guo, S; Lee, Don; Yan, A R

    2011-01-01

    The NdFeB magnets with high intrinsic coercivity have been produced by using the conventional powder metallurgy method (including SC, HD and JM) of sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of grain boundary phases on the microstructure and magnetic properties of as-sintered and annealed magnets have been tried to investigate. Also the Curie temperature of the magnets was studied. By adopting suitable component ratio of some heavy rare-earth atoms and some micro-quantity additives, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with magnetic properties of j H c =36.3kOe, B r =11.7kGs and (BH) max =34.0MGOe. The temperature coefficient of residual magnetic flux of the magnets (between 20 and 200 deg. C) is -0.113%/deg. C, while the temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity -0.355%/deg. C. The Curie temperature of the magnets is about 342 deg. C.

  11. Structural, magnetic characterization (dependencies of coercivity and loss with the frequency) of magnetic cores based in Finemet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinalde, M.; Infante, P.; Domínguez, L.; Blanco, J. M.; del Val, J. J.; Chizhik, A.; González, J.

    2017-12-01

    We report changes of coercivity, induced magnetic anisotropy, magneto-optical domain structure and frequency dependencies of coercivity and energy loss (up to 10 MHz) associated with the structural modifications produced by thermal treatments under applied magnetic field (field annealing) in toroidal wound cores of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 amorphous alloy. The thermal treatment (535 °C, 1 h) leads to the typical nanocrystalline structure of α-Fe(Si) nanograins (60-65% relative volume, 10-20 nm average grain size embedded in a residual amorphous matrix, while the magnetic field with the possibility to be applied in two directions to the toroidal core axis, that is in transverse (which is equivalent to the transverse direction of the ribbon) or longitudinal (equivalent to the longitudinal direction of the ribbon), develops a macroscopic uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the transverse (around 245 J/m3) or longitudinal (around 85 J/m3) direction of the ribbon, respectively. It is remarkable the quasi-unhysteretic character of the cores with these two kinds of field annealing as comparing with that of the as-quenched one. Magneto-optical study by Kerr-effect of the ribbons provides useful information on the domain structure of the surface in agreement with the direction and intensity of the induced magnetic anisotropy. This induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy plays a very important role on the Hc(f) and EL(f) curves, (f: frequency), being drastic the presence and direction of the induced magnetic anisotropy. In addition, these frequency dependencies show a significant change at the frequency around 100 Hz.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy of two-dimensional nanostructures: Transition-metal triangular stripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorantes-Davila, J.; Villasenor-Gonzalez, P.; Pastor, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of one-dimensional stripes having infinite length and triangular lateral structure are investigated in the framework of a self-consistent tight-binding method. One observes discontinuous changes in the easy magnetization direction along the crossover from one to two dimensions. The MAE oscillates as a function of stripe width and depends strongly on the considered transition metal (TM). The MAE of the two-leg ladder is strongly reduced as compared to that of the monoatomic chain and the convergence to the two-dimensional limit is rather slow

  13. Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xian-Jun

    2011-05-01

    We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t‧ - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4 a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.

  14. Coercivity in SmCo hard magnetic films for MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.; Palomares, F.J.; Garcia, M.A.; Cebollada, F.; Hoyos, A. de; Romero, J.J.; Hernando, A.; Gonzalez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the thermal dependence of coercivity in 1.5 μm thick SmCo 5 films fabricated by sputtering technique. Samples were deposited onto Si substrates kept at different temperatures. Samples grown below 450 deg. C are amorphous, present low coercivity and require further crystallization processes in order to obtain the 1:5 SmCo hard phase. Samples grown at 450 deg. C are nanocrystalline in the as-deposited state and exhibit high room temperature in-plane coercivity. Correlation between the thermal dependence of coercivity and the nanostructure has been analyzed in the frame of the so-called micromagnetic model

  15. High coercivity microcrystalline Nd-rich Nd–Fe–Co–Al–B bulk magnets prepared by direct copper mold casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.Z.; Hong, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Fang, X.G. [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Qiu, Z.G.; Zhong, X.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gao, X.S. [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Z.W., E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-06-15

    High coercivity Nd{sub 25}Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 20}Al{sub 15−x}B{sub x} (x=7–15) hard magnets were prepared by a simple process of injection casting. Different from many previous investigations on nanocomposite compositions, the magnets in this work contain hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}(FeCoAl){sub 14}B, Nd-rich, and Nd{sub 1+ε}(FeCo){sub 4}B{sub 4} phases. The magnetic properties, phase evolution, and microstructure of the as-cast and annealed magnets were investigated. As the boron content increased from 7 to 11 at%, the intrinsic coercivity H{sub cj} of the as-cast magnet increased from 816 to 1140 kA/m. The magnets annealed at 750 °C have shown more regular and smaller grains than the as-cast alloys, especially for the x=11 alloy. The high intrinsic coercivities for the annealed alloys with x=8~11 result from the presence of small-sized grains in the microstructure. The highest H{sub cj} of 1427 kA/m was obtained for the heat treated alloy with x=10. This work provides an alternative approach for preparing fully dense Nd-rich bulk hard magnets with relatively good properties. - Highlights: • 2 mm hard magnetic Nd{sub 25}Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 20}Al{sub 15−x}B{sub x} rods were prepared by direct casting. • High coercivity of 1.78 T was achieved in x=11 sample after heat treatment. • Small grains are responsible for the significant increase in H{sub C} after annealing. • Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with two different sizes lead to two-step demagnetization process.

  16. Coercivity enhancement of HDDR-processed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet with the rapid hot-press consolidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, N. [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Sepehri-Amin, H. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ohkubo, T. [Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hono, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Nishiuchi, T. [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Hirosawa, S., E-mail: Satoshi_Hirosawa@hitachi-metals.co.j [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    High coercivity, fully dense anisotropic permanent magnets of submicron grain sizes were produced by rapid hot-press consolidation of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) processed Nd-Fe-Co-B powders. In the hot-press process, the coercivity of the consolidated material showed a sharp minimum prior to full densification. Thereafter, it reached a value 25% higher than that of the initial powder. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the variation in H{sub cJ} was caused by a redistribution of Nd along the grain boundaries during hot pressing and that the high coercivity was attributable to the formation of thin, continuous Nd-rich phase along the grain boundaries.

  17. Coercivity Recovery Effect of Sm-Fe-Cu-Al Alloy on Sm2Fe17N3 Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otogawa, Kohei; Asahi, Toru; Jinno, Miho; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Takagi, Kenta; Kwon, Hansang

    2018-03-01

    The potential of a Sm-Fe-Cu-Al binder for improvement of the magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17N3 was examined. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of a Sm-Fe-Cu-Al alloy-bonded Sm2Fe17N3 magnet which showed high coercivity revealed that the Sm-Fe-Cu-Al alloy had an effect of removing the surface oxide layer of the Sm2 Fe17N3 grains. However, the Sm-Fe-Cu-Al binder was contaminated by carbon and nitrogen, which originated from the organic solvent used as the milling medium during pulverization. To prevent carbon and nitrogen contamination, the Sm-Fe- Cu-Al alloy was added directly on the surface of the Sm2Fe17N3 grains by sputtering. Comparing the recovered coercivity per unit amount of the added binder the uncontaminated binder-coated sample had a higher coercivity recovery effect than the milled binder-added sample. These results suggested that sufficient addition of the contamination-free Sm-Fe-Cu-Al binder has the possibility to reduce the amount of binder necessary to produce a high coercive Sm2Fe17N3 magnet.

  18. Coercivity enhancements of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets by diffusing DyHx along different axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Xuejiao; Liu, Xiaolian; Wu, Chen; Yan, Mi

    2015-01-01

    Diffusing heavy rare earth elements along the grain boundaries (GBs) for Nd 2 Fe 14 B-type sintered magnets serves as an effective method to enhance coercivity and to minimize remanence loss simultaneously. Considering the texture anisotropy of Nd-rich GB phases, the coercivity incremental difference by diffusing DyH x fine powders along or perpendicular to the  <0 0 1 >  easy axis (c-axis) has been investigated. The coercivity increases more rapidly to 20.61 kOe (5.76 kOe higher than that of the as-sintered state) when diffusing along the c-axis than that diffusing perpendicular to c-axis (18.85 kOe, 4.00 kOe higher than the as-sintered state). Microstructural investigation reveals that Dy diffuses more easily towards the magnet inner part when treating along the c-axis than that for the perpendicular case due to the anisotropic distribution of the Nd-rich phase. This is verified by a higher Dy content at equivalent diffusing depth and a much deeper final diffusion distance. The local Dy-containing fractions with a stronger anisotropy field are richer for the magnet treated along the c-axis, leading to the much rapider coercivity enhancement. This work reveals that diffusion heavy rare earth along the c-axis is more effective to enhance coercivity for aligned Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. (paper)

  19. Local profile dependence of coercivity in (MM0.3Nd0.7)-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Minggang; Liu, Weiqiang; Li, Wei; Sun, Yachao; Shi, Xiaoning; Yue, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Two magnets with the same nominal composition of (MM0.3Nd0.7)-Fe-B (Marked as A) and [(La0.27Ce0.53Pr0.03Nd0.17)0.3Nd0.7]-Fe-B (Marked as B) were prepared using traditional powder metallurgical process, respectively. In order to point out the difference between two magnets, the magnetic properties, microstructure and magnetic domain of both magnets were investigated. Both magnets have the same elements, but different raw materials of misch-metal (MM) and La/Ce/Pr/Nd pure metal, which induces different magnetic properties. The magnet A with Br of 13.1 kGs, Hcj of 7.6 kOe, (BH)max of 37.8 MGOe and magnet B with Br of 13.4 kGs, Hcj of 5.8 kOe, (BH)max of 34.5 MGOe are obtained. Although both magnets have the similar Br, magnet A has higher coercivity than that of magnet B. According to refined results of characteristic X-ray diffraction peaks, there is a hard magnetic main phase with higher magnetic anisotropy field (HA) in magnet A and opposite case happens on magnet B. SEM images demonstrate that magnet A has more continuous RE-rich phase and smaller grain size compared to that of magnet B, which contributes to enhancing the coercivity. In addition, two main phases of [Nd0.82(La, Ce)0.18]-Fe-B and [Nd0.75(La, Ce)0.25]-Fe-B were detected by the EDX calculation, and the two main phases in both magnets were observed by magnetic domains again. Compared to magnet B, 2:14:1 main phases in magnet A contain more [Nd0.82(La, Ce)0.18]-Fe-B main phases and less [Nd0.75(La, Ce)0.25]-Fe-B main phases, which also leads to higher coercivity due to the different HA among Nd2Fe14B, La2Fe14B and Ce2Fe14B phases. Therefore, it is concluded that MM substitution could exhibit better magnetic properties than (La0.27Ce0.53Pr0.03Nd0.17)-metal substitution. Furthermore, applications of MM are beneficial to fabricate (MM, Nd)-Fe-B permanent magnets with lower cost.

  20. Directional multimode coupler for planar magnonics: Side-coupled magnetic stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Romanenko, D. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-16

    We experimentally demonstrate spin waves coupling in two laterally adjacent magnetic stripes. By the means of Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we show that the coupling efficiency depends both on the magnonic waveguides' geometry and the characteristics of spin-wave modes. In particular, the lateral confinement of coupled yttrium-iron-garnet stripes enables the possibility of control over the spin-wave propagation characteristics. Numerical simulations (in time domain and frequency domain) reveal the nature of intermodal coupling between two magnonic stripes. The proposed topology of multimode magnonic coupler can be utilized as a building block for fabrication of integrated parallel functional and logic devices such as the frequency selective directional coupler or tunable splitter, enabling a number of potential applications for planar magnonics.

  1. Reversal mechanisms and interactions in magnetic systems: coercivity versus switching field and thermally assisted demagnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebollada, F.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a comparative analysis of the magnetic interactions and reversal mechanisms of two different systems: NdFeB-type alloys with grain sizes in the single domain range and Fe-SiO2 nanocomposites with Fe concentrations above and below the percolation threshold. We evidence that the use of the coercivity as the main parameter to analyse them might be misleading due to the convolution of both reversible and irreversible magnetization variations. We show that the switching field and thermally assisted demagnetization allow a better understanding of these mechanisms since they involve just irreversible magnetization changes. Specifically, the experimental analysis of the coercivity adquisition process for the NdFeB-type system suggests that the magnetization reversal is nucleated at the spin misalignments present due to intergranular exchange interactions. On the other hand, the study of the magnetic viscosity and of the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM and direct field demagnetization (DCD remanence curves indicates that the dipolar interactions are responsible for the propagation of the switching started at individual particles.

    En este artículo presentamos un análisis comparativo de la influencia de la microestructura a través de las interacciones magnéticas en los mecanismos de inversión de la magnetización en dos sistemas diferentes: aleaciones tipo NdFeB con tamaños de grano en el rango de monodominio y nanocompuestos de Fe-SiO2 con concentraciones de Fe tanto por encima como por debajo del umbral de percolación. Ponemos de manifiesto que el uso del campo coercitivo como parámetro de análisis puede llevar a equívocos debido a la coexistencia de variaciones reversibles e irreversibles de la magnetización. También mostramos que el campo de conmutación y la desimanación térmicamente asistida permiten una mejor comprensión de dichos mecanismos ya que reflejan exclusivamente cambios irreversibles de

  2. Coercivity of the Nd–Fe–B hot-deformed magnets diffusion-processed with low melting temperature glass forming alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, U.M.R. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Liu, Lihua [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Akiya, T.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Kato, A. [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Nd- and Pr-based alloys with bulk glass forming ability and low melting temperatures, Nd{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20} and Pr{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20}, were used for grain boundary diffusion process to enhance the coercivity of hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity increment was proportional to the weight gain after the diffusion process. For the sample with 64% weight gain, the coercivity increased up to 2.8 T, which is the highest value for bulk Nd–Fe–B magnets that do not contain heavy rare-earth elements, Dy or Tb. Approximately half of the intergranular regions were amorphous and the remaining regions were crystalline. Magnetic isolation of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains by the Nd-rich amorphous/crystalline intergranular phases is attributed to the large coercivity enhancement. The coercivity does not change after the crystallization of the intergranular phase, indicating that the coercivity is not influenced by the strain at the interface with the crystalline intergranular phase. - Highlights: • Bulk-glass forming alloys were infiltrated into hot-deformed Nd–Fe–B magnets. • Very high coercivity of 2.8 T was attained without heavy rare-earth elements. • Approximately half of the inter-granular regions were amorphous. • Crystallization of amorphous intergranular phase does not change coercivity.

  3. Thermal treatment to enhance saturation magnetization of superparamagnetic Ni nanoparticles while maintaining low coercive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Yatsugi, Kenichi; Akedo, Kunio

    2018-05-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles capped by insulators have the potential to decrease eddy current and hysteresis losses. However, the saturation magnetization ( M s) decreases significantly with decreasing the particle size. In this study, superparamagnetic Ni nanoparticles having the mean size of 11.6 ± 1.8 nm were synthesized from the reduction of Ni(II) acetylacetonate in oleylamine with the addition of trioctylphosphine, indicating the coercive force ( H c) less than 1 Oe. Thermal treatments of the Ni nanoparticles were investigated as a method to enhance the M s. The results indicated that the M s was enhanced by an increase of the Ni mass ratio with increasing thermal treatment temperature. However, the decomposition behavior of the capping layers indicated that their alkyl chains actively decomposed at temperatures above 523 K to form Ni3P via reaction between Ni and P, resulting in particle growth with a significant increase in the H c. Therefore, the optimal temperature was determined to be 473 K, which increased the Ni ratio without formation of Ni3P while maintaining particle sizes with superparamagnetic properties. Further, the M s could be improved by 22% (relative to the as-synthesized Ni nanoparticles) after thermal treatment at 473 K while maintaining the H c to be less than 1 Oe.

  4. Influence of inhomogeneous coercivities on media noise in granular perpendicular media investigated by using magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.; Takahoshi, H.; Ito, H.; Rheem, Y.W.; Saito, H.; Ishio, S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the inhomogeneous coercivities on the media noise in a CoPtCr-SiO 2 granular perpendicular magnetic recording medium via ex situ and in situ magnetic force microscopy (MFM) techniques. The ex situ MFM analyses exhibited that transition zigzags contributed to strong magnetic clusters in noise images, and thus resulted in dominant component of the media noise. According to the in situ MFM measurements, it was suggested that an amount of magnetic grains inside a microscopic area reversed like one magnetic ''particle because of strong inter-grain exchange coupling, and that these microscopic areas showed their local magnetic switching behaviors. A mathematic transformation was used to obtain approximately the magnetization distribution in recording layer. And the individual microscopic areas inside recorded bits were compared quasi-quantitatively with those leading large transition zigzags in magnetization switching behaviors. It was indicated that the inhomogeneous coercivities is one of crucial reasons of the medium noise in the perpendicular magnetic recording

  5. Coercivity in SmCo hard magnetic films for MEMS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, E. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: epina@renfe.es; Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M.A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Cebollada, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a las Telecomunicaciones, EUITT-UPM, Crtra. De Valencia km 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Hoyos, A. de [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Romero, J.J. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Hernando, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Unidad asociada ICMM-IMA. P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, J.M. [Unidad asociada ICMM-IMA. P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    In this work we have investigated the thermal dependence of coercivity in 1.5 {mu}m thick SmCo{sub 5} films fabricated by sputtering technique. Samples were deposited onto Si substrates kept at different temperatures. Samples grown below 450 deg. C are amorphous, present low coercivity and require further crystallization processes in order to obtain the 1:5 SmCo hard phase. Samples grown at 450 deg. C are nanocrystalline in the as-deposited state and exhibit high room temperature in-plane coercivity. Correlation between the thermal dependence of coercivity and the nanostructure has been analyzed in the frame of the so-called micromagnetic model.

  6. Coercivity enhancement of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets by chemical bath deposition of TbCl{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuai, E-mail: gshuai@nimte.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ding, Guangfei; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Lee, Don [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) and the grain boundary diffusion method were combined to diffuse the heavy rare earth for obtain the thick magnets with high coercivity and low heavy rare earth. The jet mill powders were soaked into the alcohol solution of 0.2 wt. % TbCl{sub 3}. A thin layer of TbCl{sub 3} was wrapped to the surface of (PrNd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powder particles. The coercivity of magnet is increased from 11.89 kOe to 14.72 kOe without significant reduction of remanence after grain boundary diffusion in the sintering and the annealing processes. The temperature coefficients of the remanence and the coercivity are improved by the substitution of PrNd by Tb in the surface of grains. The highly accelerated temperature/humidity stress test (HAST) results indicate that the CBD magnet has poor corrosion resistance, attributing to the present of Cl atoms in the grain boundaries.

  7. Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above a double-stripe magnetic ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanghua; Flint, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Double-stripe magnetism [Q =(π /2 ,π /2 )] has been proposed as the magnetic ground state for both the iron-telluride and BaTi2Sb2O families of superconductors. Double-stripe order is captured within a J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model in the regime J3≫J2≫J1 . Intriguingly, besides breaking spin-rotational symmetry, the ground-state manifold has three additional Ising degrees of freedom associated with bond ordering. Via their coupling to the lattice, they give rise to an orthorhombic distortion and to two nonuniform lattice distortions with wave vector (π ,π ) . Because the ground state is fourfold degenerate, modulo rotations in spin space, only two of these Ising bond order parameters are independent. Here, we introduce an effective field theory to treat all Ising order parameters, as well as magnetic order, and solve it within a large-N limit. All three transitions, corresponding to the condensations of two Ising bond order parameters and one magnetic order parameter are simultaneous and first order in three dimensions, but lower dimensionality, or equivalently weaker interlayer coupling, and weaker magnetoelastic coupling can split the three transitions, and in some cases allows for two separate Ising phase transitions above the magnetic one.

  8. Coercivity enhancement in (Ce,Nd)-Fe-B sintered magnets prepared by adding NdH{sub x} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le-le [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Bayan Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); School of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Li, Zhu-bai, E-mail: lzbgj@163.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Bayan Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Ma, Qiang; Li, Yong-feng; Zhao, Qian [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Bayan Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); School of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhang, Xue-feng, E-mail: xuefeng056@163.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Bayan Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); School of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China)

    2017-08-01

    (Ce,Nd)-Fe-B sintered magnets were prepared by the addition of NdH{sub x} powders in Ce{sub 9}Nd{sub 4.5}Fe{sub 80}B{sub 6.5} powders. The coercivity is rather low in Ce{sub 9}Nd{sub 4.5}Fe{sub 80}B{sub 6.5} magnets, and Ce element prefers to distribute at the outer-layer of main phase (Ce,Nd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B. The investigation of scanning electron microscope shows that the addition of NdH{sub x} powders leads to the increase of Nd content at grain outer-layer of main phase owing to the element diffusion. Magnetization reversal undergoes the nucleation of reversed domain wall at grain outer-later, and the addition of NdH{sub x} powders leads to the increase in the nucleation field of reversed domain, giving rise to the significant improvement of coercivity. The larger amount addition of NdH{sub x} powders leads to the increase in the amount of intergranular phase, resulting in the decreases of the remanence, the squareness of demagnetization curve and the maximum energy product.

  9. Magnetic properties and microstructure study of high coercivity Au/FePt/Au trilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.K.; Yuan, F.T.; Liao, W.M.; Hsu, C.W.; Horng, Lance

    2006-01-01

    High-coercivity Au(60 nm)/FePt(δ nm)/Au(60 nm) trilayer samples were prepared by sputtering at room temperature, followed by post annealing at different temperatures. For the sample with δ=60 nm, L1 ordering transformation occurs at 500 deg. C. Coercivity (H c ) is increased with the annealing temperature in the studied range 400-800 deg. C. The H c value of the trilayer films is also varied with thickness of FePt intermediate layer (δ), from 27 kOe for δ=60 nm to a maximum value of 33.5 kOe for δ=20 nm. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the diffusion of Au atoms into the FePt L1 lattice is negligible even after a high-temperature (800 deg. C) annealing process. Furthermore, ordering parameter is almost unchanged as δ is reduced from 60 to 15 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) photos indicate that small FePt Ll particles are dispersed amid the large-grained Au. We believe that the high coercivity of the trilayer sample is attributed to the small and uniform grain sizes of the highly ordered FePt particles which have perfect phase separation with Au matrix

  10. High-coercivity Nd-Fe-B magnets obtained with the electrophoretic deposition of submicron TbF3 followed by the grain-boundary diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderžnik, Marko; Korent, Matic; Žagar Soderžnik, Kristina; Katter, Matthias; Üstüner, Kaan; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-01-01

    Using a grain-boundary diffusion process (GBDP) involving the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of submicron TbF 3 powder, we substantially increased the coercivity of sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The experiments used magnets with low heavy-rare-earth (HRE) content (HRE = 1.2 wt%) and a coercivity of 790 kA/m (at 75 °C). After experiencing optimized conditions at 875 °C for 10 h and subsequent annealing at 500 °C for 1 h, the coercivity was increased to 1536 kA/m (at 75 °C). This value is 1.94 times higher than that for a sintered magnet, without post-sintering heat treatment. Furthermore, a vibration test revealed satisfactory adhesion of the TbF 3 powder to the surface of the magnet with no detected reduction in coercivity. Using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) with an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), we confirmed the formation of various secondary intergranular phases and the core-shell-type microstructure, which increases the coercivity. The Tb content in the magnet, exposed to the EPD-based GBDP, was controlled by inductively coupled plasma optical electron spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The additional Tb detected in the magnet due to the described technology was only 0.12 wt%.

  11. Crystallization and atomic diffusion behavior of high coercive Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta-based permanent magnetic thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Na; Zhang, Xiao; You, Caiyin; Fu, Huarui [Xi' an University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an (China); Shen, Qianlong [Logistics University of People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China)

    2017-06-15

    A high coercivity of about 20.4 kOe was obtained through post-annealing the sputtered Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta-based permanent magnetic thin films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed to investigate the crystallization and atomic diffusion behaviors during post-annealing. The results show that the buffer and capping Ta layers prefered to intermix with Fe and B atoms, and Nd tends to be combined with O atoms. The preferred atomic combination caused the appearance of the soft magnetic phase of Fe-Ta-B, resulting in a kink of the second quadratic magnetic hysteresis loop. The preferred atomic diffusion and phase formation of the thin films were well explained in terms of the formation enthalpy of the various compounds. (orig.)

  12. Distinct Nature of Static and Dynamic Magnetic Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Holm, S. L.; Lăcătuşu, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-Temperature superconductor, La2CuO4+y. We observe that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. Therefore, the dynamic stripes...

  13. Coercive diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    separate strategic eras with distinct challenges and theoretical developments are identified since the field’s emergence in the 1960s: the Cold War, the humanitarian 1990s, the war on terror and the hybrid future. The record clearly shows that skilful use of coercive diplomacy can resolve crises...

  14. Design and fabrication of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a low temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X.G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the temperature coefficients of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, the influencing factors on temperature coefficients, especially the reversible temperature coefficient β of intrinsic coercivity Hcj, were analyzed. The results showed that the absolute value of β decreased with increasing Hcj and also the ratio of microstructure parameter c to Neff, indicating that the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy field HA and c/Neff can effectively decrease the absolute value of β. On the basis of this analysis, a sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet with a low temperature coefficient of Hcj was fabricated through composition design, and the value of β was only -0.385%/ºC in the temperature interval of 20-150ºC.

  15. Coercivity enhancement in hot deformed Nd2Fe14B-type magnets by doping low-melting RCu alloys (R = Nd, Dy, Nd + Dy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. I.; Huang, G. Y.; Shih, C. W.; Chang, W. C.; Chang, H. W.; You, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic properties of the anisotropic NdFeB magnets prepared by hot pressing followed by die-upsetting NdFeB MQU-F powders doped with low-melting RCu alloy powders were explored, where RCu stands for Nd70Cu30, Dy70Cu30 and (Nd0.5Dy0.5)70Cu30, respectively. In addition, the post-annealing at 600 °C was employed to modify the microstructures and the magnetic properties of the hot deformed magnets. It is found that doping RCu alloy powders is effective in enhancing the coercivity of the hot deformed NdFeB magnets from 15.1 kOe to 16.3-19.5 kOe. For Nd70Cu30-doped magnets, the increment of coercivity is only 1.2 kOe. Meanwhile, Dy70Cu30-doped and (Nd0.5Dy0.5)70Cu30-doped magnets show an almost identical enhancement of coercivity of about 4.4 kOe. Importantly, the latter magnet shows a beneficial effect of reducing the usage of Dy from 1.6 wt% to 0.8 wt%. TEM analysis shows that nonmagnetic Nd, Dy and Cu appear at grain boundary and isolate the magnetic grains, leading to an enhancement of coercivity. Doping lower melting point Dy-lean (Nd0.5Dy0.5)70Cu30 powders into commercial MQU-F powders for making high coercivity hot deformed NdFeB magnets might be a potential and economic way for mass production.

  16. Coercivity enhancement of Dy-free Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets by intergranular adding Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Liping; Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn; Wu, Chen; Zhang, Pei; Liu, Xiaolian; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    High coercivity Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets serving in high-temperature environments always consume expensive and scarce heavy rare-earth Dy, which has simulated considerable interest to reduce Dy usage. In this work, coercivity of Dy-free magnets was investigated through intergranular adding eutectic Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} powders. The coercivity increases gradually up to 4 wt% Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} addition, however the remanence starts to deteriorate drastically as the addition is over 2.5 wt%. Coercivity above 18.0 kOe is obtained at the expense of a slight reduction in remanence through optimizing the addition amount and sintering conditions. The coercivity enhancement is explained through microstructural observations and elemental distribution analysis. (i) (Nd, Ho){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell forms in the outer region of 2:14:1 phase grains, strengthening the local magnetic anisotropy filed, (ii) RE-rich grain boundary phase with low Fe content is thickened, weakening the magnetic coupling between adjacent 2:14:1 phase grains, and (iii) 2:14:1 phase grains are refined upon lowering sintering temperature, reducing the microstructural defects and the stray fields aroused from neighboring grains. - Highlights: • Eutectic Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} powders were intergranular added to NdFeB sintered magnets. • The doped Dy-free magnet possessed coercivity of 18.0 kOe, remanence of 13.15 kGs. • (Nd, Ho){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell formed in the surface of the matrix grains, increasing the H{sub A}. • Thick grain boundaries with low Fe content formed, decoupling the matrix grains. • By sintered at lower temperature, the matrix phase grains were refined.

  17. Magnetization dynamics of weak stripe domains in Fe-N thin films: a multi-technique complementary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Ibrahima; Tacchi, Silvia; Garnier, Louis-Charles; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Fortuna, Franck; Carlotti, Giovanni; Marangolo, Massimiliano

    2017-09-26

    The resonant eigenmodes of a nitrogen-implanted iron α'-FeN characterized by weak stripe domains are investigated by Brillouin light scattering and broadband ferromagnetic resonance experiments, assisted by micromagnetic simulations. The spectrum of the dynamic eigenmodes in the presence of the weak stripes is very rich and two different families of modes can be selectively detected using different techniques or different experimental configurations. Attention is paid to the evolution of the mode frequencies and spatial profiles under the application of an external magnetic field, of variable intensity, in the direction parallel or transverse to the stripes. The different evolution of the modes with the external magnetic field is accompanied by a distinctive spatial localization in specific regions, such as the closure domains at the surface of the stripes and the bulk domains localized in the inner part of the stripes. The complementarity of BLS and FMR techniques, based on different selection rules, is found to be a fruitful tool for the study of the wealth of localized mag-netic excitations generally found in nanostructures. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Coercivity enhancement of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets with intergranular adding (Pr, Dy, Cu)−H{sub x} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yujing; Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn; Liu, Xiaolian; Liu, Pan; Jin, Jiaying; Zou, Junding; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Forming Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/(Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B core–shell structure by intergranular adding Dy-containing sources into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets is effective to improve coercivity and to minimize remanence loss simultaneously. However, the excessive Dy located in the intergranular regions has nearly no hard magnetic contribution, causing its low utilization efficiency. In this work, diluted Dy powders (Pr{sub 37}Dy{sub 30}Cu{sub 33})–H{sub x} were prepared and incorporated into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets via a dual-alloy approach. The coercivity increases rapidly from 15.0 to 18.2 kOe by 21.3% with 2.0 wt% (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} addition (the equivalent Dy is only 0.32 at%). The deduced coercivity incremental ratio is 10.0 kOe per unit Dy at%. Dehydrogenation reaction of (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} occurs during sintering, which favors Dy diffusion towards the 2:14:1 phase grains as well as smoothing the grain boundaries (GBs). The enhanced local anisotropic field and the well decoupled 2:14:1 phase grains contribute to such rapid coercivity enhancement. This work suggests that adding diluted Dy hydrides is promising for fabricating high coercivity Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets with less heavy rare-earth consumption. - Highlights: • (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} hydride powders were introduced into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. • Rapid coercivity enhancement from 15.0 kOe to 18.2 kOe with only 0.32 at% Dy was realized. • High utilization efficiency of Dy was achieved due to its promoted diffusion process. • Wettability and mobility of grain boundary phase was improved.

  19. Enhanced coercivity in Co-doped α-Fe2O3 cubic nanocrystal assemblies prepared via a magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Gandha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic Co-doped α-Fe2O3 cubic shaped nanocrystal assemblies (NAs with a high coercivity of 5.5 kOe have been synthesized via a magnetic field (2 kOe assisted hydrothermal process. The X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectra of α-Fe2O3 and Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs confirms the formation of single-phase α-Fe2O3 with a rhombohedral crystal structure. Electron microscopy analysis depict that the Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs synthesized under the influence of the magnetic field are consist of aggregated nanocrystals (∼30 nm and of average assembly size 2 μm. In contrast to the NAs synthesized with no magnetic field, the average NAs size and coercivity of the Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs prepared with magnetic field is increased by 1 μm and 1.4 kOe, respectively. The enhanced coercivity could be related to the well-known spin–orbit coupling strength of Co2+ cations and the redistribution of the cations. The size increment indicates that the small ferromagnetic nanocrystals assemble into cubic NAs with increased size in the magnetic field that also lead to the enhanced coercivity.

  20. Magnetic viscosity and coercivity mechanisms in sintered and melt spun NdFeB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, R.; Bingham, D.; Day, R.K.; Dunlop, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic viscosity parameters kT/q(=Sv) of sintered and melt spun NdFeB vary with internal field. During initial magnetization of thermally demagnetized specimens signifiant viscosity occurs with melt spun NdFeB but is negligible with sintered NdFeB. Differences in mechanisms of magnetization account for this behaviour

  1. Distinct Nature of Static and Dynamic Magnetic Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Holm, S. L.; Lǎcǎtuşu, M.-E.; Rømer, A. T.; Bertelsen, M.; Boehm, M.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Grivel, J.-C.; Emery, S. B.; Udby, L.; Wells, B. O.; Lefmann, K.

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-temperature superconductor, La2 CuO4 +y . We observe that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. Therefore, the dynamic stripes observed in neutron scattering experiments are not the Goldstone modes associated with the broken symmetry of the simultaneously observed static stripes, and the signals originate from different domains in the sample. These observations support real-space electronic phase separation in the crystal, where the static stripes in one phase are pinned versions of the dynamic stripes in the other, having slightly different periods. Our results explain earlier observations of unusual dispersions in underdoped La2 -xSrx CuO4 (x =0.07 ) and La2 -xBax CuO4 (x =0.095 ).

  2. Stripe segregation and magnetic coupling in the nickelate La 5/3Sr1/3NiO4

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-03-02

    We investigate the consequences of the stripe formation in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 for the details of its crystal structure and electronic states. Our data are based on numerical simulations within density functional theory (DFT) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The on-site Coulomb interaction is included in terms of the LDA+U scheme. Structure optimization of preliminary experimental data indicates a strong interaction between the structural and electronic degrees of freedom. In particular, we find a segregation of the diagonal filled stripes induced by a delicate interplay with the magnetic coupling. Beyond the cooperative effect of stripe segregation and spin order, distinct octahedral distortions are essential for the formation of an insulating state. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A Combined TEM/STEM and Micromagnetic Study of the Anisotropic Nature of Grain Boundaries and Coercivity in Nd-Fe-B Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor A. Zickler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoanalytical high resolution TEM/STEM investigation of the intergranular grain boundary phase of anisotropic sintered and rapidly quenched heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B magnet materials revealed a difference in composition for grain boundaries parallel (large Fe-content and perpendicular (low Fe content to the alignment direction. This behaviour vanishes in magnets with a high degree of misorientation. The numerical finite element micromagnetic simulations are based on the anisotropic compositional behaviour of GBs and show a decrease of the coercive field with an increasing thickness of the grain boundary layer. The magnetization reversal and expansion of reversed magnetic domains primarily start as Bloch domain wall at grain boundaries parallel to the c-axis and secondly as Néel domain wall perpendicular to the c-axis into the adjacent hard magnetic grains. The increasing misalignment of grains leads to the loss of the anisotropic compositional behaviour and therefore to an averaged value of the grain boundary composition. In this case the simulations show an increase of the coercive field compared to the anisotropic magnet. The calculated coercive field values of the investigated magnet samples are in the order of μ0HcJ=1.8 T–2.1 T for a mean grain boundary thickness of 4 nm, which agrees perfectly with the experimental data.

  4. Enhanced coercivity in {alpha}-(Fe,Co)/(Nd,Pr){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanocomposite magnets via interfacial modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wei; Li Lanlan; Li Xiaohong; Sun Hongyu; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China)], E-mail: xyzh66@ysu.edu.cn

    2008-08-07

    We have prepared {alpha}-(Fe,Co)/(Nd,Pr){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanocomposite magnets having a high coercivity H{sub c} = 7.5 kOe and a large energy product (BH){sub max} = 22.7 MGOe by interfacial modification using an intergranular amorphous phase, as compared with the corresponding values obtained without the intergranular phase, H{sub c} = 5.5 kOe and (BH){sub max} = 16.1 MGOe. The enhanced coercivity is attributed to the increase in the nucleation field for magnetization reversal due to interfacial modification. This demonstrates a counter-intuitive approach for enhancing the magnetic properties of nanocomposite magnets.

  5. Roles of coercivity and remanent flux density of permanent magnet in interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) performance for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hoyun; Hong, Yang-Ki; Lee, Woncheol; Choi, Minyeong

    2018-05-01

    We used four rotor topologies of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) to investigate the effects of remanent flux density (Br) and coercivity (Hc) of permanent magnet on motor performance. Commercial strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19: energy product, (BH)max, of 4.62 MGOe) and Nd-Fe-B ((BH)max of 38.2 MGOe) magnets were used for the rotor designs. The same machine specifications and magnet volume keep constant, while the Hc and Br vary to calculate torque and energy efficiency with the finite-element analysis. A combination of high Hc and low Br more effectively increased maximum torque of IPMSM when the hexaferrite magnet was used. For Nd-Fe-B magnet, the same combination did not affect maximum torque, but increased energy efficiency at high speed. Therefore, the Hc value of a permanent magnet is more effective than the Br in producing high maximum torque for SrM-magnet based IPMSM and high energy efficiency at high speed for Nd-Fe-B magnet based IPMSM.

  6. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub

  7. Study of the magnetic microstructure of high-coercivity sintered SmCo5 permanent magnets with the conventional Bitter pattern technique and the colloid-SEM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, Witold

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic microstructure of high-coercivity sintered SmCo 5 permanent magnets was studied with the conventional Bitter pattern technique, and also for the first time with the colloid-scanning electron microscopy (colloid-SEM) method. Both techniques were supported by digital image acquisition, enhancement and analysis. Thanks to this, it was possible to obtain high-contrast and clear images of the magnetic microstructure and to analyze them in detail, and consequently also to achieve improvements over earlier results. In the thermally demagnetized state the grains were composed of magnetic domains. On the surface perpendicular to the alignment axis, the main domains forming a maze pattern and surface reverse spikes were observed. Investigations on the surface parallel to the alignment axis, especially by the colloid-SEM technique, provided a detailed insight into the orientation of grains. The alignment of grains was good, but certainly not perfect; there were also strongly misaligned grains, although generally very rare. In most cases the domain structures within grains were independent of their neighbors, but in some cases (not so rare) the domain walls were observed to continue through the grain boundaries, indicating significant magnetostatic interaction between neighboring grains. Studies of the behavior of the magnetic microstructure under the influence of an external magnetic field, performed for the first time on the surface parallel to the alignment axis (with the conventional Bitter pattern method), showed that the domain walls move easily within the grains and that the magnetization reversal mechanism is mainly related to the nucleation and growth of reverse domains, i.e. that sintered SmCo 5 magnets are nucleation-dominated systems. Groupwise magnetization reversal of adjacent magnetically coupled grains was observed, an unfavorable effect for high-coercivity magnets. Images obtained by the colloid-SEM technique and the conventional Bitter pattern

  8. {mu}SR studies of the interplay of magnetic spin stripe order with superconductivity in transition metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauss, Hans-Henning, E-mail: h.klauss@physik.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In this work we review muon spin relaxation experiments on the layered La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} nickelate as well as La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} cuprate systems to examine spin stripe order. In particular, the interplay of stripe order with superconductivity in Nd and Eu doped La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} cuprates is discussed. Detailed studies of the electronic phase diagrams as well as the magnetic and superconducting order parameters for different rare-earth and Sr doping levels in La{sub 2-x-y}RE{sub y}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} revealed the strong correlation of static spin stripe order with the structural distortion in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase and the competition with the superconducting ground state. High magnetic field studies demonstrate the nearly degenerate ground state energy of the different electronic phases. Slow transverse fluctuations of the charge stripes are found in nickelates and cuprates at low temperatures.

  9. High-coercivity ultrafine-grained anisotropic Nd–Fe–B magnets processed by hot deformation and the Nd–Cu grain boundary diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Nagashima, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Schrefl, T.; Hono, K.

    2013-01-01

    The grain boundary diffusion process using an Nd 70 Cu 30 eutectic alloy has been applied to hot-deformed anisotropic Nd–Fe–B magnets, resulting in a substantial enhancement of coercivity, from 1.5 T to 2.3 T, at the expense of remanence. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the areal fraction of an Nd-rich intergranular phase increased from 10% to 37%. The intergranular phase of the hot-deformed magnet initially contained ∼55 at.% ferromagnetic element, while it diminished to an undetectable level after the process. Microscale eutectic solidification of Nd/NdCu as well as a fine lamellae structure of Nd 70 (Co,Cu) 30 /Nd were observed in the intergranular phase. Micromagnetic simulations indicated that the reduction of the magnetization in the intergranular phases leads to the enhancement of coercivity in agreement with the experimental observation

  10. Electronic and magnetic interactions in high temperature superconducting and high coercivity materials. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    The issue addressed in the research was how to understand what controls the competition between two types of phase transition (ordering) which may be present in a hybridizing correlated-electron system containing two transition-shell atomic species; and how the variation of behavior observed can be used to understand the mechanisms giving the observed ordered state. This is significant for understanding mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity and other states of highly correlated electron systems. Thus the research pertains to magnetic effects as related to interactions giving high temperature superconductivity; where the working hypothesis is that the essential feature governing the magnetic and superconducting behavior of copper-oxide-type systems is a cooperative valence fluctuation mechanism involving the copper ions, as mediated through hybridization effects dominated by the oxygen p electrons. (Substitution of praseodymium at the rare earth sites in the 1·2·3 material provides an interesting illustration of this mechanism since experimentally such substitution strongly suppresses and destroys the superconductivity; and, at 100% Pr, gives Pr f-electron magnetic ordering at a temperature above 16K). The research was theoretical and computational and involved use of techniques aimed at correlated-electron systems that can be described within the confines of model hamiltonians such as the Anderson lattice hamiltonian. Specific techniques used included slave boson methodology used to treat modification of electronic structure and the Mori projection operator (memory function) method used to treat magnetic response (dynamic susceptibility)

  11. Toward nonlinear magnonics: Intensity-dependent spin-wave switching in insulating side-coupled magnetic stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Odintsov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate that the nonlinear spin-wave transport in two laterally parallel magnetic stripes exhibit the intensity-dependent power exchange between the adjacent spin-wave channels. By the means of Brillouin light scattering technique, we investigate collective nonlinear spin-wave dynamics in the presence of magnetodipolar coupling. The nonlinear intensity-dependent effect reveals itself in the spin-wave mode transformation and differential nonlinear spin-wave phase shift in each adjacent magnetic stripe. The proposed analytical theory, based on the coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations, predicts the geometry design involving the reduction of power requirement to the all-magnonic switching. A very good agreement between calculation and experiment was found. In addition, a micromagnetic and finite-element approach has been independently used to study the nonlinear behavior of spin waves in adjacent stripes and the nonlinear transformation of spatial profiles of spin-wave modes. Our results show that the proposed spin-wave coupling mechanism provides the basis for nonlinear magnonic circuits and opens the perspectives for all-magnonic computing architecture.

  12. Transport properties in a monolayer graphene modulated by the realistic magnetic field and the Schottky metal stripe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Duo; Li, Yun-Bao; Liu, Hong-Yu; Peng, Shun-Jin; Zhao, Fei-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Based on the transfer-matrix method, a systematic investigation of electron transport properties is done in a monolayer graphene modulated by the realistic magnetic field and the Schottky metal stripe. The strong dependence of the electron transmission and the conductance on the incident angle of carriers is clearly seen. The height, position as well as width of the barrier also play an important role on the electron transport properties. These interesting results are very useful for understanding the tunneling mechanism in the monolayer graphene and helpful for designing the graphene-based electrical device modulated by the realistic magnetic field and the electrical barrier.

  13. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, J F; Muro, M GarcIa del; Presa, B; Matarranz, R; Corrales, J A; Labarta, A; Contreras, M C

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values

  14. Fourfold magnetic anisotropy, coercivity and magnetization reversal of Co/V bilayers grown on MgO(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J F [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Muro, M GarcIa del [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Presa, B [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Matarranz, R [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Corrales, J A [Departmento de Informatica, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental 1, Campus de Viesques s/n, 33204 Gijon (Spain); Labarta, A [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia IN2UB de la Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Contreras, M C [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of Al/Co/V/MgO(0 0 1) thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The roles of both Co and V layers thicknesses have been studied. Magnetic characterization has been carried out by transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements and hysteresis loops. Cobalt is grown in the hcp structure on V with the c axis parallel to the film plane. Two types of hcp Co crystal are grown with the c axes perpendicular to each other. This structure gives rise to a fourfold magnetic anisotropy. When the V layer thickness is below 40 A a superimposed uniaxial anisotropy develops, the effect of which is a depression in the TS, in agreement with theoretical calculations. This uniaxial anisotropy is induced by the substrate and due to a discontinuous growth of the V layer. For hcp Co grown on V, the magnetic anisotropy rapidly increases with Co layer thickness. In this case, unexpected shifted hysteresis loops along the hard axes were observed when the films were not saturated. This has been explained by taking into account the magnetization reversal along the hard axis: it proceeds via magnetization rotation of some portions of the film at high fields, and by domain wall motion of the rest of the film at lower field values.

  15. Static and high-frequency magnetic properties of stripe domain structure in a plate of finite sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'ginova, S.D.; Doroshenko, R.A.; Shul'ga, N.V.

    2006-01-01

    A model that enables to carry out self-consistent calculations of the main parameters of stripe domain structure (DS) and at the same time those of properties of domain walls (DW) of a multiple-axis finite (in all directions) ferromagnet depending on the sizes of a sample, material parameters and intensity of a magnetic field is offered. The calculations of the properties of DS (direction of magnetization in domains, widths, ferromagnetic resonance, etc.) are carried out on a computer for plates (1 1 0), rectangular shapes of a cubic ferromagnet with axes of light magnetization along trigonal directions in a magnetic field [-1 1 0]. It is shown, that in plates of different shapes there can be a structure with Neel DW alongside with DS with Bloch DW. Their features are noticeably exhibited, in particular, in different dependence of the number of domains, and also frequencies of a ferromagnetic resonance from a magnetic field

  16. Coercivity and induced magnetic anisotropy by stress and/or field annealing in Fe- and Co- based (Finemet-type) amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, C.; Zhukov, A.; Val, J.J. del; Gonzalez, J.

    2005-01-01

    Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy has been induced in amorphous Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 15.5 B 7 (Fe-rich) and (Co 77 Si 13.5 B 9.5 ) 90 Fe 7 Nb 3 (Co-rich) ferromagnetic alloys by annealing under stress and/or magnetic field. Such anisotropy plays a crucial role on the magnetization process and, consequently, determine the future applications of these materials. The mechanisms involved on the origin of such induced magnetic anisotropy showed significant differences between Fe-rich and Co-rich amorphous alloys. This work provides a comparative study of the coercive field and induced magnetic anisotropy in Fe-rich and Co-rich (Finemet) amorphous alloys treated by stress and/or field

  17. Highly coercive thin-film nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sorge, K.D.; Sui, Y.; Daniil, M.; Gao, L.; Yan, M.L.; Liou, S.-H.; Kirby, R.D.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The processing, structure, and magnetism of highly coercive Sm-Co and FePt thin-film nanostructures are investigated. The structures include 1:5 based Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets, particulate FePt:C thin films, and FePt nanotubes. As in other systems, the coercivity depends on texture and imperfections, but there are some additional features. A specific coercivity mechanism in particulate media is a discrete pinning mode intermediate between Stoner-Wohlfarth rotation and ordinary domain-wall pinning. This mechanism yields a coercivity maximum for intermediate intergranular exchange and explains the occurrence of coercivities of 5 T in particulate Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets

  18. Effect of sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere on the density and coercivity of (Sm,Zr)(Co,Cu,Fe)Z permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhanov, G. S.; Dormidontov, N. A.; Kolchugina, N. B.; Dormidontov, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of heat treatments in manufacturing (Sm,Zr)(Co,Cu,Fe)Z-based permanent magnets sintered in a hydrogen atmosphere on their properties has been studied. It was shown that the dynamics of the magnetic hardening of the studied magnets during heat treatments, in whole, corresponds to available concepts of phase transformations in five-component precipitation-hardened SmCo-based alloys. Peculiarities of the studied compositions consist in the fact that the coercive force magnitude of magnets quenched from the isothermal aging temperature is higher by an order of magnitude than those available in the literature. It was noted that, in using the selected manufacturing procedure, the increase in the density of samples does not finish at the sintering stage but continues in the course of solid-solution heat treatment.

  19. Giant magnetic coercivity in YNi{sub 4}B-type SmNi{sub 3}TB (T=Mn–Cu) solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jinlei; Yan, Chang [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@tech.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-01

    The effects of transition metal substitution for Ni on the magnetic properties of the YNi{sub 4}B-type SmNi{sub 4}B via SmNi{sub 3}TB (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) solid solutions have been investigated. SmNi{sub 4}B, SmNi{sub 3}MnB, SmNi{sub 3}FeB, SmNi{sub 3}CoB and SmNi{sub 3}CuB show ferromagnetic ordering at 40 K, 210 K, 322 K, 90 K and 57 K and field sensitive metamagnetic-like transitions at 15 K, 100 K, 185 K, 55 K and 15 K in a magnetic field of 10 kOe, respectively. The magnetocaloric effects of SmNi{sub 3}TB (T=Mn–Cu) were calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub m}). The magnetic entropy ΔS{sub m} reaches value of –0.94 J/kg K at 40 K for SmNi{sub 4}B, –1.5 J/kg K at 205 K for SmNi{sub 3}MnB, –0.54 J/kg K at 320 K for SmNi{sub 3}FeB, –0.49 J/kg K at 90 K for SmNi{sub 3}CoB and –0.54 J/kg K at 60 K for SmNi{sub 3}CuB in field change of 0–50 kOe around the Curie temperature. They show positive ΔS{sub m} of +0.71 J/kg K at ~10 K for SmNi{sub 4}B, +1.69 J/kg K at 30 K for SmNi{sub 3}MnB, +0.89 J/kg K at 110 K for SmNi{sub 3}FeB, +1.08 J/kg K at 25 K for SmNi{sub 3}CoB and +1.12 J/kg K at 10 K for SmNi{sub 3}CuB in field change of 0–50 kOe around the low temperature metamagnetic-like transition. Below the field induced transition temperature (change of magnetic structure), SmNi{sub 3}TB (T=Mn–Cu) exhibits giant magnetic coercivity of 74 kOe at 5 K for SmNi{sub 4}B, 69 kOe at 20 K (90 kOe at 10 K) for SmNi{sub 3}MnB, 77 kOe at 60 K for SmNi{sub 3}FeB, 88 kOe at 20 K for SmNi{sub 3}CoB and 52 kOe at 5 K for SmNi{sub 3}CuB. - Highlights: • YNi{sub 4}B-type SmNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu}B exhibit the Curie points at 39–322 K. • SmNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu}B show field induced transition at 15–185 K. • SmNi{sub 3}MnB shows huge magnetic hysteresis with coercive field of 69 kOe at 20 K. • SmNi{sub 3}FeB shows huge magnetic hysteresis with coercive field of 77 kOe at 60 K. • SmNi{sub 3}CoB shows giant coercive

  20. Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd–Fe–B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žagar, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.zagar@ijs.si; Kocjan, Andraž; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured Nd–Fe–B-type materials produced by melt-spinning (MS) are used in a variety of applications in the electronics, automotive, and sensor industries. The very rapid MS process leads to flake-like powders with metastable, nanoscale, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains. These powders are then formed into net-shaped, isotropic, polymer-bonded magnets, or they are hot formed into fully dense, metallic magnets that are isotropic and anisotropic. These fully dense magnets are usually produced with a conventional hot press without the inclusion of additives prior to the hot pressing. As a result, their properties, particularly the coercivity (H{sub ci}), are insufficient at automotive-relevant temperatures of 100–150 °C since the material H{sub ci} has a large temperature coefficient. In this study, we instead add a thin layer of DyF{sub 3} to the melt-spun ribbons prior to their hot consolidation in order to enhance the coercivity through a diffusion-based, partial substitution of the Nd by Dy. This is accomplished by applying extremely rapid, spark-plasma sintering to minimize any growth of the nanoscale Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains during consolidation. The result is a very high-coercivity magnet with drastically reduced amounts of heavy rare earths that is suitable for high-temperature applications. This work clearly demonstrates how rapidly formed, metastable states can provide us with properties that are unobtainable with conventional techniques. - Highlights: • We produced high coercivity magnets with drastically reduced amounts of HRE. • Microstructural analysis was conducted of the “free” and “wheel” side of Dy-treated Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B ribbons. • Dy-diffusion mechanism into ribbons depending on processing parameters is shown.

  1. Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd-Fe-B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Kristina; Kocjan, Andraž; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured Nd-Fe-B-type materials produced by melt-spinning (MS) are used in a variety of applications in the electronics, automotive, and sensor industries. The very rapid MS process leads to flake-like powders with metastable, nanoscale, Nd2Fe14B grains. These powders are then formed into net-shaped, isotropic, polymer-bonded magnets, or they are hot formed into fully dense, metallic magnets that are isotropic and anisotropic. These fully dense magnets are usually produced with a conventional hot press without the inclusion of additives prior to the hot pressing. As a result, their properties, particularly the coercivity (Hci), are insufficient at automotive-relevant temperatures of 100-150 °C since the material Hci has a large temperature coefficient. In this study, we instead add a thin layer of DyF3 to the melt-spun ribbons prior to their hot consolidation in order to enhance the coercivity through a diffusion-based, partial substitution of the Nd by Dy. This is accomplished by applying extremely rapid, spark-plasma sintering to minimize any growth of the nanoscale Nd2Fe14B grains during consolidation. The result is a very high-coercivity magnet with drastically reduced amounts of heavy rare earths that is suitable for high-temperature applications. This work clearly demonstrates how rapidly formed, metastable states can provide us with properties that are unobtainable with conventional techniques.

  2. Magnetic structure and microstructure of die-upset hard magnets RE13.75Fe80.25B6 (RE=Nd, Pr): A possible origin of high coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.; Zhu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy magnetizing experiments combined with Lorentz magnetic microscopy in Fresnel endash Foucault modes were used to characterize the magnetic structure of die-upset, high energy-product hard magnets Nd 13.75 Fe 80.25 B 6 and Pr 13.75 Fe 80.25 B 6 . Experimental observations indicate a well-aligned grain structure and quasiperiodic nonaligned open-quotes extended defectclose quotes layers transverse to press direction. The local remanence of the open-quotes defectclose quotes layers is far from saturation when the external field is removed. The layers are enriched with inclusions of approximate composition Nd 7 Fe 3 , generally with a polygonal shape, and are associated with the original ribbon interfaces. They may be responsible for a high coercivity mechanism, since the motion of reverse domains can be impeded by these layers, even when they are nucleated. Thus, a delayed nucleation of reversed domains seems to be a limiting factor for magnetization reversal and coercivity force. Both Lorentz magnetic imaging and high-resolution microscopy highlight the role of magnetocrystalline anisotropy for domain wall-grain boundary interactions and pinning. Local remanence was estimated directly from magnetic moment sensitive Foucault images. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. Investigation of coercivity mechanism in hot deformed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets by small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, M.; Manabe, A.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Ono, K.; Harada, M.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic reversal behaviors of single domain sized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, with and without isolation between the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains, was clarified using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS patterns obtained arose from changes in the magnetic domains and were analyzed using the Teubner–Stray model, a phenomenological correlation length model, to quantify the periodicity and morphology of the magnetic domains. The results indicated that the magnetic reversal evolved with the magnetic domains that had similar sized grains. The grain isolation enabled us to realize the reversals of single domains

  4. Nanoscale control of stripe-ordered magnetic domain walls by vertical spin transfer torque in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Shizhe; Ma, Ji; Xie, Lishan; Wang, Chuanshou; Malik, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zhang, Yuelin; Xia, Ke; Nan, Ce-Wen; Zhang, Jinxing

    2018-02-01

    Stripe-ordered domains with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been intensively investigated due to their potential applications in high-density magnetic data-storage devices. However, the conventional control methods (e.g., epitaxial strain, local heating, magnetic field, and magnetoelectric effect) of the stripe-ordered domain walls either cannot meet the demands for miniaturization and low power consumption of spintronic devices or require high strength of the electric field due to the small value of the magnetoelectric effect at room temperature. Here, a domain-wall resistive effect of 0.1% was clarified in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films between the configurations of current in the plane and perpendicular to the plane of walls. Furthermore, a reversible nanoscale control of the domain-wall re-orientation by vertical spin transfer torque across the probe/film interface was achieved, where a probe voltage of 0.1 V was applied on a manganite-based capacitor. We also demonstrated that the stripe-ordered magnetic domain-wall re-orientation strongly depends on the AC frequency of the scanning probe voltage which was applied on the capacitor.

  5. Iron in the Fire: Searching for Fire's Magnetic Fingerprint using Controlled Heating Experiments, High-Resolution FORCs, IRM Coercivity Spectra, and Low-Temperature Remanence Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Reiners, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for recent climate-wildfire linkages underscores the need for better understanding of relationships between wildfire and major climate shifts in Earth history, which in turn offers the potential for prognoses for wildfire and human adaptations to it. In particular, what are the links between seasonality and wildfire frequency and severity, and what are the feedbacks between wildfire, landscape evolution, and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon and iron cycles? A key first step in addressing these questions is recovering well-described wildfire records from a variety of paleolandscapes and paleoclimate regimes. Although charcoal and organic biomarkers are commonly used indicators of fire, taphonomic processes and time-consuming analytical preparations often preclude their routine use in some environments and in high-stratigraphic resolution paleowildfire surveying. The phenomenological relationship between fire and magnetic susceptibility can make it a useful surveying tool, but increased magnetic susceptibility in sediments is not unique to fire, and thus limits its diagnostic power. Here we utilize component-specific rock magnetic methods and analytical techniques to identify the rock magnetic fingerprint of wildfire. We use a custom-designed air furnace, a series of iron-free laboratory soils, natural saprolites and soils, and fuels from Arizona Ponderosa pine forests and grasslands to simulate wildfire in a controlled and monitored environment. Soil-ash residues and soil and fuel controls were then characterized using First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) patterns, DC backfield IRM coercivity spectra, low-temperature SIRM demagnetization behavior, and low-temperature cycling of room-temperature SIRM behavior. We will complement these magnetic analyses with high-resolution TEM of magnetic extracts. Here we summarize the systematic changes to sediment magnetism as pyrolitized organic matter is incorporated into artificial and natural soils. These

  6. Effect of magnetic field frequency on coercivity behavior of nanocrystalline Fe79Hf7B12Si2 glass-coated microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.; Zhukova, V.; Gonzalez, J.; Blanco, J.M.; Zhukov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dependence of coercitivy, H c , on AC magnetic field frequency, f, has been studied in glass coated Fe 79 Hf 7 B 12 Si 2 microwires exhibiting nanocrystalline structure. Annealing of the samples at 450-600 deg. C changes its structure and consequently the magnetic properties (coercivity and magnetostriction constant). The grain size of the nanocrystals increases from about 17 nm up to 35 nm after annealing at 600 deg. C. For the as-prepared microwires the frequency dependence fits well to √(f). In annealed at 550 deg. C samples H c ∼f 2/3 dependence is observed. In terms of the interpretation of the domain wall propagation, both kind of H c (f) dependences can be interpreted considering depinned domain walls, i.e. neglecting elastic coefficient K of the domain wall motion equation. The H c ∼√(f) corresponds better to low frequency limits while H c ∼f 2/3 is attributed to the high frequency behavior

  7. Local coercive force of domain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaurova, G.S.; Vas'kovskij, V.O.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show the variety of effects resulting from local coercivity using RFeO 3 orthoferrites crystals-plates, to separate factors which are not directly connected with the nature of every single defect but influence significantly Hsub(cw) local coercivity and, at last, to attract attention of physisists-theorists to new tasks of the magnetic hysteresis theory. Measurements have been carried out on a great number of defect of YFeO 3 and PyFeO 3 crystals. Such peculiarities of local coercivity as Hsub(cw) anisotropy and asymmetry, Hsub(cw) nonstability and its dependence on the sample magnetic prehistory. Qualitative explanation of these effects in based on the presumable interaction of the domain wall with magnetic heterogeneities existing in a region of structural defects

  8. Local coercive force of domain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandaurova, G S; Vas' kovskii, V O [Ural' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Sverdlovsk (USSR)

    1980-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show the variety of effects resulting from local coercivity using RFeO/sub 3/ orthoferrites crystals-plates, to separate factors which are not directly connected with the nature of every single defect but influence significantly H/sub cw/ local coercivity and, at last, to attract attention of physisists-theorists to new tasks of the magnetic hysteresis theory. Measurements have been carried out on a great number of defect of YFeO/sub 3/ and PyFeO/sub 3/ crystals. Such peculiarities of local coercivity as H/sub cw/ anisotropy and asymmetry, H/sub cw/ nonstability and its dependence on the sample magnetic prehistory. Qualitative explanation of these effects in based on the presumable interaction of the domain wall with magnetic heterogeneities existing in a region of structural defects.

  9. Nanocomposite of CeO.sub.2./sub. and high-coercivity magnetic carrier with large specific surface area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezníčková Mantlíková, Alice; Plocek, Jiří; Pacáková, Barbara; Kubíčková, Simona; Vik, Ondřej; Nižňanský, D.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Vejpravová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, Nov (2016), s. 1-13, č. článku 7091241. ISSN 1687-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : cobalt ferrite * cerium oxide * nanoparticles * catalysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V); CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2016

  10. Mechanism of coercivity enhancement by Ag addition in FePt-C granular films for heat assisted magnetic recording media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K., E-mail: takahashi.yukiko@nims.go.jp; Wang, J.; Hono, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ina, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ueno, W.; Nitta, K.; Uruga, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2014-06-02

    We investigated the Ag distribution in a FePtAg-C granular film that is under consideration for a heat assisted magnetic recording medium by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure. Ag is rejected from the core of FePt grains during the deposition, forming Ag-enriched shell surrounding L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt grains. Since Ag has no solubility in both Fe and Pt, the rejection of Ag induces atomic diffusions thereby enhancing the kinetics of the L1{sub 0}-order in the FePt grains.

  11. Magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of Sm{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Co{sub 5} (x=0-0.6) nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M. L.; Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.cn; Wu, Q.; Li, Y. Q.; Lu, Q. M. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Sm{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Co{sub 5} (x=0-0.6) nanoflakes with CaCu{sub 5} structure were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling (SAHEBM). The crystal structure and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Co{sub 5} (x=0-0.6) nanoflakes were studied by X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. Effects of Pr addition on the structure, magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of Sm{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Co{sub 5} nanoflakes were systematically investigated. XRD results show that all the nanoflakes have a hexagonal CaCu{sub 5}-type (Sm, Pr){sub 1}Co{sub 5} main phase and the (Sm, Pr){sub 2}Co{sub 7} impurity phase, and all of the samples exhibit a strong (00l) texture after magnetic alignment. As the Pr content increases, remanence firstly increases, then slightly reduced, while anisotropy field (H{sub A}) and H{sub ci} of decrease monotonically. Maximum energy product [(BH){sub max}] of the flakes increases first, peaks at 24.4 MGOe with Pr content of x = 0.4, then drops again. Magnetization behavior analysis indicate that the coercivity mechanism is mainly controlled by inhomogeneous domain wall pinning, and the pinning strength weakens with the increased Pr content, suggesting the great influence of H{sub A} on the coercivity of flakes.

  12. COERCIVITY AND VECTOR MAGNETIZATION ANALYSIS OF OBSIDIAN SAMPLES FROM THE TRANS-MEXICAN VOLCANIC BELT (Coercitividad y análisis de magnetización vectorial de muestras de obsidianas de la faja volcánica transmexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This note presents initial results of a paleomagnetic study of obsidian from twenty localities in the eastern, central and western sectors of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt in central Mexico. We focus on the coercivity and vector composition of the remanent magnetization, which are critical for paleodirectional and paleointensity studies. Alternating field demagnetization shows that obsidians carry single and two-component magnetizations residing in low- and high-coercivity magnetic minerals, with discrete and overlapping coercivity spectra. Magnetic minerals are likely iron-titanium oxides with fine-grain sizes characterized by pseudo-single domain states. ESPAÑOL: Se presentan los resultados preliminares del estudio de obsidianas de veinte localidades en los sectores este, central y oeste de la faja volcánica transmexicana. Los análisis se concentran en la coercitividad y la composición vectorial de la magnetización remanente, que son propiedades claves para evaluar los registros de direcciones e intensidades. La desmagnetización por campos alternos revela la presencia de magnetizaciones de una y dos componentes, que residen en minerales con baja y alta coercitividad con espectros que traslapan y discretos. Los minerales magnéticos son óxidos de hierro-titanio con grano fino y estados de dominio seudosencillo.

  13. Magnetic domain propagation in Pt/Co/Pt micro wires with engineered coercivity gradients along and across the wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosz, A., E-mail: arctgh@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Gaul, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Urbaniak, M. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Ehresmann, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Stobiecki, F. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Electron lithography and ion bombardment were used to modify the Co/Pt micro-wires. • Two-dimensional perpendicular magnetic anisotropy gradient was engineered. • Engineered anisotropy gradient allowed to control domain wall positions in the wires. • Simulations confirm the influence of defects on a remanent state of the wires. - Abstract: Pt(15 nm)/[Co(0.6 nm)/Pt(1.5 nm)]{sub 4} multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were patterned into several-micrometer wide wires by electron-beam lithography. Bombarding the wires with He{sup +} ions with a fluence gradient along the wire results in a spatial gradient of switching fields that allows a controllable positioning of domain walls. The influence of the reduced anisotropy near the wire edges causes a remanent state in which the reversal close to the long edges precedes that in the middle of the wires. Experiments using Kerr microscopy prove this effect and micromagnetic simulations corroborate that a decrease of the anisotropy at the edges is responsible for the effect.

  14. Static and dynamic magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl-based stripe arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmeguenai, M., E-mail: belmeguenai.mohamed@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris XIII-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gabor, M.S. [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Str. Memorandumului No. 28 RO-400114, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Zighem, F. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris XIII-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Berling, D. [IS2M, CNRS-LRC 7228, Université de Haute-Alsace, 68057 Mulhouse-Cedex (France); Roussigné, Y. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris XIII-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Petrisor, T. [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Str. Memorandumului No. 28 RO-400114, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chérif, S.M. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris XIII-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Tiusan, C. [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Str. Memorandumului No. 28 RO-400114, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Université de Nancy, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Brinza, O.; Moch, P. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris XIII-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2016-02-01

    25 nm to 50 nm Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) thick wire arrays with varying widths and spacing have been patterned from continuous CFA films deposited on MgO(001) using e-beam lithography and Ar ion milling. Magneto-optical Kerr effect, transverse bias initial inverse susceptibility and torque measurements reveal that the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the wires is dominantly monitored by a uniaxial term, in contrast with the continuous films where it is governed by the superposition of a fourfold term and of a smaller uniaxial term. The microstrip ferromagnetic resonance spectra performed using a magnetic field H, applied in the plane of the studied sample along various directions, or perpendicularly to this plane, gave us access to various quantized modes originating from the patterning. In addition, Brillouin light scattering also exhibits quantized modes. A large part of the experimental observations can be quantitatively interpreted as resulting from the demagnetizing terms induced by the geometrical patterning. However, the presented model, simply built on the effect of the demagnetizing field, is not able to give account of all the quantized modes present in the resonance spectra. When H is parallel to the wires, a more complete description is used: it considers the wave-vector quantization induced by the patterning. For the magnetic modes concerned by both approaches, the correspondence between the 2 models is easily established. When H is not parallel to the wires quantitative descriptions of the behavior of the field dependence of the observed modes still can often be performed. Finally, in all the studied patterned samples, the uniform magnetic mode, termed “film mode”, relative to the parent continuous film is observed by ferromagnetic resonance: such a behavior, which has been reported previously, remains to be completely interpreted. - Highlights: • The static and dynamic properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl wire arrays have been studied. • Microstrip

  15. Statistical mechanics of magnetic excitations from spin waves to stripes and checkerboards

    CERN Document Server

    Rastelli, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this advanced textbook is to provide the reader with a comprehensive explanation of the ground state configurations, the spin wave excitations and the equilibrium properties of spin lattices described by the Ising-Heisenberg Hamiltonians in the presence of short (exchange) and long range (dipole) interactions.The arguments are presented in such detail so as to enable advanced undergraduate and graduate students to cross the threshold of active research in magnetism by using both analytic calculations and Monte Carlo simulations.Recent results about unorthodox spin configurations suc

  16. Coercivity enhancement of NdFeB sintered magnets by low melting point Dy{sub 32.5}Fe{sub 62}Cu{sub 5.5} alloy modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Liping; Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Pei; Jin, Jiaying; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2014-04-15

    To improve coercivity without sacrificing other magnetic performance of NdFeB sintered magnets, a low melting point Dy{sub 32.5}Fe{sub 62}Cu{sub 5.5} alloy was introduced as an intergranular additive. Magnetic properties and microstructure of the magnets with different Dy{sub 32.5}Fe{sub 62}Cu{sub 5.5} contents were studied. At the optimum addition of 3 wt%, coercivity H{sub cj} was enhanced from 12.7 to 15.2 kOe, the maximum magnetic energy product (BH){sub max} was simultaneously increased from 46.6 to 47.8 MG Oe, accompanied by a slight reduction in remanence B{sub r}. Further investigation on microstructure and grain boundary composition indicated that the enhanced H{sub cj} and (BH){sub max} could be attributed to the refined and uniform 2:14:1 phase grains, continuous grain boundaries and a (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hardening shell surrounding the 2:14:1 phase grains. - Highlights: • Low melting-point Dy{sub 32.5}Fe{sub 62}Cu{sub 5.5} alloy was introduced to NdFeB magnets. • The doped magnet exhibits enhanced coercivity and maximum energy product. • (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell was expected to form in the surface of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains. • The continuous grain boundary layer formed between neighboring Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains.

  17. The coercivity mechanism of sintered SM(Co_b_a_lFe_0_._2_4_5Cu_0_._0_7Zr_0_._0_2)_7_._8 permanent magnets with different isothermal annealing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Zhu, Minggang; Guo, Zhaohui; Fang, Yikun; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation-hardened 2:17-type SmCo permanent magnet has attracted much attention due to its high Curie temperature and excellent magnetic properties. Sm(Co_b_a_lFe_0_._2_4_5Cu_0_._0_7Zr_0_._0_2)_7_._8 (at%) sintered magnets with high remanence (B_r ~1.15 T) were prepared using a traditional powder metallurgy method. The intrinsic coercivity H_c_j of the magnets was increased from 429 to 994 kA m"−"1 with isothermal annealing time increasing from 10 to 40 h, which is different from the phenomenon that increasing aging time leads to a reduced coercivity mentioned in the Ref. [16]. In consideration of rarely report about the microstructure of the final magnet isothermally annealed for 40 h, we have tried to originally analyze the relationship between the microstructure and the magnetic properties. Besides, the lattice constants of sintered Sm(Co_b_a_lFe_0_._2_4_5Cu_0_._0_7Zr_0_._0_2)_7_._8 permanent magnet isothermally annealed for 40 h have been given by indexing the HRTEM results including the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and HRTEM images.

  18. Cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Farré, J M; Gonzalo-Orden, M; Barreiro-Vázquez, J D; Barreiro-Lois, A; André, M; Morell, M; Llarena-Reino, M; Monreal-Pawlowsky, T; Degollada, E

    2015-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to scan seven by-caught dolphin cadavers, belonging to two species: four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and three striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). CT and MRI were obtained with the animals in ventral recumbency. After the imaging procedures, six dolphins were frozen at -20°C and sliced in the same position they were examined. Not only CT and MRI scans, but also cross sections of the heads were obtained in three body planes: transverse (slices of 1 cm thickness) in three dolphins, sagittal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins and dorsal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins. Relevant anatomical structures were identified and labelled on each cross section, obtaining a comprehensive bi-dimensional topographical anatomy guide of the main features of the common and the striped dolphin head. Furthermore, the anatomical cross sections were compared with their corresponding CT and MRI images, allowing an imaging identification of most of the anatomical features. CT scans produced an excellent definition of the bony and air-filled structures, while MRI allowed us to successfully identify most of the soft tissue structures in the dolphin's head. This paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the head structures of common and striped dolphins and compares anatomical cross sections with CT and MRI scans, becoming a reference guide for the interpretation of imaging studies. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Spin dynamics and frequency dependence of magnetic damping study in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC film with a stripe domain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samantaray, B., E-mail: iitg.biswanath@gmail.com; Ranganathan, R.; Mandal, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Singh, Akhilesh K.; Perumal, A. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781039 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and low magnetic damping are the key factors for the free layer magnetization switching by spin transfer torque technique in magnetic tunnel junction devices. The magnetization precessional dynamics in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC thin film with a stripe domain structure was explored in broad band frequency range by employing micro-strip ferromagnetic resonance technique. The polar angle variation of resonance field and linewidth at different frequencies have been analyzed numerically using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation by taking into account the total free energy density of the film. The numerically estimated parameters Landé g-factor, PMA constant, and effective magnetization are found to be 2.1, 2 × 10{sup 5} erg/cm{sup 3} and 7145 Oe, respectively. The frequency dependence of Gilbert damping parameter (α) is evaluated by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects into the total linewidth analysis. The value of α is found to be 0.006 at 10 GHz and it increases monotonically with decreasing precessional frequency.

  20. Exploding Stars and Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of a pattern of X-ray "stripes" in the remains of an exploded star may provide the first direct evidence that a cosmic event can accelerate particles to energies a hundred times higher than achieved by the most powerful particle accelerator on Earth. This result comes from a very long observation of the Tycho supernova remnant with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. It could explain how some of the extremely energetic particles bombarding the Earth, called cosmic rays, are produced. "We've seen lots of intriguing structures in supernova remnants, but we've never seen stripes before," said Kristoffer Eriksen, a postdoctoral researcher at Rutgers University who led the study. "This made us think very hard about what's happening in the blast wave of this powerful explosion." This latest study from Chandra provides support for a theory about how magnetic fields can be dramatically amplified in such blast waves. In this theory, the magnetic fields become highly tangled and the motions of the particles very turbulent near the expanding supernova shock wave at the front edge of the supernova remnant. High-energy charged particles can bounce back and forth across the shock wave repeatedly, gaining energy with each crossing. Theoretical models of the motion of the most energetic particles -- which are mostly protons -- are predicted to leave a messy network of holes and dense walls corresponding to weak and strong regions of magnetic fields, respectively. The X-ray stripes discovered by the Chandra researchers are thought to be regions where the turbulence is greater and the magnetic fields more tangled than surrounding areas, and may be the walls predicted by the theory. Electrons become trapped in these regions and emit X-rays as they spiral around the magnetic field lines. However, the regular and almost periodic pattern of the X-ray stripes was not predicted by the theory. "It was a big surprise to find such a neatly arranged set of stripes," said co

  1. Direct visualization of the Campbell regime in superconducting stripes

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, R. B. G.; Ataklti, G. W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Silhanek, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    A combination of scanning Hall microscopy and scanning ac-susceptibility measurements in superconducting stripes (ribbons) of width w < 10 mu m was used to observe the dimensional phase transitions of the vortex lattice and its stability under alternating fields. At low dc magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to the plane of the stripes, vortices form a one-dimensional chain at the center of the stripes. Above a certain field H*(w), the vortex chain splits in two parallel rows displaced la...

  2. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  3. Investigation of coercivity for electroplated Fe-Ni thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Eguchi, K.; Koda, K.; Kaji, J.; Aramaki, H.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    We have already reported Fe-Ni firms with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In our previous studies, we prepared the Fe-Ni films from citric-acid-based baths (CA-baths) and ammonium-chloride-based ones (AC-baths), and confirmed that the coercivity for the AC-baths was lower than that for the CA-baths. In the present study, we investigated reasons for the lower coercivity for the AC-baths to further improve the soft magnetic properties. From an observation of magnetic domains of the Fe22Ni78 films, we found that Fe22Ni78 film for AC-bath had a magnetic anisotropy in the width direction, and also found that the coercivity in the width direction was lower than the longitudinal one for the AC-bath. As an annealing for a stress relaxation in the films reduced the difference in the coercivity, we considered that the anisotropy is attributed to the magneto-elastic effect.

  4. Developing high coercivity in large diameter cobalt nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, A. H.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Zavašnik, J.

    2016-11-01

    Regardless of the synthetic method, developing high magnetic coercivity in ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) with large diameters has been a challenge over the past two decades. Here, we report on the synthesis of highly coercive cobalt NW arrays with diameters of 65 and 80 nm, which are embedded in porous anodic alumina templates with high-aspect-ratio pores. Using a modified electrochemical deposition method enabled us to reach room temperature coercivity and remanent ratio up to 3000 Oe and 0.70, respectively, for highly crystalline as-synthesized hcp cobalt NW arrays with a length of 8 μm. The first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis showed the presence of both soft and hard magnetic phases along the length of the resulting NWs. To develop higher coercive fields, the length of the NWs was then gradually reduced in order from bottom to top, thereby reaching NW sections governed by the hard phase. Consequently, this resulted in record high coercivities of 4200 and 3850 Oe at NW diameters of 65 and 80 nm, respectively. In this case, the FORC diagrams confirmed a significant reduction in interactions between the magnetic phases of the remaining sections of NWs. At this stage, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and dark-field transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated the formation of highly crystalline bamboo-like sections along the [0 0 2] direction during a progressive pulse-controlled electrochemical growth of NW arrays under optimized parameters. Our results both provide new insights into the growth process, crystalline characteristics and magnetic phases along the length of large diameter NW arrays and, furthermore, develop the performance of pure 3d transition magnetic NWs.

  5. Tuning coercivity in CoCrPt-SiO{sub 2} hard disk material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strache, Thomas; Lenz, Kilian; Fassbender, Juergen [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Tibus, Stefan [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Springer, Felix [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Rohrmann, Hartmut [OC Oerlikon Balzers, AG Data Storage, P.O. Box 1000, 9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); Albrecht, Manfred [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In order to increase the storage density of modern computer disk drives and to push the superparamagnetic limit to the smallest achievable bit sizes further, smaller grains with even larger magnetic anisotropies are required, which are accompanied by large coercive fields obstructing the writing process. One route to overcome this problem is to independently reduce the coercive field without altering anisotropy and remanence by tailoring the intergranular exchange in granular CoCrPt-SiO{sub 2} films. Here we demonstrate that by means of ion implantation of Co and Ne a continuous reduction of the coercive field can be achieved without significant modification of the remaining magnetic parameters. In addition to the magnetization reversal behavior of the entire film investigated by magneto-optic Kerr effect and SQUID magnetometry, also the magnetic domain configuration in the demagnetized state is imaged by magnetic force microscopy.

  6. Magnetic vortex state and multi-domain pattern in electrodeposited hemispherical nanogranular nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardak, Alexander; Sukovatitsina, Ekaterina; Ognev, Alexey; Stebliy, Maksim; Davydenko, Alexander; Chebotkevich, Ludmila; Keun Kim, Young; Nasirpouri, Forough; Janjan, Seyed-Mehdi; Nasirpouri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic states of nickel nanogranular films were studied in two distinct structures of individual and agglomerated granules electrodeposited on n-type Si(1 1 1) surface from a modified Watts bath at a low pH of 2. Magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations revealed three-dimensional out-of-plane magnetic vortex states in stand-alone hemispherical granules and their arrays, and multi-domain patterns in large agglomerates and integrated films. Once the granules coalesce into small chains or clusters, the coercivity values increased due to the reduction of inter-granular spacing and strengthening of the magnetostatic interaction. Further growth leads to the formation of a continuous granulated film which strongly affected the coercivity and remanence. This was characterized by the domain wall nucleation and propagation leading to a stripe domain pattern. Magnetoresistance measurements as a function of external magnetic field are indicative of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) for the continuous films electrodeposited on Si substrate. - Highlights: • Magnetic states of electrodeposited nickel in isolated spherical and agglomerated nanogranules, and a continuous film. • Preferential magnetization reversal mechanism in isolated granules is vortex state. • Micromagnetic simulations confirm the three-dimensional vortex. • Transition between the vortex state and multi-domain magnetic pattern causes a significant decrease in the coercive force. • Continuous nickel films electrodeposited on silicon substrate exhibit AMR whose magnitude increases with the film thickness

  7. Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered arrays of Co nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavín, R.; Gallardo, C.; Palma, J.L.; Escrig, J.; Denardin, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered hexagonal arrays of Co nanowires prepared using anodic aluminum oxide templates was investigated. The experimental evolution of coercivity as a function of the angle, in which the external field is applied, is interpreted considering micromagnetic simulations. Depending on the angle between the axis of the wire and the applied magnetic field direction our results show that the magnetization reversal mode changes from vortex to a transverse domain wall. Besides, we observed that the dipolar interactions cause a reduction in coercive fields, mainly in the direction of easy magnetization of the nanowires. Good agreement between numerical and experimental data is obtained. - Highlights: ► Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of Co nanowire arrays. ► Results show that the magnetization reversal mode changes from vortex to a transverse domain wall. ► Dipolar interactions cause a reduction in coercive fields, which is the strongest in the direction of easy magnetization of the nanowire.

  8. Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered arrays of Co nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, UDP, Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo, C.; Palma, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Denardin, J.C., E-mail: jcdenardin@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-15

    The angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered hexagonal arrays of Co nanowires prepared using anodic aluminum oxide templates was investigated. The experimental evolution of coercivity as a function of the angle, in which the external field is applied, is interpreted considering micromagnetic simulations. Depending on the angle between the axis of the wire and the applied magnetic field direction our results show that the magnetization reversal mode changes from vortex to a transverse domain wall. Besides, we observed that the dipolar interactions cause a reduction in coercive fields, mainly in the direction of easy magnetization of the nanowires. Good agreement between numerical and experimental data is obtained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of Co nanowire arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show that the magnetization reversal mode changes from vortex to a transverse domain wall. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipolar interactions cause a reduction in coercive fields, which is the strongest in the direction of easy magnetization of the nanowire.

  9. Stripe domains in Fe-Zr-N nanocrystalline films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craus, C.B.; Craus, C.B.; Chezan, A.R.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Lodder, J.C.; Boerma, D.O.; Niesen, L.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the transition between a magnetic stripe domain structure and in-plane orientation of the spins, as a function of nitrogen content, for 500nm thick Fe-Zr-N films prepared by DC reactive sputtering on glass substrates. The saturation field decreases and the saturation magnetization

  10. Scaling of coercivity in a 3d random anisotropy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, T.C., E-mail: proctortc@gmail.com; Chudnovsky, E.M., E-mail: EUGENE.CHUDNOVSKY@lehman.cuny.edu; Garanin, D.A.

    2015-06-15

    The random-anisotropy Heisenberg model is numerically studied on lattices containing over ten million spins. The study is focused on hysteresis and metastability due to topological defects, and is relevant to magnetic properties of amorphous and sintered magnets. We are interested in the limit when ferromagnetic correlations extend beyond the size of the grain inside which the magnetic anisotropy axes are correlated. In that limit the coercive field computed numerically roughly scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength and as the sixth power of the grain size. Theoretical arguments are presented that provide an explanation of numerical results. Our findings should be helpful for designing amorphous and nanosintered materials with desired magnetic properties. - Highlights: • We study the random-anisotropy model on lattices containing up to ten million spins. • Irreversible behavior due to topological defects (hedgehogs) is elucidated. • Hysteresis loop area scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength. • In nanosintered magnets the coercivity scales as the six power of the grain size.

  11. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  12. Coercive properties of elliptic-parabolic operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Min Duc.

    1987-06-01

    Using a generalized Poincare inequality, we study the coercive properties of a class of elliptic-parabolic partial differential equations, which contains many degenerate elliptic equations considered by the other authors. (author). 16 refs

  13. Coercivity of magneto-optical media by spin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suits, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Spin dynamics computer simulations have been carried out to study the effect of pinning on domain-wall motion in TbFeCo-like media. These calculations were done on a 30x30x1 mesh, where the spin direction at each lattice site was calculated with the Landau--Lifshitz--Gilbert equation. The simulations were made in an IBM 3090 mainframe--personal computer environment where the result of the calculation is a movie that runs at three frames/second on an AT and shows graphically the domain-wall--defect interaction. The domain wall is caused to move in an external field toward a defect, and the maximum field that pins the domain wall was observed. The defects have finite length and zero magnetization, which correspond to voids or nonmagnetic second phase in the media. The simulation shows that small defects on the order of 100 A in size can pin walls with pinning strength appropriate to the coercivity of magneto-optical media, i.e., local coercivities in the range 1--10 kOe. For sufficiently high fields a single wall may break up into two separate sections at the defect, and then join together beyond the defect to become a single wall again. For rectangular defects, the coercivity depends strongly and nearly linearly on defect length (parallel to the domain-wall surface) and only weakly on defect width for widths greater than about 50 A (perpendicular to the wall surface)

  14. Microwave permeability of stripe patterned FeCoN thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yuping [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Yang, Yong, E-mail: tslyayo@nus.edu.sg [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Ma, Fusheng; Zong, Baoyu; Yang, Zhihong [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Ding, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic stripe patterns are of great importance for microwave applications owing to their highly tunable microwave permeability by adjusting the geometrical dimensions. In this work, stripe patterned FeCoN films with 160 nm thickness are fabricated by using standard UV photolithography. Their microwave permeability are investigated systematically via both experiment and micromagnetic simulation. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results suggests that stripe width is crucial for the microwave magnetic properties of the stripe pattern. It is demonstrated by simulation that with increasing stripe width from 1 to 80 µm the initial permeability shows a continuous growth from about 8–322, whiles the resonance frequency drops dramatically from 18.7 to 3.1 GHz at 4 µm gap size. Smaller gap size would result in slightly increased initial permeability due to larger magnetic volume ratio, accompanied by decreased resonance frequency because of stronger magnetostatic interaction. Moreover, the experimental investigation on stripe length effect indicates that the stripe length should be kept as long as possible to achieve uniform bulk resonance mode and high permeability value. Insufficient stripe length would result in low frequency edge mode and decayed bulk mode. This study could provide valuable guidelines on the selection of proper geometry dimensions of FeCoN stripe patterns for high frequency applications. - Highlights: • This work presents a systematic study on permeability of FeCoN stripe pattern. • Geometrical parameters of the stripe pattern are systematically optimized. • Several important conclusions has been obtained. • The results offer guideline on FeCoN stripe patterns for high frequency applications.

  15. Lighting up superconducting stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeçen, Emre; Gedik, Nuh

    2018-02-01

    Cuprate superconductors display a plethora of complex phases as a function of temperature and carrier concentration, the understanding of which could provide clues into the mechanism of superconductivity. For example, when about one-eighth of the conduction electrons are removed from the copper oxygen planes in cuprates such as La2‑xBaxCuO4 (LBCO), the doped holes (missing electrons) organize into one-dimensional stripes (1). The bulk superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is greatly reduced, and just above Tc, electrical transport perpendicular to the planes (along the c axis) becomes resistive, but parallel to the copper oxygen planes, resistivity remains zero for a range of temperatures (2). It was proposed a decade ago (3) that this anisotropic behavior is caused by pair density waves (PDWs); superconducting Cooper pairs exist along the stripes within the planes but cannot tunnel to the adjacent layers. On page 575 of this issue, Rajasekaran et al. (4) now report detection of this state in LBCO using nonlinear reflection of high-intensity terahertz (THz) light.

  16. LMFBR thermal-striping evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunings, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal striping is defined as the fluctuating temperature field that is imposed on a structure when fluid streams at different temperatures mix in the vicinity of the structure surface. Because of the uncertainty in structural damage in LMFBR structures subject to thermal striping, EPRI has funded an effort for the Rockwell International Energy Systems Group to evaluate this problem. This interim report presents the following information: (1) a Thermal Striping Program Plan which identifies areas of analytic and experimental needs and presents a program of specific tasks to define damage experienced by ordinary materials of construction and to evaluate conservatism in the existing approach; (2) a description of the Thermal Striping Test Facility and its operation; and (3) results from the preliminary phase of testing to characterize the fluid environment to be applied in subsequent thermal striping damage experiments

  17. High-coercivity FePt sputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, N.H.; Hiep, V.V.; Hong, D.M.; Chau, N.; Linh, N.D.; Kurisu, M.; Anh, D.T.K.; Nakamoto, G.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 56 Pt 44 thin films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Si substrates. The substrate temperature was kept at 350 deg C. The X-ray diffraction patterns of as-deposited FePt films exhibited a disordered structure. Annealing of the films at 650-685 deg C for 1 h yielded an ordered L1 0 phase with FCT structure. The high value for coercivity H C of 17 kOe was obtained at room temperature for the 68 nm thick film annealed at 685 deg C. The hard magnetic properties as well as grain structure of the films strongly depend on the annealing conditions

  18. Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on rare earth-cobalt permanent magnets and their applications, August 31 - September 2, 1982, and third international symposium on magnetic anisotropy and coercivity in rare earth-transition metal alloys, September 3, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, J.

    1982-01-01

    The first part (workshop) is concerned specifically with applications of rare earth-cobalt permanent magnets. The session headings are 1) electro-mechanical applications 2) electronic and miscellaneous applications 3) magneto-mechanical applications plus workshop on measurement methods 4) new materials and processes 5) industrial applications of REPM and future aspects. The second part (symposium) is concerned with physical properties of specific rare earth-transition metal alloys. (G.Q.)

  19. The coercivity mechanism of Pr–Fe–B nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Wen-Liang, E-mail: wlzuo@iphy.ac.cn; Zhang, Ming; Niu, E.; Shao, Xiao-Ping; Hu, Feng-Xia; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen, E-mail: shenbg@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2015-09-15

    The strong (00l) textured Pr{sub 12+x}Fe{sub 82−x}B{sub 6} (x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4) nanoflakes with high coercivity were prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM). The thickness and length of the flakes are mainly in the range of 50−200 nm and 0.5−2 μm, respectively. A coercivity of 4.16 kOe for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes was obtained, which is the maximum coercivity of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (R=Pr, Nd) nanoflakes or nanoparticles reported up to now. The results of XRD and SEM for the aligned Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes indicate that a strong (00l) texture is obtained and the easy magnetization direction is parallel to the surface of the flakes. The angular dependence of coercivity for aligned sample indicates that the coercivity mechanism of the as-milled nanoflakes is mainly dominated by domain wall pinning. Meanwhile, the field dependence of coercivity, isothermal (IRM) and dc demagnetizing (DCD) remanence curves also indicate that the coercivity is mainly determined by domain wall pinning, and nucleation also has an important effect. In addition, the mainly interaction of flakes is dipolar coupling. The research of coercivity mechanism for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes is important for guidance the further increase its value, and is useful for the future development of the high performance nanocomposite magnets and soft/hard exchange spring magnets. - Highlights: • A coercivity of 4.16 kOe for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes was obtained. • The strong (00l) textured is obtained for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes. • The interaction of nanoflakes is mainly dipolar coupling. • Domain wall pinning is the mainly coercivity mechanism.

  20. Coercivity scaling in antidot lattices in Fe, Ni, and NiFe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräfe, Joachim, E-mail: graefe@is.mpg.de; Schütz, Gisela; Goering, Eberhard J., E-mail: goering@is.mpg.de

    2016-12-01

    Antidot lattices can be used to artificially engineer magnetic properties in thin films, however, a conclusive model that describes the coercivity enhancement in this class of magnetic nano-structures has so far not been found. We prepared Fe, Ni, and NiFe thin films and patterned each with 21 square antidot lattices with different geometric parameters and measured their hysteretic behavior. On the basis of this extensive dataset we are able to provide a model that can describe both the coercivity scaling over a wide range of geometric lattice parameters and the influence of different materials.

  1. Giant coercivity in ferromagnetic Co doped ZnO single crystal thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukya, B.; Negi, D.S.; Dileep, K.; Kumar, N.; Ghatak, Jay; Datta, R.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in ZnO doped with transition metal impurities has been discussed extensively and appeared to be a highly controversial and challenging topic in today's solid state physics. Magnetism observed in this system is generally weak and soft. We have grown Co:ZnO up to 30 at% Co in single crystal thin film form on c-plane sapphire. A composition dependent coercivity is observed in this system which reaches peak value at 25 at% Co, the values are 860 Oe and 1149 Oe with applied field along parallel and perpendicular to the film substrate interface respectively. This giant coercivity might pave the way to exploit this material as a magnetic semiconductor with novel logic functionalities. The findings are explained based on defect band itinerant ferromagnetism and its partial interaction with localized d electrons of Co through charge transfer. Besides large coercivity, an increase in the band gap with Co concentration has also been observed along with blue emission peak with long tail confirming the formation of extended point defect levels in the host lattice band gap. - Highlights: • Co doped ZnO ferromagnetic single crystal thin film. • Giant coercivity in Co:ZnO thin film which may help to turn this material into application. • Cathodoluminescence (CL) data showing increase in band gap with Co concentrations. • A theoretical proposal is made to explain the observed giant coercivity

  2. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm2(CoCuFeZr)17 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Ranu; Schütz, G.; Bhatt, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm 2 (CoCuFeZr) 17 films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H C ) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700 °C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism

  3. Coercive treatment and autonomy in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Manne; Helgesson, Gert

    2008-02-01

    There are three lines of argument in defence of coercive treatment of patients with mental disorders: arguments regarding (1) societal interests to protect others, (2) the patients' own health interests, and (3) patient autonomy. In this paper, we analyse these arguments in relation to an idealized case, where a person with a mental disorder claims not to want medical treatment for religious reasons. We also discuss who should decide what in situations where patients with mental disorders deny treatment on seemingly rational grounds. We conclude that, in principle, coercive treatment cannot be defended for the sake of protecting others. While coercive actions can be acceptable in order to protect close family and others, medical treatment is not justified for such reasons but should be given only in the interest of patients. Coercive treatment may be required in order to promote the patient's health interests, but health interests have to waive if they go against the autonomous interests of the patient. We argue that non-autonomous patients can have reasons, rooted in their deeply-set values, to renounce compulsory institutional treatment, and that such reasons should be respected unless it can be assumed that their new predicaments have caused them to change their views.

  4. The effect of sputter-deposition conditions on the coercive force in amorphous rare-earth - transition-metal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, C.F.; Somekh, R.E.; Evetts, J.E.; Storey, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The origins of the coercive force in amorphous rare earth - transition metal films have been investigated, the results being discussed in terms of how the growth conditions of the sputter-deposited films determine the pinning features which cause the coercive force. The authors have studied the variation of coercive force with film thickness and developed a model which enables a local pinning force per unit area to be deduced. This suggests that it should be possible to increase the coercive force by breaking up the microstructure with a multi-layered structure. An increase in coercive force obtained by making such structures with tungsten is described. They also report on the reduction in coercive force obtained when the films are deposited in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field

  5. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni80Fe20 antidot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunhong; Chen Ke; Lue Ling; Zhao Jianwei; Chen Peng

    2010-01-01

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos θ| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  6. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunhong; Chen, Ke; Lü, Ling; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos θ| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni 80Fe 20 antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  7. Angular dependence of the coercivity in arrays of ferromagnetic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, J.; Silva, D.B.O.; Padrón-Hernández, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new magnetic model for polycrystalline nanowires arrays in porous anodic aluminum oxide. The principal consideration here is the crystalline structure and the morphology of the wires and them the dipolar interactions between the crystals into the wire. Other aspect here is the direct calculation of the dipolar energy for the interaction of one wire with the others in the array. The free energy density was formulated for polycrystalline nanowires arrays in order to determinate the anisotropy effective field. It was using the microstructure study by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for the estimation of the real structure of the wires. After the structural analysis we used the angular dependences for the coercivity field and for the remnant magnetization to determine the properties of the wires. All analysis were made by the theory treatment proposed by Stoner and Wohlfarth

  8. Angular dependence of the coercivity in arrays of ferromagnetic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901, PE (Brazil); Silva, D.B.O. [Pós-Graduação em Ciência de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901, PE (Brazil); Padrón-Hernández, E., E-mail: padron@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901, PE (Brazil); Pós-Graduação em Ciência de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901, PE (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    We present a new magnetic model for polycrystalline nanowires arrays in porous anodic aluminum oxide. The principal consideration here is the crystalline structure and the morphology of the wires and them the dipolar interactions between the crystals into the wire. Other aspect here is the direct calculation of the dipolar energy for the interaction of one wire with the others in the array. The free energy density was formulated for polycrystalline nanowires arrays in order to determinate the anisotropy effective field. It was using the microstructure study by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for the estimation of the real structure of the wires. After the structural analysis we used the angular dependences for the coercivity field and for the remnant magnetization to determine the properties of the wires. All analysis were made by the theory treatment proposed by Stoner and Wohlfarth.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and Monte Carlo simulation of CoFe2O4/Polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposites: The coercivity investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaee, Sh; Farjami shayesteh, S.; Mahdavifar, S; Hekmatara, S Hoda.

    2015-01-01

    To study the influence of polymer matrix on the effective magnetic anisotropy constant and coercivity of magnetic nanoparticles, we have synthesized the Cobalt ferrite/Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanocomposites by co-precipitation method in four different processes. In addition the Monte Carlo simulation and law of approach to the saturation magnetization have been applied to achieve the anisotropy constants. The obtained experimental and theoretical results showed a decrease in anisotropy constant relative to the bulk cobalt ferrite. We have showed that the PVP matrix can interact with metal cations and made them approximately immobilized to participate in spinel structure. Hence different anisotropy constants or coercivity were obtained for synthesized nanocomposites. In addition, PVP matrix can attach to the surface of magnetic particles and make them approximately non-interacting. The synthesized samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic measurements were made at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). - Highlights: • We studied the effect of polymer matrix on the coercivity of the CoFe 2 O 4 /PVP nanocomposites. • The polymer matrix decreases the anisotropy of the nanocomposite system. • We have synthesized nanocomposites with approximately the same size, but significantly different coercivity. • We showed that the PVP/CoFe 2 O 4 nanocomposite has the considerable coercivity due to the spin hindrance. • Magnetic properties of nanocomposites simulated by Monte Carlo method

  10. The Stripe State in Cupratesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T.-K.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS two decades ago, many anomalous properties have been reported. One of the most interesting properties is the possible existence of the stripe state consisting of one dimensional charge-density modulation coupled with some kind of spin ordering. X-ray and neutron scattering experiments and recently high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy have reported direct evidences of such a structure. In particular it has found in the La-Sr-Cu-O (LSCO family the existence of the half-doped stripe with average of half a hole in one charge modulation period below and about 1/8 hole density. These results have fueled the idea about the presence of these charge or spin density wave states competing with the superconducting phase in underdoped HTS. They may even contribute to the pairing mechanism. In this talk, we will demonstrate that the presence of these stripes is actually a natural consequence of the strongly interacting t-J model by using a variational approach which provides a good enough accuracy to address the subtle result. Furthermore we show that half-doped stripes could be stabilized in hole-doped systems if we assume a simple electron-phonon interaction to renormalize the electron mass. However we have not found any evidence to support half-doped stripes in electron-doped systems.

  11. Angular dependence of coercivity with temperature in Co-based nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bran, C., E-mail: cristina.bran@icmm.csic.es [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, A.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) and Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avenida Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Palmero, E.M. [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Escrig, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) and Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avenida Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Vázquez, M. [Institute of Materials Science of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    The magnetic behavior of arrays of Co and CoFe nanowire arrays has been measured in the temperature range between 100 and 300 K. We have paid particular attention to the angular dependence of magnetic properties on the applied magnetic field orientation. The experimental angular dependence of coercivity has been modeled according to micromagnetic analytical calculations, and we found that the propagation of a transversal domain wall mode gives the best fitting with experimental observations. That reversal mode holds in the whole measuring temperature range, for nanowires with different diameters and crystalline structure. Moreover, the quantitative strength of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetization easy axis are determined to depend on the crystalline structure and nanowires diameter. The evolution of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy with temperature for nanowires with different composition gives rise to an opposite evolution of coercivity with increasing temperature: it decreases for CoFe while it increases for Co nanowire arrays.

  12. X-RAY STRIPES IN TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT: SYNCHROTRON FOOTPRINTS OF A NONLINEAR COSMIC-RAY-DRIVEN INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Andrei M.; Osipov, Sergei M.; Uvarov, Yury A.; Ellison, Donald C.; Pavlov, George G.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution Chandra observations of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) have revealed several sets of quasi-steady, high-emissivity, nearly parallel X-ray stripes in some localized regions of the SNR. These stripes are most likely the result of cosmic-ray (CR) generated magnetic turbulence at the SNR blast wave. However, for the amazingly regular pattern of these stripes to appear, simultaneous action of a number of shock-plasma phenomena is required, which is not predicted by most models of magnetic field amplification. A consistent explanation of these stripes yields information on the complex nonlinear plasma processes connecting efficient CR acceleration and magnetic field fluctuations in strong collisionless shocks. The nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (NL-DSA) model described here, which includes magnetic field amplification from a CR-current-driven instability, does predict stripes consistent with the synchrotron observations of Tycho's SNR. We argue that the local ambient mean magnetic field geometry determines the orientation of the stripes and therefore it can be reconstructed with the high-resolution X-ray imaging. The estimated maximum energy of the CR protons responsible for the stripes is ∼10 15 eV. Furthermore, the model predicts that a specific X-ray polarization pattern, with a polarized fraction ∼50%, accompanies the stripes, which can be tested with future X-ray polarimeter missions.

  13. In-plane magnetic field-induced anisotropy and orientation energy of stripe phases at half-filled high Landau levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.; Smrčka, Ludvík; Girvin, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2000), s. 43-46 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/0085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.878, year: 2000

  14. Domain structures and magnetization reversal in Co/Pd and CoFeB/Pd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123 (Oman); Ranjbar, M. [Physics Department, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Physics Department, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    Domain structures and magnetization reversal of (Co/Pd) and (CoFeB/Pd) multilayers with 7 and 14 repeats were investigated. The Co-based multilayers show much larger coercivities, a better squareness, and a sharper magnetization switching than CoFeB-based multilayers. From magnetic force microscopy observations, both structures show strong reduction in domains size as the number of repeats increases but the magnetic domains for Co-based multilayers are more than one order of magnitude larger than for CoFeB-based multilayers. By imaging domains at different times, breaks in the (CoFeB/Pd) multilayer stripes were observed within only few hours, while no change could be seen for (Co/Pd) multilayers. Although CoFeB single layers are suitable for magnetoresistive devices due to their large spin polarization and low damping constants, their lamination with Pd suffers mainly from thermal instability.

  15. Superparamagnetism and coercivity in HCP-Co nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian Fernandez, C. de E-mail: dejulian@padova.infm.it; Mattei, G.; Sangregorio, C.; Battaglin, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P

    2004-05-01

    The magnetic properties of Co HCP nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix with sizes between 2{+-}0.7 and 5{+-}2.2 nm were investigated. The temperature dependence of zero-field cooled and field cooled magnetizations and of the coercive field were analyzed considering the thermal activated demagnetization process. Enhanced anisotropy was observed for the 2 nm nanoparticles, while the demagnetization process of the larger ones is dominated by interparticle interactions.

  16. Superparamagnetism and coercivity in HCP-Co nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian Fernandez, C. de; Mattei, G.; Sangregorio, C.; Battaglin, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Co HCP nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix with sizes between 2±0.7 and 5±2.2 nm were investigated. The temperature dependence of zero-field cooled and field cooled magnetizations and of the coercive field were analyzed considering the thermal activated demagnetization process. Enhanced anisotropy was observed for the 2 nm nanoparticles, while the demagnetization process of the larger ones is dominated by interparticle interactions

  17. The fabrication and the coercivity mechanism of segmented (Ni/Fe)m composite nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, D S; Shi, H G; Si, M S

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of segmented (Ni/Fe) m (m = 1,2,3,4,5) composite nanowires about 3 μm in length and with aspect ratios of about 60 were electrodeposited on anodic porous alumina templates using a dual bath. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. It is found that Fe(110) and Ni(111) orientations along nanowire axis are preferred. The large aspect ratio of the composite nanowires reveals a strong shape magnetic anisotropy. As the number of the Ni/Fe composite segments m increases, the coercivity of the nanowire arrays, with the magnetic field applied parallel to the wire, gradually increases. The coercivity variation of the segmented composite nanowires is closely related to the effective exchange coupling between the Ni and Fe segments

  18. Magnonic quantum spin Hall state in the zigzag and stripe phases of the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Chung, Suk Bum; Park, Kisoo; Park, Je-Geun

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the topological property of magnon bands in the collinear magnetic orders of zigzag and stripe phases for the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice and identified Berry curvature and symmetry constraints on the magnon band structure. Different symmetries of both zigzag and stripe phases lead to different topological properties, in particular, the magnon bands of the stripe phase being disentangled with a finite Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) term with nonzero spin Chern number. This is corroborated by calculating the spin Nernst effect. Our study establishes the existence of a nontrivial magnon band topology for all observed collinear antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattices in the presence of the DM term.

  19. Micromagnetic simulation and the angular dependence of coercivity and remanence for array of polycrystalline nickel nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, G.P.; Holanda, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901 (Brazil); Guerra, Y.; Silva, D.B.O.; Farias, B.V.M. [Pós-Graduação em Ciência de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901 (Brazil); Padrón-Hernández, E., E-mail: padron@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901 (Brazil); Pós-Graduação em Ciência de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We present here our experimental results for the preparation and characterization of nanowires of nickel and the analysis of the angular dependence of coercivity and remanence using experimental data and micromagnetic simulation. The fabrication was made by using aluminum oxide membranes as templates and deposited nickel by an electrochemical route. The magnetic measurements showed that coercivity and remanence are dependent of the angle of application of the external magnetic field. Our results are different than that expected for the coherent, vortex and transversal modes of the reversion for the magnetic moments. According to the transmission electron microscopy analysis we can see that our nanowires have not a perfect cylindrical format. That is why we have used the ellipsoids chain model for better understanding the real structure of wires and its relation with the magnetic behavior. In order to generate theoretical results for this configuration we have made micromagnetic simulation using Nmag code. Our numerical results for the realistic distances are in correspondence with the magnetic measurements and we can see that there are contradictions if we assume the transverse reversal mode. Then, we can conclude that structure of nanowires should be taken into account to understand the discrepancies reported in the literature for the reversion mechanism in arrays of nickel nanowires. - Highlights: • We present answers for the problem of angular dependence for the coercivity and remanence. • Experimental and theoretical results confirmed the great importance of the real structure. • Micromagnetic calculations confirmed the importance of the real structure.

  20. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  1. Tuning coercive force by adjusting electric potential in solution processed Co/Pt(111) and the mechanism involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Kuo, Wei-Hsu; Chang, Yu-Chieh; Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Yau, Shueh-Lin

    2017-03-01

    A combination of a solution process and the control of the electric potential for magnetism represents a new approach to operating spintronic devices with a highly controlled efficiency and lower power consumption with reduced production cost. As a paradigmatic example, we investigated Co/Pt(111) in the Bloch-wall regime. The depression in coercive force was detected by applying a negative electric potential in an electrolytic solution. The reversible control of coercive force by varying the electric potential within few hundred millivolts is demonstrated. By changing the electric potential in ferromagnetic layers with smaller thicknesses, the efficiency for controlling the tunable coercive force becomes higher. Assuming that the pinning domains are independent of the applied electric potential, an electric potential tuning-magnetic anisotropy energy model was derived and provided insights into our knowledge of the relation between the electric potential tuning coercive force and the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer. Based on the fact that the coercive force can be tuned by changing the electric potential using a solution process, we developed a novel concept of electric-potential-tuned magnetic recording, resulting in a stable recording media with a high degree of writing ability.

  2. Zebra: A striped network file system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.

  3. Annealing induced low coercivity, nanocrystalline Co–Fe–Si thin films exhibiting inverse cosine angular variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hysen, T., E-mail: hysenthomas@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Harthi, Salim; Al-Omari, I.A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Geetha, P.; Lisha, R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sakthikumar, D. [Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama (Japan); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mra@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India)

    2013-09-15

    Co–Fe–Si based films exhibit high magnetic moments and are highly sought after for applications like soft under layers in perpendicular recording media to magneto-electro-mechanical sensor applications. In this work the effect of annealing on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Co–Fe–Si thin films was investigated. Compositional analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a native oxide surface layer consisting of oxides of Co, Fe and Si on the surface. The morphology of the as deposited films shows mound like structures conforming to the Volmer–Weber growth model. Nanocrystallisation of amorphous films upon annealing was observed by glancing angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of magnetic properties with annealing is explained using the Herzer model. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements carried out at various angles from 0° to 90° to the applied magnetic field were employed to study the angular variation of coercivity. The angular variation fits the modified Kondorsky model. Interestingly, the coercivity evolution with annealing deduced from magneto-optical Kerr effect studies indicates a reverse trend compared to magetisation observed in the bulk. This can be attributed to a domain wall pinning at native oxide layer on the surface of thin films. The evolution of surface magnetic properties is correlated with morphology evolution probed using atomic force microscopy. The morphology as well as the presence of the native oxide layer dictates the surface magnetic properties and this is corroborated by the apparent difference in the bulk and surface magnetic properties. - Highlights: • The relation between grain size and magnetic properties in Co–Fe–Si thin films obeys the Herzer model. • Angular variation of coercivity is found to obey the Kondorsky model. • The MOKE measurements provide further evidence for domain wall pinning.

  4. High-coercivity FePt nanoparticle assemblies embedded in silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q; Purkayastha, A; Singh, A P; Li, H; Ramanath, G; Li, A; Ramanujan, R V

    2009-01-01

    The ability to process assemblies using thin film techniques in a scalable fashion would be a key to transmuting the assemblies into manufacturable devices. Here, we embed FePt nanoparticle assemblies into a silica thin film by sol-gel processing. Annealing the thin film composite at 650 deg. C transforms the chemically disordered fcc FePt phase into the fct phase, yielding magnetic coercivity values H c >630 mT. The positional order of the particles is retained due to the protection offered by the silica host. Such films with assemblies of high-coercivity magnetic particles are attractive for realizing new types of ultra-high-density data storage devices and magneto-composites.

  5. The enhanced coercivity for the magnetite/silica nanocomposite at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingzai; Xiong Ying; Peng Zhenmeng; Jiang Nan; Qi Haiping; Chen Qianwang

    2004-01-01

    Magnetite/silica nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile solvothermal processing at 150 deg. C for about 10 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the effect of annealing on the crystallinity of silica. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the good dispersion of magnetite in the silica matrix. Magnetic properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and the enhanced coercivity was explained by the intrinsic anisotropy of the particles enhanced by the interparticle dipolar fields

  6. Variable substrate temperature deposition of CoFeB film on Ta for manipulating the perpendicular coercive forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Saravanan; Rao, Subha Krishna; Muthuvel, Manivel Raja; Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan; Therese, Helen Annal

    2017-08-01

    Magnetization of Ta/CoFeB/Ta trilayer films with thick layer of CoFeB deposited under different substrate temperatures (Ts) via ultra-high vacuum DC sputtering technique has been measured with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film respectively to study the perpendicular coercive forces of the film. The samples were further analyzed for its structural, topological, morphological, and electrical transport properties. The core chemical states for the elements present in the CoFeB thin film were analyzed by XPS studies. Magnetization studies reveal the existence of perpendicular coercive forces in CoFeB films deposited only at certain temperatures such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C. CoFeB film deposited at 475 °C exhibited a maximum coercivity of 315 Oe and a very low saturation magnetization (Ms) of 169 emu/cc in perpendicular direction. This pronounced effect in perpendicular coercive forces observed for CoFeB475 could be attributed to the effect of temperature in enhancing the crystallization of the film at the Ta/CoFeB interfaces. However at temperatures higher than 475 °C the destruction of the Ta/CoFeB interface due to intermixing of Ta and CoFeB results in the disappearance of magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Innovative CO2 LASER-Based Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This is a Technical Report of an FY2014 NDOT funded project on Innovative CO2 Laserbased Pavement Striping and Stripe Removal. The project was concerned with adopting the laser technology for pavement stripe and markers removal and inferring on its e...

  8. On the Issue of the Concept "Coercive Criminality"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestereva Y. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problems relating to the concept of coercive criminality. Here is determined the lexical scope of the concept "coercion"; the philosophical and criminal law contents of the researched term are compared; the types of the coercive criminality are determined.

  9. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Ranu, E-mail: rbhatt@barc.gov.in; Schütz, G. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly Max Planck Institute for Metals Research), Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-03-14

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H{sub C}) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700 °C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism.

  10. Out-of-plane coercive field of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhong, Gao [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Ke, Chen [Chongqing Electric Power College, Chongqing (China); Ling, Lue; Jianwei, Zhao [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen Peng, E-mail: pchen@swu.edu.c [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetization reversal process of nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are investigated. The angular dependence of out-of-plane remanent magnetization of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays shows that the maximum remanence is in-plane and the squareness of the out-of-plane hysteresis loop follow a |cos {theta}| dependence. The angular dependence of out-of-plane coercivity of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays shows that the maximum coercivity lies on the surface of a cone with its symmetric axis normal to the sample plane, which indicates a transition of magnetic reversal from curling to coherent rotation when changing the angle between the applied magnetic field and the sample plane.

  11. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth

  12. Temperature dependence of coercivity behavior in iron films on silicone oil surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaojun; Ye Quanlin; Ye Gaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    A new iron film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by vapor phase deposition method, has been fabricated and its microstructure as well as magnetic properties has been studied. It is found that the temperature dependence of the coercive field H c (T) of the films exhibits a peak around a critical temperature T crit =10-15 K: for the temperature T crit ,H c (T) increases with the temperature; if T>T crit , however, it decreases rapidly and then approaches a steady value as T further increases. Our study shows that, for T>T crit , the observed coercivity behavior is mainly dominated by the effect of the non-uniform single-domain particle size distribution, and for T crit , the anomalous coercivity behavior may be resulted from the surface anisotropy, the surface effect and the characteristic internal stress distribution in the films. The influence of the shape and size of the particles on the thermal dependence of the magnetization is also investigated

  13. Enhancement of the coercivity in Co-Ni layered double hydroxides by increasing basal spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuijuan; Tsuboi, Tomoya; Namba, Hiroaki; Einaga, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-09-14

    The magnetic properties of layered double hydroxides (LDH) containing transition metal ions can still develop, compared with layered metal hydroxide salts which exhibit structure-dependent magnetism. In this article, we report the preparation of a hybrid magnet composed of Co-Ni LDH and n-alkylsulfonate anions (Co-Ni-CnSO3 LDH). As Co-Ni LDH is anion-exchangeable, we can systematically control the interlayer spacing by intercalating n-alkylsulfonates with different carbon numbers. The magnetic properties were examined with temperature- and field-dependent magnetization measurements. As a result, we have revealed that the coercive field depends on the basal spacing. It is suggested that increasing the basal spacing varies the competition between the in-plane superexchange interactions and long-range out-of-plane dipolar interactions. Moreover, a jump in the coercive field at around 20 Å of the basal spacing is assumed to be the modification of the magnetic ordering in Co-Ni-CnSO3 LDH.

  14. Coercive Tactics and Web Advertising Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By questioning contemporary coercive or intrusive web advertising activities, this study sheds light on the recent conditions of web advertising by focusing on a comprehensive process that leads to web ad performance. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed by the principal investigators of this study. 170 were returned from 200 distributed questionnaires given in South Korea and 100 were returned from 200 distributed questionnaires in China. The responses total 248 out of 400 distributed questionnaires. The relationships among the measured factors are analyzed by the structural equation modeling method. Results show that the use of web ad tactics often leads to negative consequences, creating a user present avoidance behavior condition towards both the ad and ad-hosting website. In terms of the performance of the ad-hosting website, website retention was strongly influenced by content blocking. In addition, the results of the comparative test suggest that the influence of avoidance on advertising performance is stronger among users of newspaper websites than e-commerce websites.

  15. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth. This article describes how the mollusk got here, reviews the problems it can cause and what is being done to mitigate the problems and control the growth and spread of the mollusk.

  16. Magnetic anisotropies of (Ga,Mn)As films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Frank

    2011-02-02

    In this work the magnetic anisotropies of the diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As were investigated experimentally. (Ga,Mn)As films show a superposition of various magnetic anisotropies which depend sensitively on various parameters such as temperature, carrier concentration or lattice strain. However, the anisotropies of lithographically prepared (Ga,Mn)As elements differ significantly from an unpatterned (Ga,Mn)As film. In stripe-shaped structures this behaviour is caused by anisotropic relaxation of the compressive lattice strain. In order to determine the magnetic anisotropies of individual (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures a combination of ferromagnetic resonance and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy was employed in this thesis. In addition, local changes of the magnetic anisotropy in circular and rectangular structures were visualized by making use of spatially resolved measurements. Finally, also the influence of the laterally inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropies on the static magnetic properties, such as coercive fields, was investigated employing spatially resolved static MOKE measurements on individual (Ga,Mn)As elements. (orig.)

  17. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  18. Observation of high coercive fields in chemically synthesized coated Fe-Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Panda, Rabi N., E-mail: rnp@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys have been synthesized via chemical reduction route using various capping agents; such as: oleic acid/oleylamine (route-1) and oleic acid/CTAB (route-2). We could able to synthesize Fe50Pt and Fe54Pt alloys via route 1 and 2, respectively. As-prepared Fe-Pt alloys crystallize in disordered fcc phase with crystallite sizes of 2.3 nm and 6 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Disordered Fe-Pt alloys were transformed to ordered fct phase after annealing at 600 °C. SEM studies confirm the spherical shape morphologies of annealed Fe-Pt nanoparticles with SEM particle sizes of 24.4 nm and 21.2 nm for route-1 and route-2, respectively. TEM study confirms the presence of 4.6 nm particles for annealed Fe50Pt alloys with several agglomerating clusters of bigger size and appropriately agrees well with the XRD study. Room temperature magnetization studies of as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys (fcc) show ferromagnetism with negligible coercivities. Average magnetic moments per particle for as-prepared Fe-Pt alloys were estimated to be 753 μ{sub B} and 814 μ{sub B}, for route 1 and 2, respectively. Ordered fct Fe-Pt alloys show high values of coercivities of 10,000 Oe and 10,792 Oe for route-1 and route-2, respectively. Observed magnetic properties of the fct Fe-Pt alloys nps were interpreted with the basis of order parameters, size, surface, and composition effects. - Highlights: • Synthesis of capped nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys via chemical routes. • Ordered fct phase were obtained at 600 °C. • Microstructural studies were carried out using SEM and TEM. • Investigation on evolution of magnetic properties from fcc to fct state. • Maximum values of coercivities up to 10,792 Oe were observed.

  19. Magnetic properties of natural pyrrhotite Part I : Behaviour of initial susceptibility and saturation-magnetization-related rock-magnetic parameters in a grain-size dependent framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The grain-size dependence of the initial susceptibility, saturation magnetization, saturation remanence , coercive force, remanent coercive force and remanent acquisition coercive force, is reported for four natural pyrrhotites in a grain-size range from 250 µm down to <5 µm.

  20. Substrate bias effects on composition and coercivity of CoCrTa/Cr thin films on canasite and glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Sui, X.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    CoCrTa/Cr thin films were prepared by rf diode sputtering onto canasite and glass substrates at various bias voltages from two targets of different compositions (Co82.8Cr14.6Ta2.6 and Co86Cr12Ta2). While Auger depth profile analysis indicates that there is some broadening at the CoCrTa-Cr interface, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that changes in alloy composition due to the resputtering processes are even more prominent. For both targets, as the substrate bias increases the Co content in the films declines, and the magnetization decreases. The maximum film coercivity appears to correlate to the final film composition. By investigating the results from both targets, it is concluded that the coercivity reaches a maximum when the film composition is in the neighborhood of Co84Cr13Ta3. Thus, to optimize the coercivity different bias voltages are required for each target. Excessive substrate bias, however, leads to films with low magnetization and coercivity.

  1. Stock characteristics of Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, T.B.; McLaren, J.B.; Cooper, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Striped bass, because of their tremendous popularity both commercially and recreationally, were a principal focus of the Hudson River power plant case. Between 1976 and 1979, over 23,000 age-II and older striped bass were studied as one facet of an extensive research program on the spring population in the Hudson River. Samples were collected from the overwintering as well as the spawning portion of the striped bass population, and included immature as well as mature fish. At least 12 age-groups contributed to spawning each year. Of these 12, age-groups III, IV, and V usually were most abundant, but the percentage of the population represented by any single age-group varied as the result of fluctuations in year-class strength. Males first became sexually mature at age II and females at age IV. Fast-growing individuals within a year class tended to mature earlier. Fecundity increased with the size of fish, reaching an observed maximum of about 3 million eggs per female. Although significant annual variations in maturity and growth were detected for Hudson River striped bass, there was no evidence of a consistent change in either variable that might be associated with increasing power plant operations and a reduction in striped bass abundance. Age at maturity and age structure are the two life history components that differ the most between the Hudson River population and other striped bass populations. 36 refs., 7 tabs

  2. Magnetic properties of natural pyrrhotite Part I: Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The grain-size dependence of the initial susceptibility (X 1~),saturation magnetization (.1,), saturation remanence (J~),coercive force (He), remanent coercive force (Hcr) and remanent acquisition coercive force (Hcr’), is reported for four natural pyrrhotites in a grain-size range from 250

  3. Checkerboard local density of states in striped domains pinned by vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.M.; Hedegård, P.; Bruus, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    We discuss recent elastic neutron scattering and scanning tunneling experiments on high-T-c cuprates exposed to an applied magnetic field. Antiferromagnetic vortex cores operating as pinning centers for surrounding stripes is qualitatively consistent with the neutron data provided the stripes have...... the antiphase modulation. Within a Green's function formalism we study the low energy electronic structure around the vortices and find that besides the dispersive quantum interference there exists a non-dispersive checkerboard interference pattern consistent with recent scanning tunneling measurements. Thus...

  4. Variable substrate temperature deposition of CoFeB film on Ta for manipulating the perpendicular coercive forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Saravanan; Rao, Subha Krishna [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Muthuvel, Manivel Raja [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad 500058 (India); Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Therese, Helen Annal, E-mail: helen.a@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ta/CoFeB(50 nm)/Ta thin films were deposited at various substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). • CoFeB films deposited at T{sub s} such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C exhibited perpendicular coercivity. • CoFeB deposited at 475 °C displayed a higher coercivity of 315 Oe and a low M{sub s} of 169 emu/cc. • The enhanced crystallization of CoFeB at the Ta/CoFeB interface results in higher H{sub c} (⟂). - Abstract: Magnetization of Ta/CoFeB/Ta trilayer films with thick layer of CoFeB deposited under different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) via ultra-high vacuum DC sputtering technique has been measured with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film respectively to study the perpendicular coercive forces of the film. The samples were further analyzed for its structural, topological, morphological, and electrical transport properties. The core chemical states for the elements present in the CoFeB thin film were analyzed by XPS studies. Magnetization studies reveal the existence of perpendicular coercive forces in CoFeB films deposited only at certain temperatures such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C. CoFeB film deposited at 475 °C exhibited a maximum coercivity of 315 Oe and a very low saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 169 emu/cc in perpendicular direction. This pronounced effect in perpendicular coercive forces observed for CoFeB475 could be attributed to the effect of temperature in enhancing the crystallization of the film at the Ta/CoFeB interfaces. However at temperatures higher than 475 °C the destruction of the Ta/CoFeB interface due to intermixing of Ta and CoFeB results in the disappearance of magnetic anisotropy.

  5. Understanding stripe domains in Permalloy films via the angular dependence of permeability spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jinwu; Feng, Hongmei; Zhu, Zengtai; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Xiangqian; Liu, Qingfang [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Special Function Materials and Structural Design of the Ministry of the Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A phenomenological model is proposed to analyze the angular dependence of the μ″{sub max}. • The maximum canting angle θ{sub 0} in the stripe domain structure can be estimated. • Micromagnetic simulation results are nearly in accordance with the experimental results. - Abstract: An investigation of the angular dependence of the dynamic permeability spectra has been performed. Three Permalloy films with different thickness were used as the study samples that possess the stripe domains. In order to better understand the magnetization distribution in stripe domains, a theoretical approach was proposed to analyze the variation of the resonance intensity of permeability spectra. By fitting the angular dependence of the μ″{sub max} using a theoretical function, a coefficient Λ that can be used to evaluate the average value of the periodic function of the anting angle θ in a periodic stripe is obtained. As the film thickness increases, the decrease of the ratio between domain wall width and stripe domain width is happen. This enables that the coefficient Λ decreases with the increase of film thickness. By deducing this coefficient Λ, one can estimate the maximum canting angle θ{sub 0} ∼ 8° for the Permalloy films in our experiments.

  6. Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts: A Sociological Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are socially-constructed facts, the book explores the processes involved......Perhaps the most common question raised in the literature on coercive international sanctions is: "Do sanctions work?" Unsurprisingly, the answer to such a sweeping question remains inconclusive. Instead of asking whether sanctions work, this book addresses a more basic question: How do coercive......, and to its potential transformation. Thus it is premature to ‘predict’ the political effectiveness of sanctions simply on the basis of their economic impact. The book presents analyses of the sanctions conflicts between China and Taiwan and over Iran’s nuclear program, illustrating how negative sanctions...

  7. Coercive force features in stressed epitaxial ferrite-garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, S.V.; Nedviga, A.S.; Vishnevskij, V.G.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Yagupov, V.S.; Nesteruk, A.G.; Prokopov, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    One has investigated into effect of a relative mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate within 0.5-0.85% range on behavior of the coercive force of (Bi, Sm, Lu, Ca) 3 (Fe, Sc, Ga, Al) 5 O 12 composition ferrite garnet epitaxial films (FGEF) synthesized at (111) orientation gadolinium-gallium garnet substrates. One has revealed that the FGEF coercive force at increase of the relative mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate increases at first, while when reaching the maximum value it begins to decrease. The coercive force maximum value is shown to result from the periodical localized stresses. The period of the localized stresses is determined by the value of mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate [ru

  8. Enhancement of coercivity with reduced grain size in CoCrPt film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Q.; Hu, X.F.; Li, H.Q.; He, X.X.; Wang, Xiaoru; Zhang, W.

    2006-01-01

    We report a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) growth of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer with a magnetic coercivity (H c ) of 2.2 kOe and a grain size of 12 nm. The effects of VMn underlayer on magnetic properties of CoCrPt layer were studied. The coercivity, H c , and squareness, S, of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer, is dependent on the thickness of VMn. The grain size of the CoCrPt film can also be modified by laser parameters. High laser fluence used for CoCrPt deposition produces a smaller grain size. Enhanced H c and reduced grain size in VMn/CoCrPt is explained by more pronounced surface phase segregation during deposition at high laser fluence

  9. Coercivity enhancement and thermal-stability improvement in the melt-spun NdFeB ribbons by grain boundary diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiajun; Yuan, Chao; Luo, Yang; Yang, Yuanfei; Hu, Bin; Yu, Dunbo; Yan, Wenlong

    2018-01-01

    Rapidly quenched NdFeB ribbons with high coercivity were obtained by Nd70Cu30 diffusion process. Samples with a high coercivity of 22.02 kOe at room temperature were obtained after grain boundary diffusion with 20 wt% Nd70Cu30 alloys. The NdCu diffusion process promoted grain growth in the ribbons, and grain boundary phases were formed with Cu segregation among NdFeB grains. Coercivity above 10 kOe at 150 °C was achieved in the bonded magnets with NdCu content over 10 wt%. The flux loss of bonded magnets was reduced by ∼32% at 120 °C after diffusion treatment with only a small amount (2 wt%) of NdCu.

  10. High coercivity Sm-Co thin films from elemental Sm/Co multilayer deposition and their microstructural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Predeep, P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Sridhara Rao, D.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratories, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prajapat, C.L.; Singh, M.R. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Barshilia, Harish C. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Chowdhury, P., E-mail: pchowdhury@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Hard magnetic thin films with high coercivity were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on MgO(100) and quartz substrates. The films were grown by depositing sequentially Sm and Co layers at an elevated substrate temperature of 500 °C. Subsequent post-annealing was carried out at various temperatures in range of 500–700 °C to form Sm-Co hard magnetic thin films. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of randomly oriented SmCo{sub 5} crystallites on quartz substrate, whereas, a textured growth of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} with strong (110) crystalline phases was observed on MgO substrate. Microstructural analyses were carried out using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for samples grown on MgO substrate at 650 °C and inferred the presence of high density planar defects along with large grain boundaries. Further microdiffraction studies confirmed the presence of SmCo{sub 3} as an impurity phase in the films. Magnetic hysteresis measurements indicate the square hysteresis behaviors with high coercivity value of 3.1 T and 2.7 T for 650 °C annealed samples on both MgO and quartz substrates, respectively. The origin of such high coercivity value was then correlated with pinning type of spin reversal mechanism as confirmed through the analyses of demagnetization curves. The magnetic force microscopy images for films on MgO substrate, annealed at 650 °C, revealed the presence of magnetic domains with size higher than 1 µm. The formed magnetic domains lacked well defined boundaries indicating an enhanced exchange coupling between the grain clusters. - Highlights: • Ewald technique in micromagnetic simulations with periodic boundary conditions. • Effect of micromagnetic parameters on hysteresis in exchange spring magnets. • Importance of the interface exchange coupling for hard-soft nanocomposites. • Geometry dependence of the optimal soft phase size in exchange spring magnets.

  11. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite (α-Fe2O3) superstructure with high coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadic, Marin; Citakovic, Nada; Panjan, Matjaz; Stanojevic, Boban; Markovic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Đorđe; Spasojevic, Vojislav

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). ► TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. ► Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H C = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of α-Fe 2 O 3 whereas TEM shows α-Fe 2 O 3 spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M r = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M S = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H C = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T M = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface effects and exchange and dipole–dipole interactions.

  12. Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Francis

    2012-02-01

    The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBCO, application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order [1,2,3]. In another cuprate, Eu-LSCO, the onset of stripe order - a modulation of spin and charge densities - at low temperature is well established [4]. By a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and Eu-LSCO, we show that the two materials exhibit a very similar process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping [5,6]. This strongly suggests that Fermi-surface reconstruction is caused by stripe order in both cases, compelling evidence that stripe order is a generic tendency of hole-doped cuprates.[4pt] Work done in collaboration with J. Chang, N. Doiron-Leyraud, E. Hassinger, R. Daou, D. LeBoeuf, M. Rondeau, B. J. Ramshaw, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, I. Sheikin, L. Malone, C. Proust, K. Behnia and L. Taillefer.[4pt] [1] N. Doiron-Leyraud et al., Nature 447, 565 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. LeBoeuf et al., Nature 450, 533 (2007).[0pt] [3] D. LeBoeuf et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 054506 (2011).[0pt] [4] J. Fink et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 092503 (2011).[0pt] [5] J. Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057005 (2010).[0pt] [6] F. Lalibert'e et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 432 (2011).

  13. Nonlinear geometric scaling of coercivity in a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, I. S.; Mistonov, A. A.; Dubitskiy, I. S.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetization hysteresis loops of a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice based on the nickel inverse opal-like structure (IOLS) have been studied at room temperature. The samples are produced by filling nickel into the voids of artificial opal-like films. The spin ice behavior is induced by tetrahedral elements within the IOLS, which have the same arrangement of magnetic moments as a spin ice. The thickness of the films vary from a two-dimensional, i.e., single-layered, antidot array to a three-dimensional, i.e., multilayered, structure. The coercive force, the saturation, and the irreversibility field have been measured in dependence of the thickness of the IOLS for in-plane and out-of-plane applied fields. The irreversibility and saturation fields change abruptly from the antidot array to the three-dimensional IOLS and remain constant upon further increase of the number of layers n . The coercive force Hc seems to increase logarithmically with increasing n as Hc=Hc 0+α ln(n +1 ) . The logarithmic law implies the avalanchelike remagnetization of anisotropic structural elements connecting tetrahedral and cubic nodes in the IOLS. We conclude that the "ice rule" is the base of mechanism regulating this process.

  14. Study of high coercive force films made by vacuum deposition of cobalt onto chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randet, Denis

    1969-01-01

    A new method to make high coercive force films, by successive evaporations of chromium and cobalt, was demonstrated in 1966 at the 'Laboratoire d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique'. This work first contains a description of the magnetic properties of these films according to the conditions of preparation. These properties, which are isotropic in the plane of the film, are then related to the crystallographic structure of chromium and cobalt, in particular through electron microscopy. It is concluded that the coercive force is essentially due to the high magneto-crystalline anisotropy of cobalt in its hexagonal phase and depends, altogether with the shape of the hysteresis loop, on the magnetostatic coupling between the grains, which varies according to their dimensions. The chromium underlayer, if its surface is free enough of oxygen contamination, induces the growth of the hexagonal phase and influences the grain size of cobalt by a sort of epitaxy. At last, the behaviour of the Co/Cr films as a magnetic recording material is briefly examined and discussed. (author) [fr

  15. Higher Education Policy in Australia: Corporate or Coercive Federalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Don

    1991-01-01

    Although the Hawke government's general strategy of corporate federalism may dominate educational policy in Australia, higher education (excluding teacher education) is an exception. Because the Commonwealth assumed full financial responsibility for higher education, it has increasingly employed coercive federalism or simply ignored the states.…

  16. Nonlinear anisotropic elliptic equations with variable exponents and degenerate coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocine Ayadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence and the regularity of distributional solutions for a class of nonlinear anisotropic elliptic equations with $p_i(x$ growth conditions, degenerate coercivity and $L^{m(\\cdot}$ data, with $m(\\cdot$ being small, in appropriate Lebesgue-Sobolev spaces with variable exponents. The obtained results extend some existing ones [8,10].

  17. Empowerment, Coercive Persuasion and Organizational Learning: Do They Connect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1999-01-01

    Individual learning in organizations can be de facto coercive persuasion when organizational learning and culture change require that learners develop appropriate attitudes and thinking. If the goal of organizational learning--innovative organizations--is accepted, moral choices that restrict individual freedom must be made. (SK)

  18. Preparation of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets from HDDR-processed powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Kenta, E-mail: k-takagi@aist.go.jp [Green Innovative Magnetic Materials Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Akada, Misaho [Magnetic Materials R& D Center, Research Associations of Magnetic Materials for High-Efficiency Motors (MagHEM), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Soda, Rikio; Ozaki, Kimihiro [Green Innovative Magnetic Materials Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    The electric-current sintering technique was used to fully densify hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination (HDDR)-processed Nd–Fe–B powder at temperatures below the grain growth temperature in order to produce high-coercive bulk magnets. However, the sintered magnets exhibited anomalous coercivity reduction that depended on sintered density. Reheating examination of the sintered magnets revealed that the reduced coercivity was increased in proportion to the heating temperature, resulting in complete recovery of coercivity. As a result, the combination of electric-current sintering and post-annealing produced sintered magnets with a coercivity of 15 kOe. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence that associated the anomalous coercivity reduction and recovery with grain boundary morphology. On the other hand, various HDDR powders with different particle sizes were sintered, and finer powders yielded lower coercivity after sintering, implying that the anomalous coercivity reduction was associated with particle surface oxides of the raw powder. - Highlights: • We conduct a sintering of HDDR-processed Nd–Fe–B powder without coercivity reduction. • Rapid current sintering allows densification of this powder without grain growth. • However, the sintered magnets show an anomalous coercivity reduction phenomenon. • It is found that post-annealing completely recovers the reduced coercivity. • The anomalous coercivity reduction would be due to surface oxide of the raw powder.

  19. DNA methylation profiles correlated to striped bass sperm fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spermatozoa are used to fertilize in vitro the eggs of white bass (Morone chrysops) to produce the preferred hybrid for the striped bass aquaculture industry. Currently, only one source of domestic striped bass juveniles are available to growers that are not obtained ...

  20. High coercivity Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites, prepared by chemical coprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2008-04-01

    A series of Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites with nominal formula (Ba1-xGdx)Oṡ5.25 Fe2O3 (x=0-0.30) were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method from nitrate precursors and heating at T =800-1200°C for 2h. The samples have been examined by x-ray diffraction, vibrating-sample magnetometer, and scanning electron microscopy methods. Gd substituted samples form single phase materials with the M-type hexaferrite structure at all heating temperatures, in the range of x ⩽0.10-0.20. The saturation magnetization (at 1.8T) varies slightly with x in most cases and, for x =0.05-0.10, it increases up to 66.7Am2/kg, exceeding the value of the unsubstituted hexaferrite. A strong enhancement of the coercivity is observed for all substituted samples, with maximum values Hc=457kA/m for the single-phase x =0.10 sample annealed at 1000°C and Hc=477kA/m for the x =0.25 sample annealed at 1100°C which contains Fe2O3 and GdFeO3 impurities. As the variation of coercivity with either substitution rate (x ) or annealing temperature is not monotonic, three different factors may account for the high coercivities that are obtained: (a) an inhibition of grain growth due to the presence of Gd, (b) a possible inherent effect on magnetocrystalline anisotropy, especially for single phase samples, and (c) a microstructural effect of secondary phases.

  1. Coercivity and nanostructure of melt-spun Ti-Fe-Co-B-based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Ti-Fe-Co-B-based alloys, prepared by melt spinning and subsequent annealing, have been characterized structurally and magnetically. X-ray diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements show that the ribbons consist of tetragonal Ti3(Fe,Co5B2, FeCo-rich bcc, and NiAl-rich L21 phases; Ti3(Fe,Co5B2, is a new substitutional alloy series whose end members Ti3Co5B2 and Ti3Fe5B2 have never been investigated magnetically and may not even exist, respectively. Two compositions are considered, namely Ti11+xFe37.5-0.5xCo37.5−0.5xB14 (x = 0, 4 and alnico-like Ti11Fe26Co26Ni10Al11Cu2B14, the latter also containing an L21-type alloy. The volume fraction of the Ti3(Fe,Co5B2 phase increases with x, which leads to a coercivity increase from 221 Oe for x = 0 to 452 Oe for x = 4. Since the grains are nearly equiaxed, there is little or no shape anisotropy, and the coercivity is largely due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the tetragonal Ti3(Fe,Co5B2 phase. The alloy containing Ni, Al, and Cu exhibits a magnetization of 10.6 kG and a remanence ratio of 0.59. Our results indicate that magnetocrystalline anisotropy can be introduced in alnico-like magnets, adding to shape anisotropy that may be induced by field annealing.

  2. Audiogram of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hagedoorn, M.; Au, W.W.L.; Haan, de D.

    2003-01-01

    The underwater hearing sensitivity of a striped dolphin was measured in a pool using standard psycho-acoustic techniques. The go/no-go response paradigm and up¿down staircase psychometric method were used. Auditory sensitivity was measured by using 12 narrow-band frequency-modulated signals having

  3. Substrate and growth related microstructural and magnetic properties in La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.; Kwon, C.; Jia, Q.

    1998-12-31

    Ambient observation of magnetic domain structures by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) in La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} films has not yet been clearly correlated with stresses induced by kinetic or thermodynamic growth processes or the compressive (LaAlO{sub 3}) or tensile (SrTiO{sub 3}) nature of the film-substrate lattice mismatch. Although domain-like magnetic structures have been seen in some as-grown films and related to substrate-induced stress and film thickness, no magnetic structure has been seen for other films grown under similar conditions on the same pair of substrates. In this study the authors have grown films over a range of temperatures by pulsed-laser deposition, using the above substrates, to determine the relationship between growth and stress-induced magnetic structures. Results from scanning tunneling, atomic force, and magnetic force microscopies, measurements of temperature-dependent magnetization and structure-dependent coercivity show the relationship between growth and magnetic properties. Maze-like domain structures, with separations between 150 nm and 200 nm, were only observed for the thicker films grown at the highest temperature, 800 C. Application of an in-plane magnetic field converted these domain structures to stripe-like domains whose spacing and out of plane component decreased as the field was increased.

  4. Breakup Behavior of a Capillary Bridge on a Hydrophobic Stripe Separating Two Hydrophilic Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Maximilian; Hardt, Steffen

    2017-11-01

    The breakup dynamics of a capillary bridge on a hydrophobic area between two liquid filaments occupying two parallel hydrophilic stripes is studied experimentally. In addition calculations with the finite-element software Surface Evolver are performed to obtain the corresponding stable minimal surfaces. Droplets of de-ionized water are placed on substrates with alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes of different width. Their volume decreases by evaporation. This results in a droplet shaped as the letter ``H'' covering two hydrophilic stripes separated by one hydrophobic stripe. The width of the capillary bridge d(t) on the hydrophobic stripe during the breakup process is observed using a high-speed camera mounted on a bright-field microscope. The results of the experiments and the numerical studies show that the critical width dcrit, indicating the point where the capillary bridge becomes unstable, mainly depends on the width ratio of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. It is found that the time derivative of d(t) first decreases after dcrit has been reached. The final breakup dynamics then follows a t 2 / 3 scaling. We kindly acknowledge the financial support by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Centre 1194 ``Interaction of Transport and Wetting Processes'', Project A02a.

  5. Exchange biased FeNi/FeMn bilayers with coercivity and switching field enhanced by FeMn surface oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Svalov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available FeNi/FeMn bilayers were grown in a magnetic field and subjected to heat treatments at temperatures of 50 to 350 °C in vacuum or in a gas mixture containing oxygen. In the as-deposited state, the hysteresis loop of 30 nm FeNi layer was shifted. Low temperature annealing leads to a decrease of the exchange bias field. Heat treatments at higher temperatures in gas mixture result in partial oxidation of 20 nm thick FeMn layer leading to a nonlinear dependence of coercivity and a switching field of FeNi layer on annealing temperature. The maximum of coercivity and switching field were observed after annealing at 300 °C.

  6. Faculty Perceptions of and Experiences with Students' Use of Coercive Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Kristine L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to understand how faculty perceive and experience students' use of coercive power in faculty-student relationships. Interviews were used to gather data from faculty members who had experienced students' use of coercive power. Data reveal that students' use of coercive power can negatively impact…

  7. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tunable Size Synthesis and Analysis in Terms of the Core-Shell Structure and Mixed Coercive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, P. T.; Oanh, V. T. K.; Lam, T. D.; Phuc, N. X.; Tung, L. D.; Thanh, Nguyen T. K.; Manh, D. H.

    2017-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are currently a very active research field. To date, a comprehensive study of iron oxide NPs is still lacking not only on the size dependence of structural phases but also in the use of an appropriate model. Herein, we report on a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of iron oxide NPs prepared by a co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the NPs have an inverse spinel structure of iron oxide phase (Fe3O4) with average crystallite sizes ( D XRD) of 6-19 nm, while grain sizes ( D TEM) are of 7-23 nm. In addition, the larger the particle size, the closer the experimental lattice constant value is to that of the magnetite structure. Magnetic field-dependent magnetization data and analysis show that the effective anisotropy constants of the Fe3O4 NPs are about five times larger than that of their bulk counterpart. Particle size ( D) dependence of the magnetization and the non-saturating behavior observed in applied fields up to 50 kOe are discussed using the core-shell structure model. We find that with decreasing D, while the calculated thickness of the shell of disordered spins ( t ˜ 0.3 nm) remains almost unchanged, the specific surface areas S a increases significantly, thus reducing the magnetization of the NPs. We also probe the coercivity of the NPs by using the mixed coercive Kneller and Luborsky model. The calculated results indicate that the coercivity rises monotonously with the particle size, and are well matched with the experimental ones.

  8. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  9. Long-range transverse spin Seebeck effect in permalloy stripes using Sagnac interferometer microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoliang; McLaughlin, Ryan; Sun, Dali; Valy Vardeny, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Coupling of spins and phonons in ferromagnets (FM) may persist up to mm length scale, thus generating macroscopic spatially distributed spin accumulation along the direction of an applied thermal gradient to an FM slab. This typical feature of transverse spin Seebeck effect (TSSE) has been demonstrated so far using electrical detection methods in FM films, in particular in a patterned structure, in which FM stripes grown onto a substrate perpendicular to the applied thermal gradient direction are electrically and magnetically isolated. Here we report optically detected TSSE response in isolated FM stripes based on permalloy deposited on SiN substrate, upon the application of a thermal gradient. For these measurements we used the magneto-optic Kerr effect measured by an ultrasensitive Sagnac interferometer microscope that is immune to thermo-electrics artefacts. We found that the optical TSSE coefficient in the NiFe stripes geometry is about one order of magnitude smaller than that in the continuous NiFe film, which is due to the limited phonons path in the FM stripes along the thermal gradient direction. Our results further confirm the existence of TSSE response in conducting FM compounds.

  10. Giant magnetic anisotropy and tunnelling of the magnetization in Li2(Li_{1-x}Fe_x)N

    OpenAIRE

    Jesche, A.; McCallum, R. W.; Thimmaiah, S.; Jacobs, J. L.; Taufour, V.; Kreyssig, A.; Houk, R. S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Large magnetic anisotropy and coercivity are key properties of functional magnetic materials and are generally associated with rare earth elements. Here we show an extreme, uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and the emergence of magnetic hysteresis in Li2(Li1-xFex)N. An extrapolated, magnetic anisotropy field of 220 Tesla and a coercivity field of over 11 Tesla at 2 Kelvin outperform all known hard-ferromagnets and single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Steps in the hysteresis loops and relaxation phenome...

  11. Crystal shapes on striped surface domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium shapes of a simple cubic crystal in contact with a planar chemically patterned substrate are studied theoretically using an effective interface model. The substrate is primarily made of lyophobic material and is patterned with a lyophilic (easily wettable) stripe domain. Three regimes can be distinguished for the equilibrium shapes of the crystal. The transitions between these regimes as the volume of the crystal is changed are continuous or discontinuous depending on the strength of the couplings between the crystal and the lyophilic and lyophobic surface domains. If the crystal grows through a series of states close to equilibrium, the discontinuous transitions correspond to growth instabilities. These transitions are compared with similar results that have been obtained for a volume of liquid wetting a lyophilic stripe domain

  12. The preparation of immunochromatographic stripe of methamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jing; Liu Yibing; Zhou Ling; Guo Weizheng

    2004-01-01

    A gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) is developed for methamphetamine in urine. Colloidal gold is obtained by reducing the gold chloride with sodium citrate, and labeled methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. The drug or metabolite competes with the immobilized drug conjugate in the test area for the limited colloidal gold-labeled antibody complex in which the stripe is made to screen the drug abuser. This method has sensitivity of 1000 μg/L, and without cross-reaction with some drugs

  13. Microstructural and domain effects in epitaxial CoFe2O4 films on MgO with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, Ryan; Gu Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Lu Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    CoFe 2 O 4 (CFO) epitaxial thin films of various thicknesses were grown on MgO substrates using the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. The films have excellent in-plane coherence with the substrate, exhibit layer-by-layer growth and have well-defined thickness fringes in x-ray diffraction measurements. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate that misfit dislocations form in thicker films and the critical thickness for the dislocation formation is estimated. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CFO due to epitaxial in-plane tensile strain from the substrate was found. A stripe-like domain structure in the demagnetized state is demonstrated using magnetic force microscopy (MFM), in agreement with previous predictions. Coercivity increased in thicker films, which is explained by domain wall pinning due to misfit dislocations at the CFO/MgO interface. - Highlights: → X-ray diffraction and rocking curves indicate films are amongst highest quality in the literature. → Domain structure of CoFe 2 O 4 films on MgO was found to be stripe-like using MFM. → Critical thickness for misfit dislocations estimated and agrees with experiment. → Effect of misfit dislocations on surface morphology explained. → Role of dislocations and antiphase boundaries in domain wall formation and motion explained.

  14. Occupational Noise Reduction in CNC Striping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad Khairai, Kamarulzaman; Shamime Salleh, Nurul; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Occupational noise hearing loss with high level exposure is common occupational hazards. In CNC striping process, employee that exposed to high noise level for a long time as 8-hour contributes to hearing loss, create physical and psychological stress that reduce productivity. In this paper, CNC stripping process with high level noises are measured and reduced to the permissible noise exposure. First condition is all machines shutting down and second condition when all CNC machine under operations. For both conditions, noise exposures were measured to evaluate the noise problems and sources. After improvement made, the noise exposures were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of reduction. The initial average noise level at the first condition is 95.797 dB (A). After the pneumatic system with leakage was solved, the noise reduced to 55.517 dB (A). The average noise level at the second condition is 109.340 dB (A). After six machines were gathered at one area and cover that area with plastic curtain, the noise reduced to 95.209 dB (A). In conclusion, the noise level exposure in CNC striping machine is high and exceed the permissible noise exposure can be reduced to acceptable levels. The reduction of noise level in CNC striping processes enhanced productivity in the industry.

  15. Growth and giant coercive field of spinel-structured Co3- x Mn x O4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yongsu; Song, Jonghyun; Koo, Taeyeong

    2016-08-01

    We grew epitaxial thin films of CoMn2O4 and Co2MnO4 on Nb-doped SrTiO3(011) and SrTiO3(001) single crystal substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The magnetic Curie temperature ( T c ) of the Co2MnO4 thin films was ~176 K, which is higher than that of the bulk whereas CoMn2O4 thin films exhibited a value of T c (~151 K) lower than that of the bulk. For the Co2MnO4 thin films, the M - H loop showed a coercive field of ~0.7 T at 10 K, similar to the value for the bulk. However, the M -H loop of the CoMn2O4(0 ll) thin film grown on a Nb-doped SrTiO3(011) substrate exhibited a coercive field of ~4.5 T at 30 K, which is significantly higher than those of the Co2MnO4 thin film and bulk. This giant coercive field, only observed for the CoMn2O4(0 ll) thin film, can be attributed to the shape anisotropy and strong spin-orbit coupling.

  16. Determination of the effective anisotropy constant of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles through the T-dependence of the coercive field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M. H.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Lima, R. J. S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia, Unidade Acadêmica de Física, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Folly, W. S. D. [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão (Brazil); Sarmento, V. H. V. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Química, Campus Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Coelho, A. A. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-03-07

    We present a systematic study of the coercive field of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The samples were prepared via the sol-gel method by using the Tetraethyl Orthosilicate as starting reagent. Results of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence confirm the dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles inside the silica matrix. In addition, the shift in the maximum of Zero-Field-Cooled curves observed by varying the weight ratio of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles to the precursor of silica is consistent with the increasing of average interparticle distances. Because our samples present a particle size distribution, we have used a generalized model which takes account such parameter to fit the experimental data of coercive field extracted from the magnetization curves as a function of applied field. Unlike most of the coercive field results reported in the literature for this material, the use of this model provided a successful description of the temperature dependence of the coercive field of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in a wide temperature range. Surprisingly, we have observed the decreasing of the nanoparticles anisotropy constant in comparison to the bulk value expected for the material. We believe that this can be interpreted as due to both the migration of the Co{sup 2+} from octahedral to tetrahedral sites.

  17. Determination of the effective anisotropy constant of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles through the T-dependence of the coercive field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. H.; Lima, R. J. S.; Meneses, C. T.; Folly, W. S. D.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Coelho, A. A.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the coercive field of CoFe2O4-SiO2 nanocomposites. The samples were prepared via the sol-gel method by using the Tetraethyl Orthosilicate as starting reagent. Results of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence confirm the dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles inside the silica matrix. In addition, the shift in the maximum of Zero-Field-Cooled curves observed by varying the weight ratio of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to the precursor of silica is consistent with the increasing of average interparticle distances. Because our samples present a particle size distribution, we have used a generalized model which takes account such parameter to fit the experimental data of coercive field extracted from the magnetization curves as a function of applied field. Unlike most of the coercive field results reported in the literature for this material, the use of this model provided a successful description of the temperature dependence of the coercive field of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a wide temperature range. Surprisingly, we have observed the decreasing of the nanoparticles anisotropy constant in comparison to the bulk value expected for the material. We believe that this can be interpreted as due to both the migration of the Co2+ from octahedral to tetrahedral sites.

  18. Interactive contribution of grain size and grain orientation to coercivity of melt spun ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, N.; Li, G.; Yao, W.J.; Wen, X.X.

    2010-01-01

    During melt spinning process, the improvement of certain grain orientation and the refinement of grain size with surface velocity have interactive and contradictory effects on the magnetic properties. The contributions of these effects have seldom been taken into account and they were discussed in this paper via Fe-2, 4, 6.5 wt% Si alloys. Heat treatment at 1173 K for 1 h was performed to show the annealing impact. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the high surface velocity and heat treatment increase the intensity ratio of line (2 0 0) to (1 1 0) of A2 phase. The (2 0 0) line corresponds to (2 0 0) plane in direction, easy magnetization direction of α-Fe phase in Fe-Si alloy. The improvement of this grain orientation with the surface velocity decreases the coercivity, which should increase due to the grain refinement. It is revealed that the texture promoted by the anisotropic heat release during melt spinning process is one factor to improve the magnetic properties and should be considered when preparing soft magnetic materials.

  19. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  20. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface.

  1. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface. PMID:21170406

  2. Angular and geometry dependence of coercivity and remanence nickel nanotube isolated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.L.; Davila, Y.G.; Garcia, R.P.; Del Toro, A.D.; Martins, I.G.; Hernandez, E.P. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    , where we vary the angle of the magnetic field applied to the ferromagnetic system. We investigated the role of geometry in the coercivity and remanence of hysteresis curves, where we analyze the types of magnetization reversal modes that can appear in isolated nanotube system. (author)

  3. Coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. de Naurois

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated InP-based coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays. Phase-locking is provided by evanescent coupling between adjacent stripes. Stripes are buried into semi-insulating iron doped InP. Lasing at room temperature is obtained at 8.4μm for stripe arrays comprising up to 16 emitters. Pure supermode emission is demonstrated via farfield measurements and simulations. The farfield pattern shows a dual-lobe emission, corroborating the predicted phase-locked antisymmetric supermode emission.

  4. Modeling and analyzing stripe patterns in fish skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yibo; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Ping; Kang, Junjian

    2009-11-01

    The formation mechanism of stripe patterns in the skin of tropical fishes has been investigated by a coupled two variable reaction diffusion model. Two types of spatial inhomogeneities have been introduced into a homogenous system. Several Turing modes pumped by the Turing instability give rise to a simple stripe pattern. It is found that the Turing mechanism can only determine the wavelength of stripe pattern. The orientation of stripe pattern is determined by the spatial inhomogeneity. Our numerical results suggest that it may be the most possible mechanism for the forming process of fish skin patterns.

  5. Portfolio Optimization Using Particle Swarms with Stripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Villalobos Arias

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is consider the Portfolio Optimization Problem developed by Markowitz [11]. The basic assumption is that the investor tries to maximize his/her profit and at the same time, wants to minimize the risk. This problem is usually solved using a scalarization approach (with one objective. Here it is solved it as a bi-objective  optimization problem. It uses a new version of the algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization for Multi-Objective Problems to which it implemented a method of the stripes to improve dispersion.

  6. Transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of area, the bread wheat producing regions of China comprise the largest area in the world that is constantly threatened by stripe rust epidemics. Consequently, it is important to exploit new adultplant resistance genes in breeding. This study reports the transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to ...

  7. Correlation between the ripple phase and stripe domains in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Midtiby, Henrik; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between stripe domains and the ripple phase in membranes. These have previously been observed separately without being linked explicitly. Past results have demonstrated that solid and ripple phases exhibit rich textural patterns related to the orientational order of tilted lipids and the orientation of ripple corrugations. Here we reveal a highly complex network pattern of ripple and solid domains in DLPC, DPPC bilayers with structures covering length scales from 10 nm to 100 μm. Using spincoated double supported membranes we investigate domains by correlated AFM and fluorescence microscopy. Cooling experiments demonstrate the mode of nucleation and growth of stripe domains enriched in the fluorescent probe. Concurrent AFM imaging reveals that these stripe domains have a one-to-one correspondence with a rippled morphology running parallel to the stripe direction. Both thin and thick stripe domains are observed having ripple periods of 13.5±0.2 nm and 27.4±0.6 nm respectively. These are equivalent to previously observed asymmetric/equilibrium and symmetric/metastable ripple phases, respectively. Thin stripes grow from small solid domains and grow predominantly in length with a speed of ~3 times that of the thick stripes. Thick stripes grow by templating on the sides of thinner stripes or can emerge directly from the fluid phase. Bending and branching angles of stripes are in accordance with an underlying six fold lattice. We discuss mechanisms for the nucleation and growth of ripples and discuss a generic phase diagram that may partly rationalize the coexistence of metastable and stable phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Competing States in the t-J Model: Uniform d-Wave State versus Stripe State versus Stripe State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corboz, P.R.; Rice, T.M.; Troyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Variational studies of the t-J model on the square lattice based on infinite projected-entangled pair states confirm an extremely close competition between a uniform d-wave superconducting state and different stripe states. The site-centered stripe with an in-phase d-wave order has an equal or only

  9. Coercive Therapy in East and West: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafar Bahredar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract: The physician-patient relationship has been undergoing significant changes in recent decades in Western countries. Taking a client-centered approach, society has given more autonomy and freedom to patients. The patient is regarded as a consumer who is looking for the best and most scientific approach and is free to choose among different methods of treatment. The role of the physician is only a guiding role. On the other hand, in Eastern countries, we still experience a parent-child relationship in the therapeutic setting. Eastern patients expect direct advice from their physicians and the family has an important role in decision-making. An approach which is considered coercive in Western countries could still be a useful and acceptable one in Eastern culture. The main goal of the authors in this paper is comparison of different attitudes toward this issue in Eastern and Western cultures.

  10. Large coercivity and unconventional exchange coupling in manganese-oxide-coated manganese—gallium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jun-Ning; Liu Wei; Geng Dian-Yu; Ma Song; Yu Tao; Zhao Xiao-Tian; Dai Zhi-Ming; Zhao Xin-Guo; Zhang Zhi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The microstructures and magnetic properties of nanoparticles, each composed of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) manganese-oxide shell and a ferromagnetic-like core of manganese—gallium (MnGa) compounds, are studied. The core-shell structure is confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The ferromagnetic-like core contains three kinds of MnGa binary compounds, i.e., ferrimagnetic (FI) D0 22 -type Mn 3 Ga, ferromagnetic (FM) Mn 8 Ga 5 , and AFM D0 19 -type Mn 3 Ga, of which the first two correspond respectively to a hard magnetic phase and to a soft one. Decoupling effect between these two phases is found at low temperature, which weakens gradually with increasing temperature and disappears above 200 K. The exchange bias (EB) effect is observed simultaneously, which is caused by the exchange coupling between the AFM shell and FM-like core. A large coercivity of 6.96 kOe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A·m −1 ) and a maximum EB value of 0.45 kOe are achieved at 300 K and 200 K respectively. (special topic — international conference on nanoscience and technology, china 2013)

  11. Nucleation size of hcp-CoPt dot arrays characterized by time dependence of coercivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, N; Kitakami, O [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Mitsuzuka, K; Shimatsu, T; Aoi, H, E-mail: kikuchin@tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The magnetization reversal process for dot arrays is likely to start from a nucleation followed by propagation process. In this study, we estimated the nucleation diameter D{sub n} for dot arrays made from thin hcp-CoPt perpendicular films (thickness {delta}=3 nm) and Co/Pt multilayered films ({delta}=9 nm), respectively. The dot diameter, D, was varied from 30 to 200 nm for CoPt dot arrays, and from 40 to 80 nm for Co/Pt dot arrays. The remanence coercivity was measured at measurement times t' = 10{sup 3} s and 10{sup -5} s (pulse field), and defined as H{sub r} and H{sub r}{sup P}. The energy barrier {Delta}E was evaluated by fitting H{sub r} and H{sub r}{sup P} to Sharrock's equation. The value of D{sub n} was estimated from {Delta}E, {delta} and the effective magnetic anisotropy of dot arrays including the demagnetizing energy due to the dot shape K{sub u}{sup eff}. D{sub n} was independent of Din both series of dot arrays, and about 17 nm for CoPt dot arrays and about 11 nm for Co/Pt dot arrays. These values were close to both the grain size and the exchange length of these films.

  12. Remanence coercivity of dot arrays of hcp-CoPt perpendicular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuzuka, K; Shimatsu, T; Aoi, H [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Kikuchi, N; Okamoto, S; Kitakami, O, E-mail: shimatsu@riec.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The remanence coercivity, H{sub r}, of hcp-CoPt dot arrays with various dot thicknesses, {delta}, (3 and 10 nm) and Pt content (20-30at%) were experimentally investigated as a function of the dot diameter, D(30-400 nm). All dot arrays showed a single domain state, even after removal of an applied field equal to H{sub r}. The angular dependence of H{sub r} for the dot arrays indicated coherent rotation of the magnetization during nucleation. H{sub r} increased as Ddecreased in all series of dot arrays with various {delta} and Pt content. Assuming that the nucleation field of a dot is determined by the switching field of a grain having the smallest switching field, we calculated the value of nucleation field H{sub n}{sup cal} taking account of the c-axis distribution and the distribution of the demagnetizing field in the dot. The values of H{sub r} obtained experimentally are in good agreement with those of H{sub n}{sup cal}, taking account of thermal agitation of magnetization. This result suggested that the reversal process of hcp-CoPt dot arrays starts from a nucleation at the center of the dot followed by a propagation process.

  13. An H1(Ph)-coercive discontinuous Galerkin formulation for the Poisson problem: 1D analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der K.G.; Brummelen, van E.H.; Borst, de R.

    2006-01-01

    Coercivity of the bilinear form in a continuum variational problem is a fundamental property for finite-element discretizations: By the classical Lax–Milgram theorem, any conforming discretization of a coercive variational problem is stable; i.e., discrete approximations are well-posed and possess

  14. An H1(Ph)-Coercive Discontinuous Galerkin Formulation for The Poisson Problem : 1-D Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.G.; Van Brummelen, E.H.; De Borst, R.

    2006-01-01

    Coercivity of the bilinear form in a continuum variational problem is a fundamental property for finite-element discretizations: By the classical Lax–Milgram theorem, any conforming discretization of a coercive variational problem is stable; i.e., discrete approximations are well-posed and possess

  15. Parental Perceptions of the Use of Coercive Measures on Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo; Pirttimaa, Raija; Kontu, Elina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with developmental disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviour are potentially subject to the use of coercive interventions. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of the use of coercive measures by authorities, according to parents' reports. Materials and Methods: A postal survey was distributed, as a total…

  16. Excess use of coercive measures in psychiatry among migrants compared with native Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Garcia-Lopez, A; Keiding, N

    2010-01-01

    Norredam M, Garcia-Lopez A, Keiding N, Krasnik A. Excess use of coercive measures in psychiatry among migrants compared with native Danes.Objective: To investigate differences in risk of compulsory admission and other coercive measures in psychiatric emergencies among refugees and immigrants comp...

  17. High-coercivity minerals from North African Humid Period soil material deposited in Lake Yoa (Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, J.; Kroepelin, S.; Wennrich, V.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wagner, B.; Rethemeyer, J.; Karls, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Holocene is a period of fundamental climatic change in North Africa. Humid conditions during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP) have favored the formation of big lake systems. Only very few of these lakes persist until today. One of them is Lake Yoa (19°03'N/20°31'E) in the Ounianga Basin, Chad, which maintains its water level by ground water inflow. Here we present the magnetic characteristics together with proxies for lacustrine productivity and biota of a sediment core (Co1240) from Lake Yoa, retrieved in 2010 within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 - Our Way to Europe (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Magnetic properties of AHP sediments show strong indications for reductive diagenesis. An up to ~ 80 m higher lake level is documented by lacustrine deposits in the Ounianga Basin, dating to the early phase of the AHP. The higher lake level and less strong seasonality restricted deep mixing of the lake. Development of anoxic conditions consequently lead to the dissolution of iron oxides. An exception is an interval with high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, deposited between 7800 - 8120 cal yr BP. This interval post-dates the 8.2 event, which was dry in Northern Africa and probably caused a reduced vegetation cover. We propose that the latter resulted in the destabilization of soils around Lake Yoa. After the re-establishment of humid conditions, these soil materials were eroded and deposited in the lake. Magnetic minerals appear well preserved in the varved Late Holocene sequence, indicating (sub-) oxic conditions in the lake. This is surprising, because the occurrence of varves is often interpreted as an indicator for anoxic conditions of the lake water. However, the salinity of lake water rose strongly after the AHP. We therefore hypothesize that the conservation of varves and absence of benthic organisms rather relates to the high salinity than to anoxic conditions.

  18. On the orientation of stripes in fish skin patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, David G; Muñuzuri, Alberto P

    2006-11-20

    This paper is focused on the study of the stripes orientation in the fish skin patterns. Based on microscopic observations of the pigment cells behavior at the embryonic stage, the key aspects of the pigmentation process are implemented in an experimental reaction-diffusion system. The experiment consists of a photosensitive Turing pattern of stripes growing directionally in one direction with controlled velocity. Different growth velocities of the system rearrange the stripes in the same three possible orientations observed in the skin of the colored fishes: parallel, oblique, and perpendicular. Our results suggest that the spreading velocity of the pigment cells in the fish dermis selects the orientation in the patterning processes.

  19. Organic- and molecule-based magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The discovery of organic- and molecule-based magnets has led to design and synthesis of several families with magnetic ordering temperatures as high as ∼ 125° C. Examples of soft and hard magnets with coercivities as high as 27 kOe have also been reported. Examples from our laboratory of organic-based magnets ...

  20. Electronic structure of a striped nickelate studied by the exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE) approach

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by a RIXS study of Wakimoto, et al.(Phys. Rev. Lett., 102 (2009) 157001) we use density functional theory to analyze the magnetic order in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 and the details of its crystal and electronic structure. We compare the generalized gradient approximation to the hybrid functional approach of exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE). In contrast to the former, the latter reproduces the insulating state of the compound and the midgap states. The EECE approach, in general, appears to be appropriate for describing stripe phases in systems with orbital degrees of freedom. Copyright © EPLA, 2009.

  1. Introduction to permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, H.

    1985-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning the application of permanent magnets are developed. The relevant magnet properties are discussed, with particular reference to Nd-Fe-B alloy. The author comes to the following conclusions; the air gap field B should be high, for high electrical efficiency; the magnet should face the air gap, for efficient use of the magnet material; the magnet material should therefore have a high remanence; and the new Nd-Fe-B magnet fits in nicely, having (potentially) the highest remanence ever reported in permanent magnets, combined with sufficient coercivity to sustain it

  2. Stripe order from the perspective of the Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereaux, Thomas Peter

    2018-03-01

    A microscopic understanding of the strongly correlated physics of the cuprates must account for the translational and rotational symmetry breaking that is present across all cuprate families, commonly in the form of stripes. Here we investigate emergence of stripes in the Hubbard model, a minimal model believed to be relevant to the cuprate superconductors, using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations at finite temperatures and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) ground state calculations. By varying temperature, doping, and model parameters, we characterize the extent of stripes throughout the phase diagram of the Hubbard model. Our results show that including the often neglected next-nearest-neighbor hopping leads to the absence of spin incommensurability upon electron-doping and nearly half-filled stripes upon hole-doping. The similarities of these findings to experimental results on both electron and hole-doped cuprate families support a unified description across a large portion of the cuprate phase diagram.

  3. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PUNEET INDER TOOR

    A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated .... infector rows and experimental material with the mixture of uredinospores of Pst ...

  4. Survey of evaluation methods for thermal striping in FBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Nitta, Akito; Take, Kohji

    1988-01-01

    In the upper core structures or the sodium mixing tee of Fast Breeder Reactors, sodium mixing streams which are at different temperatures produce rapid temperature fluctuations, namely 'thermal striping', upon component surfaces, and it is apprehended that the high-cycle thermal fatigue causes the crack initiation and propagation. The thermal striping is one of the factors which is considered in FBR component design, however, the standard evaluation method has not built up yet because of the intricacy of that mechanism, the difficulty of an actual proof, the lack of data, and so on. In this report, it is intended to survey of the datails and the present situation of the evaluation method of crack initiation and propagation due to thermal striping, and study the appropriate method which will be made use of the rationalization of design. So it is ascertained that the method which use a quantitative prediction of crack propagation is optimum to evaluate the thermal striping phenomenon. (author)

  5. Coercive Population Control and Asylum in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Oxford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, China implemented one of the most controversial population policies in modern times. China’s one-child policy shaped population politics for thirty-five years until its dissolution in 2015. During this time, many women were subjected to routine gynecological examinations, pregnancy testing, abortions, and sterilizations, which were often forced upon them by family planning officials. Some women fled China and sought refuge in the United States after having experienced a forced abortion or forced sterilization or feared that they would be subjected to a forced abortion or forced sterilization. This article focuses on how the U.S. government responded to China’s one-child policy through the passage of immigration laws and policies that made asylum a viable option for Chinese nationals who had been persecuted or feared persecution because of coercive population control policies. Based on observations of asylum hearings and interviews with immigration judges and immigration attorneys, this article uses feminist ethnographic methods to show how China’s one-child policy and U.S. asylum laws shape the gender politics of reproduction and migration.

  6. Pathological changes associated with white striping in broiler breast muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Shivaprasad, H L; Shaw, D P; Valentine, B A; Hargis, B M; Clark, F D; McKee, S R; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is a condition in broiler chickens characterized grossly by the occurrence of white striations, seen parallel to the direction of muscle fibers, on broiler breast fillets and thighs. Based on visual evaluation of the intensity of white striping, breast fillets can be categorized into normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), and severe (SEV) categories. This study was undertaken to evaluate the details of changes in histology as well as proximate composition occurring in the fillets with respect to the 3 degrees of white striping. In experiment 1, representative breast fillets for each degree of white striping (n = 20) were collected from 45-d-old broilers, approximately 2 h postmortem. From each fillet, 2 skeletal muscle samples were obtained and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To identify and differentiate the histological changes, slides were prepared and stained using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Oil Red O stains. In experiment 2, samples with 3 degrees of white striping were collected from 57-d-old birds for conducting proximate analysis. Major histopathological changes observed in the MOD and SEV samples consisted of loss of cross striations, variability in fiber size, floccular/vacuolar degeneration and lysis of fibers, mild mineralization, occasional regeneration (nuclear rowing and multinucleated cells), mononuclear cell infiltration, lipidosis, and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Microscopic lesions were visually scored for degeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The scale used to score the samples ranged from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). There was an increase (P white striping increased from NORM to SEV. The results from the histopathological study were supported by the findings from proximate analysis confirming that the fat and protein contents of muscle increased (P white striping increased. In conclusion, the histopathological changes occurring in white striping indicate a degenerative myopathy that

  7. Tuning microstructure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited CoNiP films by high magnetic field annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chun; Wang, Kai [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Donggang, E-mail: lidonggang@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lou, Changsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159 (China); Zhao, Yue; Gao, Yang [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangq@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-10-15

    A high magnetic field (up to 12 T) has been used to anneal 2.6-µm-thick Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 10} films formed by pulse electrodeposition. The effects of high magnetic field annealing on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoNiP thin films have been investigated. It was found that a high magnetic field accelerated a phase transformation from fcc to hcp and enhanced the preferred hcp-(002) orientation during annealing. Compared with the films annealed without a magnetic field, annealing at 12 T decreased the surface particle size, roughness, and coercivity, but increased the saturation magnetization and remanent magnetization of CoNiP films. The out-of-plane coercivity was higher than that the in-plane for the as-deposited films. After annealing without a magnetic field, the out-of-plane coercivity was equal to that of the in-plane. However, the out-of-plane coercivity was higher than that of the in-plane when annealing at 12 T. These results indicate that high magnetic field annealing is an effective method for tuning the microstructure and magnetic properties of thin films. - Highlights: • High magnetic field annealing accelerated phase transformation from γ to ε. • High magnetic field annealing enhanced preferred hcp-(002) orientation. • High magnetic field annealing decreased particle size, roughness and coercivity. • High magnetic field annealing increased the saturation and remanent magnetization.

  8. Structure, coercive control, and autonomy promotion: A comparison of fathers' and mothers' food parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Mercedes; Hoffmann, Debra; Taylor, Maija; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2017-05-01

    This study explored differences in mothers' and fathers' food parenting strategies, specifically coercive control, structure, and autonomy promotion, and whether parenting style and parental responsibility for food parenting related to the use of these strategies. Parents of children aged 2.5-7.5 years ( N = 497) reported about their parenting practices and food parenting strategies. Parenting style accounted for the majority of the variance in food parenting. Fathers were more authoritarian than mothers. Authoritarian and permissive parenting practices were related to more coercive strategies. Mothers reported more food parenting responsibility. Responsibility was related to less coercive practices and more autonomy promotion and structure.

  9. Exchange-biased AMR bridges for magnetic field sensing and biosensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Rizzi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We introduce magnetic field sensor bridges that are formed by combinations of stripes of an exchange-pinned magnetic stack displaying anisotropic magnetoresistance. We present a systematic overview on how the stripe geometries can be combined to form sensor bridges with a scalable signal and how...

  10. Solutions to quasilinear equations of $N$-biharmonic type with degenerate coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Aouaoui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show the existence of multiple solutions for quasilinear equations in divergence form with degenerate coercivity. Our strategy is to combine a variational method and an iterative technique to obtain the solutions.

  11. Effect of Complex Working Conditions on Nurses Who Exert Coercive Measures in Forensic Psychiatric Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Niclas; Salzmann-Erikson, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Nurses who exert coercive measures on patients within psychiatric care are emotionally affected. However, research on their working conditions and environment is limited. The purpose of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and thoughts concerning the exertion of coercive measures in forensic psychiatric care. The investigation was a qualitative interview study using unstructured interviews; data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results described participants' thoughts and experiences of coercive measures from four main categories: (a) acting against the patients' will, (b) reasoning about ethical justifications, (c) feelings of compassion, and (d) the need for debriefing. The current study illuminates the working conditions of nurses who exert coercive measures in clinical practice with patients who have a long-term relationship with severe symptomatology. The findings are important to further discuss how nurses and leaders can promote a healthier working environment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 37-43.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Monte Carlo simulated dynamical magnetization of single-chain magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bang-Gui, E-mail: bgliu@iphy.ac.cn

    2015-03-15

    Here, a dynamical Monte-Carlo (DMC) method is used to study temperature-dependent dynamical magnetization of famous Mn{sub 2}Ni system as typical example of single-chain magnets with strong magnetic anisotropy. Simulated magnetization curves are in good agreement with experimental results under typical temperatures and sweeping rates, and simulated coercive fields as functions of temperature are also consistent with experimental curves. Further analysis indicates that the magnetization reversal is determined by both thermal-activated effects and quantum spin tunnelings. These can help explore basic properties and applications of such important magnetic systems. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulated magnetization curves are in good agreement with experimental results. • Simulated coercive fields as functions of temperature are consistent with experimental results. • The magnetization reversal is understood in terms of the Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Coercive force changes in Sm(CoFeCuZr)z during step-like heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzanova, T.Z.; Shchegoleva, N.N.; Sakhnova, L.V.; Majkov, V.G.; Shur, Ya.S.; Nikolaeva, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Sm(Co 0.67 Fe 0.22 Cu 0.08 Zr 0.03 ) 8.35 alloy, contaning two homogeneous solid solutions SmM 6.85 and SmM 7.75 (M=Co, Fe, Cu, Zr) after high-temperature treatment, is investigated. It is shown, that after isothermal tempering at 800 deg C, SmM 6.85 and SmM 7.75 are close by microstructure and their coercive forces change in a different way during step-like cooling within 700-400 deg C interval. Possibility of producing material, single-phase in magnetic relation, is discussed

  14. Visualization experimental investigation on long stripe coherent structure in small-scale rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jiqiang; Sun Zhongning; Fan Guangming; Wang Shiming

    2013-01-01

    The long stripe coherent structure of the turbulent boundary layer in a small- scale vertical rectangular channel was observed by using hydrogen bubble flow trace visualization technique. The statistical properties of the long stripe in the experimental channel boundary layer were compared with that in the smooth flat plate boundary layer. The pitch characteristics were explained by the formation mechanism of the long stripe. It was analyzed that how the change of y + affected the distribution of the long stripe. In addition, the frequency characteristics of the long stripe were also investigated, and the correlation of the long stripe frequency in such a flow channel was obtained. (authors)

  15. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  16. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H. [University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Richards, G. T., E-mail: hodge@mpia.de [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  17. Magnetic Properties of NdFe10Mo2-N Bonded Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Bo-Ping; Han, Zhong-Fan; Jin, Han-Min; Fu, Quan

    1997-06-01

    The dependence of remanence and coercivity on the magnetizing field is studied for isotropic and anisotropic epoxy resin bonded magnets. It was found that the coercivity of the NdFe10Mo2-N bonded magnet is mainly controlled by nucleation of reversed magnetic domains. Variation of iHc with Zn content and heat treatment conditions is studied. The value of 0 iHc obtained in the best Zn-bonded condition is about 0.15 T higher than before bonding. The variation of the amount of α-Fe with processing conditions is demonstrated for anisotropic Zn-bonded magnets.

  18. Magnetism in meteorites. [terminology, principles and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of this subject is presented. The paper includes a glossary of magnetism terminology and a discussion of magnetic techniques used in meteorite research. These techniques comprise thermomagnetic analysis, alternating field demagnetization, thermal demagnetization, magnetic anisotropy, low-temperature cycling, and coercive forces, with emphasis on the first method. Limitations on the validity of paleointensity determinations are also discussed.

  19. COERCIVE FORCE IN THE SYSTEM OF FERROMAGNETIC GRANULES FOR HALF METAL CrO2 WITH PERCOLATION CONDUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dalakova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of several samples of compacted powders of ferromagnetic half-metal CrO2, consisting of needle-shaped or spherical nanoparticles coated with thin dielectric shells, were investigated in wide temperature range. The temperature dependence of the coercive force Hc(T is compared with the temperature dependence of the field of maximum of positive tunneling magnetoresistance Hp(T. The dependence of Hp(T was nonmonotonic one. It is found that in the low-temperature range (4.2 ÷ 70 K the ratio Hp ≈ Hc, expected for compacted ferromagnetic powders with particles of submicron sizes, does not fulfilled. It is assumed that the possible reason of the difference between Hp and Hc is the mismatch between the orientation of the global magnetization of the entire sample and the orientations of the magnetic moments in some part of granules that form the optimal conducting channels at low temperatures. Such a mismatch may be due to the multidomain granules are more prone to the formation of optimal conducting chains in the transport channels. That leads to a change in the mechanism of magnetization reversal in these channels and to violation of the ratio Hp ≈ Hc.

  20. From stripe to slab confinement for DNA linearization in nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Peter; Benkova, Zuzana; Namer, Pavol

    We investigate suggested advantageous analysis in the linearization experiments with macromolecules confined in a stripe-like channel using Monte Carlo simulations. The enhanced chain extension in a stripe that is due to significant excluded volume interactions between monomers in two dimensions weakens on transition to experimentally feasible slit-like channel. Based on the chain extension-confinement strength dependence and the structure factor behavior for the chain in stripe we infer the excluded volume regime typical for two-dimensional systems. On transition to the slab geometry, the advantageous chain extension decreases and the Gaussian regime is observed for not very long semiflexible chains. The evidence for pseudo-ideality in confined chains is based on indicators such as the extension curves, variation of the extension with the persistence length or the structure factor. The slab behavior is observed when the stripe (originally of monomer thickness) reaches the thickness larger than cca 10nm in the third dimension. This maximum height of the slab to retain the advantage of the stripe is very low and this have implication for DNA linearization experiments. The presented analysis, however, has a broader relevance for confined polymers. Support from Slovak R&D Agency (SRDA-0451-11) is acknowledged.

  1. Coarsening of stripe patterns: variations with quench depth and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashwani K; Kumar, Deepak

    2015-02-01

    The coarsening of stripe patterns when the system is evolved from random initial states is studied by varying the quench depth ε, which is a measure of distance from the transition point of the stripe phase. The dynamics of the growth of stripe order, which is characterized by two length scales, depends on the quench depth. The growth exponents of the two length scales vary continuously with ε. The decay exponents for free energy, stripe curvature, and densities of defects like grain boundaries and dislocations also show similar variation. This implies a breakdown of the standard picture of nonequilibrium dynamical scaling. In order to understand the variations with ε we propose an additional scaling with a length scale dependent on ε. The main contribution to this length scale comes from the "pinning potential," which is unique to systems where the order parameter is spatially periodic. The periodic order parameter gives rise to an ε-dependent potential, which can pin defects like grain boundaries, dislocations, etc. This additional scaling provides a compact description of variations of growth exponents with quench depth in terms of just one exponent for each of the length scales. The relaxation of free energy, stripe curvature, and the defect densities have also been related to these length scales. The study is done at zero temperature using Swift-Hohenberg equation in two dimensions.

  2. Influence of the phenomena occurring at the interface between L1{sub 0}-ordered-FePt and Fe on the coercivity behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbucicchio, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.carbucicchio@ino.it [University of Parma, Physics Department (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt/Fe thin bi-layers were grown using a molecular beam epitaxy onto (100)-MgO substrates changing the soft Fe layer thickness. The study of the intermixing phenomena occurring at the hard/soft interfaces was carried out using surface Mössbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of the samples were analyzed with a magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer. The surface morphology and the magnetic domains were analyzed with an UHV atomic and magnetic force microscopy in tapping and lift mode respectively.The present work clearly demonstrates that the degree of interface intermixing and reactions is the responsible for the coercivity behavior in exchange-spring magnets.

  3. Study of marine magnetic field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.

    magnetized in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field at that time. As seafloor spreading pulls the new oceanic crust apart, stripes of approximately the same size gets carried away from the ridge on each side. The basaltic oceanic crust formed...

  4. Cluster-Assembled Soft Magnets for Power Electronics Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L

    2006-01-01

    This project used inert-gas condensation (IGC) to fabricate model nanostructured systems with the goal of better understanding the mechanisms responsible for decreasing the coercivity in soft magnetic materials...

  5. The Characterization of the Magnetic Properties of Soft Magnetic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Raino Michael

    1996-01-01

    The hysteresis curve and magnetic properties such as permeability, saturation induction, residual induction, coercive force and hysteresis losses are presented. The design and construction of equipment making it possible to measure true DC-values as well as AC-properties of toroid rings and cylin......The hysteresis curve and magnetic properties such as permeability, saturation induction, residual induction, coercive force and hysteresis losses are presented. The design and construction of equipment making it possible to measure true DC-values as well as AC-properties of toroid rings...

  6. The history of permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Permanent-magnet materials play a large and growing, but largely unseen, role in today's technology. Many common devices in the home and elsewhere, including appliances, computers and printers, contain permanent-magnet motors and actuators. The growth of applications for permanent magnets results in large part from the improvements in magnetic properties, which allow the engineer to design smaller, lighter and more efficient devices. The properties of the greatest technological interest are remanence, coercivity and maximum energy product. All are non-equilibrium and high structure-sensitive. Coercivity is particularly sensitive to microstructure, while remanence is sensitive to texture (crystallographic alignment). The energy product depends on both coercivity and remanence. The more than one hundredfold increase in the available energy product in this century, and the corresponding amount of magnet required for a specific application, are shown

  7. Magnetization reversal processes of isotropic permanent magnets with various inter-grain exchange interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed a large-scale micromagnetics simulation on a supercomputing system to investigate the properties of isotropic nanocrystalline permanent magnets consisting of cubic grains. In the simulation, we solved the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary condition for accurate calculation of the magnetization dynamics inside the nanocrystalline isotropic magnet. We reduced the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular and parallel to the external field independently. Propagation of the magnetization reversal process is inhibited by reducing the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular to the external field, and the coercivity is enhanced by this restraint. In contrast, when we reduce the inter-grain exchange interaction parallel to the external field, the coercivity decreases because the magnetization reversal process propagates owing to dipole interaction. These behaviors show that the coercivity of an isotropic permanent magnet depends on the direction of the inter-grain exchange interaction.

  8. Roadway striping productivity data analysis for INDOT Greenfield and Crawfordsville districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of the SPR3650 project is to provide an accurate overview of striping operation so that INDOT finds a way to : effectively save significant investment for purchasing new striping trucks in near future without compromising roadwa...

  9. Variation in the timing of reproduction of the four-striped field mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the timing of reproduction of the four-striped field mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio , in ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... We used the four-striped field mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio (Sparrmann, 1784), to test the hypothesis that ...

  10. The effect of crystalline and shape anisotropy on the magnetic properties of Co and Ni nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golipour, R.; Khayyatian, A.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Co and Ni magnetic nano wires with different diameter and deposition time were fabricated into the alumina template using ac electrodeposition, For Ni nano wires with 30 nm diameter the coercivity initially increased then dropped with deposition time, while it only increased with deposition time for all the other diameters. In general, the results showed that the coercivity reduced with diameter. The maximum coercivity was obtained for the Co nano wire made with 30 nm diameter and 30 s deposition time and further electrodeposition time causes a reduction of the coercivity. The effect of crystal and shape anisotropy on the magnetic properties were investigated and the results revealed that the crystal anisotropy has dominant role on the coercive field of Co nano wires, while there is a competitive effect between both the anisotropies for the Ni nano wires changing the coercivity

  11. Distinguishing Patterns of Charge Order: Stripes or Checkerboards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.A.

    2010-04-06

    In two dimensions, quenched disorder always rounds transitions involving the breaking of spatial symmetries so, in practice, it can often be difficult to infer what form the symmetry breaking would take in the 'ideal,' zero disorder limit. We discuss methods of data analysis which can be useful for making such inferences, and apply them to the problem of determining whether the preferred order in the cuprates is 'stripes' or 'checkerboards.' In many cases we show that the experiments clearly indicate stripe order, while in others (where the observed correlation length is short), the answer is presently uncertain.

  12. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  13. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) superstructure with high coercivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Citakovic, Nada [Military Academy, Generala Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Panjan, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stanojevic, Boban [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Markovic, Dragana [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Dorde [Center for Solid State Physics and New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Spasojevic, Vojislav [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas TEM shows {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M{sub r} = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M{sub S} = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T{sub M} = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface

  14. Variables Associated with the Use of Coercive Measures on Psychiatric Patients in Spanish Penitentiary Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Girela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the use of coercive medical measures (forced medication, isolation, and mechanical restraint in mentally ill inmates within two secure psychiatric hospitals (SPH and three regular prisons (RP in Spain. Variables related to adopted coercive measures were analyzed, such as type of measure, causes of indication, opinion of patient inmate, opinion of medical staff, and more frequent morbidity. A total of 209 patients (108 from SPH and 101 from RP were studied. Isolation (41.35% was the most frequent coercive measure, followed by mechanical restraint (33.17% and forced medication (25.48%. The type of center has some influence; specifically in RP there is less risk of isolation and restraint than in SPH. Not having had any previous imprisonment reduces isolation and restraint risk while increases the risk of forced medication, as well as previous admissions to psychiatric inpatient units does. Finally, the fact of having lived with a partner before imprisonment reduces the risk of forced medication and communication with the family decreases the risk of isolation. Patients subjected to a coercive measure exhibited a pronounced psychopathology and most of them had been subjected to such measures on previous occasions. The mere fact of external assessment of compliance with human rights slows down the incidence of coercive measures.

  15. Variables associated with the use of coercive measures on psychiatric patients in Spanish penitentiary centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girela, E; López, A; Ortega, L; De-Juan, J; Ruiz, F; Bosch, J I; Barrios, L F; Luna, J D; Torres-González, F

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the use of coercive medical measures (forced medication, isolation, and mechanical restraint) in mentally ill inmates within two secure psychiatric hospitals (SPH) and three regular prisons (RP) in Spain. Variables related to adopted coercive measures were analyzed, such as type of measure, causes of indication, opinion of patient inmate, opinion of medical staff, and more frequent morbidity. A total of 209 patients (108 from SPH and 101 from RP) were studied. Isolation (41.35%) was the most frequent coercive measure, followed by mechanical restraint (33.17%) and forced medication (25.48%). The type of center has some influence; specifically in RP there is less risk of isolation and restraint than in SPH. Not having had any previous imprisonment reduces isolation and restraint risk while increases the risk of forced medication, as well as previous admissions to psychiatric inpatient units does. Finally, the fact of having lived with a partner before imprisonment reduces the risk of forced medication and communication with the family decreases the risk of isolation. Patients subjected to a coercive measure exhibited a pronounced psychopathology and most of them had been subjected to such measures on previous occasions. The mere fact of external assessment of compliance with human rights slows down the incidence of coercive measures.

  16. Determining the effect of grain size and maximum induction upon coercive field of electrical steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Fernando José Gomes; da Silveira, João Ricardo Filipini; Rodrigues-Jr., Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Although theoretical models have already been proposed, experimental data is still lacking to quantify the influence of grain size upon coercivity of electrical steels. Some authors consider a linear inverse proportionality, while others suggest a square root inverse proportionality. Results also differ with regard to the slope of the reciprocal of grain size-coercive field relation for a given material. This paper discusses two aspects of the problem: the maximum induction used for determining coercive force and the possible effect of lurking variables such as the grain size distribution breadth and crystallographic texture. Electrical steel sheets containing 0.7% Si, 0.3% Al and 24 ppm C were cold-rolled and annealed in order to produce different grain sizes (ranging from 20 to 150 μm). Coercive field was measured along the rolling direction and found to depend linearly on reciprocal of grain size with a slope of approximately 0.9 (A/m)mm at 1.0 T induction. A general relation for coercive field as a function of grain size and maximum induction was established, yielding an average absolute error below 4%. Through measurement of B50 and image analysis of micrographs, the effects of crystallographic texture and grain size distribution breadth were qualitatively discussed.

  17. Coercivity enhancement in HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Fangming; Han, Jingzhi; Zhang, Yinfeng; Wang, Changsheng; Liu, Shunquan; Yang, Jinbo; Yang, Yingchang; Sun, Aizhi; Yang, Fuqiang; Song, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders have been prepared. The coercivity of the powders was improved from 208.6 to 980.1 kA/m by the subsequent diffusion treatment using the Pr–Cu alloy. For comparison, Nd 11.5 Fe 80.7 B 6.1 Pr 1.2 Cu 0.5 alloy, in which Pr and Cu elements were directly added into the original Nd–Fe–B alloy, was also treated by the same HDDR process and the coercivity was only 557.3 kA/m. Microstructural investigations showed that a large area of (Nd, Pr)-rich phases concentrated at triangle regions in the HDDR Nd 11.5 Fe 80.7 B 6.1 Pr 1.2 Cu 0.5 powders, while the (Nd, Pr)-rich phases distributed uniformly in the diffusion treated powders. The uniform grain boundary layer can pin the motion of domain wall more effectively, resulting in a higher coercivity in diffusion treated HDDR Nd–Fe–B powders. - Highlights: • Anisotropic HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders have been prepared. • The coercivity of the powders was improved from 2.62 to 12.31 kOe by the diffusion of Pr–Cu alloy. • The uniform grain boundary layer leads to a higher coercivity in diffusion treated powders

  18. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  19. Temperature dependence of the coercive field of gas atomized Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Escorial, A., E-mail: age@cenim.csic.es [CENIM-CSIC, Avda, Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lieblich, M. [CENIM-CSIC, Avda, Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hernando, A.; Aragon, A.; Marin, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, IMA, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anomalous thermal dependence of the coercive field of gas atomized Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1} powder particles under 25 {mu}m powder particle, increasing Hc as temperature increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is proposed that Cu rich regions at inter-grain boundaries could act as exchange decoupling regions contributing to the thermal increase of coercivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This anomalous thermal dependence points out that tailoring microstructure and size, by controlling the cooling rate of more adequate multiphase systems, could be a promising procedure to develop soft or hard magnets, avoiding Rare Earths metals that is nowadays an important target for the engineering of magnetic materials. - Abstract: In this work, the dependence of the coercive field of Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1} gas atomized powder with the temperature for different particle sizes has been studied, observing an anomalous behavior in the under 25 powder particle size fraction. This unusual behavior is related with the microstructure of the powder, and is attributed to the presence of a multiphase magnetic system, with non-magnetic regions decoupling the ferromagnetic domains.

  20. Microstructure, magnetic properties and magnetic hardening in 2:17 Sm-Co magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Hadjipanayis, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic study has been made on Sm(Co,Fe,M,L) z magnets (M=Cu or Ni, and L=Zr or Ti) to completely understand the effects of composition and processing on the microstructure and magnetic properties of magnets. Ti-containing magnets do not have a lamellar phase but exhibit only a cellular microstructure, resulting in a much lower coercivity (below 10 kOe). Ni-containing magnets exhibit a perfect cellular/lamellar microstructure, but without a large domain wall energy gradient at the interface of the 2:17 and 1:5 phases, leading to a low coercivity. Only in the magnets containing both Cu and Zr, a uniform and stable cellular/lamellar microstructure with a high domain wall energy gradient across the 1:5 phase is formed, resulting in high coercivity. These results indicate that the conditions for effective magnetic hardening are: (1) Formation of a cellular/lamellar microstructure, and (2) establishment of a domain wall energy gradient at the cell boundaries. Based on all of these experimental results, the magnetization reversal mechanism of 2:17 Sm-Co magnets can be explained by both the domain wall pinning and nucleation models. The nucleation mechanism holds at any temperature in the Cu-rich magnets, and only above the Curie temperature of the 1:5 phase in the alloys with the lower Cu content. In these cases, the 2:17 cells become magnetically decoupled. (orig.)

  1. Rare earth permanent magnet with easy magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.S.; Camp, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets have high energy products and coercivities, and thus the volume miniaturization of magnetic devices has been possible with improved magnetic performance. Although the high energy products of these rare earth permanent magnets provide substantial advantages for magnetic design and application, the strong magnetic force of the magnetized magnets makes assembly difficult. Therefore, a special device is needed to assemble the magnetized magnets. On the other hand, unmagnetized magnets are assembled and then they are magnetized. The assembled magnets are generally more difficult to magnetize than unassembled magnets because a much less effective magnetic field may be applied to them. This is particularly true for the rare earth permanent magnets because they usually need a much higher magnetic field to be fully magnetized than alnico or ferrite magnets. To obtain optimum magnetic properties, the required minimum magnetizing fields for SmCo 5 , Sm 2 TM 17 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnets were reported as 25-30 kOe, 45-60 kOe and 25-30 kOe, respectively. If the required magnetizing field for full saturation could be lowered, the effective utilization of magnetic properties would be maximized and the magnetic design option could be expanded with reduced restrictions. To meet this demand, we have sought to lower the field required for full magnetic saturation, and found that an increase in Dy content in R-(Fe,Co,Cu)-B type magnets lowers the field required for full saturation as well as improves the temperature stability. By increasing the H ci with Dy addition from 14 kOe to 24 and 34 kOe, the field required for full magnetic saturation decreases from about 20 to 15 and 10 kOe, respectively. This dual benefit will open up new application areas with more freedom for magnet design options. The mechanism for the lower magnetizing fields will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. Hexagon and stripe patterns in dielectric barrier streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; He Yafeng; Yin Zengqian; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    We present a specially designed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system for the study of pattern formation. Hexagon and stripe patterns have been observed in a streamer discharge in a DBD for the first time. The phase diagram of pattern types as a function of applied voltage is given

  3. Intervertebral Disk Disease in 3 Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauss, M.W.; Benato, L.; McDonnell, J.; Schoemaker, N.J.; Westerhof, I.; Bronson, E.; Gielen, I.; van Caelenberg, A.; Hellebuyck, T.; Meij, B.P.; de Decker, S.

    Objective To describe diagnostic findings, surgical technique, and outcome in 3 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) with a history of paraparesis. Study Design Case series. Animals Skunks (n = 3) with paraparesis. Methods Neurologic examination revealed upper motor neuron disease (T2–L2) in 2 skunks

  4. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, P.D.; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Kappus, B.A.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Harberger, S.S.; Fusello, A.M.; Eckert, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17 nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21±0.02 up to 120 nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane

  5. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, P. D.; Stern, N. P.; Snowden, D. S.; Kappus, B. A.; Checkelsky, J. G.; Harberger, S. S.; Fusello, A. M.; Eckert, J. C.

    2004-05-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21+/-0.02 up to 120nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane.

  6. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, P.D. E-mail: sparks@hmc.edu; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Kappus, B.A.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Harberger, S.S.; Fusello, A.M.; Eckert, J.C

    2004-05-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17 nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21{+-}0.02 up to 120 nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane.

  7. Leaf and stripe rust resistance among Ethiopian grown wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that 20 varieties and lines harbor resistance to the leaf rust and 26 to the stripe rust pathotypes showing infection types <2+. Twelve bread wheat varieties and lines (Et-13 A2, HAR 1407 [Tusie], HAR 1775 [Tura], HAR 1920, HAR 2192, HAR 2534, HAR 2536, HAR 2561, HAR 2563 and three durum lines ...

  8. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  9. Siim Nestor soovitab : Supreme 7aastane. White Stripes / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Kolmik Supreme tähistab oma 7. tegutsemisaastat 24. juunil Von Krahlis, kus toimub ka Krecki debüütalbumi "If You Live" (väljaandjaks ettevõte Umblu) esitlus. Detroidi blues-rock duo White Stripes esitleb oma uut albumit "Get Behind Me Satan" 29. juunil Tallinnas klubis Hollywood

  10. Modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, most of the innate non-specific immune responses are inducible though they are constitutive of fish immune system exhibiting a basal level of activity even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Experimental challenge, Innate immune response, Striped snakehead murrel ...

  11. Temperature-Dependent Coercive Field Measured by a Quantum Dot Strain Gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-12-13

    Coercive fields of piezoelectric materials can be strongly influenced by environmental temperature. We investigate this influence using a heterostructure consisting of a single crystal piezoelectric film and a quantum dots containing membrane. Applying electric field leads to a physical deformation of the piezoelectric film, thereby inducing strain in the quantum dots and thus modifying their optical properties. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission shows butterfly-like loops, from which the coercive fields are directly derived. The results suggest that coercive fields at cryogenic temperatures are strongly increased, yielding values several tens of times larger than those at room temperature. We adapt a theoretical model to fit the measured data with very high agreement. Our work provides an efficient framework for predicting the properties of ferroelectric materials and advocating their practical applications, especially at low temperatures.

  12. Influence of measuring temperature in size dependence of coercivity in nanostructured alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Marin, P.; Kulik, T.; Hernando, A.

    2005-01-01

    An increase of coercive field with decreasing particle size has been observed in ball milled nanocomposite of Fe-rich nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. Previous works (J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1998) 6044) have concluded that for high lattice strain, , the increase of coercivity is due to the magnetoelastic anisotropy generated by . Even though other effects can also be involved, the experimental results seem to indicate that the influence of the particle size on the average structural anisotropy noticeably contributes to the hardening observed for low . The influence of measuring temperature in size dependence of coercivity in nanostructured alloys has been analyzed. Some analogies and differences in respect of that observed in partially nanocrystallized samples have been found

  13. Coercivity enhancement mechanism in Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel base method followed by a reduction-diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Ali, E-mail: ali13912001@yahoo.com; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2017-05-01

    In current work, Nd{sub 15−x}Dy{sub x}Fe{sub 77.5}B{sub 7.5} (at%) nanoparticles with different Dy-content (x=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0) were synthesized by sol–gel method followed by a reduction-diffusion process. The effects of Dy on the magnetic properties and the relations between the microstructure and the coercivity of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles have been studied. The coercivity of Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with the addition of Dy first increase, reaches a maximum, and then starts to decrease. The coercivity of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticle synthesized by sol–gel method increased from 938.9 to 1663.9 kA/m while the remanence decreased slightly from 1.16 to 1.06 T. The results show that with an increase in Dy content the variation of maximum energy product ((BH){sub max}), lowest-order uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K{sub u1}), and Curie temperature (T{sub c}) had a trend as same as the coercivity. The Henkel plot showed that the existence of exchange coupling interaction between grains, and the exchange coupling interactions increased with increasing x from 0.0 to 2.0 and then decrease with further increasing x≥2.5. The optimum magnetic properties of Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with (BH){sub max} =40.38 MGOe, H{sub c}=1663.9 kA/m, B{sub r}=1.08 T were obtained by substituted 2.0 at% Dy. The effects of increasing temperature on magnetic properties of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticle magnets with 2.0 at% Dy was investigated. The reduced spin-reorientation temperature was obtained for Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with 2.0 at% Dy. Below 100 K a spin-reorientation transition was takes place. The temperature coefficient of coercivity (β) was −0.36, −0.46, −0.41, −0.34, −0.29, −0.24, −0.25%/°C at different temperature 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 °C, respectively. Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the composition and properties of Dy-substituted Nd

  14. Coercivity enhancement mechanism in Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel base method followed by a reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Ali; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    In current work, Nd 15−x Dy x Fe 77.5 B 7.5 (at%) nanoparticles with different Dy-content (x=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0) were synthesized by sol–gel method followed by a reduction-diffusion process. The effects of Dy on the magnetic properties and the relations between the microstructure and the coercivity of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles have been studied. The coercivity of Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with the addition of Dy first increase, reaches a maximum, and then starts to decrease. The coercivity of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticle synthesized by sol–gel method increased from 938.9 to 1663.9 kA/m while the remanence decreased slightly from 1.16 to 1.06 T. The results show that with an increase in Dy content the variation of maximum energy product ((BH) max ), lowest-order uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K u1 ), and Curie temperature (T c ) had a trend as same as the coercivity. The Henkel plot showed that the existence of exchange coupling interaction between grains, and the exchange coupling interactions increased with increasing x from 0.0 to 2.0 and then decrease with further increasing x≥2.5. The optimum magnetic properties of Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with (BH) max =40.38 MGOe, H c =1663.9 kA/m, B r =1.08 T were obtained by substituted 2.0 at% Dy. The effects of increasing temperature on magnetic properties of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticle magnets with 2.0 at% Dy was investigated. The reduced spin-reorientation temperature was obtained for Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B nanoparticles with 2.0 at% Dy. Below 100 K a spin-reorientation transition was takes place. The temperature coefficient of coercivity (β) was −0.36, −0.46, −0.41, −0.34, −0.29, −0.24, −0.25%/°C at different temperature 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 °C, respectively. Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the composition and properties of Dy-substituted Nd–Fe–B magnet. Microstructure analysis showed a

  15. Magnetic microstructure and magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.L., E-mail: hyl1019_lin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Wang, Y.; Hou, Y.H.; Wang, Y.L.; Wu, Y.; Ma, S.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian, Y.; Xia, W.X. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong2014@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique using melt-spun ribbons as starting materials. A distinct two-zone structure with coarse grain zone and fine grain zone was formed in the SPSed magnets. Multi-domain particle in coarse grain zone and exchange interaction domain for fine grain zone were observed. Intergranular non-magnetic phase was favorable to improve the coercivity due to the enhancement of domain wall pinning effects and increased exchange-decouple. The remanent polarization of 0.83 T, coercivity of 1516 kA/m, and maximum energy product of 118 kJ/m{sup 3} are obtained for an isotropic magnet. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering technique. • Multi-domain particle and exchange interaction domain were observed. • Magnetic microstructure and their relation to the properties were investigated.

  16. Control of coercive field in lithium niobate crystals with repeated polarization reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Doun; Park, Taeyong; Kim, Chulhan; Kwon, Soon-Bok; Cha, Myoungsik; Choi, Byeong Cheol; Yu, Nanei; Kurimura, Sunao; Jeon, Gyerok

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the amount of decrease in coercive field of congruent lithium niobate during repeated poling and back-poling was measured. The polarization is reversed in 300 ms and then back-poled during the rest period. The coercive field can be decreased around 1 kV/mm with a repeated poling interval of 5 s. As the interval prolonged, the poling field decrease became smaller, and a stretched exponential function is suggested for the experimental fitting resulting in a set of meaningful parameters. These values are essential for the design of high quality domain engineering

  17. Depolarization corrections to the coercive field in thin-film ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawber, M; Chandra, P; Littlewood, P B; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Empirically, the coercive field needed to reverse the polarization in a ferroelectric increases with decreasing film thickness. For ferroelectric films of 100 μm to 100 nm in thickness the coercive field has been successfully described by a semi-empirical scaling law. Accounting for depolarization corrections, we show that this scaling behaviour is consistent with field measurements of ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors down to one nanometre in film thickness. Our results also indicate that the minimum film thickness, determined by a polarization instability, can be tuned by the choice of electrodes, and recommendations for next-generation ferroelectric devices are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  18. Depolarization corrections to the coercive field in thin-film ferroelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Dawber, M; Littlewood, P B; Scott, J F

    2003-01-01

    Empirically, the coercive field needed to reverse the polarization in a ferroelectric increases with decreasing film thickness. For ferroelectric films of 100 mu m to 100 nm in thickness the coercive field has been successfully described by a semi-empirical scaling law. Accounting for depolarization corrections, we show that this scaling behaviour is consistent with field measurements of ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors down to one nanometre in film thickness. Our results also indicate that the minimum film thickness, determined by a polarization instability, can be tuned by the choice of electrodes, and recommendations for next-generation ferroelectric devices are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  19. Dewetting of thin liquid films on chemically patterned substrates : front propatation along narrow lyophobic stripes and stripe arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasjen, B.J.; Gu, H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using experiments and numerical simulations, we investigate the dewetting of thin liquid films on chemically patterned substrates. The patterns consist of long and narrow hydrophobic stripes, separated by larger hydrophilic domains. We characterize the morphology and dynamics of the dewetting front

  20. Enhanced coercivity thermal stability realized in Nd–Fe–B thin films diffusion-processed by Nd–Co alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Hui; Fu, Yanqing [Key laboratory of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Department of Physics and Chemistry of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Guojian; Liu, Tie [Key laboratory of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Cui, Weibin, E-mail: cuiweibin@epm.neu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Department of Physics and Chemistry of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhidong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research (IMR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangq@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-03-15

    A proposed Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-core/Nd{sub 2}(Fe, Co){sub 14}B-shell microstructure was realized by diffusion-processing textured Nd{sub 14}Fe{sub 77}B{sub 9} single-layer film with Nd{sub 100−x}Co{sub x} (x=10, 20 and 40) alloys to improve the coercivity thermal stability. The ambient coercivity was increased from around 1 T in single-layer film to nearly 2 T in diffusion-processed films, which was due to the Nd-rich grain boundaries as seen from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The coercivity thermal stability was improved by the core/shell microstructure because Nd-rich grain boundaries provided the high ambient coercivity and Co-rich shell provided the improved coercivity stability. - Highlights: • Core–shell microstructure proposed for enhancing the coercivity thermal stability. • Coercivity enhanced to nearly 2 T by diffusion-processing with Nd–Co alloy. • Good squareness and highly textured microstructure obtained. • Nd-rich phases observed by TEM after diffusion process. • Coercivity thermal stability improved with minor Co addition in grain boundary regions.

  1. The magnetic properties of powdered and compacted microcrystalline permalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, P.; Oleksakova, D.; Fuezer, J.; Kovac, J.; Roth, S.; Polanski, K.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the magnetic properties of powdered and compacted microcrystalline Ni-Fe (81 wt% of Ni) permalloy. It was found by investigating the influence of mechanical milling on the magnetic properties of powder samples prepared by milling of the ribbon that the alloy remains a solid solution with stable structure during the whole milling process. With decreasing particle size the rotation of magnetization vector gradually becomes dominant magnetization process and thus coercivity increases. After compaction of the powder by uniaxial hot pressing the magnetic contact between powder particles is recreated and for resulting bulk the displacement of the domain walls becomes dominant magnetization process with coercivity of 11 A/m (comparable with the coercivity of conventional permalloy)

  2. Coercive Journal Self Citations, Impact Factor, Journal Influence and Article Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the issue of coercive journal self citations and the practical usefulness of two recent journal performance metrics, namely the Eigenfactor score, which may be interpreted as measuring “Journal Influence”, and the Article Influence score, using the Thomson Reuters ISI

  3. The coercive force of fine particles of monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature dependence of coercive force (Hc) between 77 K and 600 K has been investigated for fine particles of monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) of < 1 mm and 1- 30 mm particle sizes. The study has shown that Hc is strongly dependent on temperature, as temperature rises above room temperature (293 K) to near the ...

  4. Coercive and legitimate authority impact tax honesty: evidence from behavioral and ERP experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Lamm, Claus; Kirchler, Erich; Hofmann, Eva

    2017-07-01

    Cooperation in social systems such as tax honesty is of central importance in our modern societies. However, we know little about cognitive and neural processes driving decisions to evade or pay taxes. This study focuses on the impact of perceived tax authority and examines the mental chronometry mirrored in ERP data allowing a deeper understanding about why humans cooperate in tax systems. We experimentally manipulated coercive and legitimate authority and studied its impact on cooperation and underlying cognitive (experiment 1, 2) and neuronal (experiment 2) processes. Experiment 1 showed that in a condition of coercive authority, tax payments are lower, decisions are faster and participants report more rational reasoning and enforced compliance, however, less voluntary cooperation than in a condition of legitimate authority. Experiment 2 confirmed most results, but did not find a difference in payments or self-reported rational reasoning. Moreover, legitimate authority led to heightened cognitive control (expressed by increased MFN amplitudes) and disrupted attention processing (expressed by decreased P300 amplitudes) compared to coercive authority. To conclude, the neuronal data surprisingly revealed that legitimate authority may led to higher decision conflict and thus to higher cognitive demands in tax decisions than coercive authority. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  6. Study of coercive measures in prisons and secure psychiatric hospitals: the views of inmates and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Runte-Geidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to ascertain the opinions of both inmates and staff of prison establishments about the use of coercive measures justified for clinical reasons for people with mental health problems and about the need to create protocols to regulate the application of these measures. Method: These opinions were gathered in a Qualitative Study with Focus Groups (prison inmates and prison staff from the Granada Penitentiary Centre and the Alicante Penitentiary Psychiatric Hospital, both in Spain. Results: The results showed that forced medication is the most commonly used coercive measure in these institutions. The inmates did not understand and rejected the use of this measure, above all because they were poorly informed about their illness and the medication required to treat it. The staff however defended the benefits of psychiatric medicine, even when administered without the patient's consent. Conclusions: Both inmates and staff agreed that it would be useful to have a protocol regulating the use of coercive measures. The study has also identified a number of important factors that could help to reduce the need for coercive measures or make their use unnecessary.

  7. Sex-Symmetric Effects of Coercive Behaviors on Mental Health? Not Exactly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested a section of the model of coercion in intimate partner violence (IPV) by investigating the relationships among coercion, IPV and mental health symptoms. The study's sample consisted of 573 culturally diverse university students (age M = 21.4) who completed a survey that measured past IPV victimization, coercive behaviors,…

  8. Improved magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of Pr-Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by Hf addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingzheng; Lei, Weikai; Zeng, Qingwen; Quan, Qichen; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Renhui; Hu, Xianjun; He, Lunke; Qi, Zhiqi; Ju, Zhihua; Zhong, Minglong; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2018-05-01

    Nd2Fe14B-type permanent magnets have been widely applied in various fields such as wind power, voice coil motors, and medical instruments. The large temperature dependence of coercivity, however, limits their further applications. We have systematically investigated the magnetic properties, thermal stabilities and coercivity mechanisms of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx (x=0, 0.5) nanocrystalline magnets fabricated by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The results indicate that the influence of Hf addition is significant on magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of the (PrNd)2Fe14B-type sintered magnets. It is shown that the sample with x = 0.5 at 300 K has much higher coercivity and remanent magnetization than those counterparts without Hf. The temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets are improved significantly from -0.23 %/K, -0.57 %/K for the sample at x = 0 to -0.17 %/K, -0.49 %/K for the sample at x = 0.5 in the temperature range of 300-400 K. Furthermore, it is found out that the domain wall pinning mechanism is more likely responsible for enhancing the coercivity of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets.

  9. 2D Relativistic MHD simulations of the Kruskal-Schwarzschild instability in a relativistic striped wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2018-03-01

    We study the linear and non-linear development of the Kruskal-Schwarzchild instability in a relativisitically expanding striped wind. This instability is the generalization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of a magnetic field. It has been suggested to produce a self-sustained acceleration mechanism in strongly magnetized outflows found in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and micro-quasars. The instability leads to magnetic reconnection, but in contrast with steady-state Sweet-Parker reconnection, the dissipation rate is not limited by the current layer's small aspect ratio. We performed two-dimensional (2D) relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations featuring two cold and highly magnetized (1 ≤ σ ≤ 103) plasma layers with an anti-parallel magnetic field separated by a thin layer of relativistically hot plasma with a local effective gravity induced by the outflow's acceleration. Our simulations show how the heavier relativistically hot plasma in the reconnecting layer drips out and allows oppositely oriented magnetic field lines to reconnect. The instability's growth rate in the linear regime matches the predictions of linear stability analysis. We find turbulence rather than an ordered bulk flow near the reconnection region, with turbulent velocities up to ˜0.1c, largely independent of model parameters. However, the magnetic energy dissipation rate is found to be much slower, corresponding to an effective ordered bulk velocity inflow into the reconnection region vin = βinc of 10-3 ≲ βin ≲ 5 × 10-3. This occurs due to the slow evacuation of hot plasma from the current layer, largely because of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability experienced by the dripping plasma. 3D RMHD simulations are needed to further investigate the non-linear regime.

  10. Rare-earth magnets and their applications. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, L.; Mueller, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: permanent magnets, rare- earth magnets, manufacturing, markets, powder metallurgy, sintering, mechanical alloying, nanocrystalline magnets, Curie temperature, domain structure, exchange coupling, stoichiometry effects, coercive force, remanence, magnetisation distribution, demagnetisation, mechanical properties, deformation behaviour, microstructure, grain size effects, texture, magnetic anisotropy, hydrogen assisted processing, nitriding, hydrogen embrittlement, permanent magnet motors, permanent magnet generators, brushless machines, linear motors, DC motors, AC motors, servomotors, magnetic levitation, magnetic field calculations, magnetic damping, magnet system design, system optimisation, corrosion protection, magnetometers, hard magnetic films, magnetostriction, magnetic multilayers, spin glass behaviour

  11. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  12. Extraction and characterisation of gelatin from the skin of striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional properties of gelatin from skin of striped catfish with and without bleaching for 48 h by 5% H2O2 (w/v)) were studied. Gelatin from skin bleached with 5% H2O2 for 48 h showed the highest yield (16.18 g). Bleaching not only improved the colour of gelatin gel by increasing the L* (lightness)-value and decreasing ...

  13. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  14. NATURAL TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF A PRESTRESSED ORTHOTROPIC PLATE-STRIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a new outlook at the boundary-value problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous pre-stressed orthotropic plate-stripe. In the paper, the motion equation represents a new approximate hyperbolic equation (rather than a parabolic equation used in the majority of papers covering the same problem describing the vibration of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe. The proposed research is based on newly derived boundary conditions describing the pin-edge, rigid, and elastic (vertical types of fixing, as well as the boundary conditions applicable to the unfixed edge of the plate. The paper contemplates the application of the Laplace transformation and a non-standard representation of a homogeneous differential equation with fixed factors. The article proposes a detailed representation of the problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe if rigidly fixed at opposite sides; besides, the article also provides frequency equations (no conclusions describing the plate characterized by the following boundary conditions: rigid fixing at one side and pin-edge fixing at the opposite side; pin-edge fixing at one side and free (unfixed other side; rigid fixing at one side and elastic fixing at the other side. The results described in the article may be helpful if applied in the construction sector whenever flat structural elements are considered. Moreover, specialists in solid mechanics and theory of elasticity may benefit from the ideas proposed in the article.

  15. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  16. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji; Kabashima, Hisayuki

    2016-01-01

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  17. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takezawa, Masaaki, E-mail: take@ele.kyutech.ac.jp; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji [Department of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Kabashima, Hisayuki [Mazda Motor Corporation,3-1, Shinchi, Fuchu-cho, Aki-gun Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  18. Grain boundary diffusion of Dy films prepared by magnetron sputtering for sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Luo, J. M.; Guan, Y. W.; Huang, Y. L.; Chen, M.; Hou, Y. H.

    2018-05-01

    Dy films, deposited on the surface of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets by magnetron sputtering, were employed for grain boundary diffusion source. High coercivity sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were successfully prepared. Effects of sputtering power and grain boundary diffusion processes (GBDP) on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated in detail. The dense and uniform Dy films were beneficial to prepare high coercivity magnets by GBDP. The maximum coercivity value of 1189 kA m‑1 could be shown, which was an amplification of 22.3%, compared with that of as-prepared Nd–Fe–B magnet. Furthermore, the improved remanence and maximum energy product were also achieved through tuning grain boundary diffusion processes. Our results demonstrated that the formation of (Nd, Dy)2Fe14B shell surrounding Nd2Fe14B grains and fine, uniform and continuous intergranular RE-rich phases jointly contribute to the improved coercivity.

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  2. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields.

  3. Microsatellite markers linked to the locus of the watermelon fruit stripe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, R N C S; Santos, C A F; Dias, R C S; Alves, J C S F; Nogueira, T O

    2015-01-16

    Agronomic performance and external and internal appearance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit are important traits that should be taken into consideration during the development of a new cultivar, as well as being the principal identification elements used by the consumer, which are based on the external appearance and quality of the fruit. Externally, the fruit can be characterized in terms of the shape, the color of the lower rind, and the presence of grooves and stripes, the stripes can be classified as clearly defined or diffuse. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers linked to the stripe pattern of watermelon fruit to support watermelon improvement programs, with the selection of this characteristic in the plantlet stage. F1 and F2 populations, result of a cross between the cultivars BRS Opara (clearly defined stripes) and Pérola (diffuse stripes), were phenotyped for their fruit stripe pattern. The CTAB 2X protocol was used for DNA extraction and 116 microsatellite markers were examined in a group of F2 plants that had fruit with well-defined stripes and fruit with diffuse stripes. The microsatellite loci MCPI_05 and MCPI_16 exhibited a linkage to the stripe pattern at a distance of 1.5 and 1.8 cM, respectively, with LOD scores of 39.28 and 38.11, respectively, which were located on chromosome six of the watermelon genome. These markers can be used in marker-assisted selection in watermelon improvement programs, by various research institutions.

  4. Physical Localization of a Locus from Agropyron cristatum Conferring Resistance to Stripe Rust in Common Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Song, Liqiang; Han, Haiming; Zhou, Shenghui; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2017-11-13

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2 n = 28, PPPP), one of the wild relatives of wheat, exhibits resistance to stripe rust. In this study, wheat- A . cristatum 6P disomic addition line 4844-12 also exhibited resistance to stripe rust. To identify the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P, ten translocation lines, five deletion lines and the BC₂F₂ and BC₃F₂ populations of two wheat- A . cristatum 6P whole-arm translocation lines were tested with a mixture of two races of Pst in two sites during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017, being genotyped with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular markers. The result indicated that the locus conferring stripe rust resistance was located on the terminal 20% of 6P short arm's length. Twenty-nine 6P-specific sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers mapped on the resistance locus have been acquired, which will be helpful for the fine mapping of the stripe rust resistance locus. The stripe rust-resistant translocation lines were found to carry some favorable agronomic traits, which could facilitate their use in wheat improvement. Collectively, the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P could be a novel resistance source and the screened stripe rust-resistant materials will be valuable for wheat disease breeding.

  5. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Melin

    Full Text Available The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight and 30 m (twilight zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  6. Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Russell

    Magnetic nanostructures have widespread applications in many areas of physics and engineering, and nanosphere lithography has recently emerged as promising tool for the fabrication of such nanostructures. The goal of this research is to explore the magnetic properties of a thin film of ferromagnetic material deposited onto a hexagonally close-packed monolayer array of polystyrene nanospheres, and how they differ from the magnetic properties of a typical flat thin film. The first portion of this research focuses on determining the optimum conditions for depositing a monolayer of nanospheres onto chemically pretreated silicon substrates (via drop-coating) and the subsequent characterization of the deposited nanosphere layer with scanning electron microscopy. Single layers of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) are then deposited on top of the nanosphere array via DC magnetron sputtering, resulting in a thin film array of magnetic nanocaps. The coercivities of the thin films are measured using a home-built magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) system in longitudinal arrangement. MOKE measurements show that for a single layer of permalloy (Py), the coercivity of a thin film deposited onto an array of nanospheres increases compared to that of a flat thin film. In addition, the coercivity increases as the nanosphere size decreases for the same deposited layer. It is postulated that magnetic exchange decoupling between neighboring nanocaps suppresses the propagation of magnetic domain walls, and this pinning of the domain walls is thought to be the primary source of the increase in coercivity.

  7. Which patients are in highest risk of coercive measures after admission to a general psychiatric ward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Nørregaard, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background Coercive measures, especially mechanical restraint, are more frequently applied to some patients in general psychiatry. In order to tailor an intervention to reduce mechanical restraint we sought to create an evidence base speci c to our population in general psychiatry. Aims To identi...... is currently being tested at the Department of Psychiatry in Aabenraa, Denmark and has until now lead to a decrease in episodes with mechanical restraint from 18 in 2015 to 9 in 2016, and only 1 episode in the rst half of 2017.......Background Coercive measures, especially mechanical restraint, are more frequently applied to some patients in general psychiatry. In order to tailor an intervention to reduce mechanical restraint we sought to create an evidence base speci c to our population in general psychiatry. Aims To identify...

  8. Very high coercivities of top-layer diffusion Au/FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, F.T.; Chen, S.K.; Liao, W.M.; Hsu, C.W.; Hsiao, S.N.; Chang, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Au/FePt samples were prepared by depositing a gold cap layer at room temperature onto a fully ordered FePt layer, followed by an annealing at 800 deg. C for the purpose of interlayer diffusion. After the deposition of the gold layer and the high-temperature annealing, the gold atoms do not dissolve into the FePt Ll 0 lattice. Compared with the continuous FePt film, the TEM photos of the bilayer Au(60 nm)/FePt(60 nm) show a granular structure with FePt particles embedded in Au matrix. The coercivity of Au(60 nm)/FePt(60 nm) sample is 23.5 kOe, which is 85% larger than that of the FePt film without Au top layer. The enhancement in coercivity can be attributed to the formation of isolated structure of FePt ordered phase

  9. Attitude of young psychiatrists toward coercive measures in psychiatry: a case vignette study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wake Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every psychiatrist must pay careful attention to avoid violating human rights when initiating coercive treatments such as seclusion and restraint. However, these interventions are indispensable in clinical psychiatry, and they are often used as strategies to treat agitated patients. In this study, we investigated young psychiatrists' attitudes toward psychiatric coercive measures. Methods A total of 183 young psychiatrists participated as subjects in our study. A questionnaire with a case vignette describing a patient with acute psychosis was sent to the study subjects via the Internet or by mail. This questionnaire included scoring the necessity for hospitalization, and the likelihood of prescribing seclusion and/or restraint, on a 9-point Likert scale (with 9 indicating strong agreement. Results There was general agreement among the study subjects that the case should be admitted to a hospital (8.91 ± 0.3 and secluded (8.43 ± 1.0. The estimated length of hospitalization was 13.53 ± 6.4 weeks. Regarding the likelihood of prescribing restraint, results showed great diversity (5.14 ± 2.5 on 9-point scale; psychiatrists working at general hospitals scored significantly higher (6.25 ± 2.5 than those working at university hospitals (5.02 ± 2.3 or psychiatric hospitals (4.15 ± 2.6. A two-group comparison of the length of inpatient care revealed a significant difference between those psychiatrists who scored 1-3 (n = 55, 14.22 ± 7.4 wks and those who scored 7-9 (n = 62, 12.22 ± 4.0 regarding the need to use restraint. Conclusion Our results may reflect the current dilemma in Japanese psychiatry wherein psychiatrists must initiate coercive measures to shorten hospitalization stays. This study prompted its subject psychiatrists to consider coercive psychiatric treatments.

  10. Cognitive Targeting: A Coercive Air Power Theory for Conventional Escalation Control Against Nuclear Armed Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    strategic,” in the cognitive targeting paradigm , are those that directly disable - in the strategic audience’s mind – the attractiveness or...This study analyses the applicability of three operational targeting paradigms to coerce a nuclear-armed adversary in a regional crisis, while...principles and elements of war and understand the coercive ability of utility targeting (a capabilities-based targeting paradigm , CBTP), axiological

  11. Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets fabrication by using atomized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, R; Sugimoto, S; Matsuura, M; Tezuka, N; Une, Y; Sagawa, M

    2011-01-01

    Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets are required to achieve high coercivity for improvement of their thermal stability. Dy is added to increase coercivity, however, this element decrease magnetization and energy products. Therefore, Dy-lean Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets with high coercivity are strongly demanded. To increase coercivity, it is necessary that microstructure of sintered magnets is consisted of both fine main phase particles and homogeneously distributed Nd-rich phases around the main phase. To meet those requirements, Nd-Fe-B atomized powders were applied to the fabrication process of sintered magnets. Comparing with the case of using strip casting (SC) alloys, jet-milled powders from atomized powders show homogeneous distribution of Nd-rich phase. After optimized thermal treatment, coercivities of sintered magnets from atomized powders and SC alloys reach 1050 kA·m-1 and 1220 kA·m-1, respectively. This difference in coercivity was due to initial oxygen concentration of starting materials. Consequently, Nd-rich phases became oxides with high melting points, and did not melt and spread during sintering and annealing.

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  15. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  16. High coercivity, anisotropic, heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B by Flash Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Elinor; Sheridan, Richard; Zhou, Wei; Grasso, Salvatore; Walton, Allan; Reece, Michael J

    2017-09-11

    In the drive to reduce the critical Heavy Rare Earth (HRE) content of magnets for green technologies, HRE-free Nd-Fe-B has become an attractive option. HRE is added to Nd-Fe-B to enhance the high temperature performance of the magnets. To produce similar high temperature properties without HRE, a crystallographically textured nanoscale grain structure is ideal; and this conventionally requires expensive "die upset" processing routes. Here, a Flash Spark Plasma Sintering (FSPS) process has been applied to a Dy-free Nd 30.0 Fe 61.8 Co 5.8 Ga 0.6 Al 0.1 B 0.9 melt spun powder (MQU-F, neo Magnequench). Rapid sinter-forging of a green compact to near theoretical density was achieved during the 10 s process, and therefore represents a quick and efficient means of producing die-upset Nd-Fe-B material. The microstructure of the FSPS samples was investigated by SEM and TEM imaging, and the observations were used to guide the optimisation of the process. The most optimal sample is compared directly to commercially die-upset forged (MQIII-F) material made from the same MQU-F powder. It is shown that the grain size of the FSPS material is halved in comparison to the MQIII-F material, leading to a 14% increase in coercivity (1438 kA m -1 ) and matched remanence (1.16 T) giving a BH max of 230 kJ m -3 .

  17. Response to "Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Striped Nanoparticles".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Khac Ong

    Full Text Available Stirling et al., (10.1371/journal.pone.0108482 presented an analysis on some of our publications on the formation of stripe-like domains on mixed-ligand coated gold nanoparticles. The authors shed doubts on some of our results however no valid argument is provided against what we have shown since our first publication: scanning tunneling microscopy (STM images of striped nanoparticles show stripe-like domains that are independent of imaging parameters and in particular of imaging speed. We have consistently ruled out the presence of artifacts by comparing sets of images acquired at different tip speeds, finding invariance of the stipe-like domains. Stirling and co-workers incorrectly analyzed this key control, using a different microscope and imaging conditions that do not compare to ours. We show here data proving that our approach is rigorous. Furthermore, we never solely relied on image analysis to draw our conclusions; we have always used the chemical nature of the particles to assess the veracity of our images. Stirling et al. do not provide any justification for the spacing of the features that we find on nanoparticles: ~1 nm for mixed ligand particles and ~ 0.5 nm for homoligand particles. Hence our two central arguments remain unmodified: independence from imaging parameters and dependence on ligand shell chemical composition. The paper report observations on our STM images; none is a sufficient condition to prove that our images are artifacts. We thoroughly addressed issues related to STM artifacts throughout our microscopy work. Stirling et al. provide guidelines for what they consider good STM images of nanoparticles, such images are indeed present in our literature. They conclude that the evidences we provided to date are insufficient, this is a departure from one of the authors' previous article which concluded that our images were composed of artifacts. Given that four independent laboratories have reproduced our measurements and

  18. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  19. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  20. Unfolding of Vortices into Topological Stripes in a Multiferroic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mostovoy, M.; Han, M. G.; Horibe, Y.; Aoki, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2014-06-01

    Multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R =rare earths) crystals exhibit dense networks of vortex lines at which six domain walls merge. While the domain walls can be readily moved with an applied electric field, the vortex cores so far have been impossible to control. Our experiments demonstrate that shear strain induces a Magnus-type force pulling vortices and antivortices in opposite directions and unfolding them into a topological stripe domain state. We discuss the analogy between this effect and the current-driven dynamics of vortices in superconductors and superfluids.

  1. Relationships Between Shame, Restrictiveness, Authoritativeness, and Coercive Control in Men Mandated to a Domestic Violence Offenders Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplenko, Hannah; Loveland, Jennifer E; Raghavan, Chitra

    2018-04-01

    Coercive control, a key element of intimate partner violence (IPV), is defined as an abuse dynamic that intends to strip the target of autonomy and liberty. While coercive control is gaining popularity in the research world, little is known about its correlates and causes. This study sought to examine how shame and men's need for dominance, measured by two trait indexes of dominance, restrictiveness and the need for authority, influence coercive control. The present study used a diverse sample of men (n = 134) who were mandated to attend a domestic violence offenders program. Findings suggest that shame plays a role in the commission of coercively controlling behavior both directly and partially through its influence on authority but not through restrictiveness. Implications for understanding IPV in a domestic violence offenders program are discussed.

  2. Temperature-dependent striped antiferromagnetism of LaFeAsO in a Green's function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guibin; Liu Banggui

    2009-01-01

    We use a Green's function method to study the temperature-dependent average moment and magnetic phase-transition temperature of the striped antiferromagnetism of LaFeAsO, and other similar compounds, as the parents of FeAs-based superconductors. We consider the nearest and the next-nearest couplings in the FeAs layer, and the nearest coupling for inter-layer spin interaction. The dependence of the transition temperature T N and the zero-temperature average spin on the interaction constants is investigated. We obtain an analytical expression for T N and determine our temperature-dependent average spin from zero temperature to T N in terms of unified self-consistent equations. For LaFeAsO, we obtain a reasonable estimation of the coupling interactions with the experimental transition temperature T N = 138 K. Our results also show that a non-zero antiferromagnetic (AFM) inter-layer coupling is essential for the existence of a non-zero T N , and the many-body AFM fluctuations reduce substantially the low-temperature magnetic moment per Fe towards the experimental value. Our Green's function approach can be used for other FeAs-based parent compounds and these results should be useful to understand the physical properties of FeAs-based superconductors.

  3. Gapped paramagnetic state in a frustrated spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the cross-striped square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. H. Y.; Bishop, R. F.

    2018-03-01

    We implement the coupled cluster method to very high orders of approximation to study the spin-1/2 J1 -J2 Heisenberg model on a cross-striped square lattice. Every nearest-neighbour pair of sites on the square lattice has an isotropic antiferromagnetic exchange bond of strength J1 > 0 , while the basic square plaquettes in alternate columns have either both or neither next-nearest-neighbour (diagonal) pairs of sites connected by an equivalent frustrating bond of strength J2 ≡ αJ1 > 0 . By studying the magnetic order parameter (i.e., the average local on-site magnetization) in the range 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 of the frustration parameter we find that the quasiclassical antiferromagnetic Néel and (so-called) double Néel states form the stable ground-state phases in the respective regions α α1bc = 0.615(5) . The double Néel state has Néel (⋯ ↑↓↑↓ ⋯) ordering along the (column) direction parallel to the stripes of squares with both or no J2 bonds, and spins alternating in a pairwise (⋯ ↑↑↓↓↑↑↓↓ ⋯) fashion along the perpendicular (row) direction, so that the parallel pairs occur on squares with both J2 bonds present. Further explicit calculations of both the triplet spin gap and the zero-field uniform transverse magnetic susceptibility provide compelling evidence that the ground-state phase over all or most of the intermediate regime α1ac < α < α1bc is a gapped state with no discernible long-range magnetic order.

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  5. Magnetic Non-destructive Testing of Plastically Deformed Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Pala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Barkhausen noise analysis and coercive field measurement have been used as magnetic non-destructive testing methods for plastically deformed high quality carbon steel specimens. The strain dependence of root mean square value and power spectrum of the Barkhausen noise and the coercive field are explained in terms of the dislocation density. The specimens have been subjected to different magnetizing frequencies to show the overlapping nature of the Barkhausen noise. The results are discussed in the context of usage of magnetic non-destructive testing to evaluate the plastic deformation of high quality carbon steel products.

  6. Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi, E-mail: dhagat@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.

  7. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  8. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  9. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this resear...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of directors shall monitor planning and execution of the S&S business activities. 2. The S&S board of... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  11. Magnetic anisotropy of MnAs-films on GaAs(0 0 1) studied with ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.; Tolinski, T.; Lenz, K.; Kosubek, E.; Wende, H.; Baberschke, K.; Ney, A.; Hesjedal, T.; Pampuch, C.; Koch, R.; Daeweritz, L.; Ploog, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of MnAs grown on GaAs(0 0 1) show a self-organized structure of coexisting ferromagnetic α- and paramagnetic β-MnAs stripes in the temperature interval from 10 to 40 deg. C. We quantify the magnetic anisotropies of the α-stripes via ferromagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry for samples with thicknesses of 57 and 165 nm. The easy axis of magnetization is found to be located perpendicular to the stripe direction, whereas the direction parallel to the stripes is a hard one. While the intrinsic anisotropies show a bulk-like behavior and explain the direction of the hard axis, the key to understanding the direction of the easy axis is given by the demagnetizing fields due to the stripe formation

  12. Mice as stowaways? Colonization history of Danish striped field mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Jacobsen, Magnus; Vedel-Smith, Christina; Jensen, Thomas Secher

    2017-07-01

    Species from the steppe region of Eastern Europe likely colonized northwestern Europe in connection with agriculture after 6500 BP. The striped field mouse ( Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1783), is a steppe-derived species often found in human crops. It is common on the southern Danish islands of Lolland and Falster, which have been isolated from mainland Europe since approximately 10 300-8000 BP. Thus, this species could have been brought in with humans in connection with agriculture, or it could be an earlier natural invader. We sequenced 86 full mitochondrial genomes from the northwestern range of the striped field mouse, analysed phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence time. The results supported human-induced colonization of Denmark in the Subatlantic or Subboreal period. A newly discovered population from Central Jutland in Denmark diverged from Falster approximately 100-670 years ago, again favouring human introduction. One individual from Sweden turned out to be a recent introduction from Central Jutland. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Effect of boron addition on the magnetic properties of the Fe-Nd-Al alloys prepared by suction casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Q.; Xu, H.; Tan, X.H.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the Fe-Nd-Al alloys prepared by suction casting with boron addition have been investigated. The increasing boron content in the Fe-Nd-Al alloys significantly increases the intrinsic coercivity ( i H c ) and decreases the proportion of the amorphous phase. The magnetization at the maximum applied field (σ ' s ) of the Fe-Nd-Al-B alloys decreases, while the coercivity increases markedly after annealing. The high intrinsic coercivity is due to the presence of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase

  14. Implications of white striping and spaghetti meat abnormalities on meat quality and histological features in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2018-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM

  15. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  16. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  17. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  19. Novel pre-alloyed powder processing of modified alnico 8: Correlation of microstructure and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I. E., E-mail: andersoni@ameslab.gov; Kassen, A. G.; White, E. M. H.; Zhou, L.; Tang, W.; Palasyuk, A.; Dennis, K. W.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J. [Ames Laboratory (USDOE), Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Progress is reviewed on development of an improved near-final bulk magnet fabrication process for alnico 8, as a non-rare earth permanent magnet with promise for sufficient energy density and coercivity for electric drive motors. This study showed that alnico bulk magnets in near-final shape can be made by simple compression molding from spherical high purity gas atomized pre-alloyed powder. Dwell time at peak sintering temperature (1250 °C) greatly affected grain size of the resulting magnet alloys. This microstructure transformation was demonstrated to be useful for gaining partially aligned magnetic properties and boosting energy product. While a route to increased coercivity was not identified by these experiments, manufacturability of bulk alnico magnet alloys in near-final shapes was demonstrated, permitting further processing and alloy modification experiments that can target higher coercivity and better control of grain anisotropy during grain growth.

  20. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles dispersed in silica prepared by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E. M.; Montero, M. I.; Cebollada, F.; de Julián, C.; Vicent, J. L.; González, J. M.

    1998-04-01

    We analyze the magnetic properties of mechanically ground nanosized Ni particles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix. Our magnetic characterization of the as-milled samples show the occurrence of two blocking processes and that of non-monotonic milling time evolutions of the magnetic-order temperature, the high-field magnetization and the saturation coercivity. The measured coercivities exhibit giant values and a uniaxial-type temperature dependence. Thermal treatment carried out in the as-prepared samples result in a remarkable coercivity reduction and in an increase of the high-field magnetization. We conclude, on the basis of the consideration of a core (pure Ni) and shell (Ni-Si inhomogeneous alloy) particle structure, that the magnetoelastic anisotropy plays the dominant role in determining the magnetic properties of our particles.

  1. Discontinuous spring magnet-type magnetostrictive Terfecohan/YFeCo multilayers: A novel nanostructured material principle for excellent magnetic softness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, N.H.; Huong Giang, D.T.

    2007-01-01

    Novel physics and reversal mechanisms of the whole system switching (WS) and individual switching (IS) type are reported for hard/soft TbFeCo/YFeCo exchange-spring multilayers. The WS type usually occurs in multilayered systems, in which the magnetic anisotropy of hard TbFeCo layers is neglectable. For such a system, the ferrimagnetically coupled hard/soft multilayered state is recovered after removing applied fields from the magnetized state. At low negative fields, the magnetization switching occurs collectively for all magnetic moments in the whole system. In this case, the low-coercivity mechanism is discussed on the basis of a hard/soft interfacial point contact. This configuration is realized for TbFeCo/YFeCo discontinuous exchange-spring multilayers, in which the magnetic (Fe,Co) nanograins coexist with non-magnetic amorphous phase in the soft layers. In this state, a magnetic coercivity as small as 0.4 mT is achieved. It is considered as an excellent magnetic softness of rare-earth-based systems. Enhancing the magnetic anisotropy in the hard TbFeCo layers, the magnetization switching follows the IS type at low temperatures. Starting to decrease the applied magnetic field from the high-field state, one observes the first reversal of the magnetic moments in the soft high-magnetization YFeCo-layers in positive magnetic fields. This is the reason for the observation of the negative coercivity as well as negative-biasing phenomena

  2. Magnetic and viscoelastic response of elastomers with hard magnetic filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarenko, E Yu; Chertovich, A V; Semisalova, A S; Makarova, L A; Perov, N S; Khokhlov, A R; Stepanov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic elastomers (MEs) based on a silicone matrix and magnetically hard NdFeB particles have been synthesized and their magnetic and viscoelastic properties have been studied depending on the size and concentration of magnetic particles and the magnetizing field. It has been shown that magnetic particles can rotate in soft polymer matrix under applied magnetic field, this fact leading to some features in both magnetic and viscoelastic properties. In the maximum magnetic field used magnetization of MEs with smaller particles is larger while the coercivity is smaller due to higher mobility of the particles within the polymer matrix. Viscoelastic behavior is characterized by long relaxation times due to restructuring of the magnetic filler under the influence of an applied mechanical force and magnetic interactions. The storage and loss moduli of magnetically hard elastomers grow significantly with magnetizing field. The magnetic response of the magnetized samples depends on the mutual orientation of the external magnetic field and the internal sample magnetization. Due to the particle rotation within the polymer matrix, the loss factor increases abruptly when the magnetic field is turned on in the opposite direction to the sample magnetization, further decreasing with time. Moduli versus field dependences have minimum at non-zero field and are characterized by a high asymmetry with respect to the field direction. (paper)

  3. Thermal dependence of coercivity in granular CoNiCu glass coated microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, V.; Zhukov, A.; Palomares, F.J.; Pigazo, F.; Cebollada, F.; Del Val, J.J.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cu 80 Co 19 Ni 1 glass covered microwire samples with different geometric ratio, 0.13≤ρ≤0.5, has been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and VSM technique. Our results show (i) the presence of FCC Co crystallites dispersed on the Cu matrix, (ii) the observation in all the samples of the coercivity, at room temperature, of the order of kA, exhibiting a maximum and decreased down to a value of the order of the room temperature one at 25 K. These results are discussed in terms of a distribution of superparamagnetic Co nanoparticles

  4. Magnet properties of Mn70Ga30 prepared by cold rolling and magnetic field annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ener, Semih; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Karpenkov, Dmitriy Yu.; Kuz'min, Michael D.; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The remanence and coercivity of arc melted Mn 70 Ga 30 can be substantially improved by cold rolling. For best performance the rolled material should be annealed at T=730 K in the presence of a magnetic field of 1 T. The so-obtained magnet has a remanence of 0.239 T and a coercivity of 1.24 T at room temperature. The underlying reason for the high coercivity and remanence is the increase of the content of a metastable ferrimagnetic D0 22 phase at the expense of the normally stable anti-ferromagnetic D0 19 . Magnetic field significantly increases the nucleation rate of the ferromagnetic D0 22 phase that leads to grain size refinement and as a consequence of improving remanence and coercive field. - Highlights: • Alternative synthesis method for D0 22 phase formation in Mn–Ga is developed. • Effect of cold rolling and annealing on magnetic properties of Mn 70 Ga 30 is examined. • Small magnetic fields are sufficient to accelerate nucleation of the D0 22 phase

  5. Magnetic properties of magnetic glass-like carbon prepared from furan resin alloyed with magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kazumasa, E-mail: naka@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp [Materials Science Area, Graduate School of Symbiotic Systems Science and Technology, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Okuyama, Kyoko [Materials Science Area, Graduate School of Symbiotic Systems Science and Technology, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Takase, Tsugiko [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity (IER), Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic glass-like carbons that were heat-treated at different temperatures or were filled with different magnetic nanoparticle contents were prepared from furan resin alloyed with magnetic fluid (MF) or Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder in their liquid-phase states during mixing. Compared to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder-alloyed carbon, the MF-alloyed carbon has highly dispersed the nanoparticles, and has the excellent saturation magnetization and coercivity. It is implied that saturation magnetizations are related to changes in the types of phases for the nanoparticles and the relative intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks for iron and iron-containing compounds in the carbons. Additionally, the coercivities are possibly affected by the size and crystallinity of the nanoparticles, the relative amounts of iron, and the existence of amorphous compounds on the carbon surfaces. - Highlights: • Magnetic glass-like carbons were prepared from furan resin alloyed with magnetic fluid. • The nanoparticles of MF-alloyed GLCs were highly dispersed. • MF-alloyed GLCs had excellent magnetic properties compared to powder-alloyed ones. • The magnetic properties changed with treatment temperature and nanoparticle content. • The changes in magnetic properties were investigated with XRD and FE-SEM.

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  8. The role of the interface on the magnetic behaviour of granular Fe50Ag50 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fdez-Gubieda, M.L.; Sarmiento, G.; Fernandez Barquin, L.; Orue, I.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic behaviour of a Fe 50 Ag 50 granular thin film has been studied by means of AC and DC magnetic measurements. Exchange coupling between magnetic nanoparticles appears at T=<200K decreasing the coercive field of the sample. Additionally, an exchange bias is observed at low temperature related to the existence of a spin disordered interface around the nanoparticles

  9. Synthesis, magnetic and microstructural properties of Alnico magnets with additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: dza.isit@yahoo.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China, University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Zhongwu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China, University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ul Haq, A. [Riphah International University, I-14, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    The phase formation, crystal structure, crystallographic texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of Alnico-8 alloys with varying Co and Nb content have been investigated and presented. Alnico-8 alloys were fabricated by induction melting and casting techniques. Magnetic properties in the alloys were induced by optimized thermomagnetic treatment and subsequent aging. The 37.9Fe-32Co-14Ni-7.5Al-3.1Cu-5.5Ti alloy exhibits coercivity of 110 kA/m, remanence of 0.66 T and energy product of 31.2 kJ/m{sup 3}. The addition of 35 wt% Co in conjunction with 1.5 wt% Nb to 37.9Fe-14Ni-7.5Al-3.1Cu-5.5Ti alloys led to increase the magnetic properties, especially coercivity. The enhancement of the coercivity is attributed to ideal shape anisotropy and optimum mass fraction of ferromagnetic Fe-Co rich particles, which are 25–30 nm in diameter and 300–350 nm in length. The 33.4Fe-35Co-14Ni-7.5Al-5.5Ti-3.1Cu-1.5 Nb alloy yields the optimum magnetic properties of coercivity of 141.4 kA/m, remanence of 0.83 T and energy product of 42.4 kJ/m{sup 3}. The good magnetic properties in the studied alloys are attributed to the nanostructured microstructure comprising textured Fe-Co-Nb rich α{sub 1} phase and Al-Ni-Cu rich α{sub 2} phase. - Highlights: • Synthesize of Alnico-8 magnets by casting and thermomagnetic treatment. • High coercivity up to 148.3 kA/m can be obtained with Alnico magnets. • Properties are affected by intrinsic properties of spinodal phases and thermal cycle. • Magnet exhibits properties as: H{sub c}=141.4 kA/m, B{sub r}=0.83 T and (BH){sub max}=42.4 kJ/m{sup 3}.

  10. Modified BEM calculations on magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoph, V.; Toepfer, J.

    1998-01-01

    A modified boundary element method is presented for the calculation of 3d magnetic fields of magnetic systems including any permanent and soft magnetic materials as well as current distributions. Using an automatic mesh generation inside the magnetic bodies the method is especially suited for the investigation of open air gap systems. The influence of eddy currents on the magnetisation process can be investigated. For illustration, the flux concentration by pole pieces and the generation of magnetic stripe structures in magnetic thick films by pulse fields are considered. (orig.)

  11. AlGaInAs narrow stripe selective growth on substrates patterned with different mask designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W; Pan, J Q; Yang, H; Hou, L P; Zhou, F; Zhao, L J; Zhu, H L; Wang, W

    2006-01-01

    We have performed a narrow stripe selective growth of oxide-free AlGaInAs waveguides on InP substrates patterned with pairs of SiO 2 mask stripes under optimized growth conditions. The mask stripe width varied from 0 to 40 μm, while the window region width between a pair of mask stripes was fixed at 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 μm. Flat and smooth AlGaInAs waveguides covered by specific InP layers are successfully grown on substrates patterned with different mask designs. The thickness enhancement ratio and the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the AlGaInAs narrow stripe waveguides are strongly dependent on the mask stripe width and the window region width. In particular, a large PL wavelength shift of 79 nm and a PL FWHM of less than 64 meV are obtained simultaneously with a small mask stripe width varying from 0 to 40 μm when the window region width is 1.5 μm. We present some possible interpretations of the experimental observations in considering both the migration effect from a masked region and the lateral vapour diffusion effect

  12. Effect of shell thickness on the exchange bias blocking temperature and coercivity in Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Reethu, K.; Thanveer, T.; Myint, M. T. Z.; Al-Harthi, S. H.

    2017-08-01

    The exchange bias blocking temperature distribution of naturally oxidized Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles exhibits two distinct signatures. These are associated with the existence of two magnetic entities which are responsible for the temperature dependence of an exchange bias field. One is from the CoO grains which undergo thermally activated magnetization reversal. The other is from the disordered spins at the Co-CoO interface which exhibits spin-glass-like behavior. We investigated the oxide shell thickness dependence of the exchange bias effect. For particles with a 3 nm thick CoO shell, the predominant contribution to the temperature dependence of exchange bias is the interfacial spin-glass layer. On increasing the shell thickness to 4 nm, the contribution from the spin-glass layer decreases, while upholding the antiferromagnetic grain contribution. For samples with a 4 nm CoO shell, the exchange bias training was minimal. On the other hand, 3 nm samples exhibited both the training effect and a peak in coercivity at an intermediate set temperature Ta. This is explained using a magnetic core-shell model including disordered spins at the interface.

  13. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  14. Effects of Dy and Nb on the magnetic properties and corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.Q.; Wen, Y.H.; Yan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dy and Nb were added into the sintered NdFeB magnets with the aim of improving their magnetic properties and corrosion resistance. It was found that intrinsic coercivity of magnets is promoted whilst remanence is reduced as a result of Dy addition. Simultaneous addition of Dy and Nb not only gives rise to greatly improved coercivity, but also suppresses the undesirable effect of Dy on the remanence. The optimum magnetic properties were achieved when 1.0% Dy and 1.5% Nb were incorporated. Moreover, corrosion resistance of NdFeB magnets improves with the increase in the content of Dy and Nb

  15. Micro magnetic modeling of magnetization reversal in permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, J.C.; Kevorkian, B.; Givord, D.; Rossignol, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Micro magnetic numerical 3 D calculation is presented in this paper to investigate the effect of a soft magnetic heterogeneity on the magnetization reversal of a single hard magnetic grain. Both equilibrium and transient magnetization configurations are obtained by solving the dynamic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (L.L.G.) equation. A modified forward difference method is used to integrate the time dependent L.L.G. equation without conflicting with the constraint of constant magnetic moment. A continuum view of the material medium is adopted and the spatial finite difference method is used to describe the system as a set of cubic elements. In each element the magnetization is interpolated with quadratic polynomial functions and constrained to follow the Brown condition at the surface. A multigrid approach is developed to calculate the magnetic potential and the resulting stray field associated with a given microstructure. The calculated properties are compared to actual properties of Nd Fe B sintered magnets. Assuming a soft nucleus of 160 angstrom diameter and 80 angstrom depth, the calculated coercive field is about 1.45 T, close to experimental values and the calculated angular dependence of H c resembles experimental behaviours. (author)

  16. Rapid magnetic hardening by rapid thermal annealing in NdFeB-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-T.; Jin, Z Q; Chakka, Vamsi M; Liu, J P [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2005-11-21

    A systematic study of heat treatments and magnetic hardening of NdFeB-based melt-spun nanocomposite ribbons have been carried out. Comparison was made between samples treated by rapid thermal annealing and by conventional furnace annealing. Heating rates up to 200 K s{sup -1} were adopted in the rapid thermal processing. It was observed that magnetic hardening can be realized in an annealing time as short as 1 s. Coercivity of 10.2 kOe in the nanocomposites has been obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 1 s, and prolonged annealing did not give any increase in coercivity. Detailed results on the effects of annealing time, temperature and heating rate have been obtained. The dependence of magnetic properties on the annealing parameters has been investigated. Structural characterization revealed that there is a close correlation between magnetic hardening and nanostructured morphology. The coercivity mechanism was also studied by analysing the magnetization minor loops.

  17. The role of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, S.; Shokrollahi, H.

    2013-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing and promises that the substantial changes that will have significant economic and scientific impacts be applicable to a wide range of areas, such as aerospace engineering, nano-electronics, environmental remediation and medical healthcare. In this area, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been regarded as one of the competitive candidates because of their suitable physical, chemical and magnetic properties like the high anisotropy constant, high coercivity and high Curie temperature, moderate saturation magnetization and ease of synthesis. This paper introduces the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and some medical applications, including the hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic separation and drug delivery of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. Highlights: ► Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are one of the most important materials for nanomedicine. ► They have high coercivity and moderate saturation magnetization. ► Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized easily. ► They are a good candidate for hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Ultrahigh coercivity and core-shell microstructure achieved in oriented Nd-Fe-B thin films diffusion-processed with Dy-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tongbo; Zhou, Xiaoqian; Yu, Dedong; Fu, Yanqing; Cui, Weibin [Northeastern University, Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Shenyang (China); Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Chemistry of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang (China); Li, Guojian; Wang, Qiang [Northeastern University, Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM), Ministry of Education, Shenyang (China)

    2017-01-15

    Ultrahigh ambient coercivities of ∝4 T were achieved in Nd-Fe-B benchmark thin film with coercivity of 1.06 T by diffusion-processing with Dy, Dy{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} and Dy{sub 80}Ag{sub 20} alloy layer. High texture and good squareness were obtained. In triple-junction regions, Dy element was found to be immiscible with Nd element. Microstructure observation indicated the typical gradient elementary distribution. Unambiguous core/shell microstructure was characterized by transition electron microscopy. Due to the enhanced ambient coercivity, the coercivity temperature stability was also substantially increased. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  3. Triode for magnetic flux quanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Colauto, Fabiano; Benseman, Timothy; Rosenmann, Daniel; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    We designed a magnetic vortex triode using an array of closely spaced soft magnetic Py strips on top of a Nb superconducting film. The strips act similar to the grid electrode in an electronic triode, where the electron flow is regulated by the grid potential. In our case, we tune the vortex motion by the magnetic charge potential of the strip edges, using a small magnetic field rotating in the film plane. The magnetic charges emerging at the stripe edges and proportional to the magnetization component perpendicular to the edge direction, form linear potential barriers or valleys for vortex motion in the superconducting layer. We directly imaged the normal flux penetration into the Py/Nb films and observed retarded or accelerated entry of the normal vortices depending on the in-plane magnetization direction in the stripes. The observed flux behavior is explained by interactions between magnetically charged lines and magnetic monopoles of vortices similar to those between electrically charged strings and point charges. We discuss the possibility of using our design for manipulation of individual vortices in high-speed, low-power superconducting electronic circuits. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, and Office of BES (contract DE-AC02-06CH11357). F. Colauto thanks the Sao Paulo Research Foundation FAPESP (Grant No. 2015/06.085-3).

  4. Collision-Free Structure Using Thin-Film Magnet For Electrostatic Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, S; Yamaguchi, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes collision-free structure using NdFeB thin-film magnet for vibration energy harvesters. By using stripe shaped NdFeB magnet array on the Si MEMS structure, we finally obtained 3 mN of magnetic repulsive force on 8 × 8 mm 2 specimen with 40 μm air-gap. (paper)

  5. Collision-Free Structure Using Thin-Film Magnet For Electrostatic Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, S.; Yamaguchi, K.; Fujita, T.; Kanda, K.; Maenaka, K.

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes collision-free structure using NdFeB thin-film magnet for vibration energy harvesters. By using stripe shaped NdFeB magnet array on the Si MEMS structure, we finally obtained 3 mN of magnetic repulsive force on 8 × 8 mm2 specimen with 40 μm air-gap.

  6. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Maley, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10 6 -10 7 A/cm 2 at high temperatures (but not very close to T c ) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulaevskii, L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, CUNY Lehman College 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Chudnovsky, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, CUNY Lehman College, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Maley, M. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at high temperatures (but not very close to T{sub c}) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Complex Magnetic Systems Studied with Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Henrik

    by experimental nonidealities, and must therefore be real. It was therefore concluded that the dynamic stripes are not the Goldstone modes associated with the broken symmetry of the static stripes. In other words, the dynamic and static signals originate in two dierent phases of the sample. This has wide......, resting on loops of 10 spins. This hidden order is quite unusual, as only groups of spins order, while individual spins remain correlated only over short distances. The hidden order has been shown to also be present in GAG, although the magnitude of the order parameter is smaller here. The magnetic...

  9. Effect of magnetic soft phase on the magnetic properties of bulk anisotropic Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqing; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Guoping; Zhang, Hongguo

    2018-01-01

    The effects of soft phase with different particle sizes and distributions on the Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets have been studied by the micro-magnetism simulation. The calculated results show that smaller and/or scattered distribution of soft phase can benefit to the coercivity (H ci) of the nanocomposite magnets. The magnetization moment evolution during magnetic reversal is systematically analyzed. On the other hand, magnetic properties of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets prepared by hot pressing and hot deformation methods also provide evidences for the calculated results.

  10. Study of the magnetic interaction in nanocrystalline Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dospial, M.; Plusa, D.; Ślusarek, B.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic properties of an isotropic, epoxy resin bonded magnets made from Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B powder were investigated. The magnetization reversal process and magnetic parameters were examined by measurements of the initial magnetization curve, major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From the initial magnetization curve and the field dependencies of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components derived from the recoil loops it was found that the magnetization reversal process is the combination of the nucleation of reversed domains and pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries and the reversible rotation of magnetization vector in single domain grains. The interactions between grains were studied by means of δM plots. The nonlinear behavior of δM curve approve that the short range intergrain exchange coupling interactions are dominant in a field up to the sample coercivity. The interaction domains and fine magnetic structure were revealed as the evidence of exchange coupling between soft α-Fe and hard magnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains. - Highlights: ► Coercivity of the Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B magnet is determined by the pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries. ► Rotation of magnetization vector and domain walls bowing also give the contribution to the initial and demagnetization process. ► δM behavior shows that the dominant interaction is the short range exchange one among soft magnetic α-Fe and hard magnetic Pr 2 Fe 14 B grains.

  11. Striped Marlin Hardparts and Gonads Collected by the PIRO Hawaii Longline Observer Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of all samples collected from striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) collected and brought to the Aiea Heights Research Facility by the PIRO Hawaii Longline...

  12. Micromagnetics of rare-earth efficient permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbacher, Johann; Kovacs, Alexander; Gusenbauer, Markus; Oezelt, Harald; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Schrefl, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The development of permanent magnets containing less or no rare-earth elements is linked to profound knowledge of the coercivity mechanism. Prerequisites for a promising permanent magnet material are a high spontaneous magnetization and a sufficiently high magnetic anisotropy. In addition to the intrinsic magnetic properties the microstructure of the magnet plays a significant role in establishing coercivity. The influence of the microstructure on coercivity, remanence, and energy density product can be understood by using micromagnetic simulations. With advances in computer hardware and numerical methods, hysteresis curves of magnets can be computed quickly so that the simulations can readily provide guidance for the development of permanent magnets. The potential of rare-earth reduced and rare-earth free permanent magnets is investigated using micromagnetic simulations. The results show excellent hard magnetic properties can be achieved in grain boundary engineered NdFeB, rare-earth magnets with a ThMn12 structure, Co-based nano-wires, and L10-FeNi provided that the magnet’s microstructure is optimized.

  13. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-01-01

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm 2 Co 17 or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  14. Effect Of DyMn Alloy-Powder Addition On Microstructure And Magnetic Properties Of NdFeB Sintered Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M.-W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Micostructural change and corresponding effect on coercivity of a NdFeB sintered magnet mixed with small amount of DyMn powder was investigated. In the sintered magnet mixed with the DyMn alloy-powder Dy-rich shell was formed at outer layer of the main grains, while Mn was mostly concentrated at Nd-rich triple junction phase (TJP, lowering melting temperature of the Nd-rich phase that eventually improved the microstructural characteristics of the gain boundary phase. The coercivity of a magnet increased more than 3.5 kOe by the mixing of the DyMn alloy-powder.

  15. Propagation of dark stripe beams in nonlinear media: Snake instability and creation of optical vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of (1+1) dimensional dark stripe beams in bulk media with a photorefractive nonlinear response. These beams, including solitary wave solutions, are shown to be unstable with respect to symmetry breaking and formation of structure along the initially homogeneous coordinate....... Experimental results show the complete sequence of events starting from self-focusing of the stripe, its bending due to the snake instability, and subsequent decay into a set of optical vortices....

  16. Status of Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena in Hatay and Şanlıurfa-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Atay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an 18 month survey, involving face to face interviews with the local people and deployment camera-traps, was carried out on about 600 km2 areas in Turkey. Field surveys and camera-trapping resulted in strong evidences that striped hyenas travel and live around Hatay (Syria border and Şanlıurfa Provinces in Turkey. However, a comprehensive study was not carried out about the status of striped hyenas in this region. Our results showed that striped hyenas were frequently observed around the wasteland and the chicken farm in Hatay Province. Alternatively, they live in small groups in Şanlıurfa Province. Several caves suitable for striped hyenas were identified by footprints, feces and other animal remnants observed in and before those caves. We performed molecular characterization of striped hyenas in Turkey for the first time using Cytb mitochondrial DNA isolated from hair, ear and carcass tissues. Sequences of Cytb DNA sequences from10 different striped hyena samples from Turkey were found to be identical to each other. Comparison of the sequences with the previously reported Cytb sequences, including prehistoric ones, showed that Ctyb gene was highly conserved among the Hyaena hyaena species. During the field surveys we also observed that habitat destruction and fragmentation are detected on high level in the studied regions due to the intensive agricultural areas, settlements and quarries. Illegal hunting, frequent cave usage by shepherds, extensive porcupines hunting, water pollution from olive oil production facilities and highway crashes have been negatively affecting striped hyena population in Hatay and Şanlıurfa regions. It appears that a comprehensive study and protection plan should be exerted to preserve the habitat of striped hyenas.

  17. Are stripes beneficial? Dazzle camouflage influences perceived speed and hit rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina von Helversen

    Full Text Available In the animal kingdom, camouflage refers to patterns that help potential prey avoid detection. Mostly camouflage is thought of as helping prey blend in with their background. In contrast, disruptive or dazzle patterns protect moving targets and have been suggested as an evolutionary force in shaping the dorsal patterns of animals. Dazzle patterns, such as stripes and zigzags, are thought to reduce the probability with which moving prey will be captured by impairing predators' perception of speed. We investigated how different patterns of stripes (longitudinal-i.e., parallel to movement direction-and vertical-i.e., perpendicular to movement direction affect the probability with which humans can hit moving objects and if differences in hitting probability are caused by a misperception of speed. A first experiment showed that longitudinally striped objects were hit more often than unicolored objects. However, vertically striped objects did not differ from unicolored objects. A second study examining the link between perceived speed and hitting probability showed that longitudinally and vertically striped objects were both perceived as moving faster and were hit more often than unicolored objects. In sum, our results provide evidence that striped patterns disrupt the perception of speed, which in turn influences how often objects are hit. However, the magnitude and the direction of the effects depend on additional factors such as speed and the task setup.

  18. Quantity and functionality of protein fractions in chicken breast fillets affected by white striping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2014-08-01

    Recently, white striations parallel to muscle fibers direction have been observed on the surface of chicken breast, which could be ascribed to intensive growth selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of white striping on chemical composition with special emphasis on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions that are relevant to the processing features of chicken breast meat. During this study, a total of 12 pectoralis major muscles from both normal and white striped fillets were used to evaluate chemical composition, protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and total protein solubility), protein quantity (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and stromal proteins), water holding capacity, and protein profile by SDS-PAGE analysis. White-striped fillets exhibited a higher percentage of moisture (75.4 vs. 73.8%; P cooking loss (33.7 vs. 27.4%; P chicken breast meat with white striping defect had different chemical composition (more fat and less protein) and protein quality and quantity (low content of myofibrillar proteins and high content of stromal proteins) with respect to normal meat. Furthermore, white striped fillets had lower protein functionality (higher cooking loss). All the former changes indicate that white striping has great impact on quality characteristics of chicken breast meat. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Applying the Helmholtz Illusion to Fashion: Horizontal Stripes Won't Make You Look Fatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A square composed of horizontal lines appears taller and narrower than an identical square made up of vertical lines. Reporting this illusion, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that such illusions, in which filled space seems to be larger than unfilled space, were common in everyday life, adding the observation that ladies' frocks with horizontal stripes make the figure look taller. As this assertion runs counter to modern popular belief, we have investigated whether vertical or horizontal stripes on clothing should make the wearer appear taller or fatter. We find that a rectangle of vertical stripes needs to be extended by 7.1% vertically to match the height of a square of horizontal stripes and that a rectangle of horizontal stripes must be made 4.5% wider than a square of vertical stripes to match its perceived width. This illusion holds when the horizontal or vertical lines are on the dress of a line drawing of a woman. We have examined the claim that these effects apply only for 2-dimensional figures in an experiment with 3-D cylinders and find no support for the notion that horizontal lines would be ‘fattening’ on clothes. Significantly, the illusion persists when the horizontal or vertical lines are on pictures of a real half-body mannequin viewed stereoscopically. All the evidence supports Helmholtz's original assertion.

  20. Multi-pole magnetization of NdFeB magnets for magnetic micro-actuators and its characterization with a magnetic field mapping device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepfer, J.; Pawlowski, B.; Beer, H.; Ploetner, K.; Hofmann, P.; Herrfurth, J.

    2004-01-01

    Multi-pole magnetization of NdFeB plate magnets of thickness between 0.25 and 2 mm with a stripe pattern and a pole pitch of 2 or 1 mm was performed by pulse magnetization. The experimental conditions of the magnetization process were optimized to give a maximum surface flux density at the poles. The magnetic field distribution above the magnets was measured with a field mapping device that automatically scans the surface of the magnet with a Hall probe. It is demonstrated for different magnet geometries that the field mapping system is a useful device to study the magnetic surface pole structure. The characterization of the pole flux density of multi-pole NdFeB flat magnets is an important prerequisite for the application of these magnets in miniature actuators

  1. Optimizing the field distribution of a Halbach type permanent magnet cylinder using the soft iron and superhard magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaonong; Lu, Dingwei; Xu, Xibin; Yu, Yang; Gu, Min

    2018-01-01

    When a conventional Halbach type Hollow Cylindrical Permanent Magnet Array (HCPMA) is used to generate magnetic induction over the magnitude of coercivity μ0Hc, some detrimental parasitic magnetic phenomena, such as the demagnetization, magnetization reversal, and vortexes of magnetization, can appear in the interior of the magnets. We present a self-consistent quantitative analysis of the magnetization and magnetic induction distributions inside the magnetic array by considering the anisotropic and nonlinear magnetization functions of the materials consisting of the array. These numeric simulations reveal novel magnetization structures resulted from the self-field of array. We demonstrate that both the field uniformity and magnetic flux in the pole gap can be modulated by partially substituting the magnets of high energy products with the soft irons and the superhard magnets. We also show how the optimized substitution parameters can be obtained for a HCPMA achieving the best field uniformity or the maximum magnetic flux.

  2. Magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy/molybdenum multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, M.; Ciudad, D.; Maicas, M.; Aroca, C.; Ranchal, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy (Py: Ni 80 Fe 20 )/molybdenum (Mo) multilayer thin films. We show that it is possible to maintain a low coercivity and a high permeability in thick sputtered Py films when reducing the out-of-plane component of the anisotropy by inserting thin film spacers of a non-magnetic material like Mo. For these kind of multilayers, we have found coercivities which are close to those for single layer films with no out-of-plane anisotropy. The coercivity is also dependent on the number of layers exhibiting a minimum value when each single Py layer has a thickness close to the transition thickness between Neel and Bloch domain walls.

  3. Synthesis of core-shell hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates: Quantitative analysis of the particle structure and shape, high coercivity and low cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marin; Kopanja, Lazar; Panjan, Matjaz; Kralj, Slavko; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    Hematite core-shell nanoparticles with plate-like morphology were synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal synthesis. An XRPD analysis indicates that the sample consist of single-phase α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM measurements show that the hematite sample is composed of uniform core-shell nanoplates with 10-20 nm thickness, 80-100 nm landscape dimensions (aspect ratio ∼5) and 3-4 nm thickness of the surface shells. We used computational methods for the quantitative analysis of the core-shell particle structure and circularity shape descriptor for the quantitative shape analysis of the nanoparticles from TEM micrographs. The calculated results indicated that a percentage of the shell area in the nanoparticle area (share [%]) is significant. The determined values of circularity in the perpendicular and oblique perspective clearly show shape anisotropy of the nanoplates. The magnetic properties revealed the ferromagnetic-like properties at room temperature with high coercivity HC = 2340 Oe, pointing to the shape and surface effects. These results signify core-shell hematite nanoparticles' for practical applications in magnetic devices. The synthesized hematite plate-like nanoparticles exhibit low cytotoxicity levels on the human lung fibroblasts (MRC5) cell line demonstrating the safe use of these nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  4. Variation of structure and magnetic properties with thickness of thin Co59Fe26Ni15 films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, NG; van Voorthuysen, EHD; De Hosson, JTM; Boerma, DO

    Variations of phase composition and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Co-Fe-Ni films with film thickness in the range of 50-500 nm were analyzed. The samples were magnetically soft with coercivity in the range H-c = 2-20 Oe and uni axial magnetic anisotropy up to H-k = 20 Oe.

  5. Characterizing the Heat Flow from Between Enceladus' Tiger Stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Verbiscer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Enceladus' heat flow provides a fundamental constraint on its tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. Determining the total amount of emission is proving difficult, as different techniques produce differing constraints. For example, an initial estimate of this value, 5.8±1.3 GW, was made by Spencer et al. (2006) using Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 600 to 1100 cm-1 observations, which was refined using 10 to 600 cm-1 CIRS observations to 15.8±3.1 GW by Howett et al. (2011). However, recent reanalysis of high-spatial resolution 10 to 1100 cm-1 CIRS observations of Enceladus' active south polar region conducted by Spencer and Howett gives a heat flow of 4.64±0.23 GW. Whilst all of these heat flow estimates are much larger than those expected in a steady state, 1.1 GW (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007), their obvious discrepancy is a puzzle. In this work we seek to help understand these discrepancies by determining how much endogenic heat flow is coming from the funiscular terrain between Enceladus active tiger stripes.

  6. Change in Occurrence of Rice stripe virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Choon Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV disease in 672 fields from 29 rice representative area inJuly 2012 as nationwide survey for RSV occurrence since 2008. We confirmed occurrence of virus disease in18 areas, in west coast region including Secheon, Taean, Buwan and Cheorwon. RSV incidence rates of plantin Sacheon and Buan were less than 0.01% and 0.15%, respectively, showing similar rate with the nationwidesurvey carried out in 2008, whereas incidence rate of field declined from 19.9% in 2008 to 4.9% in 2012.Earlier, RSV occurred largely across the southern region of Korea. In 2001, RSV disease was found inGangwha and Gyeonggi-do, the northern region of Korea. In 2007, RSV appeared in west coast; Buan inJeollabuk-do and Seocheon in Choongnam-do. After migration of the vector, small brown plant hopper, fromChina in 2009, RSV is becoming a pandemic.

  7. Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.

  8. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  9. Current Flow in the Bubble and Stripe Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, B.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    The spontaneous ordering of spins and charges in geometric patterns is currently under scrutiny in a number of different material systems. A topic of particular interest is the interaction of such ordered phases with itinerant electrons driven by an externally imposed current. It not only provides important information on the charge ordering itself but potentially also allows manipulating the shape and symmetry of the underlying pattern if current flow is strong enough. Unfortunately, conventional transport methods probing the macroscopic resistance suffer from the fact that the voltage drop along the sample edges provides only indirect information on the bulk properties because a complex current distribution is elicited by the inhomogeneous ground state. Here, we promote the use of surface acoustic waves to study these broken-symmetry phases and specifically address the bubble and stripe phases emerging in high-quality two-dimensional electron systems in GaAs /AlGaAs heterostructures as prototypical examples. When driving a unidirectional current, we find a surprising discrepancy between the sound propagation probing the bulk of the sample and the voltage drop along the sample edges. Our results prove that the current-induced modifications observed in resistive transport measurements are in fact a local phenomenon only, leaving the majority of the sample unaltered. More generally, our findings shed new light on the extent to which these ordered electron phases are impacted by an external current and underline the intrinsic advantages of acoustic measurements for the study of such inhomogeneous phases.

  10. Historical development of entrainment models for Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Englert, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, concerns surfaced regarding entrainment and impingement of young-of-the-year (age-0) striped bass by electric power generating facilities on the Hudson River. These concerns stimulated the development of increasingly complex models to evaluate the impacts of these facilities. The earliest simplistic formulas, based on empirical data, proved inadequate because of conceptual shortcomings, incomplete development, and lack of data. By 1972, complex transport models based on biological and hydrodynamic principles had been developed and applied by scientists representing both the utilities and the government. Disagreements about the acceptability of these models spurred the development of even more complex models. The entrainment models stimulated the collection of substantial amounts of field data to define the spatial distributions and entrainment survival of early life stages. As the difficulties of accounting for the movement of early life stages from hydrodynamic principles became more evident and as more field data became available, simpler empirical modeling approaches became both practical and defensible. Both empirical and hydrodynamic modeling approaches were applied during the US Environmental Protection Agency's hearings on the Hudson River power case (1977-1980). The main lessons learned from the experience with entrainment-impingement modeling are that complex mechanistic models are not necessarily better than simpler empirical models for young fish, and that care must be taken to construct even the simple models correctly. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M 1450 2 , then extend to lower luminosities (M 1450 2 of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 1450 * ∼-27). The bright-end slope is steep (β ∼ 1450 < –26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate ∼30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  12. Micromagnetic simulation of the influence of grain boundary on cerium substituted Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model was performed to study the magnetization reversal of (CexNd1-x2Fe14B nanocomposite permanent magnets. The influences of volume fraction, width and performance parameters of the grain boundary (GB composition on the coercivity were analyzed by the method of micromagnetic simulation. The calculation results indicate that the structure and chemistry of GB phase play important roles in Nd2Fe14B-based magnets. An abnormal increase in the value of coercivity is found to be connected with the GB phase, approximately when the percentage of doped cerium is between 20% and 30%. While the coercivity decreases directly with the increase in cerium content instead of being abnormal when there is no GB phase in magnets at all or the value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy or exchange integral is too large.

  13. Large time-dependent coercivity and resistivity modification under sustained voltage application in a Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt junction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.; van der Heijden, M.A.J.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Koopmans, B.

    2015-01-01

    The coercivity and resistivity of a Pt/Co/AlOx/Pt junction are measured under sustained voltage application. High bias voltages of either polarity are determined to cause a strongly enhanced, reversible coercivity modification compared to low voltages. Time-resolved measurements show a logarithmic

  14. Stabilization of the high coercivity ε-Fe2O3 phase in the CeO2–Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantlikova, A.; Poltierova Vejpravova, J.; Bittova, B.; Burianova, S.; Niznansky, D.; Ardu, A.; Cannas, C.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the processes leading to the formation of the Fe 2 O 3 and CeO 2 nanoparticles in the SiO 2 matrix in order to stabilize the ε-Fe 2 O 3 as the major phase. The samples with two different concentrations of the Fe were prepared by sol–gel method, subsequently annealed at different temperatures up to 1100 °C, and characterized by the Mössbauer spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and magnetic measurements. The evolution of the different Fe 2 O 3 phases under various conditions of preparation was investigated, starting with the preferential appearance of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase for the sample with low Fe concentration and low annealing temperature and stabilization of the major ε-Fe 2 O 3 phase for high Fe concentration and high annealing temperature, coexisting with the most stable α-Fe 2 O 3 phase. A continuous increase of the particle size of the CeO 2 nanocrystals with increasing annealing temperature was also observed. - Graphical abstract: The graphical abstract displays the most important results of our work. The significant change of the phase composition due to the variation of preparation conditions is demonstrated. As a result, significant change of the magnetic properties from superparamagnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase with negligible coercivity to the high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 phase has been observed. Highlights: ► Research of the stabilization of the high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 in CeO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 /SiO 2 . ► Samples with two different concentrations of Fe and three annealing temperatures. ► Phase transition γ→ε→(β)→α with increasing annealing temperature and particle size. ► Elimination of the superparamagnetic phases in samples with higher content of Fe. ► Best conditions for high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 —higher Fe content and T A =1100°C.

  15. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  16. Giant magnetic anisotropy and tunnelling of the magnetization in Li2(Li1-xFex)N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesche, A.; McCallum, R. W.; Thimmaiah, S.; Jacobs, J. L.; Taufour, V.; Kreyssig, A.; Houk, R. S.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2014-02-25

    Large magnetic anisotropy and coercivity are key properties of functional magnetic materials and are generally associated with rare earth elements. Here we show an extreme, uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and the emergence of magnetic hysteresis in Li2(Li1-xFex)N. An extrapolated, magnetic anisotropy field of 220 T and a coercivity field of over 11 T at 2 K outperform all known hard ferromagnets and single-molecular magnets. Steps in the hysteresis loops and relaxation phenomena in striking similarity to single-molecular magnets are particularly pronounced for x<<1 and indicate the presence of nanoscale magnetic centres. Quantum tunnelling, in the form of temperature-independent relaxation and coercivity, deviation from Arrhenius behaviour and blocking of the relaxation, dominates the magnetic properties up to 10 K. The simple crystal structure, the availability of large single crystals and the ability to vary the Fe concentration make Li2(Li1-xFex)N an ideal model system to study macroscopic quantum effects at elevated temperatures and also a basis for novel functional magnetic materials.

  17. Effect of an annealing on magnetic properties of Fe-Ni films electroplated in citric-acid-based plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Koda, K.; Eguchi, K.; Morimura, T.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-04-01

    We have already reported Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In the present study, we employed an annealing for further improvement in soft magnetic properties of the electroplated Fe-Ni films. The annealing reduces the coercivity of the films, and the reduction rate of the coercivity depended on the Cl- ion concentration in the bath. The Fe22Ni78 films prepared in the plating bath with high Cl- ion concentration showed large reduction rate of the coercivity, and we found that the annealing is more effective for high Cl- ion concentration bath since much lower coercivity value can be obtained compared with that for low Cl- ion concentration one.

  18. Effect of an annealing on magnetic properties of Fe-Ni films electroplated in citric-acid-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yanai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have already reported Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In the present study, we employed an annealing for further improvement in soft magnetic properties of the electroplated Fe-Ni films. The annealing reduces the coercivity of the films, and the reduction rate of the coercivity depended on the Cl- ion concentration in the bath. The Fe22Ni78 films prepared in the plating bath with high Cl- ion concentration showed large reduction rate of the coercivity, and we found that the annealing is more effective for high Cl- ion concentration bath since much lower coercivity value can be obtained compared with that for low Cl- ion concentration one.

  19. Canted ferrimagnetism and giant coercivity in the nonstoichiometric double perovskite L a2N i1.19O s0.81O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hai L.; Reehuis, Manfred; Adler, Peter; Hu, Zhiwei; Nicklas, Michael; Hoser, Andreas; Weng, Shih-Chang; Felser, Claudia; Jansen, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The nonstoichiometric double perovskite oxide L a2N i1.19O s0.81O6 was synthesized by solid-state reaction and its crystal and magnetic structures were investigated by powder x-ray and neutron diffraction. L a2N i1.19O s0.81O6 crystallizes in the monoclinic double perovskite structure (general formula A2B B'O6 ) with space group P 21/n , where the B site is fully occupied by Ni and the B ' site by 19% Ni and 81% Os atoms. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy an O s4.5 + oxidation state was established, suggesting the presence of about 50% paramagnetic O s5 + (5 d3 , S =3 /2 ) and 50% nonmagnetic O s4 + (5 d4 , Jeff=0 ) ions at the B ' sites. Magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements on L a2N i1.19O s0.81O6 provide evidence for a ferrimagnetic transition at 125 K. The analysis of the neutron data suggests a canted ferrimagnetic spin structure with collinear N i2 + -spin chains extending along the c axis but a noncollinear spin alignment within the a b plane. The magnetization curve of L a2N i1.19O s0.81O6 features a hysteresis with a very high coercive field, HC=41 kOe , at T =5 K , which is explained in terms of large magnetocrystalline anisotropy due to the presence of Os ions together with atomic disorder. Our results are encouraging to search for rare-earth-free hard magnets in the class of double perovskite oxides.

  20. Milling condition effects on the Nd15 Fe77 B8 powder magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgraf, Fernando J.G.; Missell, Frank P.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of the first part of a study of the development of permanent magnets, an investigation of the effect of milling on the magnetic properties of the alloy Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 showed differences in efficiency between ball milling and vibration milling, as well as a dependence of the intrinsic coercive field on particle size. The maximum value of the coercive field was obtained for a particle size of 1.7 μm in samples compacted without magnetic orientation. (author)

  1. Preparation and characterization of magnetic chitosan particles for hyperthermia application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji-Ho; Im, Ki-Hyeong; Lee, Se-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Doug-Youn; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2005-01-01

    The size and shape of magnetic chitosan particles were found to be dependent on both the barium ferrite/chitosan (BF/C) ratio and viscosity of a chitosan solution. The saturation magnetization of magnetic chitosan particles varied directly with the BF/C ratio, while coercivity remained almost constant. Notably, incorporated chitosan was shown to exert substantial activity with regard to low cytotoxicity and high heating rate

  2. Magnetic Nanostructures Patterned by Self-Organized Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Palma , J. Escrig, J. C. Denardin Angular dependence of the coercivity and remanence of ordered arrays of Co nanowires Journal of...J. L. Palma , C. Gallardo, L. Spinu, J. M. Vargas, L. S. Dorneles, J. C. Denardin, J. Escrig, Magnetic properties of Fe20 Ni80 antidots: Pore size and...array disorder, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials., 344, 2013, 8-13 7. E. Vargas, P. Toro, J.L. Palma , J. Escrig, C. Chaneac,

  3. Microstructure evolution and coercivity enhancement in Nd-Fe-B thin films diffusion-processed by R-Al alloys (R=Nd, Pr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yigao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Tongbo; Fu, Yanqing; Jiang, Qingzheng; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen; Cui, Weibin; Wang, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion process by Nd-Al and Pr-Al alloys was compared and investigated in Nd-Fe-B thin films. Enhanced coercivity 2.06T and good squareness was obtained by using Pr85Al15 and Nd85Al15 alloys as diffusion sources. But the coercivity of diffusion-processed thin films by Pr70Al30 and Pr55Al45 alloys decreased to 2.04T and 1.82T. High ambient coercivity of 2.26T was achieved in diffusion-processed thin film by Nd70Al30 leading to an improved coercivity thermal stability because Nd2Fe14B grains were enveloped by Nd-rich phase as seen by transmission electron microscopy Nd-loss image. Meanwhile, microstructure-dependent parameters α and Neff were improved. However, high content of Al in diffusion-processed thin film by Nd55Al45 lead to degraded texture and coercivity.

  4. Magnet properties of Mn{sub 70}Ga{sub 30} prepared by cold rolling and magnetic field annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ener, Semih, E-mail: ener@fm.tu-darmstadt.de [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Skokov, Konstantin P. [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karpenkov, Dmitriy Yu. [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Faculty of Physics, Tver State University, 170100 Tver (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kuz' min, Michael D. [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gutfleisch, Oliver [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fraunhofer IWKS, Project Group for Material Cycles and Resource Strategy, 63457 Hanau (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The remanence and coercivity of arc melted Mn{sub 70}Ga{sub 30} can be substantially improved by cold rolling. For best performance the rolled material should be annealed at T=730 K in the presence of a magnetic field of 1 T. The so-obtained magnet has a remanence of 0.239 T and a coercivity of 1.24 T at room temperature. The underlying reason for the high coercivity and remanence is the increase of the content of a metastable ferrimagnetic D0{sub 22} phase at the expense of the normally stable anti-ferromagnetic D0{sub 19}. Magnetic field significantly increases the nucleation rate of the ferromagnetic D0{sub 22} phase that leads to grain size refinement and as a consequence of improving remanence and coercive field. - Highlights: • Alternative synthesis method for D0{sub 22} phase formation in Mn–Ga is developed. • Effect of cold rolling and annealing on magnetic properties of Mn{sub 70}Ga{sub 30} is examined. • Small magnetic fields are sufficient to accelerate nucleation of the D0{sub 22} phase.

  5. Feasibility of low-cost magnetic rail designs by integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets for HTS Maglev systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R. X.; Deng, Z. G.; Gou, Y. F.; Li, Y. J.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an indispensable part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems. Present PMGs are made of NdFeB magnets with excellent performance and cost much. As another permanent magnet material, the ferrite magnet is weak at magnetic energy product and coercive force, but inexpensive. So, it is a possible way to integrate the ferrite and NdFeB magnets for cutting down the cost of present PMGs. In the paper, the equivalent on magnetic field intensity between ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets was evaluated by finite element simulation. According to the calculation results, the magnetic field of the PMG integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets can be increased remarkably comparing with the pure ferrite PMG. It indicates that low-cost PMG designs by integrating the two permanent magnet materials are feasible for the practical HTS Maglev system.

  6. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH) max of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  7. A harsh parenting team? Maternal reports of coparenting and coercive parenting interact in association with children's disruptive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Rachel M; Mark, Katharine M; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-05-01

    Parenting and coparenting are both important for children's adjustment, but their interaction has been little explored. Using a longitudinal design and considering two children per family, we investigated mothers' and fathers' perceptions of coparenting as moderators of associations between their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour. Mothers and fathers from 106 'intact' families were included from the Twins, Family and Behaviour study. At Time 1 (M child age  = 3 years 11 months, SD child age  = 4.44 months) parents reported on their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour via questionnaire; at Time 2 (M child age  = 4 years 8 months, SD child age  = 4.44 months) perceptions of coparenting and the marital relationship were collected by telephone interview. Questionnaire-based reports of children's disruptive behaviour were collected at follow-up (M child age  = 5 years 11 months, SD child age  = 5.52 months). Multilevel modelling was used to examine child-specific and family-wide effects. Conservative multilevel models including both maternal and paternal perceptions demonstrated that maternal perceptions of coparenting and overall coercive parenting interacted in their prediction of parent-reported child disruptive behaviour. Specifically, accounting for perceived marital quality, behavioural stability, and fathers' perceptions, only in the context of perceived higher quality coparenting was there a positive association between mother-reported overall coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour at follow-up. When combined with highly coercive parenting, maternal perceptions of high quality coparenting may be detrimental for children's adjustment. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-mu ZHANG; Hua-di WANG; Jian YANG; Michael J ADAMS; Jian-ping CHEN

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurren...

  9. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of CuFe2O4 Nanoparticles and Starch-Based Magnetic Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Nabiyouni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic CuFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted reaction between Cu(NO32 and Fe(NO33. The magnetic nanoparticles were added to starch to make magnetic polymeric nanocomposite. The nanoparticles and nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic properties of the samples were investigated using an alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM. The copper ferrite nanoparticles exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, with a saturation magnetization of 29emu/g and a coercivity of 136 Oe. The distribution of the CuFe2O4 nanoparticles into the polymeric matrixes decreases the coercivity (136 Oe to 66 Oe. The maximum coercivity of 82 Oe was found for 15% of CuFe2O4 distributed to the starch matrix.

  10. Meat quality of broiler breast fillets with white striping and woody breast muscle myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijare, V V; Yang, F L; Kuttappan, V A; Alvarado, C Z; Coon, C N; Owens, C M

    2016-09-01

    The global poultry industry has been faced with emerging broiler breast meat quality issues including conditions known as white striping (WS, white striations parallel to muscle fibers) and woody breast (WB, hardness of raw fillet). Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of WS and WB hardness on meat quality traits in broiler breast fillets. In Exp. 1, birds were processed at approximately 9 wk of age and deboned at 4 h postmortem (PM); in Exp. 2, birds were processed at approximately 6 and 9 wk of age and deboned at 2 h PM. Fillets were categorized as: normal for both white striping and woody breast (NORM); moderate for white striping and mild for woody breast (MILD); severe for white striping and mild for woody breast (WS); severe for woody breast and moderate for white striping (WB); or severe for both white striping and woody breast (BOTH). Sarcomere length, gravimetric fragmentation index, marination uptake, cook loss, and Meullenet-Owens razor shear energy (MORSE) values on non-marinated and marinated fillets were assessed. Sarcomeres tended to be longer (P = 0.07) with increasing severity of WS and WB in both experiments and gravimetric fragmentation index did not differ (P > 0.05) among categories. Marinade uptake decreased (P  0.05) in non-marinated fillets, the marinated BOTH fillets had greater MORSE values (P  0.05) among categories of marinated breasts. At 9 wk, WS and BOTH were higher (P white striping and woody breast, individually or in combination, negatively impact meat quality, especially water holding capacity attributes such as marinade uptake and cook loss. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. PERIODIC VARIABILITY OF LOW-MASS STARS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A. C.; Hawley, S. L.; Ivezic, Z.; Kowalski, A. F.; Sesar, B.; Bochanski, J. J.; West, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of periodic stellar variability in the 'Stripe 82' region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After aggregating and re-calibrating catalog-level data from the survey, we ran a period-finding algorithm (Supersmoother) on all point-source light curves. We used color selection to identify systems that are likely to contain low-mass stars, in particular M dwarfs and white dwarfs. In total, we found 207 candidates, the vast majority of which appear to be in eclipsing binary systems. The catalog described in this paper includes 42 candidate M dwarf/white dwarf pairs, four white dwarf pairs, 59 systems whose colors indicate they are composed of two M dwarfs and whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in detached eclipsing binaries, and 28 M dwarf systems whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in contact binaries. We find no detached systems with periods longer than 3 days, thus the majority of our sources are likely to have experienced orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity. Indeed, 26 of 27 M dwarf systems that we have spectra for show signs of chromospheric magnetic activity, far higher than the 24% seen in field stars of the same spectral type. We also find binaries composed of stars that bracket the expected boundary between partially and fully convective interiors, which will allow the measurement of the stellar mass-radius relationship across this transition. The majority of our contact systems have short orbital periods, with small variance (0.02 days) in the sample near the observed cutoff of 0.22 days. The accumulation of these stars at short orbital period suggests that the process of angular momentum loss, leading to period evolution, becomes less efficient at short periods. These short-period systems are in a novel regime for studying the effects of orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity, which are thought to be the source of discrepancies between mass-radius predictions and measurements of these properties in eclipsing

  12. Influence of time dependent longitudinal magnetic fields on the cooling process, exchange bias and magnetization reversal mechanism in FM core/AFM shell nanoparticles: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Yusuf; Akıncı, Ümit

    2016-12-07

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the dynamic phase transition properties of magnetic nanoparticles with ferromagnetic core coated by an antiferromagnetic shell structure. Effects of field amplitude and frequency on the thermal dependence of magnetizations, magnetization reversal mechanisms during hysteresis cycles, as well as on the exchange bias and coercive fields have been examined, and the feasibility of applying dynamic magnetic fields on the particle have been discussed for technological and biomedical purposes.

  13. Preparation and magnetic properties of anisotropic bulk MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.L.; Liu, X.B.; Nguyen, V.V.; Poudyal, N.; Yue, M.; Liu, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropic hybrid bulk magnets of MnBi/NdFeB with different composition ratio have been prepared with starting MnBi and Nd 2 Fe 14 B powders as well as epoxy resin as a binder in case it is needed to form bulk samples. It has been found that the ratio between the two phases in content has a remarkable influence on the magnetic properties, the thermal stability and the density of the bulk magnets. With increasing MnBi content the binder addition can be reduced. When the MnBi content is larger than 30 wt%, no binder is needed. On the other hand, the coercivity and saturation magnetization were increased significantly with increasing NdFeB content. When the NdFeB content was increased from 0% to 50%, the maximum energy product was enhanced from 4.7 to 10.0 MGOe, respectively. The energy product then decreased gradually with the NdFeB content due to the reduced density of the hybrid magnet. The thermal stability measurements showed that the temperature coefficient of coercivity grew with the MnBi content and became positive with MnBi=80 wt%. - Highlights: • Anisotropic bulk hybrid MnBi/NdFeB magnets were prepared. • MnBi content affected the density and coercivity temperature coefficient positively. • An energy product (BH) max of 10 MGOe was obtained at NdFeB content of 50 wt%.

  14. Improvement of the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB permant magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, F.; Rozendaal, E.; Sagawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    A correlation between sintered NdFeB process, microstructure of the products at each step of the process and magnetic properties has been established. To increase (BH) max of sintered NdFeB magnets, the total rare-earth content in the alloy has to be decreased and to keep coercivity as high as possible, the unavoidable oxygen pick-up has to be substantially reduced. The composition improvements tend to create a high sensitivity to form abnormal grain growth which can potentially occur during the sintering operation. Special attention has been given to characterising, understanding the mechanisms and solving this defect which could affect the magnetic properties. In addition, the composition and each step of the process have been optimised to improve magnetic properties, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the NdFeB permanent magnets. These collaborative studies have resulted in a significant improvement of both remanence and coercivity of the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets, covering a wide coercivity range from 800 to 2500 kA/m (10 to 35 kOe) with respective associated energy products of 400 to 270 kJ/m3 (52 to 35 MGOe). (orig.)

  15. Preparation and magnetic properties of anisotropic bulk MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y.L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); College of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Liu, X.B.; Nguyen, V.V.; Poudyal, N. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Yue, M. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Liu, J.P., E-mail: pliu@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Anisotropic hybrid bulk magnets of MnBi/NdFeB with different composition ratio have been prepared with starting MnBi and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powders as well as epoxy resin as a binder in case it is needed to form bulk samples. It has been found that the ratio between the two phases in content has a remarkable influence on the magnetic properties, the thermal stability and the density of the bulk magnets. With increasing MnBi content the binder addition can be reduced. When the MnBi content is larger than 30 wt%, no binder is needed. On the other hand, the coercivity and saturation magnetization were increased significantly with increasing NdFeB content. When the NdFeB content was increased from 0% to 50%, the maximum energy product was enhanced from 4.7 to 10.0 MGOe, respectively. The energy product then decreased gradually with the NdFeB content due to the reduced density of the hybrid magnet. The thermal stability measurements showed that the temperature coefficient of coercivity grew with the MnBi content and became positive with MnBi=80 wt%. - Highlights: • Anisotropic bulk hybrid MnBi/NdFeB magnets were prepared. • MnBi content affected the density and coercivity temperature coefficient positively. • An energy product (BH){sub max} of 10 MGOe was obtained at NdFeB content of 50 wt%.

  16. Magnetization jumps in nanostructured Nd–Fe–B alloy at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznakhin, D.S.; Bolyachkin, A.S.; Volegov, A.S.; Markin, P.E.; Andreev, S.V.; Kudrevatykh, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the nanostructured isotropic alloy on the base of Nd 2 Fe 14 B type phase were investigated at low temperatures. The evaluated average grain size of this phase was much smaller than its critical single domain diameter. Hence the magnetization and demagnetization processes were expected to be performed by coherent magnetization rotation. For such coercivity type system magnetization jumps were revealed on the demagnetization hysteresis loop branch in the vicinity of the coercive force at temperatures below 4 K. It was shown that magnetization jumps have a stochastic behavior and their number strongly depends on the temperature and the mass of measured samples. High temperature spikes corresponding to magnetization discontinuities were observed. All these results allowed to propose that magnetization jumps in nanostructured magnetics with magnetization rotation reversal processes comply with the local heating model. - Highlights: • Magnetization reversals of the nanostructured Nd–Fe–B-type alloy were obtained below 4 K. • Magnetization jumps were first observed for magnetization rotation coercivity type magnets. • Staircase magnetization reversal was explained within the framework of the local heating model

  17. The Beam Screen for the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, MJ; Ducimetière, L; Garrel, N; Kroyer, T

    2006-01-01

    The two LHC injection kicker magnet systems must each produce a kick of 1.2 T.m with a flattop duration variable up to 7.86 ìs, and rise and fall times of less than 0.9 ìs and 3 ìs, respectively. Each system is composed of four 5 Ù transmission line kicker magnets with matched terminating resistors and pulse forming networks (PFN). The LHC beam has a high intensity, hence a beam screen is required in the aperture of the magnets This screen consists of a ceramic tube with conducting ?stripes? on the inner wall. The stripes provide a path for the image current of the beam and screen the magnet ferrites against Wake fields. The stripes initially used gave adequately low beam impedance however stripe discharges occured during pulsing of the magnet: hence further development of the beam screen was undertaken. This paper presents options considered to meet the often conflicting needs for low beam impedance, shielding of the ferrite, fast field rise time and good electrical and vacuum behaviour.

  18. Domain configuration and magnetization switching in arrays of permalloy nanostripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias-Freire, Ó.; Jaafar, M.; Pérez, L.; Abril, O. de; Vázquez, M.; Asenjo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The proximity effect in the collective behavior of arrays of magnetic nanostripes is currently a subject of intensive research. The imperative of reducing the size and distances between elements in order to achieve higher storage capacity, faster access to the information as well as low energy consumption, brings consequences about the isolated behavior of the elements and devices. Parallel to each other permalloy nanostripes with high aspect ratio have been prepared by the nanolithography technique. The evolution of the closure domains and the magnetization direction in individual nanostructures has been imaged under applied magnetic fields using Variable Field Magnetic Force Microscopy. Moreover, the magnetostatic interactions between neighboring elements and the proximity effects in arrays of such nanostructures have been quantitatively analyzed by Magnetic Force Microscopy and micromagnetic simulations. The agreement between simulations and the experimental results allows us to conclude the relevance of those interactions depending on the geometry characteristics. In particular, results suggest that the magnetostatic coupling between adjacent nanostripes vanishes for separation distances higher than 500 nm. - Highlights: • A shape anisotropy-induced single domain remanent state is present in the stripes. Closure domains are formed under external fields. • Separation distances between neighboring stripes (500 nm) are enough to overcome the magnetostatic coupling and avoid a multi-stripe character. • Micromagnetic simulations predict critical distances of around 500 nm for the onset of magnetostatic coupling between neighboring elements. • Simulations predict stripes with a small longitudinal separation to behave as single elements, with domain walls “jumping” between them

  19. Domain configuration and magnetization switching in arrays of permalloy nanostripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias-Freire, Ó., E-mail: aasenjo@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Jaafar, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Dpto. Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049 (Spain); Pérez, L. [Dpto. Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Abril, O. de [Dpto. Física e Instalaciones Aplicadas a la Edificación, al Medio Ambiente y al Urbanismo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Vázquez, M.; Asenjo, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2014-04-15

    The proximity effect in the collective behavior of arrays of magnetic nanostripes is currently a subject of intensive research. The imperative of reducing the size and distances between elements in order to achieve higher storage capacity, faster access to the information as well as low energy consumption, brings consequences about the isolated behavior of the elements and devices. Parallel to each other permalloy nanostripes with high aspect ratio have been prepared by the nanolithography technique. The evolution of the closure domains and the magnetization direction in individual nanostructures has been imaged under applied magnetic fields using Variable Field Magnetic Force Microscopy. Moreover, the magnetostatic interactions between neighboring elements and the proximity effects in arrays of such nanostructures have been quantitatively analyzed by Magnetic Force Microscopy and micromagnetic simulations. The agreement between simulations and the experimental results allows us to conclude the relevance of those interactions depending on the geometry characteristics. In particular, results suggest that the magnetostatic coupling between adjacent nanostripes vanishes for separation distances higher than 500 nm. - Highlights: • A shape anisotropy-induced single domain remanent state is present in the stripes. Closure domains are formed under external fields. • Separation distances between neighboring stripes (500 nm) are enough to overcome the magnetostatic coupling and avoid a multi-stripe character. • Micromagnetic simulations predict critical distances of around 500 nm for the onset of magnetostatic coupling between neighboring elements. • Simulations predict stripes with a small longitudinal separation to behave as single elements, with domain walls “jumping” between them.

  20. Engineering Gilbert damping by dilute Gd doping in soft magnetic Fe thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Jiang, S.; Wong, P.K.J.; Sun, Li; Wang, Y.K.; Wang, Kai; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; van der Laan, G.; Zhai, Y.

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, we show that the Gilbert damping constant in soft magnetic Fe thin films can be enhanced by ∼6 times with Gd doping of up to 20%. At the same time, the magnetic easy axis remains in the film plane while the coercivity is strongly reduced after Gd

  1. Optimization of film synthesized rare earth transition metal permanent magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadieu, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews work on the optimization of film synthesized rare earth transition metal permanent magnet systems. Topics include: high coercivity in Sm-Fe-Ti-V, Sm-Fe-V, and two element systems; ThMn 12 type pseudobinary SmFe 12 - X T X ; and sputter process control for the synthesis of precisely textured RE-TM magnetic films. (JL)

  2. Structural and magnetic study of dysprosium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Hemaunt, E-mail: hvatsal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Srivastava, R.C. [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Pal Singh, Jitendra [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Negi, P. [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Agrawal, H.M. [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Das, D. [UGC-DAE CSR Kolkata Centre, Kolkata 700098 (India); Hwa Chae, Keun [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the magnetic behavior of Dy{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction studies reveal presence of cubic spinel phases in these nanoparticles. Raman spectra of these nanoparticles show change in intensity of Raman bands, which reflects cation redistribution in cubic spinel lattice. Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with increase of Dy{sup 3+}concentration in these nanoparticles. Room temperature Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in these nanoparticles and corroborates the results obtained from Raman Spectroscopic measurements. Decrease in magnetization of Dy{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrite is attributed to the reduction in the magnetic interaction and cation redistribution. - Highlights: • Slight decrease in crystallite size after Dy{sup 3+} doping. • Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease after Dy{sup 3+} doping. • Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in the samples.

  3. Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.; Kaszuwara, W.

    2002-01-01

    Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets were processed. Basic magnetic parameters as well as compressive strength were evaluated versus annealing temperature and volume fraction of the bonding agent. For the zinc bonded magnets phase composition was investigated. The additional NdZn 5 phase was found in the Zn bonded magnets after annealing. Comparison of the Zn and resin bonded magnets reveals higher remanence for the former and higher coercivity for the latter. For the Zn and resin bonded magnets, 15 wt.% Zn / 370 o C and 7-10 wt.% resin were chosen as the optimal processing parameters. (author)

  4. Trapping of diffusing particles by striped cylindrical surfaces. Boundary homogenization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdug, Leonardo; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Skvortsov, Alexei T.

    2015-01-01

    We study trapping of diffusing particles by a cylindrical surface formed by rolling a flat surface, containing alternating absorbing and reflecting stripes, into a tube. For an arbitrary stripe orientation with respect to the tube axis, this problem is intractable analytically because it requires dealing with non-uniform boundary conditions. To bypass this difficulty, we use a boundary homogenization approach which replaces non-uniform boundary conditions on the tube wall by an effective uniform partially absorbing boundary condition with properly chosen effective trapping rate. We demonstrate that the exact solution for the effective trapping rate, known for a flat, striped surface, works very well when this surface is rolled into a cylindrical tube. This is shown for both internal and external problems, where the particles diffuse inside and outside the striped tube, at three orientations of the stripe direction with respect to the tube axis: (a) perpendicular to the axis, (b) parallel to the axis, and (c) at the angle of π/4 to the axis. PMID:26093574

  5. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  6. Micromagnetism and the microstructure of high-temperature permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goll, D.; Kronmueller, H.; Stadelmaier, H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Sm 2 (Co,Cu,Fe,Zr) 17 permanent magnets with their three-phase precipitation structure (cells, cell walls, and lamellae) show two characteristic features which so far are difficult to interpret but which are the prerequisites for high-temperature applications: (1) The hard magnetic properties only develop during the final step of the three-step annealing procedure consisting of homogenization, isothermal aging, and cooling. (2) Depending on the composition and on the annealing parameters, the temperature dependence of the coercivity can be easily changed from the conventional monotonic to the recent nonmonotonic behavior showing coercivities up to 1 T even at 500 K. The magnetic hardening during cooling is due to the fact that the cell walls order chemically and structurally during the cooling process. From an analysis of electron diffraction patterns of the superimposed structures existing before and after cooling it could be proven that a phase transition from a phase mixture of defective phases 2:17, 2:7, and 5:19 to the ordered 1:5 phase takes place in the cell walls during cooling. The nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the coercivity is narrowly related to the magnetic hardening mechanism which can be either pinning or nucleation and results from the magnetic and microstructural properties of the cell walls. These properties have been determined quantitatively from hysteresis loop measurements and from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Due to the temperature dependence of the intrinsic magnetic properties, the nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the coercivity is found to be determined by repulsive pinning of domain walls at the cell walls at low temperatures, by attractive pinning of domain walls in the cell walls at intermediate temperatures, and by nucleation at high temperatures. This complex temperature behavior is also reflected in characteristic changes of the angular dependence of the

  7. Vibrating sample magnetometer 2D and 3D magnetization effects associated with different initial magnetization states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Lukins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Differences in VSM magnetization vector rotation associated with various initial magnetization states were demonstrated. Procedures and criteria were developed to select sample orientation and initial magnetization states to allow for the combination of two different 2D measurements runs (with the same field profiles to generate a dataset that can be representative of actual 3D magnetization rotation. Nickel, cast iron, and low moment magnetic tape media were used to demonstrate these effects using hysteresis and remanent magnetization test sequences. These results can be used to generate 2D and 3D magnetic properties to better characterize magnetic phenomena which are inherently three dimensional. Example applications are magnetic tape-head orientation sensitivity, reinterpretation of 3D coercivity and other standard magnetic properties, and multi-dimensional shielding effectiveness.

  8. Effect of process on the magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Liu, Y.; Gao, S.J.; Li, M.; Wang, Y.Q.; Tu, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of magnetic separation, coupling treatment, lubricating treatment, preform and biaxial molding on the density and magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet were investigated. The results demonstrate that magnetic separation separates the powders with low coercive force; coupling treatment improves the interfaces between the powders and the binders; decrease in volume fraction of the binder increases magnetic properties of the magnet; granular arrangement improves both the magnetic and mechanical properties when powders are arranged in certain size; lubricating treatment improves the formability of the magnet and preform and biaxial molding improves both density and magnetic properties greatly. Combining these methods, the density of the bonded NdFeB magnet can reach 6.52 g/cm 3 and the maximum energy product can reach 114 kJ/m 3

  9. Effect of process on the magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Liu, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)]. E-mail: liuying5536@163.com; Gao, S.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Li, M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Wang, Y.Q. [South-West Magnetic Science and Technology Developing Company, Mianyang, 621600 (China); Tu, M.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

    2006-04-15

    The effects of magnetic separation, coupling treatment, lubricating treatment, preform and biaxial molding on the density and magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet were investigated. The results demonstrate that magnetic separation separates the powders with low coercive force; coupling treatment improves the interfaces between the powders and the binders; decrease in volume fraction of the binder increases magnetic properties of the magnet; granular arrangement improves both the magnetic and mechanical properties when powders are arranged in certain size; lubricating treatment improves the formability of the magnet and preform and biaxial molding improves both density and magnetic properties greatly. Combining these methods, the density of the bonded NdFeB magnet can reach 6.52 g/cm{sup 3} and the maximum energy product can reach 114 kJ/m{sup 3}.

  10. Magnetic reversal processes and critical thickness in FePt/α-Fe/FePt trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, N.L.; Zhao, G.P.; Zhang, H.W.; Zhou, X.L.; Deng, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic reversal processes of a FePt/α-Fe/FePt trilayer system with in-plane easy axes have been investigated within a micromagnetic approach. It is found that the magnetic reversal process consists of three steps: nucleation of a prototype of domain wall in the soft phase, the evolution as well as the motion of the domain wall from the soft to the hard phase and finally, the magnetic reversal of the hard phase. For small soft layer thickness L s , the three steps are reduced to one single step, where the magnetizations in the two phases reverses simultaneously and the hysteresis loops are square with nucleation as the coercivity mechanism. As L s increases, both nucleation and pinning fields decrease. In the meantime, the single-step reversal expands to a standard three-step one and the coercivity mechanism changes from nucleation to pinning. The critical thickness where the coercivity mechanism alters, could be derived analytically, which is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the crystalline anisotropy of the hard phase. Such a scaling law might provide an easy way to test the present theory. Further increase of L s leads to the change of the coercivity mechanism from pinning to nucleation. - Highlights: → Analytical critical thickness scales with square root of anisotropy of hard phase. → Reversal process determined nucleation, motion and depinning of domain walls. → Coercivity mechanism is nucleation and pinning for thin and thick soft layers. → Microscopic and macroscopic hysteresis loops calculated.

  11. Role of aging time on the magnetic properties of Sm2Co17 permanent magnets processed through cold isostatic pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, M.; Rajkumar, D. M.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of aging time on the magnetic properties of Sm2Co17 permanent magnets processed through a novel method of cold isostatic pressing was investigated. Sintered Sm2Co17 samples were subjected to different aging times in the range of 10-30 h and their respective microstructures were correlated with the magnetic properties obtained. The values of remanant magnetization (Br) were observed to be constant in samples aged from 10-20 h beyond which a gradual decrease in Br values was observed. The values of coercivity (Hc) displayed a sharp increase in samples aged from 10 to 20 h beyond which the coercivity values showed marginal improvement. Hence a good combination of magnetic properties could be achieved in samples aged for 20 h. A maximum energy product of 27 MGOe was achieved in the 20 h aged sample processed through a novel route.

  12. Beyond "Witnessing": Children's Experiences of Coercive Control in Domestic Violence and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara

    2015-12-10

    Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The exponentiated Hencky-logarithmic strain energy. Part II: Coercivity, planar polyconvexity and existence of minimizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Patrizio; Lankeit, Johannes; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Martin, Robert; Steigmann, David

    2015-08-01

    We consider a family of isotropic volumetric-isochoric decoupled strain energies based on the Hencky-logarithmic (true, natural) strain tensor log U, where μ > 0 is the infinitesimal shear modulus, is the infinitesimal bulk modulus with the first Lamé constant, are dimensionless parameters, is the gradient of deformation, is the right stretch tensor and is the deviatoric part (the projection onto the traceless tensors) of the strain tensor log U. For small elastic strains, the energies reduce to first order to the classical quadratic Hencky energy which is known to be not rank-one convex. The main result in this paper is that in plane elastostatics the energies of the family are polyconvex for , extending a previous finding on its rank-one convexity. Our method uses a judicious application of Steigmann's polyconvexity criteria based on the representation of the energy in terms of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor U. These energies also satisfy suitable growth and coercivity conditions. We formulate the equilibrium equations, and we prove the existence of minimizers by the direct methods of the calculus of variations.

  14. Searching for justice for body and self in a coercive environment: sex work in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, A K

    2004-05-01

    Sex workers in Kerala, India, live in a coercive environment and face violence from the police and criminals, lack of shelter, lack of childcare support and have many physical and mental health problems. This paper documents the environment in which women have been selling sex in Kerala since 1995, and their efforts to claim their rights. It is based on sex workers' own reports and experiences, a situation analysis and a needs assessment study by the Foundation for Integrated Research in Mental Health. Involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention projects first gave sex workers in Kerala an opportunity to come together. Some have become peer educators and distribute condoms but they continue to be harassed by police. Most anti-trafficking interventions, including rescue and rehabilitation, either criminalise or victimise sex workers, and sex workers reject them as a solution to sex work. They understand that the lack of sexual fulfillment in other relationships and their own lack of access to other work and resources are the reasons why commercial sex flourishes. Sex workers are not mere victims without agency. They have a right to bodily integrity, pleasure, livelihood, self-determination and a safe working environment. Sex workers are organising themselves for these objectives and demand decriminalisation of sex work.

  15. Creating social policy to support women's agency in coercive settings: A case study from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Rochelle; Campbell, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Many emphasise the need for policies that support women's agency in highly coercive settings, and the importance of involving target women in public deliberation to inform policy design. The Ugandan Marriage and Divorce Bill seeks to strengthen women's agency in marriage, but has faced many obstacles, including objections from many women themselves in public consultations. We explore key stakeholders' accounts of the difficulties facing the Bill's progress to date, through focus groups with 24 rural and urban men and women, interviews with 14 gender champions in government, non-governmental organisations and legal sectors, and 25 relevant media and radio reports. Thematic analysis revealed an array of representations of the way the Bill's progress was shaped by the public consultation process, the nature of the Ugandan public sphere, the understanding and manipulation of concepts such as 'culture' and 'custom' in public discourse, the impact of economic inequalities on women's understandings of their gendered interests and low women's trust in the law and the political process. We discuss the complexities of involving highly marginalised women in public debates about gender issues and highlight possible implications for conceptualising agency, gender and social change as tools for gender policy and activism in extreme inequality.

  16. Magnetic viscosity and texture in NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.C.; Missell, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of the magnetic viscosity on texture can be used to study a model recently proposed by Givord and co-workers to describe the angular dependence of the coercive field in NdFeB magnets. We have measured the magnetic viscosity parameter S/sub v/ for samples of Magnequench (MQ) II and III as a function of magnetic field H and temperature T above room temperature. Near room temperature, S/sub v/ for MQ II is smaller than for MQ III, while for temperatures above ∼70 0 C, the opposite behavior is observed. This temperature dependence is discussed and compared with that observed in sintered NdFeB and NdDyFeB magnets

  17. Obtaining Magnetic Properties of Meteorites Using Magnetic Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Nabelek, L.; Mazanec, M.; Simon, K.; Hruba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic images of Murchison meteorite's and Chelyabinsk meteorite's thin section have been obtained from magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses (Nabelek et al., 2015). Nabelek, L., Mazanec, M., Kdyr, S., and Kletetschka, G., 2015, Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section: Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

  18. Large batch recycling of waste Nd–Fe–B magnets to manufacture sintered magnets with improved magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.T.; Yue, M.; Liu, W.Q.; Li, X.L.; Yi, X.F.; Huang, X.L.; Zhang, D.T.; Chen, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The waste Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets up to 500 kg per batch were recycled to manufacture anisotropic sintered magnets by combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and alloying technique. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of both the waste magnets and recycled magnets were investigated. The recycled magnet exhibits magnetic properties with remanence (B r ) of 12.38 kGs, coercivity (H ci ) of 24.89 kOe, and maximum energy product [(BH) max ] of 36.51 MGOe, respectively, which restores 99.20% of B r , 105.65% of H ci , and 98.65% of (BH) max of the waste magnets, respectively. The volume fraction of Nd-rich phase in the recycled magnets is about 10.1 vol.%, which is bigger than that of the waste magnets due to the additive of Nd 3 PrFe 14 B alloy containing more rare earth. The remanence temperature coefficient (α) and coercivity temperature coefficient (β) of the recycled magnets are −0.1155%/K and −0.5099%/K in the range of 288–423 K, respectively, which are comparative to those of the waste magnets. - Highlights: • Large batch recycling of waste Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets were performed. • The recycled magnet restores 99.20% of B r , 105.65% of H ci and 98.65% of (BH) max of the magnet. • The recycled magnets bears bigger volume fraction and better distribution of Nd-rich phase. • The recycled magnets exhibit similar temperature coefficients and maximum working temperature

  19. Magnetization reversal in nucleation controlled magnets. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, R.; Srikrishna, K.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical model, based upon earlier models of Brown [J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3022 (1962)] and McIntyre [J. Phys. D 3, 1430 (1970)] has been developed to examine the magnetization reversal of domain-wall nucleation controlled permanent magnets such as sintered Fe-Nd-B and SmCo 5 . Using a Poisson distribution of the defects on the surface of the grains, a ''weakest link statistics'' type model has been developed. The model has been used to calculate hysteresis loops for sintered Fe-Nd-B-type polycrystalline magnets. It is shown that the intrinsic coercivity measured for a bulk magnet should vary inversely as the logarithm of the surface area of the grain. The effect of demagnetizing field has been incorporated by a mean-field-type approximation, to calculate the overall nucleation field from the intrinsic coercivity. The hysteresis loops theoretically calculated are in excellent agreement with the overall form of those experimentally determined for similar nucleation controlled magnets. The model also predicts that for an inhomogeneous grain size distribution, such as a bimodal distribution, kinks will be observed in the second quadrant of the hysteresis loops

  20. Magnetic Performance of a Nanocomposite Permanent Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Han Guang-Bing; Gao Ru-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We build a sandwiched structure model in which the intergranular phase (IP) is homogeneously distributed between soft and hard magnetic grains, and gives a continuously anisotropic expression of the coupling part under the assumption that the IP weakens the intergrain exchange-coupling interaction. Based on the idea that the hardening mechanism is of the pinning type, we calculate the effect of the IP's thickness d and its anisotropy constant K 1 (0) on the intrinsic coercivity of a nanocomposite permanent material. The calculated results indicate that the domain wall goes twice through irreversible domain wall displacement during the process of moving from soft to hard magnetic grains, and the intrinsic coercivity increases with increasing d, but decreases with increasing K 1 (0). When d and K 1 (0) take 2 nm and 0.7K h , respectively, with K h being the anisotropy constant in the inner part of the hard magnetic grain, the calculated intrinsic coercivity is in good agreement with the experimental data. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Magnetic behavior of arrays of nickel nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S.; Maaz, K.; Ahmed, M.; Nisar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there is an increasing interest in magnetic nano wires because of their unusual properties compared to the bulk materials. To understand the complexity of nano wire arrays and to improve their potential in various applications more studies are still needed, for example, to understand completely the effect of geometrical factors, i.e. aspect ratio, areal density etc., on magnetic properties of these arrays. In this work, arrays of nickel nano wires with aspect ratio is proportional to 1200 and diameter ranging between 25-100 nm were fabricated by electrodeposition in etched ion track templates. Samples with areal density from 1 X 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -2/ to 1 X 10/ sup 8/ cm/sup -2/ were prepared. Measurements of magnetic hysteresis loops were performed at room temperature with SQUID magnetometer and magnetic properties of arrays of different diameters and aspect ratios were compared. Coercivity of the wires showed strong dependence on aspect ratio, diameter and microstructure. Room temperature coercivity of the wires showed a maximum at is proportional to 40 nm diameter and arrays with high density of nano wires showed lower coercivity. The results were discussed by taking into account anisotropies originating from the shape, crystalline structure and magnetostatic interactions among the wires and by previous experimental observations in literature. (Orig./A.B.)

  2. Osmoregulatory effects of hypophysectomy and homologous prolactin replacement in hybrid striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Leslie F; McCormick, Stephen D; Madsen, Steffen S

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and striped bass prolactin (sbPRL; Morone saxatilis) on plasma osmolality, electrolyte balance, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were investigated in hypophysectomized (Hx), freshwater (FW)-acclimated, hybrid striped bass (M. saxatilis x Morone chrysops...... or 100 ng/g), or hormone vehicle (0.9% NaCl) at 48-h intervals (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) in FW and then sampled for blood plasma 24 h after the fourth injection (day 7). In Hx fish, oPRL (5 and 20 microg/g) and sbPRL (10 and 100 ng/g) were effective in maintaining plasma osmolality and levels of Na+, Cl...... balance in FW-adapted hybrid striped bass, and that this may involve downregulation of branchial Na+,K+-ATPase activity....

  3. Polarization sensitivity and retinal topography of the striped pyjama squid (Sepioloidea lineolata - Quoy/Gaimard 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher M; Marshall, Justin

    2010-10-01

    Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish and squid) potentially possess polarization sensitivity (PS) based on photoreceptor structure, but this idea has rarely been tested behaviourally. Here, we use a polarized, striped optokinetic stimulus to demonstrate PS in the striped pyjama squid, Sepioloidea lineolata. This species displayed strong, consistent optokinetic nystagmic eye movements in response to a drum with stripes producing e-vectors set to 0 deg, 45 deg, 90 deg and 135 deg that would only be visible to an animal with PS. This is the first behavioural demonstration of a polarized optokinetic response in any species of cephalopod. This species, which typically sits beneath the substrate surface looking upwards for potential predators and prey, possesses a dorsally shifted horizontal pupil slit. Accordingly, it was found to possess a horizontal strip of high-density photoreceptors shifted ventrally in the retina, suggesting modifications such as a change in sensitivity or resolution to the dorsal visual field.

  4. Toxicity of bromate to striped bass ichthyoplankton (Morone saxatilis) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L B; Burton, D T; Rhoderick, J C

    1981-10-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatillis) eggs (12 h after fertilization) and larvae (4 d after hatching) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) were exposed to a series of bromate concentrations for 4, 10, and 10 d, respectively, using static replacement bioassay techniques. Three-dimensional mortality response surfaces were constructed by computerized probit regression techniques. Newly hatched striped bass prolarvae were most sensitive to bromate and had a 96-h LC50 of 30.8 mg/l (as BrO3-). Four-day-old striped bass larvae were less sensitive, with 2- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 605.0 to 92.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively. Juvenile spot were least sensitive, with 1- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 698.0 to 278.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively.

  5. Functional metasurfaces based on metallic and dielectric subwavelength slits and stripes array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Gao, Ping; Wang, Yanqin; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-04-01

    Starting with the early works of extraordinary optical transmission and extraordinary Young’s interference, researchers have been fascinated by the unusual optical properties displayed by metallic holes/slits and subsequently found similar abnormities in dielectric counterparts. Benefiting from the shrinking wavelength of surface plasmon polaritons excited in metallic slits and high refractive index of dielectric stripes, one can realize local phase modulation and approach desired dispersion by engineering the geometries of a slits and stripes array. In this review, we review recent developments in functional metasurfaces composed of various metallic and dielectric subwavelength slits and stripes arrays, with special emphasis on achromatic, ultra-broadband, quasi-continuous, multifunctional and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Particular attention is paid to provide insight into the design strategies for these devices. Finally, we give an outlook of the development in this fascinating area.

  6. Plasma-assisted synthesis and study of structural and magnetic properties of Fe/C core shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, K. P.; Ranot, M.; Choi, C. J.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, K. C.

    2017-07-01

    Pure and carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by using the DC plasma arc discharge method. Fe core nanoparticles were encapsulated with carbon layer, which is acting as protection layer against both oxidation and chemical reaction. The morphology and the Fe/C core/shell structure of the nanoparticles were studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction study showed that the α-Fe phase exists with γ-Fe as an impurity. The studied samples have been interrelated with the variation of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field with the amount of carbon coating. The pure α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization = 172 emu/g, and coercive field = 150 Oe, on the other hand few layer carbon coated α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization =169 emu/g with higher coercive field 398 Oe.

  7. Plasma-assisted synthesis and study of structural and magnetic properties of Fe/C core shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Shinde

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pure and carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by using the DC plasma arc discharge method. Fe core nanoparticles were encapsulated with carbon layer, which is acting as protection layer against both oxidation and chemical reaction. The morphology and the Fe/C core/shell structure of the nanoparticles were studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction study showed that the α-Fe phase exists with γ-Fe as an impurity. The studied samples have been interrelated with the variation of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field with the amount of carbon coating. The pure α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization = 172 emu/g, and coercive field = 150 Oe, on the other hand few layer carbon coated α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization =169 emu/g with higher coercive field 398 Oe.

  8. Influence of magnet eddy current on magnetization characteristics of variable flux memory machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Lin, Heyun; Zhu, Z. Q.; Lyu, Shukang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the magnet eddy current characteristics of a newly developed variable flux memory machine (VFMM) is investigated. Firstly, the machine structure, non-linear hysteresis characteristics and eddy current modeling of low coercive force magnet are described, respectively. Besides, the PM eddy current behaviors when applying the demagnetizing current pulses are unveiled and investigated. The mismatch of the required demagnetization currents between the cases with or without considering the magnet eddy current is identified. In addition, the influences of the magnet eddy current on the demagnetization effect of VFMM are analyzed. Finally, a prototype is manufactured and tested to verify the theoretical analyses.

  9. Effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available White striping defect (appearance of white striations parallel to muscle fiber on surface of breast is considered an emerging issue in chicken breast meat which is related to increasing growth rate of modern hybrid birds. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat. During three replications, a total of 108 Pectoralis major muscles representing three degrees of white striping (absence=normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe were selected to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and collagen as well as sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both severe and moderate white-striped fillets had higher fat content (2.53 vs 1.46 vs 0.78%; P<0.001, lower protein level (20.9 vs 22.2 vs 22.9%; P<0.001, decreased quality of protein as proven by higher collagen content (1.30 vs 1.37 vs 1.43%; P<0.001, and different pattern on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions when compared to normal fillets. Moreover, severe white-striped fillets exhibited higher energy content (450.7 vs 421.1 kJ/100g; P<0.01 with respect to normal meat. In conclusion, there was a large worsening of nutritional value of chicken breast meat following occurrence of white striping and this might impair consumer attitude towards poultry meat.

  10. Feasibility study of electrophoresis deposition of DyF3 on Nd-Fe-B particles for coercivity enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of the electrophoresis deposition (EPD technique for homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the Nd-Fe-B-type particles was studied, and coercivity enhancement in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD was investigated. HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 particles were deposited with DyF3 particles by EPD. More homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the surface of Nd-Fe-B particles was made by the EPD with respect to conventional dip-coating, and this led to more active and homogeneous diffusion of Dy. More profound coercivity enhancement was achieved in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD compared to dip-coated particles.

  11. The Impact of Coercive Migrations on the Changes of Total Population Flux in the War-Engulfed Croatian Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pažanin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the war impact and the impact of coercive migrations on the changes of total population fl ux between two censuses. On the eve of and during the Croatian War of Independence, the migration of population of the Republic of Croatia from the war-engulfed areas to the free areas of the country or to the foreign countries increased. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has caused a new wave of refugees from that country and a further migrational fl ux in our country. In the article, the author has established, on the case of the war-engulfed areas of eleven Croatian counties, that the war and coercive migrations have caused a decline of population, the growth of aged population, as well as changes in national and confessional structure.

  12. Meaning production about an absent image: towards Lula’s coercive conduction in the scope of Operation Lava-Jato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cardoso Brum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 2016, the former president Lula was conducted through a coercive way by the Federal Police in order to depose about his involvement in suspect activities related to Operation Lava Jato. The shooting or any other register of this coercive conduction have been forbidden, thus the national media began to work in the verge of this “denied image”. In this paper, we investigate the process of meaning production about this “absent image” through other images and materialities that circulate in the media discourse game regarding the destabilization/ stabilization of evidence about the March fourth current events. Therefore, the concept of lack, excess and strangeness, established by Ernst, were fundamental. We started with the hypothesis that, answering the lack of imagetic register, it was established a profusion of other imagetic, audiovisual and/or verbal discourses.

  13. Feasibility study of electrophoresis deposition of DyF3 on Nd-Fe-B particles for coercivity enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. M.; Kang, M. S.; Kwon, H. W.; Lee, J. G.; Yu, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    Feasibility of the electrophoresis deposition (EPD) technique for homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the Nd-Fe-B-type particles was studied, and coercivity enhancement in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD was investigated. HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 particles were deposited with DyF3 particles by EPD. More homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the surface of Nd-Fe-B particles was made by the EPD with respect to conventional dip-coating, and this led to more active and homogeneous diffusion of Dy. More profound coercivity enhancement was achieved in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD compared to dip-coated particles.

  14. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

  15. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates

  16. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). STRIPED BASS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Adult striped bass were reported to survival. Time to death for unfed lar- tolerate temperatures from 0°-30°C(32 ° - vae was longer at lower...Allison, L. 0. J. A. Hutcheson, R. H. Ray. Horseman , W. H. Keirsey, and and T. L. Wellborn, Jr. 1969. C. A. Shirley. 1975. Fishes. Striped bass, 1968

  18. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  19. Effect of the template-assisted electrodeposition parameters on the structure and magnetic properties of Co nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kac, Malgorzata, E-mail: malgorzata.kac@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Zarzycki, Arkadiusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Kac, Slawomir [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kopec, Marek; Perzanowski, Marcin; Dutkiewicz, Erazm M.; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Maximenko, Alexey; Marszalek, Marta [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic properties of Co nanowires in polycarbonate membranes were studied. • Electrodeposition stages were illustrated by SEM images. • Electrolyte and membrane parameters were optimized for Co nanowire fabrication. • Low temperature and potential favored nanowires with high coercivity and squareness. - Abstract: We studied the magnetic properties of Co nanowires electrodeposited in polycarbonate membranes as a function of the electrodeposition and template parameters. We showed the response of the current as a function of time, for nanowires prepared in various conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that nanowires have polycrystalline hcp structure with small addition of fcc phase. Magnetic properties analyzed by SQUID measurements suggest that easy axis of magnetization follows the nanowire axis with coercivity increasing with a decrease of nanowire diameter and length. The largest coercivity, equal to 850 Oe, was obtained for nanowires with the diameter of 30 nm and the length of 1.5 μm. We find the coercivity to be insensitive to pH value. Low electrodeposition temperature, low cathodic potential, and medium pH are the synthesis parameters most beneficial for large coercivity and/or magnetic anisotropy with easy axis along nanowires.

  20. Formation of self-assembled stripes on the anodic aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongwen; Guo Haiming; Wang Yeliang; Shen Chengmin; Yang Haitao; Wang Yutian; Wei Long

    2004-01-01

    Non-polished aluminum sheets were anodized and the coexistence of self-assembled stripes and porous arrays on the Al surface was observed. The nanostructures were investigated in details using an atomic force microscope. And the formation mechanism of the stripes was discussed and simulated using Brusselator model in this work. The authors demonstrated that the self-assembled patterns on the Al surface were governed by the competition of formation and dissolution of alumina film during the reaction process. Moreover, this type of ordered structure could only form in certain conditions

  1. Frequency locking, quasiperiodicity, subharmonic bifurcations and chaos in high frequency modulated stripe geometry DH semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yiguang

    1991-01-01

    The method of obtaining self-consistent solutions of the field equation and the rate equations of photon density and carrier concentration has been used to study frequecny locking, quasiperiodicity, subharmonic bifurcations and chaos in high frequency modulated stripe geometry DH semiconductor lasers. The results show that the chaotic behavior arises in self-pulsing stripe geometry semiconductor lasers. The route to chaos is not period-double, but quasiperiodicity to chaos. All of the results agree with the experiments. Some obscure points in previous theory about chaos have been cleared up

  2. Evaluation of thermal striping risks: Limitation of cracks initiation and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubay, B.; Acker, D.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal striping is the effect of a rapid random oscillation of surface temperature inducing a corresponding fluctuation of surface strains. It occurs on components situated in the mixing zone of coolant streams of different temperatures and is characterised by large numbers of strain cycles having the potential to add to the fatigue damage produced by strain cycles associated with all other plant operating events. The purpose of this paper is to describe the R and D works performed in the frame of the European Fast Reactor project between 1985 and 1992 on the thermal striping: experimental works and validation of assessment methodology. (author)

  3. Partial resistance to stripe rust and its effect on sustainability of wheat yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Din, R.U.; Gardazi, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici) poses a serious threat to wheat production in cooler areas of Pakistan. The 70% area of wheat in Pakistan is prone to stripe rust disease. It can cause 10-17% yield losses if susceptible cultivars are planted under favorable conditions. Level of partial plant resistance in bread wheat and its impact on sustainable wheat production was studied at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad under natural conditions in the field. Eleven Pakistani commercial wheat cultivars/advance lines including check (Inqalab 91) were assessed for the level of partial resistance against stripe rust using Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC), disease severity (DS) and epidemic growth rate in comparison with wheat cultivar, Inqalab 91. During 2007 cropping season, natural epidemic was developed and relative AUDPC was recorded from 0 to 100% whereas the 2008 cropping season was dry and no stripe rust appeared. Two advanced lines (NR 268 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of DS and AUDPC were recorded in the remaining cultivars/lines indicating a high level of partial resistance to stripe rust compared to the susceptible check cultivar, Inqalab 91. Among eight cultivars/lines that showed compatible type of reaction (IT greater then equal to 7), one was resistant (relative AUDPC = 20% of Inqalab 91) and six showed very high resistance levels (relative AUDPC greater then equal to 5%). Maximum level of resistance (relative AUDPC = 0.1%) was observed in advanced line, NR 271. The wheat cultivars/lines that showed a slow disease development (low DS and AUDPC), could be considered as -1 partially resistant for stripe rust infection. The yield (2178 kg ha) of susceptible check cultivar Inqalab-91 during 2007 was reduced to 45% as -1 compared to its yield (3945 kg ha) in epidemic free year (2008). Thus the use

  4. Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bianconi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.

  5. Quantitative interpretation of nuclear logging data by adopting point-by-point spectrum striping deconvolution technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Liu Ling; Zhou Shumin; Zhou Rongsheng

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the gamma-ray spectrum interpretation technology on nuclear logging. The principles of familiar quantitative interpretation methods, including the average content method and the traditional spectrum striping method, are introduced, and their limitation of determining the contents of radioactive elements on unsaturated ledges (where radioactive elements distribute unevenly) is presented. On the basis of the intensity gamma-logging quantitative interpretation technology by using the deconvolution method, a new quantitative interpretation method of separating radioactive elements is presented for interpreting the gamma spectrum logging. This is a point-by-point spectrum striping deconvolution technology which can give the logging data a quantitative interpretation. (authors)

  6. Structural and magnetic characterization of Nd-based Nd-Fe and Nd-Fe-Co-Al metastable alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to characterize a metastable hard magnetic phase referred to as ''A1'' in Nd-Fe alloys, which forms as a part of the fine eutectic depending on the composition and cooling rate. In order to define the range of composition for the formation of A1, Nd 100-x Fe x (x=20,25,40) alloys are cooled at about 150 K/s. The effect of cooling rate on the formation of hard magnetic A1 is studied by investigating the Nd 80 Fe 20 alloys cooled at different rates. The Nd-richer regions are identified as dhcp Nd and fcc Nd-Fe solid solution. However, the Fe-richer regions also referred to as A1, are diffuse and give an average composition of Nd 56 Fe 44 . HRTEM images of the Fe-richer regions reveal the presence of 5-10 nm crystallites embedded in an amorphous phase. The demagnetization curves the hard magnetic Nd80Fe20 measured at temperatures above 30 K are typical of a hard magnetic material. The measurements of initial magnetization, field dependence of coercivity, and temperature dependence of coercivity suggest the Stoner-Wohlfarth type magnetization reversal process for the hard magnetic A1. The values of anisotropy constant are estimated by fitting the magnetization data to the law-of-approach to saturation. The temperature dependence of anisotropy constant and the coercivity indicate that the origin of coercivity is magnetic anisotropy

  7. Anomalous magneto-structural behavior of MnBi explained: A path towards an improved permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkevich, N. A., E-mail: zarkev@ameslab.gov; Wang, L.-L. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Johnson, D. D. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Low-temperature MnBi (hexagonal NiAs phase) exhibits anomalies in the lattice constants (a, c) and bulk elastic modulus (B) below 100 K, spin reorientation and magnetic susceptibility maximum near 90 K, and, importantly for high-temperature magnetic applications, an increasing coercivity (unique to MnBi) above 180  K. We calculate the total energy and magneto-anisotropy energy (MAE) versus (a, c) using DFT+U methods. We reproduce and explain all the above anomalies. We predict that coercivity and MAE increase due to increasing a, suggesting means to improve MnBi permanent magnets.

  8. Anomalous magneto-structural behavior of MnBi explained: A path towards an improved permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkevich, NA; Wang, LL; Johnson, DD

    2014-03-01

    Low-temperature MnBi (hexagonal NiAs phase) exhibits anomalies in the lattice constants (a, c) and bulk elastic modulus (B) below 100 K, spin reorientation and magnetic susceptibility maximum near 90 K, and, importantly for high-temperature magnetic applications, an increasing coercivity (unique to MnBi) above 180 K. We calculate the total energy and magneto-anisotropy energy (MAE) versus (a, c) using DFT+U methods. We reproduce and explain all the above anomalies. We predict that coercivity and MAE increase due to increasing a, suggesting means to improve MnBi permanent magnets. (C) 2014 Author(s).

  9. Spin spring behavior in exchange coupled soft and high-coercivity hard ferromagnets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, R. D.; Shapiro, A. J.; Gornakov, V. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Jiang, J. S.; Kaper, H.; Leaf, G.; Bader, S. D.

    2000-11-01

    The magnetization reversal processes in an epitaxial Fe/Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} structure were investigated using the magneto-optical indicator film technique. The dependence of the magnitude and the orientation of the structure average magnetization have been studied on both cycling and rotating the external magnetic field. It was discovered that the magnetization reversal of the soft ferromagnet can proceed by formation of not only one-dimensional, but also two-dimensional, exchange spin springs. Experimental data is compared with a theoretical estimation of the rotational hysteresis loop for a spin system containing a one-dimensional exchange spring.

  10. Dependence of the polar Kerr angle and coercivity on repeat distance in sequentially prepared Tb/FeCo films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S.

    1991-01-01

    Multilayer thin films of Tb and FeCo were prepared by sequential thermal evaporation of Tb and Fe 90 Co 10 alloy on glass substrates at ambient temperature in a vacuum of about 1 x 10 -6 Torr. The repeat distance of the films was varied from 3.5 to 175 A while maintaining the composition constant for all samples. Low-angle x-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy showed that a multilayer structure was achieved for films fabricated with a repeat distance Λ≥31.5 A. The polar Kerr rotation angle and coercivity of the samples were obtained by measuring the polar Kerr hysteresis loop using a 632.8-nm HeNe laser. It was observed that for the samples having a multilayer structure, the remnant Kerr angle and coercivity monotonically decreased with increasing repeat distance, and eventually disappeared for Λ≥70 A. For the samples showing a nonmultilayer structure, the remnant Kerr angle was independent of repeat distance. However, the coercivity increased with repeat distance until a broad maximum was obtained around Λ congruent 14--21 A

  11. Temperature dependence of coercive field and fatigue in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer ultra-thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuli; Xu Haisheng; Zhang Yanni

    2011-01-01

    The experimental intrinsic coercive field of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoethylene) copolymer films, with both bottom and top gold electrodes is measured at a wide temperature range. In the lower temperature region from -20 to 25 deg. C, the temperature dependence of coercive field shows good agreement with the prediction by the Landau-Ginzburg (LG) mean-field theory. In the higher temperature region from 25 to 80 deg. C, the coercive field shows a slow decrease with the increased temperature, where the LG theory is not applicable any more. The temperature-dependent changes in the polymer chains have been analysed. A reversible 'inherent fatigue' is observed from the partially recovered remanent polarization after re-annealing a fatigued P(VDF-TrFE) film. FTIR spectra indicate that the interchain spacing does not change from 10 to 10 7 switching cycles while the degree of all-trans ferroelectric phase decreases gradually with applied switching cycles. After a re-annealing treatment, ferroelectric phase recovers and dipoles at the boundary of crystallites acquire much higher energy.

  12. Sonographic anatomy of the newborn hip and high-resolution US equipments: internal capsular stripe and perichondral gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, P.; Fodor, G.; Psenner, F.; Stuefert, S.; Scherer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The use of high-resolution US equipments in the examination of the newborn hip allowed the evaluation of a thin echogenic stripe (the internal capsule stripe), which defines laterally the acetabular hyaline cartilage. By means of an anatomo-histological preparation the echogenic stripe can be related to either the capsular circular fibres or the interface between the latter and the hyaline cartilage. The internal capsular stripe, together with the echogenic synovial stripe, precisely delimit the whole acetabular hyaline cartilage. Further-more, in many babies high-resolution US sometimes fails to demonstrate Graft's 'perichondral gap', so that an accurate anatomic knowledge of the hip becomes necessary in the evaluation of acetabular labrum

  13. Potentially coercive self-citation by peer reviewers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D; Levis, Alexander W; Razykov, Ilya; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Leentjens, Albert F G; Levenson, James L; Lumley, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Peer reviewers sometimes request that authors cite their work, either appropriately or via coercive self-citation to highlight the reviewers' work. The objective of this study was to determine in peer reviews submitted to one biomedical journal (1) the extent of peer reviewer self-citation; (2) the proportion of reviews recommending revision or acceptance versus rejection that included reviewer self-citations; and (3) the proportion of reviewer self-citations versus citations to others that included a rationale. Peer reviews for manuscripts submitted in 2012 to the Journal of Psychosomatic Research were evaluated. Data extraction was performed independently by two investigators. There were 616 peer reviews (526 reviewers; 276 manuscripts), of which 444 recommended revision or acceptance and 172 rejection. Of 428 total citations, there were 122 peer reviewer self-citations (29%) and 306 citations to others' work (71%). Self-citations were more common in reviews recommending revision or acceptance (105 of 316 citations; 33%) versus rejection (17/112; 15%; pcitations with no rationale (26 of 122; 21%) was higher than for citations to others' work (15 of 306; 5%; pcitation in peer reviews is common and may reflect a combination of appropriate citation to research that should be cited in published articles and inappropriate citation intended to highlight the work of the peer reviewer. Providing instructions to peer reviewers about self-citation and asking them to indicate when and why they have self-cited may help to limit self-citation to appropriate, constructive recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process recycling of NdFeB sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Manlong; Abrahamsen, Asger B.; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Veluri, Badrinath; Søegaard, Allan I.; Bøjsøe, Poul

    2017-11-01

    A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d 100 μm. The coercivity reached Hci = 957 kA/m being 86% of the original N48M material without addition of rare earth elements.

  15. Soft Magnetic Multilayered Thin Films for HF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizos, George; Giannopoulos, George; Serletis, Christos; Maity, Tuhin; Roy, Saibal; Lupu, Nicoleta; Kijima, Hanae; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Niarchos, Dimitris

    Multilayered thin films from various soft magnetic materials were successfully prepared by magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere. The magnetic properties and microstructure were investigated. It is found that the films show good soft magnetic properties: magnetic coercivity of 1-10 Oe and saturation magnetization higher than 1T. The initial permeability of the films is greater than 300 and flattens up to 600 MHz. The multilayer thin film properties in combination with their easy, fast and reproducible fabrication indicate that they are potential candidates for high frequency applications.

  16. Structure and magnetic properties of hot deformed Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnets doped with DyH{sub x} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.G.; Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.cn; Zhang, D.T.; Liu, W.Q.; Zhang, J.X.

    2016-04-15

    Commercial NdFeB powders mixed with DyH{sub x} nanoparticles are hot pressed and hot deformed into anisotropic magnets by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The hot deformed magnet exhibits strong c-axis crystallographic texture. The coercivity of the magnet doped with 1.0 wt% DyH{sub x} is increased by 66.7%, compared with the magnet without DyH{sub x}, while the remanence decreases only by 3%. TEM observation shows that there exists a continuous (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B layer between Nd-rich phase and NdFeB main phase. - Highlights: • The hot deformed magnet exhibits strong c-axis crystallographic texture. • The coercivity of the magnet significantly improved, and the remanence decreases slight. • TEM observation shows that there exists a continuous (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B layer.

  17. Magnetic properties of elliptical and stadium-shaped nanoparticles: Effect of the shape anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, R.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J., E-mail: jescrigm@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile)

    2012-11-15

    Elliptical and stadium-shaped nanoparticles as a function of their geometry have been investigated using numerical simulations. The effect of the shape anisotropy of the particles on coercivity and remanence together with the angular dependence of the remanence and coercivity are addressed. Our results demonstrate that the stadium-shaped particles have many of the outstanding properties of elliptical particles, but also have unique properties, such that the coercivity and remanence remain stable for a wide range of geometry parameters, and exhibit a peculiar angular dependence in the coercivity. These properties suggest that they can be useful for applications in the area of magnetic recording systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coercivity and remanence are strongly affected by the shape anisotropy of the particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coercivities for ellipses are nearly three times the obtained for stadium-shaped particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elliptical particles with {delta}{<=}0.6, the hystereses resemble the square loops of wires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anhisteretic behavior appears for {theta}=90 Degree-Sign for elliptical particles, which do not appear in stadium-shaped particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stadium-shaped particles have unique properties that allow us to suggest them for applications.

  18. Magnetic properties of elliptical and stadium-shaped nanoparticles: Effect of the shape anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona, R.M.; Altbir, D.; Escrig, J.

    2012-01-01

    Elliptical and stadium-shaped nanoparticles as a function of their geometry have been investigated using numerical simulations. The effect of the shape anisotropy of the particles on coercivity and remanence together with the angular dependence of the remanence and coercivity are addressed. Our results demonstrate that the stadium-shaped particles have many of the outstanding properties of elliptical particles, but also have unique properties, such that the coercivity and remanence remain stable for a wide range of geometry parameters, and exhibit a peculiar angular dependence in the coercivity. These properties suggest that they can be useful for applications in the area of magnetic recording systems. - Highlights: ► Coercivity and remanence are strongly affected by the shape anisotropy of the particles. ► Coercivities for ellipses are nearly three times the obtained for stadium-shaped particles. ►Elliptical particles with δ≤0.6, the hystereses resemble the square loops of wires. ► An anhisteretic behavior appears for θ=90° for elliptical particles, which do not appear in stadium-shaped particles. ► Stadium-shaped particles have unique properties that allow us to suggest them for applications.

  19. Creation and Annihilation of Skyrmions in the Frustrated Magnets with Competing Exchange Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Chi, Xiaodan; Li, Xuesi; Liu, Yan; Du, An

    2017-11-22

    In triangular-lattice magnets, the coexistence of third-neighbor antiferromagnetic and nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic exchange interactions can induce rich magnetic phases including noncoplanar skyrmion crystals. Based on Monte Carlo simulation, we studied the dependence of magnetic phase transition on exchange interaction strength. Under the consideration of uniaxial anisotropy and magnetic field both perpendicular to the film plane, a large antiferromagnetic exchange interaction induces a high frustration. When the value of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction is one and a half times larger than the ferromagnetic one, a magnetic phase composed of canting spin stripes, never observed in the chiral magnets, forms. Interestingly, different canting spin stripes along three 120 degree propagation directions may coexist randomly in a magnetic phase, attesting that the canting spin stripes are three-fold degenerate states akin to helices and the multiple state of canting spin stripes is a circular configuration with zero skyrmion charge number. Moreover, skyrmions and antiskyrmions can be observed simultaneously in the configuration at the low temperature nearly close to 0 K, and their configuration and diameter properties are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms of skyrmion creation and annihilation are properly interpreted by comparing exchange and Zeeman energy terms.

  20. Thermal aging of melt-spun NdFeB magnetic powder in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Balogh, Michael P.; Ellison, Nicole; Foto, Aldo; Sechan, Martin; Tessema, Misle M.; Thompson, Margarita P.

    2016-01-01

    High energy product neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets are the premier candidate for demanding electrified vehicle traction motor applications. Injection molded (IM) or compression molded (CM) magnets made using NdFeB powders are promising routes to improve motor efficiency, cost, and manufacturability. However, IM and CM NdFeB magnets are susceptible to substantial thermal aging losses at motor operating temperatures when exposed to the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used as a lubricant and cooling medium. The intrinsic coercivity H ci of NdFeB IM and CM magnets degrades by as much as 18% when aged for 1000 h in ATF at 150 °C, compared to a 3% loss when aged in air. Here we report aging studies of rapidly quenched NdFeB powder in air, ATF, and H 2 gas. Expansion of the NdFeB crystal lattice in both ATF and H 2 identified hydrogen dissociated from the ATF during aging and diffused into the primary NdFeB phase as the probable cause of the coercivity loss of IM and CM magnets. - Highlights: • Injection molded NdFeB magnets age rapidly in automatic transmission fluid (ATF). • Coercivity loss is not due to direct chemical reaction between ATF and the powder. • Chemical reaction with the binder does not play a major role in aging. • Hydrogen dissociates from ATF and diffuses into Nd 2 Fe 14 B, reducing coercivity.