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Sample records for coefficient diagram method

  1. A novel decision diagrams extension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shumin; Si, Shubin; Dui, Hongyan; Cai, Zhiqiang; Sun, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Binary decision diagram (BDD) is a graph-based representation of Boolean functions. It is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) based on Shannon's decomposition. Multi-state multi-valued decision diagram (MMDD) is a natural extension of BDD for the symbolic representation and manipulation of the multi-valued logic functions. This paper proposes a decision diagram extension method based on original BDD/MMDD while the scale of a reliability system is extended. Following a discussion of decomposition and physical meaning of BDD and MMDD, the modeling method of BDD/MMDD based on original BDD/MMDD is introduced. Three case studies are implemented to demonstrate the presented methods. Compared with traditional BDD and MMDD generation methods, the decision diagrams extension method is more computationally efficient as shown through the running time

  2. Construction of renormalized coefficient functions of the Feynman diagrams by means of a computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, O.V.

    1978-01-01

    An algorithm and short description of computer program, written in SCHOONSCHIP, are given. The program is assigned for construction of integrands of renormalized coefficient functions of the Feynman diagrams in scalar theories in the case of arbitrary subtraction point. For the given Feynman graph computer completely realizes the R-operation of Bogolubov-Parasjuk and gives the result as an integral over Feynman parameters. With the help of the program the time construction of the whole renormalized coefficient function is equal approximately 30 s on the CDC-6500 computer

  3. On the question of calculation methods of phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of determining interaction parameters of components of binary alloys is suggested. U-Mo and Cu-Al systems are used as example with the aid of experimental state diagrams. It is shown that the search for new regularities is necessary with the aim of analytical description of state diagrams and forecast of the shape of phase equilibria curves in real systems. Optimum combinations of experimental investigations with the aim of reliable determination of supporting points and forecasting possibilities of typical equations can considerably decrease the volume of experimental work when preparing state diagrams, in cases of repeated state diagrams of more reliable state diagrams with the application of more advanced methods of investigation. The translation of state diagrams from geometric to analytical language with the use of typical equations opens up new possibilities for establishing a compact information bank for state diagrams

  4. Application of Linear Quadratic Gaussian and Coefficient Diagram Techniques to Distributed Load Frequency Control of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hassan Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented both the linear quadratic Gaussian technique (LQG and the coefficient diagram method (CDM as load frequency controllers in a multi-area power system to deal with the problem of variations in system parameters and load demand change. The full states of the system including the area frequency deviation have been estimated using the Kalman filter technique. The efficiency of the proposed control method has been checked using a digital simulation. Simulation results indicated that, with the proposed CDM + LQG technique, the system is robust in the face of parameter uncertainties and load disturbances. A comparison between the proposed technique and other schemes is carried out, confirming the superiority of the proposed CDM + LQG technique.

  5. Infrared thermography method for fast estimation of phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Del Barrio, Elena [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Cadoret, Régis [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Daranlot, Julien [Solvay, Laboratoire du Futur, 178 Av du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Achchaq, Fouzia, E-mail: fouzia.achchaq@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France)

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography is proposed to determine phase diagrams in record time. • Phase boundaries are detected by means of emissivity changes during heating. • Transition lines are identified by using Singular Value Decomposition techniques. • Different binary systems have been used for validation purposes. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCM) are widely used today in thermal energy storage applications. Pure PCMs are rarely used because of non adapted melting points. Instead of them, mixtures are preferred. The search of suitable mixtures, preferably eutectics, is often a tedious and time consuming task which requires the determination of phase diagrams. In order to accelerate this screening step, a new method for estimating phase diagrams in record time (1–3 h) has been established and validated. A sample composed by small droplets of mixtures with different compositions (as many as necessary to have a good coverage of the phase diagram) deposited on a flat substrate is first prepared and cooled down to ambient temperature so that all droplets crystallize. The plate is then heated at constant heating rate up to a sufficiently high temperature for melting all the small crystals. The heating process is imaged by using an infrared camera. An appropriate method based on singular values decomposition technique has been developed to analyze the recorded images and to determine the transition lines of the phase diagram. The method has been applied to determine several simple eutectic phase diagrams and the reached results have been validated by comparison with the phase diagrams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter measurements and by thermodynamic modelling.

  6. Torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skab, I.; Smaga, I.; Savaryn, V.; Vasylkiv, Yu.; Vlokh, R. [Institute of Physical Optics, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-01-15

    We develop and describe analytically a torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients associated with shear stresses. It is shown that the method enables to increase significantly the accuracy of determination of piezooptic coefficients. The method and the appropriate apparatus are verified experimentally on the example of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Simple method for evaluating Goldstone diagrams in an angular momentum coupled representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, T.T.S.; Shurpin, J.; Tam, K.C.; Osnes, E.; Ellis, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and convenient method is derived for evaluating linked Goldstone diagrams in an angular momentum coupled representation. Our method is general, and can be used to evaluate any effective interaction and/or effective operator diagrams for both closed-shell nuclei (vacuum to vacuum linked diagrams) and open-shell nuclei (valence linked diagrams). The techniques of decomposing diagrams into ladder diagrams, cutting open internal lines and cutting off one-body insertions are introduced. These enable us to determine angular momentum factors associated with diagrams in the coupled representation directly, without the need for carrying out complicated angular momentum algebra. A summary of diagram rules is given

  8. Effects of Three Diagram Instruction Methods on Transfer of Diagram Comprehension Skills: The Critical Role of Inference While Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Bergey, Bradley W.; Fitzhugh, Shannon; Newcombe, Nora; Wills, Theodore W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    Can students be taught to better comprehend the diagrams in their textbooks? Can such teaching transfer to uninstructed diagrams in the same domain or even in a new domain? What methods work best for these goals? Building on previous research showing positive results compared to control groups in both laboratory studies and short-term…

  9. Determination of the quaternary phase diagram of the water-ethylene glycol-sucrose-NaCl system and a comparison between two theoretical methods for synthetic phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Yang; Critser, John K

    2010-08-01

    Characterization of the thermodynamic properties of multi-solute aqueous solutions is of critical importance for biological and biochemical research. For example, the phase diagrams of aqueous systems, containing salts, saccharides, and plasma membrane permeating solutes, are indispensible in the field of cryobiology and pharmacology. However, only a few ternary phase diagrams are currently available for these systems. In this study, an auto-sampler differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the quaternary phase diagram of the water-ethylene glycol-sucrose-NaCl system. To improve the accuracy of melting point measurement, a "mass-redemption" method was also applied for the DSC technique. Base on the analyses of these experimental data, a comparison was made between the two practical approaches to generate phase diagrams of multi-solute solutions from those of single-solute solutions: the summation of cubic polynomial melting point equations versus the use of osmotic virial equations with cross coefficients. The calculated values of the model standard deviations suggested that both methods are satisfactory for characterizing this quaternary system. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A simple reliability block diagram method for safety integrity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Haitao; Yang Xianhui

    2007-01-01

    IEC 61508 requires safety integrity verification for safety related systems to be a necessary procedure in safety life cycle. PFD avg must be calculated to verify the safety integrity level (SIL). Since IEC 61508-6 does not give detailed explanations of the definitions and PFD avg calculations for its examples, it is difficult for common reliability or safety engineers to understand when they use the standard as guidance in practice. A method using reliability block diagram is investigated in this study in order to provide a clear and feasible way of PFD avg calculation and help those who take IEC 61508-6 as their guidance. The method finds mean down times (MDTs) of both channel and voted group first and then PFD avg . The calculated results of various voted groups are compared with those in IEC61508 part 6 and Ref. [Zhang T, Long W, Sato Y. Availability of systems with self-diagnostic components-applying Markov model to IEC 61508-6. Reliab Eng System Saf 2003;80(2):133-41]. An interesting outcome can be realized from the comparison. Furthermore, although differences in MDT of voted groups exist between IEC 61508-6 and this paper, PFD avg of voted groups are comparatively close. With detailed description, the method of RBD presented can be applied to the quantitative SIL verification, showing a similarity of the method in IEC 61508-6

  11. A Formal Verification Method of Function Block Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun; Jee, Eun Kyoung; Jeon, Seung Jae; Park, Gee Yong; Kwon, Kee Choon

    2007-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), an industrial computer specialized for real-time applications, is widely used in diverse control systems in chemical processing plants, nuclear power plants or traffic control systems. As a PLC is often used to implement safety, critical embedded software, rigorous safety demonstration of PLC code is necessary. Function block diagram (FBD) is a standard application programming language for the PLC and currently being used in the development of a fully-digitalized reactor protection system (RPS), which is called the IDiPS, under the KNICS project. Therefore, verification issue of FBD programs is a pressing problem, and hence is of great importance. In this paper, we propose a formal verification method of FBD programs; we defined FBD programs formally in compliance with IEC 61131-3, and then translate the programs into Verilog model, and finally the model is verified using a model checker SMV. To demonstrate the feasibility and effective of this approach, we applied it to IDiPS which currently being developed under KNICS project. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly describes Verilog and Cadence SMV. In Section 3, we introduce FBD2V which is a tool implemented to support the proposed FBD verification framework. A summary and conclusion are provided in Section 4

  12. Application of laws of diagramic logic to calculation of middle coefficient of friction for turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Canonical formalization of an phenomenon of reasoning by images consists of eight laws of diagramic logic, providing an structural diagram of exploring object as main unit of operating. That laws are divided into three groups: (1) The first channel of application for structural diagrams is the deduction of necessary result from previous theorems of author. (2) The second channel of application for structural diagrams is the deduction of necessary result from parallel theorems of other author. (3) The third channel of application for structural diagrams is the deduction of necessary result by means of modification of nuclear theory

  13. Determination of beta attenuation coefficients by means of timing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Beta attenuation coefficients of absorber materials were found in this study. ► For this process, a new method (timing method) was suggested. ► The obtained beta attenuation coefficients were compatible with the results from the traditional one. ► The timing method can be used to determine beta attenuation coefficient. - Abstract: Using a counting system with plastic scintillation detector, beta linear and mass attenuation coefficients were determined for bakelite, Al, Fe and plexiglass absorbers by means of timing method. To show the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results through this method, the coefficients were also found via conventional energy method. Obtained beta attenuation coefficients from both methods were compared with each other and the literature values. Beta attenuation coefficients obtained through timing method were found to be compatible with the values obtained from conventional energy method and the literature.

  14. Activity coefficients from molecular simulations using the OPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohns, Maximilian; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2017-10-01

    A method for determining activity coefficients by molecular dynamics simulations is presented. It is an extension of the OPAS (osmotic pressure for the activity of the solvent) method in previous work for studying the solvent activity in electrolyte solutions. That method is extended here to study activities of all components in mixtures of molecular species. As an example, activity coefficients in liquid mixtures of water and methanol are calculated for 298.15 K and 323.15 K at 1 bar using molecular models from the literature. These dense and strongly interacting mixtures pose a significant challenge to existing methods for determining activity coefficients by molecular simulation. It is shown that the new method yields accurate results for the activity coefficients which are in agreement with results obtained with a thermodynamic integration technique. As the partial molar volumes are needed in the proposed method, the molar excess volume of the system water + methanol is also investigated.

  15. A diagram retrieval method with multi-label learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Songping; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Qu, Jingwei; Tang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the retrieval of plane geometry figures (PGFs) has attracted increasing attention in the fields of mathematics education and computer science. However, the high cost of matching complex PGF features leads to the low efficiency of most retrieval systems. This paper proposes an indirect classification method based on multi-label learning, which improves retrieval efficiency by reducing the scope of compare operation from the whole database to small candidate groups. Label correlations among PGFs are taken into account for the multi-label classification task. The primitive feature selection for multi-label learning and the feature description of visual geometric elements are conducted individually to match similar PGFs. The experiment results show the competitive performance of the proposed method compared with existing PGF retrieval methods in terms of both time consumption and retrieval quality.

  16. Application of the cause-consequence diagram method to static systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.D.; Ridley, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the last 30 years, various mathematical models have been used to identify the effect of component failures on the performance of a system. The most frequently used technique for system reliability assessment is Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and a large proportion of its popularity can be attributed to the fact that it provides a very good documentation of the way that the system failure logic was developed. Exact quantification of the fault tree, however, can be problematic for very large systems and in such situations, approximations can be used. Alternatively, an exact result can be obtained via the conversion of the fault tree into a binary decision diagram (BDD). The BDD, however, loses all failure logic documentation during the conversion process. This paper outlines the use of the cause-consequence diagram method as a tool for system risk and reliability analysis. As with the FTA method, the cause-consequence diagram documents the failure logic of the system. In addition to this the cause-consequence diagram produces the exact failure probability in a very efficient calculation procedure. The cause-consequence diagram technique has been applied to a static system and shown to yield the same result as those produced by the solution of the equivalent fault tree and BDD. On the basis of this general rules have been devised for the correct construction of the cause-consequence diagram given a static system. The use of the cause-consequence method in this manner has significant implications in terms of efficiency of the reliability analysis and can be shown to have benefits for static systems

  17. Validity of the CT to attenuation coefficient map conversion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Ahangari Shahdehi, R.; Fazilat Moadeli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The most important commercialized methods of attenuation correction in SPECT are based on attenuation coefficient map from a transmission imaging method. The transmission imaging system can be the linear source of radioelement or a X-ray CT system. The image of transmission imaging system is not useful unless to replacement of the attenuation coefficient or CT number with the attenuation coefficient in SPECT energy. In this paper we essay to evaluate the validity and estimate the error of the most used method of this transformation. The final result shows that the methods which use a linear or multi-linear curve accept a error in their estimation. The value of mA is not important but the patient thickness is very important and it can introduce a error more than 10 percent in the final result

  18. Modelling of phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties using Calphad method – Development of thermodynamic databases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, JAN (2013), s. 3-13 ISSN 0927-0256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08053 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Calphad method * phase diagram modelling * thermodynamic database development Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2013

  19. Modern summation methods and the computation of 2- and 3-loop Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten; Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    By symbolic summation methods based on difference fields we present a general strategy that transforms definite multi-sums, e.g., in terms of hypergeometric terms and harmonic sums, to indefinite nested sums and products. We succeeded in this task with all our concrete calculations of 2-loop and 3-loop massive single scale Feynman diagrams with local operator insertion. (orig.)

  20. Modern Summation Methods and the Computation of 2- and 3-loop Feynman Diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian; Schneider, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    By symbolic summation methods based on difference fields we present a general strategy that transforms definite multi-sums, e.g., in terms of hypergeometric terms and harmonic sums, to indefinite nested sums and products. We succeeded in this task with all our concrete calculations of 2-loop and 3-loop massive single scale Feynman diagrams with local operator insertion.

  1. Modern summation methods and the computation of 2- and 3-loop Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Linz Univ. (AT). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Klein, Sebastian [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie

    2010-06-15

    By symbolic summation methods based on difference fields we present a general strategy that transforms definite multi-sums, e.g., in terms of hypergeometric terms and harmonic sums, to indefinite nested sums and products. We succeeded in this task with all our concrete calculations of 2-loop and 3-loop massive single scale Feynman diagrams with local operator insertion. (orig.)

  2. Determination of ion diffusion coefficients by the electromigration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, G.D.; Milanov, M.V.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Ivanov, P.I.; Priemyshev, A.N.; Maslov, O.D.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    An electrophoretic method for measuring ion diffusion coefficients in aqueous solutions is developed. The value of the diffusion coefficient can be determined from the linear relationship between the square standard deviation of the electrophoretic zone and the time from the start of the diffusion process. Using the device for horizontal zone electrophoresis in a free electrolyte, a series of diffusion experiments are performed with no-carrier-added radionuclides in microconcentrations (10 -9 - 10 -10 M). Diffusion coefficients of 111 In(III), 175 Hf(IV) and 237 Pu(VI) ions at 25 0 C are determined in nitric acid media. Simultaneous determination of the diffusion coefficient and electrophoretic mobility allows one to calculate the effective charge of the investigated ions in accordance with the Nernst-Einstein law

  3. Extended block diagram method for a multi-state system reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisnianski, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    The presented method extends the classical reliability block diagram method to a repairable multi-state system. It is very suitable for engineering applications since the procedure is well formalized and based on the natural decomposition of the entire multi-state system (the system is represented as a collection of its elements). Until now, the classical block diagram method did not provide the reliability assessment for the repairable multi-state system. The straightforward stochastic process methods are very difficult for engineering application in such cases due to the 'dimension damnation'-huge number of system states. The suggested method is based on the combined random processes and the universal generating function technique and drastically reduces the number of states in the multi-state model

  4. Novel diagrammatic method for computing transport coefficients - beyond the Boltzmann approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Y.; Kunihiro, T.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel diagrammatic method for computing transport coefficients in relativistic quantum field theory. Our method is based on a reformulation and extension of the diagrammatic method by Eliashberg given in the imaginary-time formalism to the relativistic quantum field theory in the real-time formalism, in which the cumbersome analytical continuation problem can be avoided. The transport coefficients are obtained from a two-point function via Kubo formula. It is know that naive perturbation theory breaks down owing to a so called pinch singularity, and hence a resummation is required for getting a finite and sensible result. As a novel resummation method, we first decompose the two point function into the singular part and the regular part, and then reconstruct the diagrams. We find that a self-consistent equation for the two-point function has the same structure as the linearized Boltzmann equation. It is known that the two-point function at the leading order is equivalent to the linearized Boltzmann equation. We find the higher order corrections are nicely summarized as a renormalization of the vertex function, spectral function, and collision term. We also discuss the critical behavior of the transport coefficients near a phase transition, applying our method. (author)

  5. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dančová, P.; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  6. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  7. A Differential Scanning Calorimetry Method for Construction of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram of Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lei; Zhang, Chunxia; Shangguan, Fangqin; Li, Xiuping

    2012-06-01

    The continuous cooling crystallization of a blast furnace slag was studied by the application of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. A kinetic model describing the correlation between the evolution of the degree of crystallization with time was obtained. Bulk cooling experiments of the molten slag coupled with numerical simulation of heat transfer were conducted to validate the results of the DSC methods. The degrees of crystallization of the samples from the bulk cooling experiments were estimated by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the DSC method. It was found that the results from the DSC cooling and bulk cooling experiments are in good agreement. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of the blast furnace slag was constructed according to crystallization kinetic model and experimental data. The obtained CCT diagram characterizes with two crystallization noses at different temperature ranges.

  8. Temperature gradient method for lipid phase diagram construction using time-resolved x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, M.; Hing, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    A method that enables temperature-composition phase diagram construction at unprecedented rates is described and evaluated. The method involves establishing a known temperature gradient along the length of a metal rod. Samples of different compositions contained in long, thin-walled capillaries are positioned lengthwise on the rod and equilibrated such that the temperature gradient is communicated into the sample. The sample is then moved through a focused, monochromatic synchrotron-derived x-ray beam and the image-intensified diffraction pattern from the sample is recorded on videotape continuously in live-time as a function of position and, thus, temperature. The temperature at which the diffraction pattern changes corresponds to a phase boundary, and the phase(s) existing (coexisting) on either side of the boundary can be identified on the basis of the diffraction pattern. Repeating the measurement on samples covering the entire composition range completes the phase diagram. These additional samples can be conveniently placed at different locations around the perimeter of the cylindrical rod and rotated into position for diffraction measurement. Temperature-composition phase diagrams for the fully hydrated binary mixtures, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE)/DPPC, have been constructed using the new temperature gradient method. They agree well with and extend the results obtained by other techniques. In the DPPE/DPPC system structural parameters as a function of temperature in the various phases including the subgel phase are reported. The potential limitations of this steady-state method are discussed

  9. Summation of Parquet diagrams as an ab initio method in nuclear structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergli, Elise; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We present a Green's function based approach for doing ab initio nuclear structure calculations. → In particular the sum the subset of so-called Parquet diagrams. → Applying the theory to a simple but realistic model, results in good agreement with other ab initio methods. → This opens up for ab initio calculations for medium-heavy nuclei. - Abstract: In this work we discuss the summation of the Parquet class of diagrams within Green's function theory as a possible framework for ab initio nuclear structure calculations. The theory is presented and some numerical details are discussed, in particular the approximations employed. We apply the Parquet method to a simple model, and compare our results with those from an exact solution. The main conclusion is that even at the level of approximation presented here, the results shows good agreement with other comparable ab initio approaches.

  10. Adaptive Finite Element Methods for Elliptic Problems with Discontinuous Coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; DeVore, Ronald A.; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2013-01-01

    Elliptic PDEs with discontinuous diffusion coefficients occur in application domains such as diffusions through porous media, electromagnetic field propagation on heterogeneous media, and diffusion processes on rough surfaces. The standard approach to numerically treating such problems using finite element methods is to assume that the discontinuities lie on the boundaries of the cells in the initial triangulation. However, this does not match applications where discontinuities occur on curves, surfaces, or manifolds, and could even be unknown beforehand. One of the obstacles to treating such discontinuity problems is that the usual perturbation theory for elliptic PDEs assumes bounds for the distortion of the coefficients in the L∞ norm and this in turn requires that the discontinuities are matched exactly when the coefficients are approximated. We present a new approach based on distortion of the coefficients in an Lq norm with q < ∞ which therefore does not require the exact matching of the discontinuities. We then use this new distortion theory to formulate new adaptive finite element methods (AFEMs) for such discontinuity problems. We show that such AFEMs are optimal in the sense of distortion versus number of computations, and report insightful numerical results supporting our analysis. © 2013 Societ y for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Study of the determination method of the river dispersion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.A.G. de.

    1982-01-01

    An application of the method introduced by 'Fischer, H.B. - 1968 - Dispersion prediction in natural streams Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, ACSE, vol. 94 n 5A5. Proc. Paper 6169 pp 927-943.', for the calculation of the dispersion coefficient, based on Taylor's model is made. The aim is to develop a method which avoids the necessity of having an instantaneous impulse at the entrance section (1st section) of the system being measured. The dispersion coefficient is determined by curve fitting the experimental response in the 2nd secton and that obtained with the model by means of the non-linear least-squares method. The same method is applied with the residence time distribution function. The theoretical differences between these two function and their results are discussed. By adjusting the two model parameters in all these calculations, the dispersion coefficient and the mean velocity are determined, simultaneously. A comparison between the moment's method and Fischer's formulation is also done using the same experimental data. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Optimized negative dimensional integration method (NDIM) and multiloop Feynman diagram calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Ivan; Schmidt, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    We present an improved form of the integration technique known as NDIM (negative dimensional integration method), which is a powerful tool in the analytical evaluation of Feynman diagrams. Using this technique we study a φ 3 +φ 4 theory in D=4-2ε dimensions, considering generic topologies of L loops and E independent external momenta, and where the propagator powers are arbitrary. The method transforms the Schwinger parametric integral associated to the diagram into a multiple series expansion, whose main characteristic is that the argument contains several Kronecker deltas which appear naturally in the application of the method, and which we call diagram presolution. The optimization we present here consists in a procedure that minimizes the series multiplicity, through appropriate factorizations in the multinomials that appear in the parametric integral, and which maximizes the number of Kronecker deltas that are generated in the process. The solutions are presented in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions, obtained once the Kronecker deltas have been used in the series. Although the technique is general, we apply it to cases in which there are 2 or 3 different energy scales (masses or kinematic variables associated to the external momenta), obtaining solutions in terms of a finite sum of generalized hypergeometric series 1 and 2 variables respectively, each of them expressible as ratios between the different energy scales that characterize the topology. The main result is a method capable of solving Feynman integrals, expressing the solutions as hypergeometric series of multiplicity (n-1), where n is the number of energy scales present in the diagram

  13. Determination of ferrite formation coefficient of tin in an austenitic stainless steel by the diffusion couple method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchive, Daniel; Treheux, Daniel; Guiraldenq, Pierre

    1976-01-01

    The ferritic action of tin for a 18-10 stainless steel has been measured by two different methods: the first is based on the diffusion couple method and the graphical representation of compositions in a diagram α/α + γ/γ corresponding to ferrite and austenitic elements of the steel. In the second method, ferrite formation is analyzed in small ingots prepared with different chromium and tin concentrations. Ferrite coefficient of tin, compared to chromium is 0.25 with diffusion couples and this value is in good agreement with the classical method [fr

  14. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  15. Modeling spreading of oil slicks based on random walk methods and Voronoi diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgut, İsmail; Reed, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a methodology for representation of a surface oil slick using a Voronoi diagram updated at each time step. The Voronoi cells scale the Gaussian random walk procedure representing the spreading process by individual particle stepping. The step length of stochastically moving particles is based on a theoretical model of the spreading process, establishing a relationship between the step length of diffusive spreading and the thickness of the slick at the particle locations. The Voronoi tessellation provides the areal extent of the slick particles and in turn the thicknesses of the slick and the diffusive-type spreading length for all particles. The algorithm successfully simulates the spreading process and results show very good agreement with the analytical solution. Moreover, the results are robust for a wide range of values for computational time step and total number of particles. - Highlights: • A methodology for representation of a surface oil slick using a Voronoi diagram • An algorithm simulating the spreading of oil slick with the Voronoi diagram representation • The algorithm employs the Gaussian random walk method through individual particle stepping. • The diffusive spreading is based on a theoretical model of the spreading process. • Algorithm is computationally robust and successfully reproduces analytical solutions to the spreading process.

  16. A new method for the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    In linear algebra, one can associate an equation to each square matrix: its characteristic equation or secular equation. Starting from this equation, the one characteristic polynomial that codes several important properties of the matrix is obtained: its own values, it determinant and it appearance. The first method to calculate those coefficients of this polynomial were proposed by the french astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (1811-1877), from then on, many methods have intended to calculate these coefficients. In this work the author proposes a new one method and a bibliographical citation is given where the calculations with others methods that know each other for it, taking like reference the matrix used by Le Verrier are explained. It was concluded that it here proposed, besides being the only mexican method that is knew, has the advantage of being very easy of understanding and of calculating well, in the operations that it carries out, it doesn't use the division and it avoids fractions in matrices whose entrances are whole. This has a great importance for their use in the classroom for their great didactic value and in nuclear reactors and Genetic Engineering. (Author)

  17. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  18. Generation and importance of linked and irreducible moment diagrams in the recursive residue generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schek, I.; Wyatt, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Molecular multiphoton processes are treated in the Recursive Residue Generation Method (A. Nauts and R.E. Wyatt, Phys. Rev. Lett 51, 2238 (1983)) by converting the molecular-field Hamiltonian matrix into tridiagonal form, using the Lanczos equations. In this study, the self-energies (diagonal) and linking (off-diagaonal) terms in the tridiagonal matrix are obtained by comparing linked moment diagrams in both representations. The dynamics of the source state is introduced and computed in terms of the linked and the irreducible moments

  19. Research on friction coefficient of nuclear Reactor Vessel Internals Hold Down Spring: Stress coefficient test analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linjun, Xie; Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    friction coefficient f of the K1000 HDS are further calculated to be 0.336 by stress coefficient k f . It is very important that the research method of friction coefficient put forward by this paper for the first time. The method can provide an exact basis for HDS design and structure selection and can provide a guarantee for the safe operation of the reactor.

  20. Research on friction coefficient of nuclear Reactor Vessel Internals Hold Down Spring: Stress coefficient test analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linjun, Xie, E-mail: linjunx@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2016-08-01

    friction coefficient f of the K1000 HDS are further calculated to be 0.336 by stress coefficient k{sub f}. It is very important that the research method of friction coefficient put forward by this paper for the first time. The method can provide an exact basis for HDS design and structure selection and can provide a guarantee for the safe operation of the reactor.

  1. A HUBBLE DIAGRAM FROM TYPE II SUPERNOVAE BASED SOLELY ON PHOTOMETRY: THE PHOTOMETRIC COLOR METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C.; Bolt, L.; Burns, C. R.; Folatelli, G.; Freedman, W. L.; Krisciunas, K.; Krzeminski, W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data

  2. A HUBBLE DIAGRAM FROM TYPE II SUPERNOVAE BASED SOLELY ON PHOTOMETRY: THE PHOTOMETRIC COLOR METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, J. P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago (Chile); Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bolt, L. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hgel 71, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Burns, C. R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Folatelli, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CONICET, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Freedman, W. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Krisciunas, K. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, W., E-mail: dthomas@das.uchile.cl [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-12-20

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data.

  3. Application of failure assessment diagram methods to cracked straight pipes and elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.; Gintalas, M.; Sahu, M.K.; Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports fracture assessments of large-scale straight pipes and elbows of various pipe diameters and crack sizes. The assessments estimate the load for ductile fracture initiation using the failure assessment diagram method. Recent solutions in the literature for stress intensity factor and limit load provide the analysis inputs. An assessment of constraint effects is also performed using recent solutions for elastic T-stress. It is found that predictions of initiation load are close to the experimental values for straight pipes under pure bending. For elbows, there is generally increased conservatism in the sense that the experimental loads are greater than those predicted. The effects of constraint are found not to be a major contributor to the initiation fracture assessments but may have some influence on the ductile crack extension. - Highlights: • This paper presents assessments of the loads for ductile fracture initiation in 21 large-scale piping tests. • Modern stress intensity factor and limit load solutions were used for standard failure assessment diagram methods. • This leads to generally accurate assessments of the loads for ductile crack initiation. • The effects of constraint are found not to be a major contributor to the initiation fracture assessments.

  4. Interpretation of Nonlinear Well Loss Coefficients for Rorabaugh (1953) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, B.; Yaylım, T. N.; Avşar

    2016-12-01

    Step drawdown test (SDT) are essential for hydrogeologist to determine aquifer loss and well loss parameters. In a SDT, different series of constant-discharges with incremental rates are conducted to obtain incremental drawdown into the pumping well. Pumping well efficiency (if the well is properly developed and designed), aquifer characteristics (transmissivity, storativity) and discharge-drawdown relationship can be derived from SDT. The well loss parameter directly associate with the well efficiency. The main problem is to determine the correct well loss parameter in order to estimate aquifer characteristics. Walton (1962) stated that the interpretation of the well efficiency is possible to determine the nonlinear head loss coefficient (C) with p equals to 2 and Walton (1962) presented a criteria that suggested the following terms: If C is less than 1800 m2/s5, the is properly developed and designed, If C is ranged from 1800 m2/s5 to 3600 m2/s5, the well has a mild deterioration, If C is greater than 3600 m2/s5, the well has a severe clogging. Until now, several well-known computer techniques such as Aqutesolv, AquiferWin32 , AquifertestPro can be found in the literature to evaluate well efficiency when exponential parameter (p) equals to 2. However, there exist a lack of information to evaluate well efficiency for different number of exponential parameter (p). Strategic Water Storage & Recovery (SWSR) Project in Liwa, Abu Dhabi is the leading and unique hydrogeology project in the world because of its both financial and scientific dimension. A total of 315 recovery wells have been drilled in pursuance of the scope of the SWSR project. A Universal Well Efficiency Criteria (UWEC) is developed using 315 Step Drawdown Test (SDT). UWEC is defined for different number of head loss equation coefficients. The results reveal that there is a strong correlation between non-linear well loss coefficient (C) and exponential parameter (p) up to a coefficient of determination

  5. A simple component-connection method for building binary decision diagrams encoding a fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, Y.-S.; Hsia, D.-Y.

    2000-01-01

    A simple new method for building binary decision diagrams (BDDs) encoding a fault tree (FT) is provided in this study. We first decompose the FT into FT-components. Each of them is a single descendant (SD) gate-sequence. Following the node-connection rule, the BDD-component encoding an SD FT-component can each be found to be an SD node-sequence. By successively connecting the BDD-components one by one, the BDD for the entire FT is thus obtained. During the node-connection and component-connection, reduction rules might need to be applied. An example FT is used throughout the article to explain the procedure step by step. Our method proposed is a hybrid one for FT analysis. Some algorithms or techniques used in the conventional FT analysis or the newer BDD approach may be applied to our case; our ideas mentioned in the article might be referred by the two methods

  6. Introduction to Feynman diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bilenky, Samoil Mikhelevich

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Feynman Diagrams provides Feynman diagram techniques and methods for calculating quantities measured experimentally. The book discusses topics Feynman diagrams intended for experimental physicists. Topics presented include methods for calculating the matrix elements (by perturbation theory) and the basic rules for constructing Feynman diagrams; techniques for calculating cross sections and polarizations; processes in which both leptons and hadrons take part; and the electromagnetic and weak form factors of nucleons. Experimental physicists and graduate students of physics will

  7. Automation of block assignment planning using a diagram-based scenario modeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang In Hyuck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most shipbuilding scheduling research so far has focused on the load level on the dock plan. This is be¬cause the dock is the least extendable resource in shipyards, and its overloading is difficult to resolve. However, once dock scheduling is completed, making a plan that makes the best use of the rest of the resources in the shipyard to minimize any additional cost is also important. Block assignment planning is one of the midterm planning tasks; it assigns a block to the facility (factory/shop or surface plate that will actually manufacture the block according to the block characteristics and current situation of the facility. It is one of the most heavily loaded midterm planning tasks and is carried out manu¬ally by experienced workers. In this study, a method of representing the block assignment rules using a diagram was su¬ggested through analysis of the existing manual process. A block allocation program was developed which automated the block assignment process according to the rules represented by the diagram. The planning scenario was validated through a case study that compared the manual assignment and two automated block assignment results.

  8. Automation of block assignment planning using a diagram-based scenario modeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hyuck Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most shipbuilding scheduling research so far has focused on the load level on the dock plan. This is because the dock is the least extendable resource in shipyards, and its overloading is difficult to resolve. However, once dock scheduling is completed, making a plan that makes the best use of the rest of the resources in the shipyard to minimize any additional cost is also important. Block assignment planning is one of the midterm planning tasks; it assigns a block to the facility (factory/shop or surface plate that will actually manufacture the block according to the block characteristics and current situation of the facility. It is one of the most heavily loaded midterm planning tasks and is carried out manually by experienced workers. In this study, a method of representing the block assignment rules using a diagram was suggested through analysis of the existing manual process. A block allocation program was developed which automated the block assignment process according to the rules represented by the diagram. The planning scenario was validated through a case study that compared the manual assignment and two automated block assignment results.

  9. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....

  10. Effect of elastic compliances and higher order Landau coefficients on the phase diagram of single domain epitaxial Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mtebwa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the qualitative study of the influence of both elastic compliances and higher order terms of Landau free energy potential on the phase diagram of Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5O3 thin films by using a single domain Landau theory. Although the impact of elastic compliances and higher order terms of the Landau free energy potential on the phase diagram of ferroelectric thin films are known, the sensitivity of the phase diagram of PZT thin film on these parameters have not been reported. It is demonstrated that, while values of elastic compliances affect the positions of the phase boundaries including phase transition temperature of the cubic phase; higher order terms can potentially introduce an a1a2-phase previously predicted in PbTiO3 phase diagram.

  11. Approximation of the Frame Coefficients using Finite Dimensional Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Casazza, P.

    1997-01-01

    _i \\}_{i=1}^{n}$ of the frame and theorthogonal projection $P_n$ onto its span. For $f \\in \\h ,P_nf$ has a representation as a linear combination of $f_i , i=1,2,..n,$and the corresponding coefficients can be calculated using finite dimensionalmethods. We find conditions implying that those coefficients...

  12. A phenomenological method of mechanical properties definition of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) steels VVER according to the ball indentation diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakirov, M. B.; Potapov, V.V.; Massoud, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This work presents specimen-free methods of a standard uniaxial tension diagram construction and RPV (reactor pressure vessel) steels VVER strength properties definition out of a continuous ball indentation diagram. A similarity phenomenon of uniaxial tension strain curves at a hardening area and an area of a ball indentation constitutes the ground of the methods. The methods are developed on the basis of the uniform graphic representation of elasto-plastic strain processes by indentation and tension and with the reception of the unified yield curve at a hardening area. The calculation results on the phenomenological method conducted for a wide range of RPV steels conditions of nuclear reactors have shown a good precision as far as strain curves construction by the uniaxial tension out of the elasto-plastic indentation diagram is concerned. (authors)

  13. An enhanced component connection method for conversion of fault trees to binary decision diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is widely applied to assess the failure probability of industrial systems. Many computer packages are available, which are based on conventional kinetic tree theory methods. When dealing with large (possibly non-coherent) fault trees, the limitations of the technique in terms of accuracy of the solutions and the efficiency of the processing time become apparent. Over recent years, the binary decision diagram (BDD) method has been developed that solves fault trees and overcomes the disadvantages of the conventional FTA approach. First of all, a fault tree for a particular system failure mode is constructed and then converted to a BDD for analysis. This paper analyses alternative methods for the fault tree to BDD conversion process. For most fault tree to BDD conversion approaches, the basic events of the fault tree are placed in an ordering. This can dramatically affect the size of the final BDD and the success of qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. A set of rules is then applied to each gate in the fault tree to generate the BDD. An alternative approach can also be used, where BDD constructs for each of the gate types are first built and then merged to represent a parent gate. A powerful and efficient property, sub-node sharing, is also incorporated in the enhanced method proposed in this paper. Finally, a combined approach is developed taking the best features of the alternative methods. The efficiency of the techniques is analysed and discussed

  14. Nuclear power station: validation of a method for designing operation mimic diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colard, M.I.; De Vlaminck, M.; Javaux, D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the first time in a Belgium nuclear power station that the design of mimic diagrams has involved biotechnologists. The methodology is based upon task analysis, the formalism of which has been evaluated. It is now integrated in the Dimos assisted supervision system to produce the final design of mimic diagram images. (authors). 3 figs., 3 refs

  15. [Identification of meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-hong

    2008-08-01

    In acu-moxibustion literature, there are two kinds of diagrams, meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams. Because they are very similar in outline, and people now have seldom seen the typical ancient meridian diagrams, meridian-acupoint diagrams have been being incorrectly considered to be the meridian diagrams for a long time. It results in confusion in acu-moxibustion academia. The present paper stresses its importance in academic research and introduces some methods for identifying them correctly. The key points for identification of meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams are: the legend of diagrams and the drawing style of the ancient charts. In addition, the author makes a detailed explanation about some acu-moxibustion charts which are easily confused. In order to distinguish meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams correctly, he or she shoulnd understand the diagrams' intrinsic information as much as possible and make a comprehensive analysis about them.

  16. Criteria for evaluating programme theory diagrams in quality improvement initiatives: a structured method for appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issen, Laurel; Woodcock, Thomas; McNicholas, Christopher; Lennox, Laura; Reed, Julie E

    2018-04-09

    Despite criticisms that many quality improvement (QI) initiatives fail due to incomplete programme theory, there is no defined way to evaluate how programme theory has been articulated. The objective of this research was to develop, and assess the usability and reliability of scoring criteria to evaluate programme theory diagrams. Criteria development was informed by published literature and QI experts. Inter-rater reliability was tested between two evaluators. About 63 programme theory diagrams (42 driver diagrams and 21 action-effect diagrams) were reviewed to establish whether the criteria could support comparative analysis of different approaches to constructing diagrams. Components of the scoring criteria include: assessment of overall aim, logical overview, clarity of components, cause-effect relationships, evidence and measurement. Independent reviewers had 78% inter-rater reliability. Scoring enabled direct comparison of different approaches to developing programme theory; action-effect diagrams were found to have had a statistically significant but moderate improvement in programme theory quality over driver diagrams; no significant differences were observed based on the setting in which driver diagrams were developed. The scoring criteria summarise the necessary components of programme theory that are thought to contribute to successful QI projects. The viability of the scoring criteria for practical application was demonstrated. Future uses include assessment of individual programme theory diagrams and comparison of different approaches (e.g. methodological, teaching or other QI support) to produce programme theory. The criteria can be used as a tool to guide the production of better programme theory diagrams, and also highlights where additional support for QI teams could be needed.

  17. Unsteady aerodynamic coefficients obtained by a compressible vortex lattice method.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady solutions for the aerodynamic coefficients of a thin airfoil in compressible subsonic or supersonic flows are studied. The lift, the pitch moment, and pressure coefficients are obtained numerically for the following motions: the indicial response (unit step function) of the airfoil, i.e., a sudden change in the angle of attack; a thin airfoil penetrating into a sharp edge gust (for several gust speed ratios); a thin airfoil penetrating into a one-minus-cosine gust and sinusoidal gust...

  18. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  19. Standard test method for distribution coefficients of inorganic species by the batch method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of distribution coefficients of chemical species to quantify uptake onto solid materials by a batch sorption technique. It is a laboratory method primarily intended to assess sorption of dissolved ionic species subject to migration through pores and interstices of site specific geomedia. It may also be applied to other materials such as manufactured adsorption media and construction materials. Application of the results to long-term field behavior is not addressed in this method. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in selected geomedia are commonly determined for the purpose of assessing potential migratory behavior of contaminants in the subsurface of contaminated sites and waste disposal facilities. This test method is also applicable to studies for parametric studies of the variables and mechanisms which contribute to the measured distribution coefficient. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement a...

  20. Study of Monte Carlo Simulation Method for Methane Phase Diagram Prediction using Two Different Potential Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad

    2011-06-06

    Lennard‐Jones (L‐J) and Buckingham exponential‐6 (exp‐6) potential models were used to produce isotherms for methane at temperatures below and above critical one. Molecular simulation approach, particularly Monte Carlo simulations, were employed to create these isotherms working with both canonical and Gibbs ensembles. Experiments in canonical ensemble with each model were conducted to estimate pressures at a range of temperatures above methane critical temperature. Results were collected and compared to experimental data existing in literature; both models showed an elegant agreement with the experimental data. In parallel, experiments below critical temperature were run in Gibbs ensemble using L‐J model only. Upon comparing results with experimental ones, a good fit was obtained with small deviations. The work was further developed by adding some statistical studies in order to achieve better understanding and interpretation to the estimated quantities by the simulation. Methane phase diagrams were successfully reproduced by an efficient molecular simulation technique with different potential models. This relatively simple demonstration shows how powerful molecular simulation methods could be, hence further applications on more complicated systems are considered. Prediction of phase behavior of elemental sulfur in sour natural gases has been an interesting and challenging field in oil and gas industry. Determination of elemental sulfur solubility conditions helps avoiding all kinds of problems caused by its dissolution in gas production and transportation processes. For this purpose, further enhancement to the methods used is to be considered in order to successfully simulate elemental sulfur phase behavior in sour natural gases mixtures.

  1. Roundhouse Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James

    2000-01-01

    Students must understand key concepts through reasoning, searching out related concepts, and making connections within multiple systems to learn science. The Roundhouse diagram was developed to be a concise, holistic, graphic representation of a science topic, process, or activity. Includes sample Roundhouse diagrams, a diagram checklist, and…

  2. Molecular Simulation of the Phase Diagram of Methane Hydrate: Free Energy Calculations, Direct Coexistence Method, and Hyperparallel Tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dongliang; Coasne, Benoit

    2017-10-24

    Different molecular simulation strategies are used to assess the stability of methane hydrate under various temperature and pressure conditions. First, using two water molecular models, free energy calculations consisting of the Einstein molecule approach in combination with semigrand Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine the pressure-temperature phase diagram of methane hydrate. With these calculations, we also estimate the chemical potentials of water and methane and methane occupancy at coexistence. Second, we also consider two other advanced molecular simulation techniques that allow probing the phase diagram of methane hydrate: the direct coexistence method in the Grand Canonical ensemble and the hyperparallel tempering Monte Carlo method. These two direct techniques are found to provide stability conditions that are consistent with the pressure-temperature phase diagram obtained using rigorous free energy calculations. The phase diagram obtained in this work, which is found to be consistent with previous simulation studies, is close to its experimental counterpart provided the TIP4P/Ice model is used to describe the water molecule.

  3. A combination between the differential and the perturbation theory methods for calculating sensitivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Antonio Andrade

    1998-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients is developed. The new method is a combination of two methodologies used for calculating theses coefficients, which are the differential and the generalized perturbation theory methods. The method utilizes as integral parameter the average flux in an arbitrary region of the system. Thus, the sensitivity coefficient contains only the component corresponding to the neutron flux. To obtain the new sensitivity coefficient, the derivatives of the integral parameter, Φ, with respect to σ are calculated using the perturbation method and the functional derivatives of this generic integral parameter with respect to σ and Φ are calculated using the differential method. (author)

  4. Analysis of Optimal Process Flow Diagrams of Light Naphtha Isomerization Process by Mathematic Modelling Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chuzlov, Vyacheslav Alekseevich; Molotov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    An approach to simulation of hydrocarbons refining processes catalytic reactors. The kinetic and thermodynamic research of light naphtha isomerization process was conducted. The kinetic parameters of hydrocarbon feedstock chemical conversion on different types of platinum-content catalysts was established. The estimation of efficiency of including different types of isomerization technologies in oil refinery flow diagram was performed.

  5. Analysis of Optimal Process Flow Diagrams of Light Naphtha Isomerization Process by Mathematic Modelling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuzlov Vjacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to simulation of hydrocarbons refining processes catalytic reactors. The kinetic and thermodynamic research of light naphtha isomerization process was conducted. The kinetic parameters of hydrocarbon feedstock chemical conversion on different types of platinum-content catalysts was established. The estimation of efficiency of including different types of isomerization technologies in oil refinery flow diagram was performed.

  6. Method to determine the sticking coefficient of precursor molecules in atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, M.; Bartha, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    A method to determine the sticking coefficient of precursor molecules used in atomic layer deposition (ALD) will be introduced. The sticking coefficient is an interesting quantity for comparing different ALD processes and reactors but it cannot be observed easily. The method relies on free molecular flow in nanoscale cylindrical holes. The sticking coefficient is determined for tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium in combination with ozone. The proposed method can be applied independent of the type of reactor, precursor delivery system and precursors.

  7. Production method of carbamazepine/saccharin cocrystal particles by using two solution mixing based on the ternary phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    In the pharmaceutical field, improvement of drug solubility is required, and an interest in cocrystals is growing. Crystallization methods for industrial production of cocrystals have not been developed enough whereas many cocrystals have been prepared in order to find a new crystal form by screening in the laboratory. The objective of this study was the development of the crystallization method which is useful for the industrial production of cocrystal particles based on the phase diagram. A cocrystal of carbamazepine and saccharin was selected as a model substance. The ternary phase diagram of carbamazepine and saccharin in methanol at 303 K was measured. A cocrystallization method of mixing two kinds of different eutectic solutions was designed based on the ternary phase diagram. In order to adjust the cocrystallization conditions, the determination method of the driving force for cocrystal deposition such as supersaturation based on mass balance was proposed. The cocrystal particles were obtained under all the conditions of the five mixing ratios. From these experimental results, the relationship between the supersaturation and the induction time for nucleation was confirmed as well as conventional crystallization. In conclusion, the crystallization method for industrial production of cocrystal particles including the determination of the supersaturation was suggested.

  8. A comparison of confidence interval methods for the concordance correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient with small number of raters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dai; Svetnik, Vladimir; Coimbra, Alexandre; Baumgartner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with fixed raters or, equivalently, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for continuous outcomes is a widely accepted aggregate index of agreement in settings with small number of raters. Quantifying the precision of the CCC by constructing its confidence interval (CI) is important in early drug development applications, in particular in qualification of biomarker platforms. In recent years, there have been several new methods proposed for construction of CIs for the CCC, but their comprehensive comparison has not been attempted. The methods consisted of the delta method and jackknifing with and without Fisher's Z-transformation, respectively, and Bayesian methods with vague priors. In this study, we carried out a simulation study, with data simulated from multivariate normal as well as heavier tailed distribution (t-distribution with 5 degrees of freedom), to compare the state-of-the-art methods for assigning CI to the CCC. When the data are normally distributed, the jackknifing with Fisher's Z-transformation (JZ) tended to provide superior coverage and the difference between it and the closest competitor, the Bayesian method with the Jeffreys prior was in general minimal. For the nonnormal data, the jackknife methods, especially the JZ method, provided the coverage probabilities closest to the nominal in contrast to the others which yielded overly liberal coverage. Approaches based upon the delta method and Bayesian method with conjugate prior generally provided slightly narrower intervals and larger lower bounds than others, though this was offset by their poor coverage. Finally, we illustrated the utility of the CIs for the CCC in an example of a wake after sleep onset (WASO) biomarker, which is frequently used in clinical sleep studies of drugs for treatment of insomnia.

  9. The power grid AGC frequency bias coefficient online identification method based on wide area information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zian; Li, Shiguang; Yu, Ting

    2015-12-01

    This paper propose online identification method of regional frequency deviation coefficient based on the analysis of interconnected grid AGC adjustment response mechanism of regional frequency deviation coefficient and the generator online real-time operation state by measured data through PMU, analyze the optimization method of regional frequency deviation coefficient in case of the actual operation state of the power system and achieve a more accurate and efficient automatic generation control in power system. Verify the validity of the online identification method of regional frequency deviation coefficient by establishing the long-term frequency control simulation model of two-regional interconnected power system.

  10. Parallel computation of multigroup reactivity coefficient using iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmikanti, Mike; Dewayatna, Winter

    2013-09-01

    One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium.

  11. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  12. Improved method for calculating neoclassical transport coefficients in the banana regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, M., E-mail: taguchi.masayoshi@nihon-u.ac.jp [College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino 275-8576 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    The conventional neoclassical moment method in the banana regime is improved by increasing the accuracy of approximation to the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This improved method is formulated for a multiple ion plasma in general tokamak equilibria. The explicit computation in a model magnetic field shows that the neoclassical transport coefficients can be accurately calculated in the full range of aspect ratio by the improved method. The some neoclassical transport coefficients for the intermediate aspect ratio are found to appreciably deviate from those obtained by the conventional moment method. The differences between the transport coefficients with these two methods are up to about 20%.

  13. An effective method for finding special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Maochang; Fan Guihong

    2008-01-01

    There are many interesting methods can be utilized to construct special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with constant coefficients. However, most of these methods are not applicable to nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. A new method is presented in this Letter, which can be used to find special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. This method is based on seeking appropriate Bernoulli equation corresponding to the equation studied. Many well-known equations are chosen to illustrate the application of this method

  14. An improved method for determining the continuous cooling transformation diagram of C-Mn steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesplont, C.; Cooman, B.C. de [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Lab. for Iron and Steelmaking; Zhao, J.Z.; Vandeputte, S. [Ocas, Zelzate (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Dilatometry is often used to study the decomposition of austenite in steels, but the analysis of dilatometric data is often limited to the determination of transformation temperatures. The well-known lever rule is not applicable when more than one phase transformation occurs. A model accounting for the carbon partitioning effects was developed to extract the phase transformation kinetics of a C-Mn steel cooled using a wide range of cooling rates. The model is shown to be suitable to analyze the phase transformations in C-Mn steels and it can be used to obtain a detailed CCT diagram for those steels. (orig.)

  15. A combination of differential method and perturbation theory for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Borges, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients is developed. The new method is a combination of two methodologies used for calculating these coefficients, which are the differential and the generalized perturbation theory methods. The proposed method utilizes as integral parameter the average flux in an arbitrary region of the system. Thus, the sensitivity coefficient contains only the component corresponding to the neutron flux. To obtain the new sensitivity coefficient, the derivates of the integral parameter, φ(ξ), with respect to σ are calculated using the perturbation method and the functional derivates of this generic integral parameter with respect to σ and φ are calculated using the differential method. The new method merges the advantages of the differential and generalized perturbation theory methods and eliminates their disadvantages. (author)

  16. Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

  17. Transport coefficients for deeply inelastic scattering from the Feynman path integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.; Neto, J.; Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    Friction and diffusion coefficients can be derived simply by combining statistical arguments with the Feynman path integral method. A transport equation for Feynman's influence functional is obtained, and transport coefficients are deduced from it. The expressions are discussed in the limits of weak, and of strong coupling. (Auth.)

  18. A nodal method applied to a diffusion problem with generalized coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laazizi, A.; Guessous, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we consider second order neutrons diffusion problem with coefficients in L ∞ (Ω). Nodal method of the lowest order is applied to approximate the problem's solution. The approximation uses special basis functions in which the coefficients appear. The rate of convergence obtained is O(h 2 ) in L 2 (Ω), with a free rectangular triangulation. (authors)

  19. Effective diffusion coefficient of radon in concrete, theory and method for field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culot, M.V.J.; Olson, H.G.; Schiager, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A linear diffusion model serves as the basis for determination of an effective radon diffusion coefficient in concrete. The coefficient was needed to later allow quantitative prediction of radon accumulation within and behind concrete walls after application of an impervious radon barrier. A resolution of certain discrepancies noted in the literature in the use of an effective diffusion coefficient to model diffusion of a radioactive gas through a porous medium is suggested. An outline of factors expected to affect the concrete physical structure and the effective diffusion coefficient of radon through it is also presented. Finally, a field method for evaluating effective radon diffusion coefficients in concrete is proposed and results of measurements performed on a concrete foundation wall are compared with similar published values of gas diffusion coefficients in concrete. (author)

  20. Monitoring temperature reactivity coefficient by noise method in a NPP at full power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, O.; Por, G.

    1987-04-01

    A new method based on noise measurement was used to estimate the temperature reactivity coefficient of the PAKS-2 reactor during the entire fuel cycle. Based on the measurements it is possible to measure the dependence of reactivity coefficient on boron concentration. Good agreement was found between the results obtained by the new method and by the conventional ones. Based on this method a new equipment can be develop which assures permanent measurements during operation. (author)

  1. Measurements of linear attenuation coefficients of irregular shaped samples by two media method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficient values of regular and irregular shaped flyash materials have been measured without knowing the thickness of a sample using a new technique namely 'two media method'. These values have also been measured with a standard gamma ray transmission method and obtained theoretically with winXCOM computer code. From the comparison it is reported that the two media method has given accurate results of attenuation coefficients of flyash materials

  2. Determination of axial diffusion coefficients by the Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.

    1994-01-01

    A simple method to calculate the homogenized diffusion coefficient for a lattice cell using Monte-Carlo techniques is demonstrated. The method relies on modelling a finite reactor volume to induce a curvature in the flux distribution, and then follows a large number of histories to obtain sufficient statistics for a meaningful result. The goal is to determine the diffusion coefficient with sufficient accuracy to test approximate methods built into deterministic lattice codes. Numerical results are given. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs

  3. Slip and Slide Method of Factoring Trinomials with Integer Coefficients over the Integers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, William A.

    2012-01-01

    In intermediate and college algebra courses there are a number of methods for factoring quadratic trinomials with integer coefficients over the integers. Some of these methods have been given names, such as trial and error, reversing FOIL, AC method, middle term splitting method and slip and slide method. The purpose of this article is to discuss…

  4. The Split Coefficient Matrix method for hyperbolic systems of gasdynamic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, S. R.; Anderson, D. A.; Salas, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Split Coefficient Matrix (SCM) finite difference method for solving hyperbolic systems of equations is presented. This new method is based on the mathematical theory of characteristics. The development of the method from characteristic theory is presented. Boundary point calculation procedures consistent with the SCM method used at interior points are explained. The split coefficient matrices that define the method for steady supersonic and unsteady inviscid flows are given for several examples. The SCM method is used to compute several flow fields to demonstrate its accuracy and versatility. The similarities and differences between the SCM method and the lambda-scheme are discussed.

  5. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  6. Method for the determination of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of finite magnetic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Horowitz, L.P.; Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A recent method for the determination of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of finite magnetic groups is generalised to magnetic groups. Discussion is restricted to unitary-anti-unitary representations of type I.

  7. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  8. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abd, A.

    2014-01-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. - Highlights: • Compton scattering of γ−rays was used for determining mass absorption coefficient. • Scattered intensities were determined by the MCSHAPE software. • Mass absorption coefficients were determined for some compounds, mixtures and alloys. • Mass absorption coefficients were calculated by Winxcom software. • Good agreements were found between determined and calculated results

  9. On the methods for determining the transverse dispersion coefficient in river mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyong Oh; Seo, Il Won

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the strengths and weaknesses of existing methods for determining the dispersion coefficient in the two-dimensional river mixing model were assessed based on hydraulic and tracer data sets acquired from experiments conducted on either laboratory channels or natural rivers. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that, when the longitudinal dispersion coefficient as well as the transverse dispersion coefficients must be determined in the transient concentration situation, the two-dimensional routing procedures, 2D RP and 2D STRP, can be employed to calculate dispersion coefficients among the observation methods. For the steady concentration situation, the STRP can be applied to calculate the transverse dispersion coefficient. When the tracer data are not available, either theoretical or empirical equations by the estimation method can be used to calculate the dispersion coefficient using the geometric and hydraulic data sets. Application of the theoretical and empirical equations to the laboratory channel showed that equations by Baek and Seo [[3], 2011] predicted reasonable values while equations by Fischer [23] and Boxwall and Guymer (2003) overestimated by factors of ten to one hundred. Among existing empirical equations, those by Jeon et al. [28] and Baek and Seo [6] gave the agreeable values of the transverse dispersion coefficient for most cases of natural rivers. Further, the theoretical equation by Baek and Seo [5] has the potential to be broadly applied to both laboratory and natural channels.

  10. Delimiting diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, V. van

    2004-01-01

    We introduce the unifying notion of delimiting diagram. Hitherto unrelated results such as: Minimality of the internal needed strategy for orthogonal first-order term rewriting systems, maximality of the limit strategy for orthogonal higher-order pattern rewrite systems (with maximality of the

  11. SN 2016jhj at redshift 0.34: extending the Type II supernova Hubble diagram using the standard candle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; Galbany, L.; Filippenko, A. V.; González-Gaitán, S.; Yasuda, N.; Maeda, K.; Tanaka, M.; Morokuma, T.; Moriya, T. J.; Tominaga, N.; Nomoto, K.; Komiyama, Y.; Anderson, J. P.; Brink, T. G.; Carlberg, R. G.; Folatelli, G.; Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Zheng, W.

    2017-12-01

    Although Type Ia supernova cosmology has now reached a mature state, it is important to develop as many independent methods as possible to understand the true nature of dark energy. Recent studies have shown that Type II supernovae (SNe II) offer such a path and could be used as alternative distance indicators. However, the majority of these studies were unable to extend the Hubble diagram above redshift z = 0.3 because of observational limitations. Here, we show that we are now ready to move beyond low redshifts and attempt high-redshift (z ≳ 0.3) SN II cosmology as a result of new-generation deep surveys such as the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. Applying the 'standard candle method' to SN 2016jhj (z = 0.3398 ± 0.0002; discovered by HSC) together with a low-redshift sample, we are able to construct the highest-redshift SN II Hubble diagram to date with an observed dispersion of 0.27 mag (i.e. 12-13 per cent in distance). This work demonstrates the bright future of SN II cosmology in the coming era of large, wide-field surveys like that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  12. A generalized fractional sub-equation method for fractional differential equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Bo; He, Yinnian; Wei, Leilei; Zhang, Xindong

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, a generalized fractional sub-equation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space–time fractional Gardner equation with variable coefficients. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient and powerful mathematical tool for solving many other fractional differential equations in mathematical physics. -- Highlights: ► Study of fractional differential equations with variable coefficients plays a role in applied physical sciences. ► It is shown that the proposed algorithm is effective for solving fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. ► The obtained solutions may give insight into many considerable physical processes.

  13. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-destructive testing method for determining the solvent diffusion coefficient in the porous materials products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, V. P.; Mishchenko, S. V.; Belyaev, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ensuring non-destructive testing of products in industry is an urgent task. Most of the modern methods for determining the diffusion coefficient in porous materials have been developed for bodies of a given configuration and size. This leads to the need for finished products destruction to make experimental samples from them. The purpose of this study is the development of a dynamic method that allows operatively determine the diffusion coefficient in finished products from porous materials without destroying them. The method is designed to investigate the solvents diffusion coefficient in building constructions from materials having a porous structure: brick, concrete and aerated concrete, gypsum, cement, gypsum or silicate solutions, gas silicate blocks, heat insulators, etc. A mathematical model of the method is constructed. The influence of the design and measuring device operating parameters on the method accuracy is studied. The application results of the developed method for structural porous products are presented.

  15. Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.; Maennel, M.; Schreiber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data

  16. Study and development of an optical method for the measurement of convection coefficients; Etude et developpement d'une methode optique pour la mesure du coefficient de convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowther, David J.

    1990-03-06

    This research thesis addresses the field of fluid-wall thermal exchanges in which the notion of exchange coefficient is notably useful to design, size and optimise devices. A first part reports a bibliographical study which gives an overview of solutions envisaged to determine the convection coefficient in permanent regime with the use of flow sensors, as well as in transient regime. Then, the author reports the development of an unsteady method which is based on the analysis of the cooling kinetics of the front face of a convecting wall, after a unique energetic perturbation (an infinitely brief pulse, or a finite duration energy step). This method is applied to the general case (wall with finite thickness) and to the case of a semi-infinite wall which is typical of materials which are weak thermal conductors. This is extended to the case of good thermal conductors by considering a thermally thin wall. After a detailed description of the experimental bench, above-mentioned solutions are applied to insulating and good thermal conducting materials. In order to validate results of an analysis in transient regime, they are compared with measurements performed in permanent regime with a flow-metering technique. The study of the principle of the dissipation-based flow sensor, and its operation are reported. Experimental results are presented for both methods (pulse and flow sensor), and compared in order to highlight the interest of the unsteady method [French] Difficile a mesurer, le coefficient de convection reste cependant une grandeur necessaire au calcul et a l'optimisation de tout systeme thermique. L'amelioration des capteurs thermiques permet aujourd'hui de concevoir une methode optique, utilisable a distance, et non destructive. Nous proposons dans ce but, un procede de mesure en regime transitoire base sur la radiometrie photothermique impulsionnelle. L'analyse du regime de relaxation d'une paroi, apres une brusque elevation de temperature, permet de remonter

  17. On the Diffusion Coefficient of Two-step Method for LWR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deokjung; Choi, Sooyoung; Smith, Kord S.

    2015-01-01

    The few-group constants including diffusion coefficients are generated from the assembly calculation results. Once the assembly calculation is done, the cross sections (XSs) are spatially homogenized, and a critical spectrum calculation is performed in order to take into account the neutron leakages of the lattice. The diffusion coefficient is also generated through the critical spectrum calculation. Three different methods of the critical spectrum calculation such as B1 method, P1 method, and fundamental mode (FM) calculation method are considered in this paper. The diffusion coefficients can also be affected by transport approximations for the transport XS calculation which is used in the assembly transport lattice calculation in order to account for the anisotropic scattering effects. The outflow transport approximation and the inflow transport approximation are investigated in this paper. The accuracy of the few group data especially the diffusion coefficients has been studied to optimize the combination of the transport correction methods and the critical spectrum calculation methods using the UNIST lattice physics code STREAM. The combination of the inflow transport approximation and the FM method is shown to provide the highest accuracy in the LWR core calculations. The methodologies to calculate the diffusion coefficients have been reviewed, and the performances of them have been investigated with a LWR core problem. The combination of the inflow transport approximation and the fundamental mode critical spectrum calculation shows the smallest errors in terms of assembly power distribution

  18. Macroscopically constrained Wang-Landau method for systems with multiple order parameters and its application to drawing complex phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. H.; Brown, G.; Rikvold, P. A.

    2017-05-01

    A generalized approach to Wang-Landau simulations, macroscopically constrained Wang-Landau, is proposed to simulate the density of states of a system with multiple macroscopic order parameters. The method breaks a multidimensional random-walk process in phase space into many separate, one-dimensional random-walk processes in well-defined subspaces. Each of these random walks is constrained to a different set of values of the macroscopic order parameters. When the multivariable density of states is obtained for one set of values of fieldlike model parameters, the density of states for any other values of these parameters can be obtained by a simple transformation of the total system energy. All thermodynamic quantities of the system can then be rapidly calculated at any point in the phase diagram. We demonstrate how to use the multivariable density of states to draw the phase diagram, as well as order-parameter probability distributions at specific phase points, for a model spin-crossover material: an antiferromagnetic Ising model with ferromagnetic long-range interactions. The fieldlike parameters in this model are an effective magnetic field and the strength of the long-range interaction.

  19. Quantitative assessment of probability of failing safely for the safety instrumented system using reliability block diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Pang, Lei; Zhao, Shoutang; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of PFS for SIS were established by using the reliability block diagram. • The more accurate calculation of PFS for SIS can be acquired by using SL. • Degraded operation of complex SIS does not affect the availability of SIS. • The safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS of SIS. - Abstract: The spurious trip of safety instrumented system (SIS) brings great economic losses to production. How to ensure the safety instrumented system is reliable and available has been put on the schedule. But the existing models on spurious trip rate (STR) or probability of failing safely (PFS) are too simplified and not accurate, in-depth studies of availability to obtain more accurate PFS for SIS are required. Based on the analysis of factors that influence the PFS for the SIS, using reliability block diagram method (RBD), the quantitative study of PFS for the SIS is carried out, and gives some application examples. The results show that, the common cause failure will increase the PFS; degraded operation does not affect the availability of the SIS; if the equipment was tested and repaired one by one, the unavailability of the SIS can be ignored; the corresponding occurrence time of independent safe undetected failure should be the system lifecycle (SL) rather than the proof test interval and the independent safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS for the SIS

  20. Measurement of reactivity temperature coefficient by noise method in a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, O.

    1986-07-01

    The temperature reactivity coefficient was estimated on the basis of noise measurements performed in a PWR. The magnitude of the coefficient was evaluated by relating the values of the APSD and CPSD between ex-core neutron detector signals and fuel assembly outlet thermocouple in the low frequency range. Comparison with δρ/δT measurements performed in PWR by standard methods supports the validity of the results. (author)

  1. An Improved Method of Predicting Extinction Coefficients for the Determination of Protein Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilario, Eric C; Stern, Alan; Wang, Charlie H; Vargas, Yenny W; Morgan, Charles J; Swartz, Trevor E; Patapoff, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    Concentration determination is an important method of protein characterization required in the development of protein therapeutics. There are many known methods for determining the concentration of a protein solution, but the easiest to implement in a manufacturing setting is absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region. For typical proteins composed of the standard amino acids, absorption at wavelengths near 280 nm is due to the three amino acid chromophores tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine in addition to a contribution from disulfide bonds. According to the Beer-Lambert law, absorbance is proportional to concentration and path length, with the proportionality constant being the extinction coefficient. Typically the extinction coefficient of proteins is experimentally determined by measuring a solution absorbance then experimentally determining the concentration, a measurement with some inherent variability depending on the method used. In this study, extinction coefficients were calculated based on the measured absorbance of model compounds of the four amino acid chromophores. These calculated values for an unfolded protein were then compared with an experimental concentration determination based on enzymatic digestion of proteins. The experimentally determined extinction coefficient for the native proteins was consistently found to be 1.05 times the calculated value for the unfolded proteins for a wide range of proteins with good accuracy and precision under well-controlled experimental conditions. The value of 1.05 times the calculated value was termed the predicted extinction coefficient. Statistical analysis shows that the differences between predicted and experimentally determined coefficients are scattered randomly, indicating no systematic bias between the values among the proteins measured. The predicted extinction coefficient was found to be accurate and not subject to the inherent variability of experimental methods. We propose the use of a

  2. Intercomparison of diffusion coefficient derived from the through-diffusion experiment using different numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chih-Lung Chen; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Tsing-Hai Wang; Shi-Ping Teng; Ching-Hor Lee

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion is a dominant mechanism regulating the transport of released nuclides. The through-diffusion method is typically applied to determine the diffusion coefficients (D). Depending on the design of the experiment, the concentrations in the source term [i.e., inlet reservoir (IR)] or the end term [i.e., outlet reservoir (OR)] can be fixed or vary. The combinations involve four distinct models (i.e., the CC-CC model, CC-VC model, VC-CC model, and the VC-VC model). Studies discussing the VC-CC model are scant. An analytical method considering the decay effect is required to accurately interpret the radioactive nuclide diffusion experiment results. Therefore, we developed a CC-CC model and a CC-VC model with a decay effect and the simplified formulas of these two models to determine the diffusion coefficient (i.e., the CC-CC method and CC-VC method). We also proposed two simplified methods using the VC-VC model to determine the diffusion coefficient straightforwardly based upon the concentration variation in IR and OR. More importantly, the best advantage of proposed method over others is that one can derive three diffusion coefficients based on one run of experiment. In addition, applying our CC-VC method to those data reported from Radiochemica Acta 96:111-117, 2008; and J Contam Hydrol 35:55-65, 1998, derived comparable diffusion coefficient lying in the identical order of magnitude. Furthermore, we proposed a formula to determine the conceptual critical time (Tc), which is particularly beneficial for the selection of using CC-VC or VC-VC method. Based on our proposed method, it becomes possible to calculate diffusion coefficient from a through-diffusion experiment in a shorter period of time. (author)

  3. Coupling between the differential and perturbation theory methods for calculating sensitivity coefficients in nuclear transmutation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Lubianka Ferrari Russo

    2014-01-01

    The main target of this study is to introduce a new method for calculating the coefficients of sensibility through the union of differential method and generalized perturbation theory, which are the two methods generally used in reactor physics to obtain such variables. These two methods, separated, have some issues turning the sensibility coefficients calculation slower or computationally exhaustive. However, putting them together, it is possible to repair these issues and build a new equation for the coefficient of sensibility. The method introduced in this study was applied in a PWR reactor, where it was performed the sensibility analysis for the production and 239 Pu conversion rate during 120 days (1 cycle) of burnup. The computational code used for both burnup and sensibility analysis, the CINEW, was developed in this study and all the results were compared with codes widely used in reactor physics, such as CINDER and SERPENT. The new mathematical method for calculating the sensibility coefficients and the code CINEW provide good numerical agility and also good efficiency and security, once the new method, when compared with traditional ones, provide satisfactory results, even when the other methods use different mathematical approaches. The burnup analysis, performed using the code CINEW, was compared with the code CINDER, showing an acceptable variation, though CINDER presents some computational issues due to the period it was built. The originality of this study is the application of such method in problems involving temporal dependence and, not least, the elaboration of the first national code for burnup and sensitivity analysis. (author)

  4. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF LARCH BOARD WITH FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaofang Zhou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the moisture diffusion coefficient of Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr. by use of the Finite Difference Method (FDM. To obtain moisture distributions the dimensional boards of Dahurian Larch were dried, from which test samples were cut and sliced evenly into 9 pieces in different drying periods, so that moisture distributions at different locations and times across the thickness of Dahurian Larch were obtained with a weighing method. With these experimental data, FDM was used to solve Fick’s one-dimensional unsteady-state diffusion equation, and the moisture diffusion coefficient across the thickness at specified time was obtained. Results indicated that the moisture diffusion coefficient decreased from the surface to the center of the Dahurian Larch wood, and it decreased with decreasing moisture content at constant wood temperature; as the wood temperature increased, the moisture diffusion coefficient increased, and the effect of the wood temperature on the moisture diffusion coefficient was more significant than that of moisture content. Moisture diffusion coefficients were different for the two experiments due to differing diffusivity of the specimens.

  5. Estimation of the distribution coefficient by combined application of two different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, G.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1982-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive method is presented which permits determination of the rBCF and, in addition, of the distribution coefficient of the grey matter. The latter, which is closely correlated with the cerebral metabolism, has only been determined in vitro so far. The new method will be a means to check its accuracy. (orig.) [de

  6. Study on erbium loading method to improve reactivity coefficients for low radiotoxic spent fuel HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Y., E-mail: fukaya.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Goto, M.; Nishihara, T.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We attempted and optimized erbium loading methods to improve reactivity coefficients for LRSF-HTGR. • We elucidated the mechanism of the improvements for each erbium loading method by using the Bondarenko approach. • We concluded the erbium loading method by embedding into graphite shaft is preferable. - Abstract: Erbium loading methods are investigated to improve reactivity coefficients of Low Radiotoxic Spent Fuel High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (LRSF-HTGR). Highly enriched uranium is used for fuel to reduce the generation of toxicity from uranium-238. The power coefficients are positive without the use of any additive. Then, the erbium is loaded into the core to obtain negative reactivity coefficients owing to the large resonance the peak of neutron capture reaction of erbium-167. The loading methods are attempted to find the suitable method for LRSF-HTGR. The erbium is mixed in a CPF fuel kernel, loaded by binary packing with fuel particles and erbium particles, and embedded into the graphite shaft deployed in the center of the fuel compact. It is found that erbium loading causes negative reactivity as moderator temperature reactivity, and from the viewpoint of heat transfer, it should be loaded into fuel pin elements for pin-in-block type fuel. Moreover, the erbium should be incinerated slowly to obtain negative reactivity coefficients even at the End Of Cycle (EOC). A loading method that effectively causes self-shielding should be selected to avoid incineration with burn-up. The incineration mechanism is elucidated using the Bondarenko approach. As a result, it is concluded that erbium embedded into graphite shaft is preferable for LRSF-HTGR to ensure that the reactivity coefficients remain negative at EOC.

  7. Comparison of residual strength-grounding damage index diagrams for tankers produced by the ALPS/HULL ISFEM and design formula method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the Residual ultimate longitudinal strength – grounding Damage index (R-D diagrams produced by two analysis methods: the ALPS/HULL Intelligent Supersize Finite Element Method (ISFEM and the design formula (modified Paik and Mansour method – used to assess the safety of damaged ships. The comparison includes four types of double-hull oil tankers: Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax and VLCC. The R-D diagrams were calculated for a series of 50 grounding scenarios. The diagrams were efficiently sampled using the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique and comprehensively analysed based on ship size. Finally, the two methods were compared by statistically analysing the differences between their grounding damage indices and ultimate longitudinal strength predictions. The findings provide a useful example of how to apply the ultimate longitudinal strength analysis method to grounded ships.

  8. Use of Influence Diagrams and Fuzzy Theory to Develop Assessment Method of Organizational Influences on Component Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoonik Kim; Kwang-Won Ahn; Chang-Hyun Chung; Kil Yoo Kim; Joon-Eon Yang

    2002-01-01

    Organization can make influences on all the systems. Especially in case of nuclear power plants in which safety is established to be one of the most important operating goals, there have been a lot of research efforts for the hardware advancement. However in recent years, it has been widely recognized that organizational factors in nuclear power plants have an important influence on the safety attitudes and the safe behavior of individuals. Until now, any means to include assessments of organizational structure in probabilistic risk assessments have not been universally accepted. The objective of this work is to develop a method to assess organizational influences on component maintenance. Influence diagrams are introduced in this method as a decision making tool and fuzzy theory is used to reflect the vagueness in considering relevance of human activities in maintenance tasks. Introducing fuzzy theory to assess the organizational factors is deemed to a somewhat new trial, which makes it possible to convert linguistic vague descriptions into mathematical ones. Fuzzy linguistic descriptions offer an alternative and often complementary language to conventional, i.e., analytic approaches to modeling systems. Among the existing methodologies to assess organizational factors, the concept of the ω-factor model is utilized and the mechanism that organizational factors have influences on component maintenance is evaluated through composing influence diagrams. These influences go to failure rates and eventually affect component unavailability. Further study will make it possible that the influences of organizational factors on human error probabilities are incorporated into human reliability analysis and furthermore probabilistic safety assessment. (authors)

  9. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Gem; Zhang, Leishi; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Euler diagrams are a popular and intuitive visualization tool which are used in a wide variety of application areas, including biological and medical data analysis. As with other data visualization methods, such as graphs, bar charts, or pie charts, the automated generation of an Euler diagram from a suitable data set would be advantageous, removing the burden of manual data analysis and the subsequent task of drawing an appropriate diagram. Various methods have emerged that automatically dra...

  10. Determination of diffusion coefficients in polypyrrole thin films using a current pulse relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Vandyke, Leon S.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The current pulse E sub oc relaxation method and its application to the determination of diffusion coefficients in electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films is described. Diffusion coefficients for such films in Et4NBF4 and MeCN are determined for a series of submicron film thicknesses. Measurement of the double-layer capacitance, C sub dl, and the resistance, R sub u, of polypyrrole thin films as a function of potential obtained with the galvanostatic pulse method is reported. Measurements of the electrolyte concentration in reduced polypyrrole films are also presented to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  11. Comparison of Experimental Methods for Estimating Matrix Diffusion Coefficients for Contaminant Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telfeyan, Katherine Christina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ware, Stuart Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    Diffusion cell and diffusion wafer experiments were conducted to compare methods for estimating matrix diffusion coefficients in rock core samples from Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). A diffusion wafer method, in which a solute diffuses out of a rock matrix that is pre-saturated with water containing the solute, is presented as a simpler alternative to the traditional through-diffusion (diffusion cell) method. Both methods yielded estimates of matrix diffusion coefficients that were within the range of values previously reported for NNSS volcanic rocks. The difference between the estimates of the two methods ranged from 14 to 30%, and there was no systematic high or low bias of one method relative to the other. From a transport modeling perspective, these differences are relatively minor when one considers that other variables (e.g., fracture apertures, fracture spacings) influence matrix diffusion to a greater degree and tend to have greater uncertainty than diffusion coefficients. For the same relative random errors in concentration measurements, the diffusion cell method yields diffusion coefficient estimates that have less uncertainty than the wafer method. However, the wafer method is easier and less costly to implement and yields estimates more quickly, thus allowing a greater number of samples to be analyzed for the same cost and time. Given the relatively good agreement between the methods, and the lack of any apparent bias between the methods, the diffusion wafer method appears to offer advantages over the diffusion cell method if better statistical representation of a given set of rock samples is desired.

  12. Comparison of experimental methods for estimating matrix diffusion coefficients for contaminant transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfeyan, Katherine; Ware, S. Doug; Reimus, Paul W.; Birdsell, Kay H.

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion cell and diffusion wafer experiments were conducted to compare methods for estimating effective matrix diffusion coefficients in rock core samples from Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). A diffusion wafer method, in which a solute diffuses out of a rock matrix that is pre-saturated with water containing the solute, is presented as a simpler alternative to the traditional through-diffusion (diffusion cell) method. Both methods yielded estimates of effective matrix diffusion coefficients that were within the range of values previously reported for NNSS volcanic rocks. The difference between the estimates of the two methods ranged from 14 to 30%, and there was no systematic high or low bias of one method relative to the other. From a transport modeling perspective, these differences are relatively minor when one considers that other variables (e.g., fracture apertures, fracture spacings) influence matrix diffusion to a greater degree and tend to have greater uncertainty than effective matrix diffusion coefficients. For the same relative random errors in concentration measurements, the diffusion cell method yields effective matrix diffusion coefficient estimates that have less uncertainty than the wafer method. However, the wafer method is easier and less costly to implement and yields estimates more quickly, thus allowing a greater number of samples to be analyzed for the same cost and time. Given the relatively good agreement between the methods, and the lack of any apparent bias between the methods, the diffusion wafer method appears to offer advantages over the diffusion cell method if better statistical representation of a given set of rock samples is desired.

  13. Computing eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients to nuclear data based on the CLUTCH method with RMC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yishu; She, Ding; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Kan; Liang, Jingang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new algorithm is proposed to reduce memory consumption for sensitivity analysis. • The fission matrix method is used to generate adjoint fission source distributions. • Sensitivity analysis is performed on a detailed 3D full-core benchmark with RMC. - Abstract: Recently, there is a need to develop advanced methods of computing eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients to nuclear data in the continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes. One of these methods is the iterated fission probability (IFP) method, which is adopted by most of Monte Carlo codes of having the capabilities of computing sensitivity coefficients, including the Reactor Monte Carlo code RMC. Though it is accurate theoretically, the IFP method faces the challenge of huge memory consumption. Therefore, it may sometimes produce poor sensitivity coefficients since the number of particles in each active cycle is not sufficient enough due to the limitation of computer memory capacity. In this work, two algorithms of the Contribution-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Tracklength importance CHaracterization (CLUTCH) method, namely, the collision-event-based algorithm (C-CLUTCH) which is also implemented in SCALE and the fission-event-based algorithm (F-CLUTCH) which is put forward in this work, are investigated and implemented in RMC to reduce memory requirements for computing eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients. While the C-CLUTCH algorithm requires to store concerning reaction rates of every collision, the F-CLUTCH algorithm only stores concerning reaction rates of every fission point. In addition, the fission matrix method is put forward to generate the adjoint fission source distribution for the CLUTCH method to compute sensitivity coefficients. These newly proposed approaches implemented in RMC code are verified by a SF96 lattice model and the MIT BEAVRS benchmark problem. The numerical results indicate the accuracy of the F-CLUTCH algorithm is the same as the C

  14. Interferometric measurement of a diffusion coefficient: comparison of two methods and uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riquelme, Rodrigo; Lira, Ignacio; Perez-Lopez, Carlos; Rayas, Juan A; RodrIguez-Vera, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Two methods to measure the diffusion coefficient of a species in a liquid by optical interferometry were compared. The methods were tested on a 1.75 M NaCl aqueous solution diffusing into water at 26 deg. C. Results were D = 1.587 x 10 -9 m 2 s -1 with the first method and D = 1.602 x 10 -9 m 2 s -1 with the second method. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the possible dispersion of these results. The standard uncertainties were found to be of the order of 0.05 x 10 -9 m 2 s -1 with both methods. We found that the value of the diffusion coefficient obtained by either method is very sensitive to the magnification of the optical system, and that if diffusion is slow the measurement of time does not need to be very accurate

  15. Comparison of different methods to extract the required coefficient of friction for level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) is an important predictor for slip incidents. Despite the wide use of the RCOF there is no standardised method for identifying the RCOF from ground reaction forces. This article presents a comparison of the outcomes from seven different methods, derived from those reported in the literature, for identifying the RCOF from the same data. While commonly used methods are based on a normal force threshold, percentage of stance phase or time from heel contact, a newly introduced hybrid method is based on a combination of normal force, time and direction of increase in coefficient of friction. Although no major differences were found with these methods in more than half the strikes, significant differences were found in a significant portion of strikes. Potential problems with some of these methods were identified and discussed and they appear to be overcome by the hybrid method. No standard method exists for determining the required coefficient of friction (RCOF), an important predictor for slipping. In this study, RCOF values from a single data set, using various methods from the literature, differed considerably for a significant portion of strikes. A hybrid method may yield improved results.

  16. A method to measure the diffusion coefficient by neutron wave propagation for limited samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1986-03-01

    A study has been made of the use of the neutron wave and pulse propagation method for measurement of thermal neutron diffusion parameters. Earlier works an homogenous and heterogeneous media are reviewed. A new method is sketched for the determination of the diffusion coefficient for samples of limited size. The principle is to place a relatively thin slab of the material between two blocks of a medium with known properties. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. (author)

  17. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  18. Simple method for the calculation and use of CVD phase diagrams with applications to the Ti-B-Cl-H system, 1200 to 8000K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randich, E.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1980-03-01

    A simple method for calculating multi-component gas-solid equilibrium phase diagrams for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems is presented. The method proceeds in three steps: dtermination of stable solid assemblages, evaluation of gas-solid stability relations, and calcuation of conventional phase diagrams using a new free energy minimization technique. The phase diagrams can be used to determine (1) bulk compositions and phase fields accessible by CVD techniques; (2) expected condensed phases for various starting gas mixtures; and (3) maximum equilibrium yields for specific CVD process variables. The three step thermodynamic method is used to calcuate phase diagrams for the example CVD system Ti-B-Cl-H at 1200 and 800 0 K. Examples of applications of the diagrams for yield optimization and experimental accessibility studies are presented and discussed. Experimental verification of the TiB 2 + Gas/Gas phase field boundary at 1200 0 K, H/Cl = 1 confirms the calculated boundary and indicates that equilibrium is nearly and rapidly approached under laboratory conditions

  19. Maximum Simulated Likelihood and Expectation-Maximization Methods to Estimate Random Coefficients Logit with Panel Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchi, Elisabetta; Guevara, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    with cross-sectional or with panel data, and (d) EM systematically attained more efficient estimators than the MSL method. The results imply that if the purpose of the estimation is only to determine the ratios of the model parameters (e.g., the value of time), the EM method should be preferred. For all......The random coefficients logit model allows a more realistic representation of agents' behavior. However, the estimation of that model may involve simulation, which may become impractical with many random coefficients because of the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, the traditional maximum...... simulated likelihood (MSL) method is compared with the alternative expectation- maximization (EM) method, which does not require simulation. Previous literature had shown that for cross-sectional data, MSL outperforms the EM method in the ability to recover the true parameters and estimation time...

  20. Practical methods to define scattering coefficients in a room acoustics computer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xiangyang; Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    of obtaining the data becomes quite time consuming thus increasing the cost of design. In this paper, practical methods to define scattering coefficients, which is based on an approach of modeling surface scattering and scattering caused by limited size of surface as well as edge diffraction are presented...

  1. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  2. Improvement of the variable storage coefficient method with water surface gradient as a variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variable storage coefficient (VSC) method has been used for streamflow routing in continuous hydrological simulation models such as the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for more than 30 years. APEX operates on a daily time step and ...

  3. Comparison of the methods for calculating the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Kunmin; Wang, Bin; Chang, Ying; Tang, Xinghui; Yan, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hot stamping experimentation and three methods for calculating the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient (IHTC) of 22MnB5 boron steel. Comparison of the calculation results shows an average error of 7.5% for the heat balance method, 3.7% for the Beck's nonlinear inverse estimation method (the Beck's method), and 10.3% for the finite-element-analysis-based optimization method (the FEA method). The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying the IHTC in hot stamping applications. The numerical simulation using the IHTC identified by the Beck's method can predict the temperature field with a high accuracy. - Highlights: • A theoretical formula was derived for direct calculation of IHTC. • The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying IHTC. • Finite element method can be used to identify an overall equivalent IHTC

  4. A method for assigning species into groups based on generalized Mahalanobis distance between habitat model coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.J.; Heglund, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat association models are commonly developed for individual animal species using generalized linear modeling methods such as logistic regression. We considered the issue of grouping species based on their habitat use so that management decisions can be based on sets of species rather than individual species. This research was motivated by a study of western landbirds in northern Idaho forests. The method we examined was to separately fit models to each species and to use a generalized Mahalanobis distance between coefficient vectors to create a distance matrix among species. Clustering methods were used to group species from the distance matrix, and multidimensional scaling methods were used to visualize the relations among species groups. Methods were also discussed for evaluating the sensitivity of the conclusions because of outliers or influential data points. We illustrate these methods with data from the landbird study conducted in northern Idaho. Simulation results are presented to compare the success of this method to alternative methods using Euclidean distance between coefficient vectors and to methods that do not use habitat association models. These simulations demonstrate that our Mahalanobis-distance- based method was nearly always better than Euclidean-distance-based methods or methods not based on habitat association models. The methods used to develop candidate species groups are easily explained to other scientists and resource managers since they mainly rely on classical multivariate statistical methods. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Simplified method of ''push-pull'' test data analysis for determining in situ reaction rate coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, R.; Schroth, M.H.; Istok, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The single-well, ''''push-pull'''' test method is useful for obtaining information on a wide variety of aquifer physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics. A push-pull test consists of the pulse-type injection of a prepared test solution into a single monitoring well followed by the extraction of the test solution/ground water mixture from the same well. The test solution contains a conservative tracer and one or more reactants selected to investigate a particular process. During the extraction phase, the concentrations of tracer, reactants, and possible reaction products are measured to obtain breakthrough curves for all solutes. This paper presents a simplified method of data analysis that can be used to estimate a first-order reaction rate coefficient from these breakthrough curves. Rate coefficients are obtained by fitting a regression line to a plot of normalized concentrations versus elapsed time, requiring no knowledge of aquifer porosity, dispersivity, or hydraulic conductivity. A semi-analytical solution to the advective-dispersion equation is derived and used in a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the ability of the simplified method to estimate reaction rate coefficients in simulated push-pull tests in a homogeneous, confined aquifer with a fully-penetrating injection/extraction well and varying porosity, dispersivity, test duration, and reaction rate. A numerical flow and transport code (SUTRA) is used to evaluate the ability of the simplified method to estimate reaction rate coefficients in simulated push-pull tests in a heterogeneous, unconfined aquifer with a partially penetrating well. In all cases the simplified method provides accurate estimates of reaction rate coefficients; estimation errors ranged from 0.1 to 8.9% with most errors less than 5%

  6. IN-SITU MEASURING METHOD OF RADON AND THORON DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Yakovleva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple and valid in-situ measurement method of effective diffusion coefficient of radon and thoron in soil and other porous materials was designed. The analysis of numerical investigation of radon and thoron transport in upper layers of soil revealed that thoron flux density from the earth surface does not depend on soil gas advective velocity and varies only with diffusion coefficient changes. This result showed the advantages of thoron using versus radon using in the suggested method. The comparison of the new method with existing ones previously developed. The method could be helpful for solving of problems of radon mass-transport in porous media and gaseous exchange between soil and atmosphere.

  7. A fast collocation method for a variable-coefficient nonlocal diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Che; Wang, Hong

    2017-02-01

    We develop a fast collocation scheme for a variable-coefficient nonlocal diffusion model, for which a numerical discretization would yield a dense stiffness matrix. The development of the fast method is achieved by carefully handling the variable coefficients appearing inside the singular integral operator and exploiting the structure of the dense stiffness matrix. The resulting fast method reduces the computational work from O (N3) required by a commonly used direct solver to O (Nlog ⁡ N) per iteration and the memory requirement from O (N2) to O (N). Furthermore, the fast method reduces the computational work of assembling the stiffness matrix from O (N2) to O (N). Numerical results are presented to show the utility of the fast method.

  8. Multilevel Methods for Elliptic Problems with Highly Varying Coefficients on Nonaligned Coarse Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheichl, Robert [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zikatanov, Ludmil T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    2012-06-21

    We generalize the analysis of classical multigrid and two-level overlapping Schwarz methods for 2nd order elliptic boundary value problems to problems with large discontinuities in the coefficients that are not resolved by the coarse grids or the subdomain partition. The theoretical results provide a recipe for designing hierarchies of standard piecewise linear coarse spaces such that the multigrid convergence rate and the condition number of the Schwarz preconditioned system do not depend on the coefficient variation or on any mesh parameters. One assumption we have to make is that the coarse grids are sufficiently fine in the vicinity of cross points or where regions with large diffusion coefficients are separated by a narrow region where the coefficient is small. We do not need to align them with possible discontinuities in the coefficients. The proofs make use of novel stable splittings based on weighted quasi-interpolants and weighted Poincaré-type inequalities. Finally, numerical experiments are included that illustrate the sharpness of the theoretical bounds and the necessity of the technical assumptions.

  9. Modified quasi-boundary value method for Cauchy problems of elliptic equations with variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a Cauchy problem for an elliptic equation with variable coefficients. It is well-known that such a problem is severely ill-posed; i.e., the solution does not depend continuously on the Cauchy data. We propose a modified quasi-boundary value regularization method to solve it. Convergence estimates are established under two a priori assumptions on the exact solution. A numerical example is given to illustrate our proposed method.

  10. Improvement of calculation method for temperature coefficient of HTTR by neutronics calculation code based on diffusion theory. Analysis for temperature coefficient by SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Minoru; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi

    2007-03-01

    The HTTR temperature coefficients required for the core dynamics calculations had been calculated from the HTTR core calculation results by the diffusion code with which the corrections had been performed using the core calculation results by the Monte-Carlo code MVP. This calculation method for the temperature coefficients was considered to have some issues to be improved. Then, the calculation method was improved to obtain the temperature coefficients in which the corrections by the Monte-Carlo code were not required. Specifically, from the point of view of neutron spectrum calculated by lattice calculations, the lattice model was revised which had been used for the calculations of the temperature coefficients. The HTTR core calculations were performed by the diffusion code with the group constants which were generated by the lattice calculations with the improved lattice model. The core calculations and the lattice calculations were performed by the SRAC code system. The HTTR core dynamics calculation was performed with the temperature coefficient obtained from the core calculation results. In consequence, the core dynamics calculation result showed good agreement with the experimental data and the valid temperature coefficient could be calculated only by the diffusion code without the corrections by Monte-Carlo code. (author)

  11. Comparison of radon diffusion coefficients measured by transient-diffusion and steady-state laboratory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwarf, D.R.; Nielson, K.K.; Rich, D.C.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-11-01

    A method was developed and used to determine radon diffusion coefficients in compacted soils by transient-diffusion measurements. A relative standard deviation of 12% was observed in repeated measurements with a dry soil by the transient-diffusion method, and a 40% uncertainty was determined for moistures exceeding 50% of saturation. Excellent agreement was also obtained between values of the diffusion coefficient for radon in air, as measured by the transient-diffusion method, and those in the published literature. Good agreement was also obtained with diffusion coefficients measured by a steady-state method on the same soils. The agreement was best at low moistures, averaging less than ten percent difference, but differences of up to a factor of two were observed at high moistures. The comparison of the transient-diffusion and steady-state methods at low moistures provides an excellent verification of the theoretical validity and technical accuracy of these approaches, which are based on completely independent experimental conditions, measurement methods and mathematical interpretations

  12. Sintering diagrams of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, A.; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    Ashby's method (see Acta Met., vol. 22, p. 275, 1974) of constructing sintering diagrams has been modified to obtain contribution diagrams directly from the computer. The interplay of sintering variables and mechanisms are studied and the factors that affect the participation of mechanisms in UO 2 are determined. By studying the physical properties, it emerges that the order of inaccuracies is small in most cases and do not affect the diagrams. On the other hand, even a 10% error in activation energies, which is quite plausible, would make a significant difference to the diagram. The main criticism of Ashby's approach is that the numerous properties and equations used, communicate their inaccuracies to the diagrams and make them unreliable. The present study has considerably reduced the number of factors that need to be refined to make the sintering diagrams more meaningful. (Auth.)

  13. Blackness coefficients, effective diffusion parameters, and control rod worths for thermal reactors - Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M M [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Simple diffusion theory cannot be used to evaluate control rod worths in thermal neutron reactors because of the strongly absorbing character of the control material. However, reliable control rod worths can be obtained within the framework of diffusion theory if the control material is characterized by a set of mesh-dependent effective diffusion parameters. For thin slab absorbers the effective diffusion parameters can be expressed as functions of a suitably-defined pair of 'blackness coefficients'. Methods for calculating these blackness coefficients in the P1, P3, and P5 approximations, with and without scattering, are presented. For control elements whose geometry does not permit a thin slab treatment, other methods are needed for determining the effective diffusion parameters. One such method, based on reaction rate ratios, is discussed. (author)

  14. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucza, Witold

    2013-07-25

    Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new method for flight test determination of propulsive efficiency and drag coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, G.; Bridges, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    A flight test method is described from which propulsive efficiency as well as parasite and induced drag coefficients can be directly determined using relatively simple instrumentation and analysis techniques. The method uses information contained in the transient response in airspeed for a small power change in level flight in addition to the usual measurement of power required for level flight. Measurements of pitch angle and longitudinal and normal acceleration are eliminated. The theoretical basis for the method, the analytical techniques used, and the results of application of the method to flight test data are presented.

  16. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewska Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving the two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem, due to measurements obtained by IRT. Calculations was carried out by the method based on the approximation of the solution of the problem using a linear combination of Trefftz functions. The basic property of this functions is they satisfy the governing equation. Unknown coefficients of linear combination of Trefftz functions are calculated from the minimization of the functional that expresses the mean square error of the approximate solution on the boundary. The results presented as IR thermographs, two-phase flow structure images and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the channel inlet, were analyzed.

  17. Multicritical phase diagrams of the spin-((3)/(2)) Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on the Bethe lattice using the recursion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekiz, Cesur; Albayrak, Erhan; Keskin, Mustafa.

    2003-01-01

    The multicritical behaviour of the spin-((3)/(2)) Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions and single-ion crystal field is studied on the Bethe lattice by introducing two-sublattices A and B within the exact recursion equations. Exact expressions for the free energy, the Curie or second-order phase transition temperatures, as well as for the magnetization and quadrupolar moment order parameters are obtained. The general procedure of investigation of critical properties is discussed and phase diagrams are obtained, in particular, for negative biquadratic couplings. The phase diagram of the model exhibits a rich variety of behaviours. Results are compared with other approximate methods

  18. A revised method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams that reveals the asymmetric nature of tropical large-scale waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Winston C. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, Mail Code 610.1, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiouhua [University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The popular method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams for studying tropical large-scale waves in the literature is shown to give an incomplete presentation of these waves. The so-called ''convectively coupled Kelvin (mixed Rossby-gravity) waves'' are presented as existing only in the symmetric (anti-symmetric) component of the diagrams. This is obviously not consistent with the published composite/regression studies of ''convectively coupled Kelvin waves,'' which illustrate the asymmetric nature of these waves. The cause of this inconsistency is revealed in this note and a revised method of presenting the power spectrum diagrams is proposed. When this revised method is used, ''convectively coupled Kelvin waves'' do show anti-symmetric components, and ''convectively coupled mixed Rossby-gravity waves (also known as Yanai waves)'' do show a hint of symmetric components. These results bolster a published proposal that these waves should be called ''chimeric Kelvin waves,'' ''chimeric mixed Rossby-gravity waves,'' etc. This revised method of presenting power spectrum diagrams offers an additional means of comparing the GCM output with observations by calling attention to the capability of GCMs to correctly simulate the asymmetric characteristics of equatorial waves. (orig.)

  19. A Novel Method to Determine the Hydrodynamic Coefficients of an Eyeball ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yh, Eng; Ws, Lau; Low, E.; Ggl, Seet; Cs, Chin [Robotic Research Center, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering (MAE), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Ave, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-01-12

    A good dynamics model is essential and critical for the successful design of navigation and control system of an underwater vehicle. However, it is difficult to determine from the hydrodynamic forces, the inertial added mass terms and the drag coefficients. In this paper, a new experimental method has been used to find the hydrodynamic forces for the ROV II, a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The proposed method is based on the classical free decay test, but with the spring oscillation replaced by a pendulum motion. The experiment results determined from the free decay test of a scaled model compared well with the simulation results obtained from well‐established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Thus, the proposed approach can be used to find the added mass and drag coefficients for other underwater vehicles.

  20. A Novel Method to Determine the Hydrodynamic Coefficients of an Eyeball ROV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yh, Eng; Ws, Lau; Low, E.; Ggl, Seet; Cs, Chin

    2009-01-01

    A good dynamics model is essential and critical for the successful design of navigation and control system of an underwater vehicle. However, it is difficult to determine from the hydrodynamic forces, the inertial added mass terms and the drag coefficients. In this paper, a new experimental method has been used to find the hydrodynamic forces for the ROV II, a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The proposed method is based on the classical free decay test, but with the spring oscillation replaced by a pendulum motion. The experiment results determined from the free decay test of a scaled model compared well with the simulation results obtained from well‐established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Thus, the proposed approach can be used to find the added mass and drag coefficients for other underwater vehicles.

  1. New method for calculating the coupling coefficient in graded index optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savović, Svetislav; Djordjevich, Alexandar

    2018-05-01

    A simple method is proposed for determining the mode coupling coefficient D in graded index multimode optical fibers. It only requires observation of the output modal power distribution P(m, z) for one fiber length z as the Gaussian launching modal power distribution changes, with the Gaussian input light distribution centered along the graded index optical fiber axis (θ0 = 0) without radial offset (r0 = 0). A similar method we previously proposed for calculating the coupling coefficient D in a step-index multimode optical fibers where the output angular power distributions P(θ, z) for one fiber length z with the Gaussian input light distribution launched centrally along the step-index optical fiber axis (θ0 = 0) is needed to be known.

  2. Semiempirical method of determining flow coefficients for pitot rake mass flow rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Flow coefficients applicable to area-weighted pitot rake mass flow rate measurements are presented for fully developed, turbulent flow in an annulus. A turbulent velocity profile is generated semiempirically for a given annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio and integrated numerically to determine the ideal mass flow rate. The calculated velocities at each probe location are then summed, and the flow rate as indicated by the rake is obtained. The flow coefficient to be used with the particular rake geometry is subsequently obtained by dividing the ideal flow rate by the rake-indicated flow rate. Flow coefficients ranged from 0.903 for one probe placed at a radius dividing two equal areas to 0.984 for a 10-probe area-weighted rake. Flow coefficients were not a strong function of annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio for rakes with three or more probes. The semiempirical method used to generate the turbulent velocity profiles is described in detail.

  3. New method and installation for rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Gulabyants, Loren; Livshits, Mihail; Kovler, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical apparatus and the experimental installation for the rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials are developed. The single test lasts not longer than 18 h and allows testing numerous materials, such as gaseous and liquid media, as well as soil, concrete and radon-proof membranes, in which diffusion coefficient of radon may vary in an extremely wide range, from 1·10 −12 to 5·10 −5 m 2 /s. The uncertainty of radon diffusion coefficient estimation depends on the permeability of the sample and varies from about 5% (for the most permeable materials) to 40% (for less permeable materials, such as radon-proof membranes). - Highlights: • The new method and installation for determination of radon diffusion coefficient D are developed. • The measured D-values vary in an extremely wide range, from 5×10 -5 to 1×10 -12 m 2 /s. • The materials include water, air, soil, building materials and radon-proof membranes. • The duration of the single test does not exceed 18 hours. • The measurement uncertainty varies from 5% (in permeable materials) to 40% (in radon gas barriers)

  4. Noise analysis method for monitoring the moderator temperature coefficient of pressurized water reactors: Neural network calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.R. Jr.; Adams, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    A neural network was trained with data for the frequency response function between in-core neutron noise and core-exit thermocouple noise in a pressurized water reactor, with the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) as target. The trained network was subsequently used to predict the MTC at other points in the same fuel cycle. Results support use of the method for operating pressurized water reactors provided noise data can be accumulated for several fuel cycles to provide a training base

  5. Nuclear ventilation installations. Method of control of the scrubbing coefficient of iodine trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The present standard aims at defining a method to control the scrubbing coefficient of radioactive iodine trapping systems, used in nuclear ventilation installations. It applies to the installations where the trapping, efficiency of radioactive iodine has to be known, tested and compared to a reference value generally included in the safety reports. It applies to the installations where the absolute pressure of the air in the ventilation systems is above 1,4. 10 5 Pa (1,4 Bar) [fr

  6. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz

    2009-01-01

    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time...... consuming process. This article demonstrates how to compile such a diagram into Java code and later, by reverse engineering, produce a class diagram. The process from state diagram via intermediate SAX parsed xml file to Apache Velocity generated Java code is described. The result is a fast reproducible...

  7. An efficient sensitivity analysis method for modified geometry of Macpherson suspension based on Pearson correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, Mohammad Hasan; Khalkhali, Abolfazl; Yarmohammadisatri, Sadegh

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to propose a new method for designing Macpherson suspension, based on the Sobol indices in terms of Pearson correlation which determines the importance of each member on the behaviour of vehicle suspension. The formulation of dynamic analysis of Macpherson suspension system is developed using the suspension members as the modified links in order to achieve the desired kinematic behaviour. The mechanical system is replaced with an equivalent constrained links and then kinematic laws are utilised to obtain a new modified geometry of Macpherson suspension. The equivalent mechanism of Macpherson suspension increased the speed of analysis and reduced its complexity. The ADAMS/CAR software is utilised to simulate a full vehicle, Renault Logan car, in order to analyse the accuracy of modified geometry model. An experimental 4-poster test rig is considered for validating both ADAMS/CAR simulation and analytical geometry model. Pearson correlation coefficient is applied to analyse the sensitivity of each suspension member according to vehicle objective functions such as sprung mass acceleration, etc. Besides this matter, the estimation of Pearson correlation coefficient between variables is analysed in this method. It is understood that the Pearson correlation coefficient is an efficient method for analysing the vehicle suspension which leads to a better design of Macpherson suspension system.

  8. An innovative method for determining the diffusion coefficient of product nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih Lung [Dept. of Nuclear Back-end Management, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China); Wang, Tsing Hai [Dept. Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-08-15

    Diffusion is a crucial mechanism that regulates the migration of radioactive nuclides. In this study, an innovative numerical method was developed to simultaneously calculate the diffusion coefficient of both parent and, afterward, series daughter nuclides in a sequentially reactive through-diffusion model. Two constructed scenarios, a serial reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2} → RN{sub 3}) and a parallel reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2}A + RN{sub 2}B), were proposed and calculated for verification. First, the accuracy of the proposed three-member reaction equations was validated using several default numerical experiments. Second, by applying the validated numerical experimental concentration variation data, the as-determined diffusion coefficient of the product nuclide was observed to be identical to the default data. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The significance of the proposed numerical method will be particularly powerful in determining the diffusion coefficients of systems with extremely thin specimens, long periods of diffusion time, and parent nuclides with fast decay constants.

  9. Inverse method for determining radon diffusion coefficient and free radon production rate of fragmented uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yong-jun; Wang, Li-heng; Ding, De-xin; Zhao, Ya-li; Fan, Nan-bin

    2014-01-01

    The radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate are important parameters for describing radon migration in the fragmented uranium ore. In order to determine the two parameters, the pure diffusion migration equation for radon was firstly established and its analytic solution with the two parameters to be determined was derived. Then, a self manufactured experimental column was used to simulate the pure diffusion of the radon, the improved scintillation cell method was used to measure the pore radon concentrations at different depths of the column loaded with the fragmented uranium ore, and the nonlinear least square algorithm was used to inversely determine the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate. Finally, the solution with the two inversely determined parameters was used to predict the pore radon concentrations at some depths of the column, and the predicted results were compared with the measured results. The results show that the predicted results are in good agreement with the measured results and the numerical inverse method is applicable to the determination of the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate for the fragmented uranium ore. - Highlights: • Inverse method for determining two transport parameters of radon is proposed. • A self-made experimental apparatus is used to simulate radon diffusion process. • Sampling volume and position for measuring radon concentration are optimized. • The inverse results of an experimental sample are verified

  10. Effect of Drying Method on the Permeability Coefficient of Oak Wood (Quercus infactoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuboo Salehpour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of drying method on the permeability coefficient of the oak wood (Quercus infectoria Oliv was studied. Freshly-cut logs of oak were prepared from Oureman, the east area of Kourdistan in Iran. Then, boards with nominal thickness of 6 cm were cut. The boards were dried using two methods. In the first method, the boards were air dried to the moisture content close to FSP for 45 days and then they were kiln dried using T5-D1 schedule. In the second method, the boards were dried from green condition to the final moisture content of 10% using T5-D1 schedule. Then, the permeability coefficient in the transverse and longitudinal directions in both heartwood and sapwood regions was measured, separately. Results showed that the permeability of oak boards dried by kiln drying method both in the transverse and longitudinal directions and also in the heartwood and sapwood regions was greater than that of those dried by the combined method (air drying + kiln drying.

  11. A comparison of two methods of measuring static coefficient of friction at low normal forces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J; Drinkaus, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study compares two methods for estimating static friction coefficients for skin. In the first method, referred to as the 'tilt method', a hand supporting a flat object is tilted until the object slides. The friction coefficient is estimated as the tangent of the angle of the object at the slip. The second method estimates the friction coefficient as the pull force required to begin moving a flat object over the surface of the hand, divided by object weight. Both methods were used to estimate friction coefficients for 12 subjects and three materials (cardboard, aluminium, rubber) against a flat hand and against fingertips. No differences in static friction coefficients were found between the two methods, except for that of rubber, where friction coefficient was 11% greater for the tilt method. As with previous studies, the friction coefficients varied with contact force and contact area. Static friction coefficient data are needed for analysis and design of objects that are grasped or manipulated with the hand. The tilt method described in this study can easily be used by ergonomic practitioners to estimate static friction coefficients in the field in a timely manner.

  12. Retrieval method of aerosol extinction coefficient profile by an integral lidar system and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Junjian; Wang, Shenhao; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Lianqing; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo; Tao, Zongming

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile is an essential parameter for atmospheric radiation model. But it is difficult to get the full aerosol extinction profile from the ground to the tropopause especially in near ground precisely using backscattering lidar. A combined measurement of side-scattering, backscattering and Raman-scattering lidar is proposed to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient profile from the surface to the tropopause which covered a dynamic range of 5 orders. The side-scattering technique solves the dead zone and the overlap problem caused by the traditional lidar in the near range. Using the Raman-scattering the aerosol lidar ratio (extinction to backscatter ratio) can be obtained. The cases studies in this paper show the proposed method is reasonable and feasible.

  13. Multicritical phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: the pair approximation and the path probability method with pair distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Erdinc, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    As a continuation of the previously published work, the pair approximation of the cluster variation method is applied to study the temperature dependences of the order parameters of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling on a body centered cubic lattice. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. We study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method with pair distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagram in addition to the equilibrium phase diagram and also the first-order phase transition line for the unstable branches of the quadrupole order parameter is superimposed on the phase diagrams. It is found that the metastable phase diagram and the first-order phase boundary for the unstable quadrupole order parameter always exist at the low temperatures which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  14. The error analysis of the determination of the activity coefficients via the isopiestic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Chen Qiyuan; Fang Zheng; Liang Yizeng; Liu Shijun; Zhou Yong

    2005-01-01

    Error analysis is very important to experimental designs. The error analysis of the determination of activity coefficients for a binary system via the isopiestic method shows that the error sources include not only the experimental errors of the analyzed molalities and the measured osmotic coefficients, but also the deviation of the regressed values from the experimental data when the regression function is used. It also shows that the accurate chemical analysis of the molality of the test solution is important, and it is preferable to keep the error of the measured osmotic coefficients changeless in all isopiestic experiments including those experiments on the very dilute solutions. The isopiestic experiments on the dilute solutions are very important, and the lowest molality should be low enough so that a theoretical method can be used below the lowest molality. And it is necessary that the isopiestic experiment should be done on the test solutions of lower than 0.1 mol . kg -1 . For most electrolytes solutions, it is usually preferable to require the lowest molality to be less than 0.05 mol . kg -1 . Moreover, the experimental molalities of the test solutions should be firstly arranged by keeping the interval of the logarithms of the molalities nearly constant, and secondly more number of high molalities should be arranged, and we propose to arrange the experimental molalities greater than 1 mol . kg -1 according to some kind of the arithmetical progression of the intervals of the molalities. After experiments, the error of the calculated activity coefficients of the solutes could be calculated from the actually values of the errors of the measured isopiestic molalities and the deviations of the regressed values from the experimental values with our obtained equations

  15. Determination of the transmission coefficients for quantum structures using FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoying; Sui, Wenquan

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a simple method to incorporate quantum effect in traditional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulators. Witch could make it possible to co-simulate systems include quantum structures and traditional components. In this paper, tunneling transmission coefficient is calculated by solving time-domain Schrödinger equation with a developed FDTD technique, called FDTD-S method. To validate the feasibility of the method, a simple resonant tunneling diode (RTD) structure model has been simulated using the proposed method. The good agreement between the numerical and analytical results proves its accuracy. The effectness and accuracy of this approach makes it a potential method for analysis and design of hybrid systems includes quantum structures and traditional components.

  16. New proposal of moderator temperature coefficient estimation method using gray-box model in NPP, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Michitsugu; Kagami, Yuichi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Tamaoki, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Shinichiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new void reactivity coefficient (VRC) estimation method based on gray box modeling concept. The gray box model consists of a point kinetics model as the first principle model and a fitting model of moderator temperature kinetics. Applying Kalman filter and maximum likehood estimation algorithms to the gray box model, MTC can be estimated. The verification test is done by Monte Carlo simulation, and, it is shown that the present method gives the best estimation results comparing with the conventional methods from the viewpoints of non-biased and smallest scattering estimation performance. Furthermore, the method is verified via real plant data analysis. The reason of good performance of the present method is explained by proper definition of likelihood function based on explicit expression of observation and system noise in the gray box model. (author)

  17. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  18. A varying-coefficient method for analyzing longitudinal clinical trials data with nonignorable dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jeri E.; MaWhinney, Samantha; Ball, Erika L.; Fairclough, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Dropout is common in longitudinal clinical trials and when the probability of dropout depends on unobserved outcomes even after conditioning on available data, it is considered missing not at random and therefore nonignorable. To address this problem, mixture models can be used to account for the relationship between a longitudinal outcome and dropout. We propose a Natural Spline Varying-coefficient mixture model (NSV), which is a straightforward extension of the parametric Conditional Linear Model (CLM). We assume that the outcome follows a varying-coefficient model conditional on a continuous dropout distribution. Natural cubic B-splines are used to allow the regression coefficients to semiparametrically depend on dropout and inference is therefore more robust. Additionally, this method is computationally stable and relatively simple to implement. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate performance and compare methodologies in settings where the longitudinal trajectories are linear and dropout time is observed for all individuals. Performance is assessed under conditions where model assumptions are both met and violated. In addition, we compare the NSV to the CLM and a standard random-effects model using an HIV/AIDS clinical trial with probable nonignorable dropout. The simulation studies suggest that the NSV is an improvement over the CLM when dropout has a nonlinear dependence on the outcome. PMID:22101223

  19. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  20. From the Index Numers’ Method to the Method Of Coefficient Of Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the simple method of index numbers, and synthesizing the originality of his excellent statistical thinking by definition, this article identifies and presents an inimitable shortcut from Index – Numbers’ method to elasticity method. A final remark underlines the beauty and the rigour of this scientific demarche specific for the statistical thinking. This paper is a real homage addressed to Professor M. C. Demetrescu, and to his remarkable PhD thesis, printed approximately half a century ago, one of the best statistic and economic book about population demand.

  1. Rapid radiological characterization method based on the use of dose coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Toma, Al.; Dobrin, R.; Valeca, M.

    2010-01-01

    Intervention actions in case of radiological emergencies and exploratory radiological surveys require rapid methods for the evaluation of the range and extent of contamination. When simple and homogeneous radionuclide composition characterize the radioactive contamination, surrogate measurements can be used to reduce the costs implied by laboratory analyses and to speed-up the process of decision support. A dose-rate measurement-based methodology can be used in conjunction with adequate dose coefficients to assess radionuclide inventories and to calculate dose projections for various intervention scenarios. The paper presents the results obtained for dose coefficients in some particular exposure geometries and the methodology used for deriving dose rate guidelines from activity concentration upper levels specified as contamination limits. All calculations were performed by using the commercial software MicroShield from Grove Software Inc. A test case was selected as to meet the conditions from EPA Federal Guidance Report no. 12 (FGR12) concerning the evaluation of dose coefficients for external exposure from contaminated soil and the obtained results were compared to values given in the referred document. The geometries considered as test cases are: contaminated ground surface; - infinite extended homogeneous surface contamination and soil contaminated to a depth of 15 cm. As shown by the results, the values agree within 50% relative difference for most of the cases. The greatest discrepancies were observed for depth contamination simulation and in the case of radionuclides with complicated gamma emission and this is due to the different approach from MicroShield and FGR12. A case study is presented for validation of the methodology, where both dose rate measurements and laboratory analyses were performed on an extended quasi-homogeneous NORM contamination. The dose rate estimations obtained by applying the dose coefficients to the radionuclide concentrations

  2. Study on the measurement method of diffusion coefficient for radon in the soil. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao

    2000-03-01

    To investigate radon behavior in the soil at Ningyo Pass, the radon concentrations in the soil and the radon exhalation rate from soil surface were measured by four continuous soil radon monitoring systems, soil gas sampling method, and accumulation method. The radon concentrations in the soil measured with continuous soil radon monitoring systems varied form 5000 Bq·m -3 to 15000 Bq·m -3 at 10 cm to 40 cm depth. On the other hand, the radon concentrations measured by soil gas sampling method was 15000 Bq·m -3 at 15 cm depth. The accumulation method gives the vales of 0. 36∼0.68 Bq·m -2 ·s -1 for radon exhalation rate from soil surface. To simulate the radon transport in soil, the following parameters of the soil are important: radon diffusion coefficients, dry density, wet density, soil particle density, true density, water content and radium concentration. The measured radon diffusion coefficients in the soil were (1.61±0.09)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 , (8.68±0.23)x10 -7 m 2 s -1 ∼ (1.53±0.12)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 and (2.99±0.32)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 ∼ (4.39±0.43)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 for sandy soils of the campus of Nagoya University, Tsuruga peninsula, and Ningyo Pass, respectively. By using these parameters, the radon transport phenomena in the soil of two layers were calculated by analytical and numerical methods. The radon profile calculated by numerical method agrees fairly well with measured values. By covering of 2 m soil, the radon exhalation rate decreases to 1/4 by analytical method, and 3/5 by numerical method. The covering of normal soil is not so effective for reducing the radon exhalation rate. (author)

  3. A new in-situ method to determine the apparent gas diffusion coefficient of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, Thomas; Paulus, Sinikka; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Maier, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soil aeration is an important factor for the biological activity in the soil and soil respiration. Generally, gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is assumed to be governed by diffusion and Fick's Law is used to describe the fluxes in the soil. The "apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient" represents the proportional factor between the flux and the gas concentration gradient in the soil and reflects the ability of the soil to "transport passively" gases through the soil. One common way to determine this coefficient is to take core samples in the field and determine it in the lab. Unfortunately this method is destructive and needs laborious field work and can only reflect a small fraction of the whole soil. As a consequence insecurity about the resulting effective diffusivity on the profile scale must remain. We developed a new in-situ method using new gas sampling device, tracer gas and inverse soil gas modelling. The gas sampling device contains several sampling depths and can be easily installed into vertical holes of an auger, which allows for fast installation of the system. At the lower end of the device inert tracer gas is injected continuously. The tracer gas diffuses into the surrounding soil. The resulting distribution of the tracer gas concentrations is used to deduce the diffusivity profile of the soil. For Finite Element Modeling of the gas sampling device/soil system the program COMSOL is used. We will present the results of a field campaign comparing the new in-situ method with lab measurements on soil cores. The new sampling pole has several interesting advantages: it can be used in-situ and over a long time; so it allows following modifications of diffusion coefficients in interaction with rain but also vegetation cycle and wind.

  4. Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Jr., James

    1988-01-01

    A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.

  5. Perturbative methods applied for sensitive coefficients calculations in thermal-hydraulic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, F.R. de

    1993-01-01

    The differential formalism and the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) are applied to sensitivity analysis of thermal-hydraulics problems related to pressurized water reactor cores. The equations describing the thermal-hydraulic behavior of these reactors cores, used in COBRA-IV-I code, are conveniently written. The importance function related to the response of interest and the sensitivity coefficient of this response with respect to various selected parameters are obtained by using Differential and Generalized Perturbation Theory. The comparison among the results obtained with the application of these perturbative methods and those obtained directly with the model developed in COBRA-IV-I code shows a very good agreement. (author)

  6. Estimation of coefficient of rolling friction by the evolvent pendulum method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaci, S.; Ciornei, F. C.; Ciogole, A.; Ciornei, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a method for finding the coefficient of rolling friction using an evolvent pendulum. The pendulum consists in a fixed cylindrical body and a mobile body presenting a plane surface in contact with a cylindrical surface. The mobile body is placed over the fixed one in an equilibrium state; after applying a small impulse, the mobile body oscillates. The motion of the body is video recorded and afterwards the movie is analyzed by frames and the decrease with time of angular amplitude of the pendulum is found. The equation of motion is established for oscillations of the mobile body. The equation of motion, differential nonlinear, is integrated by Runge-Kutta method. Imposing the same damping both to model’s solution and to theoretical model, the value of coefficient of rolling friction is obtained. The last part of the paper presents results for actual pairs of materials. The main advantage of the method is the fact that the dimensions of contact regions are small, of order a few millimeters, and thus is substantially reduced the possibility of variation of mechanical characteristic for the two surfaces.

  7. Application of QMC methods to PDEs with random coefficients : a survey of analysis and implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Frances

    2016-01-05

    In this talk I will provide a survey of recent research efforts on the application of quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to PDEs with random coefficients. Such PDE problems occur in the area of uncertainty quantification. In recent years many papers have been written on this topic using a variety of methods. QMC methods are relatively new to this application area. I will consider different models for the randomness (uniform versus lognormal) and contrast different QMC algorithms (single-level versus multilevel, first order versus higher order, deterministic versus randomized). I will give a summary of the QMC error analysis and proof techniques in a unified view, and provide a practical guide to the software for constructing QMC points tailored to the PDE problems.

  8. Flexible rotor balancing by the influence coefficient method: Multiple critical speeds with rigid or flexible supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarzik, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted to demonstrate the ability of the influence coefficient method to achieve precise balance of flexible rotors of virtually any design for operation through virtually any speed range. Various practical aspects of flexible-rotor balancing were investigated. Tests were made on a laboratory quality machine having a 122 cm (48 in.) long rotor weighing 50 kg (110 lb) and covering a speed range up to 18000 rpm. The balancing method was in every instance effective, practical, and economical and permitted safe rotor operation over the full speed range covering four rotor bending critical speeds. Improved correction weight removal methods for rotor balancing were investigated. Material removal from a rotating disk was demonstrated through application of a commercially available laser.

  9. Diagram Size vs. Layout Flaws: Understanding Quality Factors of UML Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2016-01-01

    , though, is our third goal of extending our analysis aspects of diagram quality. Method: We improve our definition of diagram size and add a (provisional) definition of diagram quality as the number of topographic layout flaws. We apply these metrics on 60 diagrams of the five most commonly used types...... of UML diagram. We carefully analyze the structure of our diagram samples to ensure representativeness. We correlate diagram size and layout quality with modeler performance data obtained in previous experiments. The data set is the largest of its kind (n-156). Results: We replicate earlier findings......, and extend them to two new diagram types. We provide an improved definition of diagram size, and provide a definition of topographic layout quality, which is one more step towards a comprehensive definition of diagram quality as such. Both metrics are shown to be objectively applicable. We quantify...

  10. Self-Consistency Method to Evaluate a Linear Expansion Thermal Coefficient of Composite with Dispersed Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of composites as structural materials, while perceiving the thermal and mechanical loads, to a large extent determined by their thermoelastic properties. From the presented review of works devoted to the analysis of thermoelastic characteristics of composites, it follows that the problem of estimating these characteristics is important. Among the thermoelastic properties of composites occupies an important place its temperature coefficient of linear expansion.Along with fiber composites are widely used in the technique of dispersion hardening composites, in which the role of inclusions carry particles of high-strength and high-modulus materials, including nanostructured elements. Typically, the dispersed particles have similar dimensions in all directions, which allows the shape of the particles in the first approximation the ball.In an article for the composite with isotropic spherical inclusions of a plurality of different materials by the self-produced design formulas relating the temperature coefficient of linear expansion with volume concentration of inclusions and their thermoelastic characteristics, as well as the thermoelastic properties of the matrix of the composite. Feature of the method is the self-accountability thermomechanical interaction of a single inclusion or matrix particles with a homogeneous isotropic medium having the desired temperature coefficient of linear expansion. Averaging over the volume of the composite arising from such interaction perturbation strain and stress in the inclusions and the matrix particles and makes it possible to obtain such calculation formulas.For the validation of the results of calculations of the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of the composite of this type used two-sided estimates that are based on the dual variational formulation of linear thermoelasticity problem in an inhomogeneous solid containing two alternative functional (such as Lagrange and Castigliano

  11. Modified Spectral Fatigue Methods for S-N Curves With MIL-HDBK-5J Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Tom; Larsen, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    The rainflow method is used for counting fatigue cycles from a stress response time history, where the fatigue cycles are stress-reversals. The rainflow method allows the application of Palmgren-Miner's rule in order to assess the fatigue life of a structure subject to complex loading. The fatigue damage may also be calculated from a stress response power spectral density (PSD) using the semi-empirical Dirlik, Single Moment, Zhao-Baker and other spectral methods. These methods effectively assume that the PSD has a corresponding time history which is stationary with a normal distribution. This paper shows how the probability density function for rainflow stress cycles can be extracted from each of the spectral methods. This extraction allows for the application of the MIL-HDBK-5J fatigue coefficients in the cumulative damage summation. A numerical example is given in this paper for the stress response of a beam undergoing random base excitation, where the excitation is applied separately by a time history and by its corresponding PSD. The fatigue calculation is performed in the time domain, as well as in the frequency domain via the modified spectral methods. The result comparison shows that the modified spectral methods give comparable results to the time domain rainflow counting method.

  12. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in glioma: Influence of region-of-interest determination methods on apparent diffusion coefficient values, interobserver variability, time efficiency, and diagnostic ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Suo, Shiteng; Sun, Yawen; Zu, Jinyan; Qu, Jianxun; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Zengai; Xu, Jianrong

    2017-03-01

    To compare four methods of region-of-interest (ROI) placement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in distinguishing low-grade gliomas (LGGs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Two independent readers measured ADC parameters using four ROI methods (single-slice [single-round, five-round and freehand] and whole-volume) on 43 patients (20 LGGs, 23 HGGs) who had undergone 3.0 Tesla diffusion-weighted imaging and time required for each method of ADC measurements was recorded. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess interobserver variability of ADC measurements. Mean and minimum ADC values and time required were compared using paired Student's t-tests. All ADC parameters (mean/minimum ADC values of three single-slice methods, mean/minimum/standard deviation/skewness/kurtosis/the10 th and 25 th percentiles/median/maximum of whole-volume method) were correlated with tumor grade (low versus high) by unpaired Student's t-tests. Discriminative ability was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. All ADC measurements except minimum, skewness, and kurtosis of whole-volume ROI differed significantly between LGGs and HGGs (all P determination methods. Whole-volume histogram analysis did not yield better results than single-slice methods and took longer. Mean ADC value derived from single-round ROI is the most optimal parameter for differentiating LGGs from HGGs. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:722-730. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Validity studies among hierarchical methods of cluster analysis using cophenetic correlation coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Priscilla R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Lapolli, André L., E-mail: prii.ramos@gmail.com, E-mail: camunita@ipen.br, E-mail: alapolli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The literature presents many methods for partitioning of data base, and is difficult choose which is the most suitable, since the various combinations of methods based on different measures of dissimilarity can lead to different patterns of grouping and false interpretations. Nevertheless, little effort has been expended in evaluating these methods empirically using an archaeological data base. In this way, the objective of this work is make a comparative study of the different cluster analysis methods and identify which is the most appropriate. For this, the study was carried out using a data base of the Archaeometric Studies Group from IPEN-CNEN/SP, in which 45 samples of ceramic fragments from three archaeological sites were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) which were determinate the mass fraction of 13 elements (As, Ce, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Nd, Sc, Sm, Th, U). The methods used for this study were: single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, centroid and Ward. The validation was done using the cophenetic correlation coefficient and comparing these values the average linkage method obtained better results. A script of the statistical program R with some functions was created to obtain the cophenetic correlation. By means of these values was possible to choose the most appropriate method to be used in the data base. (author)

  14. Validity studies among hierarchical methods of cluster analysis using cophenetic correlation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Priscilla R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Lapolli, André L.

    2017-01-01

    The literature presents many methods for partitioning of data base, and is difficult choose which is the most suitable, since the various combinations of methods based on different measures of dissimilarity can lead to different patterns of grouping and false interpretations. Nevertheless, little effort has been expended in evaluating these methods empirically using an archaeological data base. In this way, the objective of this work is make a comparative study of the different cluster analysis methods and identify which is the most appropriate. For this, the study was carried out using a data base of the Archaeometric Studies Group from IPEN-CNEN/SP, in which 45 samples of ceramic fragments from three archaeological sites were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) which were determinate the mass fraction of 13 elements (As, Ce, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Nd, Sc, Sm, Th, U). The methods used for this study were: single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, centroid and Ward. The validation was done using the cophenetic correlation coefficient and comparing these values the average linkage method obtained better results. A script of the statistical program R with some functions was created to obtain the cophenetic correlation. By means of these values was possible to choose the most appropriate method to be used in the data base. (author)

  15. Review of criteria for the selection of probability distributions for wind speed data and introduction of the moment and L-moment ratio diagram methods, with a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouarda, T.B.M.J.; Charron, C.; Chebana, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of criteria used to select probability distributions to model wind speed data. • Classical and L-moment ratio diagrams are applied to wind speed data. • The diagrams allow to select the best distribution to model each wind speed sample. • The goodness-of-fit statistics are more consistent with the L-moment ratio diagram. - Abstract: This paper reviews the different criteria used in the field of wind energy to compare the goodness-of-fit of candidate probability density functions (pdfs) to wind speed records, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The moment ratio and L-moment ratio diagram methods are also proposed as alternative methods for the choice of the pdfs. These two methods have the advantage of allowing an easy comparison of the fit of several pdfs for several time series (stations) on a single diagram. Plotting the position of a given wind speed data set in these diagrams is instantaneous and provides more information than a goodness-of-fit criterion since it provides knowledge about such characteristics as the skewness and kurtosis of the station data set. In this paper, it is proposed to study the applicability of these two methods for the selection of pdfs for wind speed data. Both types of diagrams are used to assess the fit of the pdfs for wind speed series in the United Arab Emirates. The analysis of the moment ratio diagrams reveals that the Kappa, Log-Pearson type III and Generalized Gamma are the distributions that fit best all wind speed series. The Weibull represents the best distribution among those with only one shape parameter. Results obtained with the diagrams are compared with those obtained with goodness-of-fit statistics and a good agreement is observed especially in the case of the L-moment ratio diagram. It is concluded that these diagrams can represent a simple and efficient approach to be used as complementary method to goodness-of-fit criteria.

  16. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  17. Newton's method for solving a quadratic matrix equation with special coefficient matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang-Hyup; Seo, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Min

    2014-01-01

    We consider the iterative method for solving a quadratic matrix equation with special coefficient matrices which arises in the quasi-birth-death problem. In this paper, we show that the elementwise minimal positive solvents to quadratic matrix equations can be obtained using Newton's method. We also prove that the convergence rate of the Newton iteration is quadratic if the Fréchet derivative at the elementwise minimal positive solvent is nonsingular. However, if the Fréchet derivative is singular, the convergence rate is at least linear. Numerical experiments of the convergence rate are given.(This is summarized a paper which is to appear in Honam Mathematical Journal.)

  18. Flowchart on Choosing Optimal Method of Observing Transverse Dispersion Coefficient for Solute Transport in Open Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Oh Baek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of methods for observing and estimating the transverse dispersion coefficient in an analysis of the solute transport in open channel flow. It may be difficult to select an optimal method to calculate dispersion coefficients from tracer data among numerous methodologies. A flowchart was proposed in this study to select an appropriate method under the transport situation of either time-variant or steady condition. When making the flowchart, the strengths and limitations of the methods were evaluated based on its derivation procedure which was conducted under specific assumptions. Additionally, application examples of these methods on experimental data were illustrated using previous works. Furthermore, the observed dispersion coefficients in a laboratory channel were validated by using transport numerical modeling, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental results from tracer tests. This flowchart may assist in choosing the better methods for determining the transverse dispersion coefficient in various river mixing situations.

  19. Correlation Coefficients Between Different Methods of Expressing Bacterial Quantification Using Real Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Navidshad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The applications of conventional culture-dependent assays to quantify bacteria populations are limited by their dependence on the inconsistent success of the different culture-steps involved. In addition, some bacteria can be pathogenic or a source of endotoxins and pose a health risk to the researchers. Bacterial quantification based on the real-time PCR method can overcome the above-mentioned problems. However, the quantification of bacteria using this approach is commonly expressed as absolute quantities even though the composition of samples (like those of digesta can vary widely; thus, the final results may be affected if the samples are not properly homogenized, especially when multiple samples are to be pooled together before DNA extraction. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation coefficients between four different methods of expressing the output data of real-time PCR-based bacterial quantification. The four methods were: (i the common absolute method expressed as the cell number of specific bacteria per gram of digesta; (ii the Livak and Schmittgen, ΔΔCt method; (iii the Pfaffl equation; and (iv a simple relative method based on the ratio of cell number of specific bacteria to the total bacterial cells. Because of the effect on total bacteria population in the results obtained using ΔCt-based methods (ΔΔCt and Pfaffl, these methods lack the acceptable consistency to be used as valid and reliable methods in real-time PCR-based bacterial quantification studies. On the other hand, because of the variable compositions of digesta samples, a simple ratio of cell number of specific bacteria to the corresponding total bacterial cells of the same sample can be a more accurate method to quantify the population.

  20. [Correlation coefficient-based classification method of hydrological dependence variability: With auto-regression model as example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu Xi; Xie, Ping; Sang, Yan Fang; Wu, Zi Yi

    2018-04-01

    Hydrological process evaluation is temporal dependent. Hydrological time series including dependence components do not meet the data consistency assumption for hydrological computation. Both of those factors cause great difficulty for water researches. Given the existence of hydrological dependence variability, we proposed a correlationcoefficient-based method for significance evaluation of hydrological dependence based on auto-regression model. By calculating the correlation coefficient between the original series and its dependence component and selecting reasonable thresholds of correlation coefficient, this method divided significance degree of dependence into no variability, weak variability, mid variability, strong variability, and drastic variability. By deducing the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient in each order of series, we found that the correlation coefficient was mainly determined by the magnitude of auto-correlation coefficient from the 1 order to p order, which clarified the theoretical basis of this method. With the first-order and second-order auto-regression models as examples, the reasonability of the deduced formula was verified through Monte-Carlo experiments to classify the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient. This method was used to analyze three observed hydrological time series. The results indicated the coexistence of stochastic and dependence characteristics in hydrological process.

  1. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, V.R.; Miller, D.R.

    1982-05-18

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistane heaters. Temperature-sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive-heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct tempertures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional-frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electrons is required to operate the instrument.

  2. SO-FDTD method and its application to the calculation of electromagnetic wave reflection coefficients of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongwei; Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing; Chen Rushan; Zhang Yun

    2006-01-01

    The dielectric property of dispersive media is written as rational polynomial function, the relation between D and E is derived in time domain. It is named shift operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method. The high accuracy and efficiency of this method is confirmed by computing the reflection coefficients of electromagnetic waves by a collisional plasma slab. The reflection coefficients between plasma and the atmosphere or vacuum can be calculated by using the SO-FDTD method. The result is that the reflection coefficients are affected by plasma thickness, electron numerical density, the distributing orderliness of electron density, and incidence wave frequency. (authors)

  3. Analytical method for estimating the thermal expansion coefficient of metals at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamoto, S; Izumi, S; Nakata, T; Sakai, S; Oinuma, S; Nakatani, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical method for estimating the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of metals at high-temperature ranges. Although the conventional method based on quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) shows good results at low temperatures, anharmonic effects caused by large-amplitude thermal vibrations reduces its accuracy at high temperatures. Molecular dynamics (MD) naturally includes the anharmonic effect. However, since the computational cost of MD is relatively high, in order to make an interatomic potential capable of reproducing TEC, an analytical method is essential. In our method, analytical formulation of the radial distribution function (RDF) at finite temperature realizes the estimation of the TEC. Each peak of the RDF is approximated by the Gaussian distribution. The average and variance of the Gaussian distribution are formulated by decomposing the fluctuation of interatomic distance into independent elastic waves. We incorporated two significant anharmonic effects into the method. One is the increase in the averaged interatomic distance caused by large amplitude vibration. The second is the variation in the frequency of elastic waves. As a result, the TECs of fcc and bcc crystals estimated by our method show good agreement with those of MD. Our method enables us to make an interatomic potential that reproduces the TEC at high temperature. We developed the GEAM potential for nickel. The TEC of the fitted potential showed good agreement with experimental data from room temperature to 1000 K. As compared with the original potential, it was found that the third derivative of the wide-range curve was modified, while the zeroth, first and second derivatives were unchanged. This result supports the conventional theory of solid state physics. We believe our analytical method and developed interatomic potential will contribute to future high-temperature material development. (paper)

  4. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

     Probabilistic networks, also known as Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, have become one of the most promising technologies in the area of applied artificial intelligence, offering intuitive, efficient, and reliable methods for diagnosis, prediction, decision making, classification......, troubleshooting, and data mining under uncertainty. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. Intended...

  5. Convergence of quasi-optimal Stochastic Galerkin methods for a class of PDES with random coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Beck, Joakim; Nobile, Fabio; Tamellini, Lorenzo; Tempone, Raul

    2014-01-01

    In this work we consider quasi-optimal versions of the Stochastic Galerkin method for solving linear elliptic PDEs with stochastic coefficients. In particular, we consider the case of a finite number N of random inputs and an analytic dependence of the solution of the PDE with respect to the parameters in a polydisc of the complex plane CN. We show that a quasi-optimal approximation is given by a Galerkin projection on a weighted (anisotropic) total degree space and prove a (sub)exponential convergence rate. As a specific application we consider a thermal conduction problem with non-overlapping inclusions of random conductivity. Numerical results show the sharpness of our estimates. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A New Method for Determination of Joint Roughness Coefficient of Rock Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigui Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint roughness coefficient (JRC of rock joints has the characteristic of scale effect. JRC measured on small-size exposed rock joints should be evaluated by JRC scale effect in order to obtain the JRC of actual-scale rock joints, since field rock joints are hardly fully exposed or well saved. Based on the validity analysis of JRC scale effect, concepts of rate of JRC scale effect and effective length of JRC scale effect were proposed. Then, a graphic method for determination of the effective length of JRC scale effect was established. Study results show that the JRC of actual-scale rock joints can be obtained through a fractal model of JRC scale effect according to the statistically measured results of the JRC of small-size partial exposed rock joints and by the selection of fractal dimension of JRC scale effect and the determination of effective length of JRC scale effect.

  7. Convergence of quasi-optimal Stochastic Galerkin methods for a class of PDES with random coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Beck, Joakim

    2014-03-01

    In this work we consider quasi-optimal versions of the Stochastic Galerkin method for solving linear elliptic PDEs with stochastic coefficients. In particular, we consider the case of a finite number N of random inputs and an analytic dependence of the solution of the PDE with respect to the parameters in a polydisc of the complex plane CN. We show that a quasi-optimal approximation is given by a Galerkin projection on a weighted (anisotropic) total degree space and prove a (sub)exponential convergence rate. As a specific application we consider a thermal conduction problem with non-overlapping inclusions of random conductivity. Numerical results show the sharpness of our estimates. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple and Reliable Method to Estimate the Fingertip Static Coefficient of Friction in Precision Grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Allan; Bulens, David Cordova; Lefevre, Philippe; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    The static coefficient of friction (µ static ) plays an important role in dexterous object manipulation. Minimal normal force (i.e., grip force) needed to avoid dropping an object is determined by the tangential force at the fingertip-object contact and the frictional properties of the skin-object contact. Although frequently assumed to be constant for all levels of normal force (NF, the force normal to the contact), µ static actually varies nonlinearly with NF and increases at low NF levels. No method is currently available to measure the relationship between µ static and NF easily. Therefore, we propose a new method allowing the simple and reliable measurement of the fingertip µ static at different NF levels, as well as an algorithm for determining µ static from measured forces and torques. Our method is based on active, back-and-forth movements of a subject's finger on the surface of a fixed six-axis force and torque sensor. µ static is computed as the ratio of the tangential to the normal force at slip onset. A negative power law captures the relationship between µ static and NF. Our method allows the continuous estimation of µ static as a function of NF during dexterous manipulation, based on the relationship between µ static and NF measured before manipulation.

  9. Impact of post-processing methods on apparent diffusion coefficient values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilinger, Martin Georg; Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Baltzer, Pascal Andreas Thomas [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Doerfler, Arnd; Dietzel, Matthias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is increasingly used as a quantitative biomarker in oncological imaging. ADC calculation is based on raw diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data, and multiple post-processing methods (PPMs) have been proposed for this purpose. We investigated whether PPM has an impact on final ADC values. Sixty-five lesions scanned with a standardized whole-body DWI-protocol at 3 T served as input data (EPI-DWI, b-values: 50, 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}). Using exactly the same ROI coordinates, four different PPM (ADC{sub 1}-ADC{sub 4}) were executed to calculate corresponding ADC values, given as [10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s] of each lesion. Statistical analysis was performed to intra-individually compare ADC values stratified by PPM (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests: α = 1 %; descriptive statistics; relative difference/∇; coefficient of variation/CV). Stratified by PPM, mean ADCs ranged from 1.136-1.206 *10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (∇ = 7.0 %). Variances between PPM were pronounced in the upper range of ADC values (maximum: 2.540-2.763 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ∇ = 8 %). Pairwise comparisons identified significant differences between all PPM (P ≤ 0.003; mean CV = 7.2 %) and reached 0.137 *10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s within the 25th-75th percentile. Altering the PPM had a significant impact on the ADC value. This should be considered if ADC values from different post-processing methods are compared in patient studies. (orig.)

  10. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  12. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, S.; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  13. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  14. Application of numerical inverse method in calculation of composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in finite diffusion couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuanrong; Chen, Weimin; Zhong, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The previously developed numerical inverse method was applied to determine the composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in single-phase finite diffusion couples. The numerical inverse method was first validated in a fictitious binary finite diffusion couple by pre-assuming four standard...... sets of interdiffusion coefficients. After that, the numerical inverse method was then adopted in a ternary Al-Cu-Ni finite diffusion couple. Based on the measured composition profiles, the ternary interdiffusion coefficients along the entire diffusion path of the target ternary diffusion couple were...... obtained by using the numerical inverse approach. The comprehensive comparisons between the computations and the experiments indicate that the numerical inverse method is also applicable to high-throughput determination of the composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in finite diffusion couples....

  15. Determination of temperature dependence of piezoelectric coefficients matrix of lead zirconate titanate ceramics by quasi-static and resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Xu Zhuo; Wei Xiaoyong; Yao Xi

    2009-01-01

    The piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 , -d 31 , d 15 , g 33 , -g 31 , g 15 ) of soft and hard lead zirconate titanate ceramics were measured by the quasi-static and resonance methods, at temperatures from 20 to 300 0 C. The results showed that the piezoelectric coefficients d 33 , -d 31 and d 15 obtained by these two methods increased with increasing temperature for both hard and soft PZT ceramics, while the piezoelectric coefficients g 33 , -g 31 and g 15 decreased with increasing temperature for both hard and soft PZT ceramics. In this paper, the observed results were also discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to piezoelectric response.

  16. A finite difference method for space fractional differential equations with variable diffusivity coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Mustapha, K.

    2017-06-03

    Anomalous diffusion is a phenomenon that cannot be modeled accurately by second-order diffusion equations, but is better described by fractional diffusion models. The nonlocal nature of the fractional diffusion operators makes substantially more difficult the mathematical analysis of these models and the establishment of suitable numerical schemes. This paper proposes and analyzes the first finite difference method for solving {\\\\em variable-coefficient} fractional differential equations, with two-sided fractional derivatives, in one-dimensional space. The proposed scheme combines first-order forward and backward Euler methods for approximating the left-sided fractional derivative when the right-sided fractional derivative is approximated by two consecutive applications of the first-order backward Euler method. Our finite difference scheme reduces to the standard second-order central difference scheme in the absence of fractional derivatives. The existence and uniqueness of the solution for the proposed scheme are proved, and truncation errors of order $h$ are demonstrated, where $h$ denotes the maximum space step size. The numerical tests illustrate the global $O(h)$ accuracy of our scheme, except for nonsmooth cases which, as expected, have deteriorated convergence rates.

  17. A finite difference method for space fractional differential equations with variable diffusivity coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Mustapha, K.; Furati, K.; Knio, Omar; Maitre, O. Le

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion is a phenomenon that cannot be modeled accurately by second-order diffusion equations, but is better described by fractional diffusion models. The nonlocal nature of the fractional diffusion operators makes substantially more difficult the mathematical analysis of these models and the establishment of suitable numerical schemes. This paper proposes and analyzes the first finite difference method for solving {\\em variable-coefficient} fractional differential equations, with two-sided fractional derivatives, in one-dimensional space. The proposed scheme combines first-order forward and backward Euler methods for approximating the left-sided fractional derivative when the right-sided fractional derivative is approximated by two consecutive applications of the first-order backward Euler method. Our finite difference scheme reduces to the standard second-order central difference scheme in the absence of fractional derivatives. The existence and uniqueness of the solution for the proposed scheme are proved, and truncation errors of order $h$ are demonstrated, where $h$ denotes the maximum space step size. The numerical tests illustrate the global $O(h)$ accuracy of our scheme, except for nonsmooth cases which, as expected, have deteriorated convergence rates.

  18. Visualizing Metrics on Areas of Interest in Software Architecture Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Eades, P; Ertl, T; Shen, HW

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for the combined visualization of software architecture diagrams, Such as UML class diagrams or component diagrams, and software metrics defined on groups of diagram elements. Our method extends an existing rendering technique for the so-called areas of interest in system

  19. Quantum MHV Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Over the past two years, the use of on-shell techniques has deepened our understanding of the S-matrix of gauge theories and led to the calculation of many new scattering amplitudes. In these notes we review a particular on-shell method developed recently, the quantum MHV diagrams, and discuss applications to one-loop amplitudes. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the application of D-dimensional generalised unitarity to the calculation of scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills.

  20. A method for improved clustering and classification of microscopy images using quantitative co-localization coefficients

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Singan, Vasanth R

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundThe localization of proteins to specific subcellular structures in eukaryotic cells provides important information with respect to their function. Fluorescence microscopy approaches to determine localization distribution have proved to be an essential tool in the characterization of unknown proteins, and are now particularly pertinent as a result of the wide availability of fluorescently-tagged constructs and antibodies. However, there are currently very few image analysis options able to effectively discriminate proteins with apparently similar distributions in cells, despite this information being important for protein characterization.FindingsWe have developed a novel method for combining two existing image analysis approaches, which results in highly efficient and accurate discrimination of proteins with seemingly similar distributions. We have combined image texture-based analysis with quantitative co-localization coefficients, a method that has traditionally only been used to study the spatial overlap between two populations of molecules. Here we describe and present a novel application for quantitative co-localization, as applied to the study of Rab family small GTP binding proteins localizing to the endomembrane system of cultured cells.ConclusionsWe show how quantitative co-localization can be used alongside texture feature analysis, resulting in improved clustering of microscopy images. The use of co-localization as an additional clustering parameter is non-biased and highly applicable to high-throughput image data sets.

  1. Optimised method to estimate octanol water distribution coefficient (logD) in a high throughput format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ying Wei Ivan; Blasco, Francesca; Vachaspati, Prakash

    2016-09-20

    Lipophilicity is one of the molecular properties assessed in early drug discovery. Direct measurement of the octanol-water distribution coefficient (logD) requires an analytical method with a large dynamic range or multistep dilutions, as the analyte's concentrations span across several orders of magnitude. In addition, water/buffer and octanol phases which have very different polarity could lead to matrix effects and affect the LC-MS response, leading to erroneous logD values. Most compound libraries use DMSO stocks as it greatly reduces the sample requirement but the presence of DMSO has been shown to underestimate the lipophilicity of the analyte. The present work describes the development of an optimised shake flask logD method using deepwell 96 well plate that addresses the issues related to matrix effects, DMSO concentration and incubation conditions and is also amenable to high throughput. Our results indicate that the equilibrium can be achieved within 30min by flipping the plate on its side while even 0.5% of DMSO is not tolerated in the assay. This study uses the matched matrix concept to minimise the errors in analysing the two phases namely buffer and octanol in LC-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A new method for the direct measurement of the energy absorption coefficient of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.; Chong, C.S.; Shukri, A.; Tajuddin, A.A.; Ghose, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The most important primary interaction cross section of gamma radiation which is of interest in radiation dosimetry and health physics is the energy absorption coefficient μ en of the medium under study. Direct measurement of μ en is, however, difficult and recourse is t aken to theoretical computations for its estimation. In this study a new, simple and direct method for the determination of μ en is reported. The method is based on paraxial sphere transmission using a proportional-response gamma detector. The bremsstrahlung originating from photoelectrons in the absorbing medium and fluorescence radiations from shielding etc. have been suppressed by using suitable filters. The effects of nonparaxiality of finite sample thickness have been accounted for, using extrapolation procedures. The deviation from nonproportionality and other corrections have been shown to be small. The measured value of μ en for paraffin has been determined as (3.3+-0.2)x10 -3 m 2 /Kg. This compares favourably with the theoretically computed value of 3.35 x 10 -3 m 2 /Kg given by Hubbell et al [pt

  3. SPME-Based Ca-History Method for Measuring SVOC Diffusion Coefficients in Clothing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianping; Liu, Ningrui; Zhang, Yinping

    2017-08-15

    Clothes play an important role in dermal exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The diffusion coefficient of SVOCs in clothing material (D m ) is essential for estimating SVOC sorption by clothing material and subsequent dermal exposure to SVOCs. However, few studies have reported the measured D m for clothing materials. In this paper, we present the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) based C a -history method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first try to measure D m with known relative standard deviation (RSD). A thin sealed chamber is formed by a circular ring and two pieces of flat SVOC source materials that are tightly covered by the targeted clothing materials. D m is obtained by applying an SVOC mass transfer model in the chamber to the history of gas-phase SVOC concentrations (C a ) in the chamber measured by SPME. D m 's of three SVOCs, di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), in a cotton T-shirt can be obtained within 16 days, with RSD less than 3%. This study should prove useful for measuring SVOC D m in various sink materials. Further studies are expected to facilitate application of this method and investigate the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and clothing material on D m .

  4. Hasse diagram as a green analytical metrics tool: ranking of methods for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigus, Paulina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an application of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) as the assessment tool to select the most appropriate analytical procedures according to their greenness or the best analytical performance. The dataset consists of analytical procedures for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediment samples, which were described by 11 variables concerning their greenness and analytical performance. Two analyses with the HDT were performed-the first one with metrological variables and the second one with "green" variables as input data. Both HDT analyses ranked different analytical procedures as the most valuable, suggesting that green analytical chemistry is not in accordance with metrology when benzo[a]pyrene in sediment samples is determined. The HDT can be used as a good decision support tool to choose the proper analytical procedure concerning green analytical chemistry principles and analytical performance merits.

  5. A method for the determination of gas diffusion coefficients in undisturbed Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacops, E.; Volckaert, G.; Maes, N.; Weetjens, E.; Maes, T.; Vandervoort, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The main mechanisms by which gas will be generated in deep geological repositories are: anaerobic corrosion of metals in wastes and packaging; radiolysis of water and organic materials in the packages, and microbial degradation of various organic wastes. Corrosion and radiolysis yield mainly hydrogen while microbial degradation leads to methane and carbon dioxide. The gas generated in the near field of a geological repository in clay will dissolve in the ground water and be transported away from the repository by diffusion as dissolved species. However if the gas generation rate is larger than the diffusive flux, the pore water will get over-saturated and a free gas phase will be formed. This will lead to a gas pressure build-up and finally to an advective gas flux. The latter might influence the performance of the repository. Therefore it is important to assess whether or not gas production rates can exceed the capacity of the near field to store and dissipate these gases by dissolution and diffusion only. The current available gas diffusion parameters for hydrogen in Boom Clay, obtained from the MEGAS project, suffer from an uncertainty of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Sensitivity calculations performed by Weetjens et al. (2006) for the disposal of vitrified high-level waste showed that with this uncertainty on the diffusion coefficient, the formation of a free gas phase cannot be excluded. Furthermore, recent re-evaluations of the MEGAS experiments by Krooss (2008) and Aertsens (2008) showed that the applied technique does not allow precise determination of the diffusion coefficient. Therefore a new method was developed to determine more precisely the gas diffusion coefficient for dissolved gases (especially dissolved hydrogen) in Boom Clay. This should allow for a more realistic assessment of the gas flux evolution of a repository as function of the estimated gas generation rates. The basic idea is to perform a

  6. Experimental determination of the heat transfer coefficient in shell-and-tube condensers using the Wilson plot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlik Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the experimental determination of heat transfer coefficients. The calculation of heat transfer coefficients constitutes a crucial issue in design and sizing of heat exchangers. The Wilson plot method and its modifications based on measured experimental data utilization provide an appropriate tool for the analysis of convection heat transfer processes and the determination of convection coefficients in complex cases. A modification of the Wilson plot method for shell-and-tube condensers is proposed. The original Wilson plot method considers a constant value of thermal resistance on the condensation side. The heat transfer coefficient on the cooling side is determined based on the change in thermal resistance for different conditions (fluid velocity and temperature. The modification is based on the validation of the Nusselt theory for calculating the heat transfer coefficient on the condensation side. A change of thermal resistance on the condensation side is expected and the value is part of the calculation. It is possible to improve the determination accuracy of the criterion equation for calculation of the heat transfer coefficient using the proposed modification. The criterion equation proposed by this modification for the tested shell-and-tube condenser achieves good agreement with the experimental results and also with commonly used theoretical methods.

  7. Trial function method and exact solutions to the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Rui; Zhang Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the trial function method is extended to study the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients. On the basis of a generalized traveling wave transformation and a trial function, we investigate the exact envelope traveling wave solutions of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients. Taking advantage of solutions to trial function, we successfully obtain exact solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent coefficients under constraint conditions. (general)

  8. Numerical estimation on balance coefficients of central difference averaging method for quench detection of the KSTAR PF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Sub; An, Seok Chan; Ko, Tae Kuk; Chu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A quench detection system of KSTAR Poloidal Field (PF) coils is inevitable for stable operation because normal zone generates overheating during quench occurrence. Recently, new voltage quench detection method, combination of Central Difference Averaging (CDA) and Mutual Inductance Compensation (MIK) for compensating mutual inductive voltage more effectively than conventional voltage detection method, has been suggested and studied. For better performance of mutual induction cancellation by adjacent coils of CDA+MIK method for KSTAR coil system, balance coefficients of CDA must be estimated and adjusted preferentially. In this paper, the balance coefficients of CDA for KSTAR PF coils were numerically estimated. The estimated result was adopted and tested by using simulation. The CDA method adopting balance coefficients effectively eliminated mutual inductive voltage, and also it is expected to improve performance of CDA+MIK method for quench detection of KSTAR PF coils

  9. [Assessment of ecosystem in giant panda distribution area based on entropy method and coefficient of variation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi Gang; Li, Jun Qing

    2017-12-01

    The areas of the habitat and bamboo forest, and the size of the giant panda wild population have greatly increased, while habitat fragmentation and local population isolation have also intensified in recent years. Accurate evaluation of ecosystem status of the panda in the giant panda distribution area is important for giant panda conservation. The ecosystems of the distribution area and six mountain ranges were subdivided into habitat and population subsystems based on the hie-rarchical system theory. Using the panda distribution area as the study area and the three national surveys as the time node, the evolution laws of ecosystems were studied using the entropy method, coefficient of variation, and correlation analysis. We found that with continuous improvement, some differences existed in the evolution and present situation of the ecosystems of six mountain ranges could be divided into three groups. Ecosystems classified into the same group showed many commonalities, and difference between the groups was considerable. Problems of habitat fragmentation and local population isolation became more serious, resulting in ecosystem degradation. Individuali-zed ecological protection measures should be formulated and implemented in accordance with the conditions in each mountain system to achieve the best results.

  10. Assessment of the Sustainable Development Capacity with the Entropy Weight Coefficient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is widely accepted in the world. How to reflect the sustainable development capacity of a region is an important issue for enacting policies and plans. An index system for capacity assessment is established by employing the Entropy Weight Coefficient method. The results indicate that the sustainable development capacity of Shandong Province is improving in terms of its economy subsystem, resource subsystem, and society subsystem whilst degrading in its environment subsystem. Shandong Province has shown the general trend towards sustainable development. However, the sustainable development capacity can be constrained by the resources such as energy, land, water, as well as environmental protection. These issues are induced by the economy development model, the security of energy supply, the level of new energy development, the end-of-pipe control of pollution, and the level of science and technology commercialization. Efforts are required to accelerate the development of the tertiary industry, the commercialization of high technology, the development of new energy and renewable energy, and the structure optimization of energy mix. Long-term measures need to be established for the ecosystem and environment protection.

  11. Measure the constituents of geological samples by XRF intensity influence coefficient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Zhenlin; Ge Liangquan; Cheng Feng; Zhang Qingxian

    2008-01-01

    The elements of some ore samples (including primary ores in the mine) have been measured by using the Si-PIN detector and the portable high energy resolution XRF analyzer with an embedded computer constituting the intensity correction model of influence coefficient method. By comparing to the result by chemical analysis, the conclusion could be made as follows: the maximal relative error of the content of the element Fe with the content between 20% to 55% is not more than 4.74%, the maximal relative error of the content of the element Cu with the content between 182ppm to 2400ppm is not more than 24. 70% and not more than 7.46% with the content between 2400ppm to 3600ppm, the maximal relative error of the content of the element Zn with the content between 556ppm to 3200ppm is not more than 25. 93% and not more than 4.74% with the content between 3200ppm to 21600ppm, the maximal relative error of the content of the element Pb with the content between 5900ppm to 204200ppm is not more than 23.80% and not more than 13.79% with the content between 204200ppm to 511200ppm. In this way, this model could overcome the influence of matrix effect from base material components commendably and guide the work of mineral beneficiation in the mine effectively. (authors)

  12. Coefficients of singularities and mixed methods for the mixed Dirichlet-Neumann problem for the Stokes operator on a polygon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chettab, M.; Lubuma, M.S.

    1990-08-01

    The behaviour of the weak solution of the Stokes problem on a polygon is considered with emphasis on the maximal regularity of the solution and on global formulae for the coefficients of singularities. This regularity leads to a slow convergent mixed finite element method of fractional order less than one while the use of the above formulae provides better approximations for the solution and for the coefficients. (author). 32 refs

  13. LMDI Decomposition of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Based on Energy and CO2 Allocation Sankey Diagrams: The Method and an Application to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript develops a logarithmic mean Divisia index I (LMDI decomposition method based on energy and CO2 allocation Sankey diagrams to analyze the contributions of various influencing factors to the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions on a national level. Compared with previous methods, we can further consider the influences of energy supply efficiency. Two key parameters, the primary energy quantity converted factor (KPEQ and the primary carbon dioxide emission factor (KC, were introduced to calculate the equilibrium data for the whole process of energy unitization and related CO2 emissions. The data were used to map energy and CO2 allocation Sankey diagrams. Based on these parameters, we built an LMDI method with a higher technical resolution and applied it to decompose the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China from 2004 to 2014. The results indicate that GDP growth per capita is the main factor driving the growth of CO2 emissions while the reduction of energy intensity, the improvement of energy supply efficiency, and the introduction of non-fossil fuels in heat and electricity generation slowed the growth of CO2 emissions.

  14. Determination of the slow crack growth susceptibility coefficient of dental ceramics using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Miranda, Walter Gomes; Yoshimura, Humberto Naoyuki

    2011-11-01

    This study compared three methods for the determination of the slow crack growth susceptibility coefficient (n) of two veneering ceramics (VM7 and d.Sign), two glass-ceramics (Empress and Empress 2) and a glass-infiltrated alumina composite (In-Ceram Alumina). Discs (n = 10) were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations and polished. The constant stress-rate test was performed at five constant stress rates to calculate n(d) . For the indentation fracture test to determine n(IF) , Vickers indentations were performed and the crack lengths were measured under an optical microscope. For the constant stress test (performed only for d.Sign for the determination of n(s) ) four constant stresses were applied and held constant until the specimens' fracture and the time to failure was recorded. All tests were performed in artificial saliva at 37°C. The n(d) values were 17.2 for Empress 2, followed by d.Sign (20.5), VM7 (26.5), Empress (30.2), and In-Ceram Alumina (31.1). In-Ceram Alumina and Empress 2 showed the highest n(IF) values, 66.0 and 40.2, respectively. The n(IF) values determined for Empress (25.2), d.Sign (25.6), and VM7 (20.1) were similar. The n(s) value determined for d.Sign was 31.4. It can be concluded that the n values determined for the dental ceramics evaluated were significantly influenced by the test method used. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An effective neodimium segregation coefficient in neodimium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet crystal growth by pulling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroki, Ken-ichi; Kuwano, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    Effective Nd segregation coefficient in the Nd:YAG (Nd-doped Y 3 Al 5 O 12 ) crystal growth by pulling method was determined precisely over 0 -- 1.3 atom% Nd concentration range at a 0.6 mm hr -1 growth rate. Two Nd:YAG crystals (-- 20 g) were grown from a large melt (-- 1 kg). Neodymium concentrations in the crystals and residual melts were estimated by fluorescent X-ray analysis, and a value of 0.21 was obtained as the effective segregation coefficient. Next, the optical absorption coefficient of Nd:YAG crystal at 5889 A absorption peak was measured in order to analyze a small specimen for Nd by optical absorption measurements. The optical absorption coefficient of 0.97 mm -1 .atom% -1 was determined in this way. The Nd concentrations, calculated by the segregation coefficient, agreed well with those obtained by optical absorption measurements at 5889 A for six successively grown Nd:YAG crystals. Therefore, the obtained segregation coefficient, 0.21, was confirmed as a reliable value for the Nd:YAG crystal growth by the pulling method. (auth.)

  16. Methods and experimental coefficients used in the computation of reactor shielding; Methodes et coefficients experimentaux pour le calcul des protections de reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J; Lafore, P; Millot, J P; Rastoin, J; Vathaire, F de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    1) The concept of an effective removal cross section has been developed in order more easily to compute reactor shielding thicknesses. We have built an experimental facility for the purpose of measuring effective removal cross sections, the value of which had not been published at that time. The first part of this paper describes the device or facility used, the computation method applied, and the results obtained. 2) Starting from this concept, we endeavoured to define a removal cross section as a function of energy. This enabled us to use the method for computations bearing on the attenuation of fast neutrons of any spectrum. An experimental verification was carried out for the case of fission neutrons filtered by a substantial thickness of graphite. 3) Finally, we outline a computation method enabling us to determine the sources of captured gamma rays by the age theory and we give an example of the application in a composite shield. (author) [French] 1) La notion de section efficace effective de deplacement a ete introduite pour calculer commodement les epaisseurs de protection des reacteurs. Nous avons construit un dispositif experimental destine a mesurer les sections efficaces effectives de deplacement dont la valeur n'avait pas ete publiee a cette epoque. La premiere partie de cette communication decrit le dispositif utilise, la methode de calcul employee et les resultats obtenus. 2) A partir de cette notion, nous avons essaye de definir une section efficace de deplacement fonction de l'energie. Ceci permet d'utiliser la methode du deplacement pour des calculs d'attenuation de neutrons rapides dont le spectre est quelconque. Une verification experimentale a ete faite dans le cas de neutrons de fission filtres par une epaisseur notable de graphite. 3) Enfin une methode de calcul permettant de determiner les sources de gamma de capture par la theorie de l'age est exposee et un exemple d'application donne dans une protection composite. (auteur)

  17. A fluid-solid coupling simulation method for convection heat transfer coefficient considering the under-vehicle condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, C.; Weng, J.; Liu, Y.

    2017-11-01

    The convection heat transfer coefficient is one of the evaluation indexes of the brake disc performance. The method used in this paper to calculate the convection heat transfer coefficient is a fluid-solid coupling simulation method, because the calculation results through the empirical formula method have great differences. The model, including a brake disc, a car body, a bogie and flow field, was built, meshed and simulated in the software FLUENT. The calculation models were K-epsilon Standard model and Energy model. The working condition of the brake disc was considered. The coefficient of various parts can be obtained through the method in this paper. The simulation result shows that, under 160 km/h speed, the radiating ribs have the maximum convection heat transfer coefficient and the value is 129.6W/(m2·K), the average coefficient of the whole disc is 100.4W/(m2·K), the windward of ribs is positive-pressure area and the leeward of ribs is negative-pressure area, the maximum pressure is 2663.53Pa.

  18. Methods and experimental coefficients used in the computation of reactor shielding; Methodes et coefficients experimentaux pour le calcul des protections de reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J; Lafore, P; Millot, J P; Rastoin, J; Vathaire, F de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1. The concept of an effective removal cross section has been developed in order more easily to compute reactor shielding thicknesses. We have built an experimental facility for the purpose of measuring effective removal cross sections, the value of which had not been published at that time. The first part of this paper describes the device or facility used, the computation method applied, and the results obtained. 2. Starting from this concept, we endeavored to define a removal cross section as a function of energy. This enabled us to use the method for computations bearing on the attenuation of fast neutrons of any spectrum. An experimental verification was carried out for the case of fission neutrons filtered by a substantial thickness of graphite. 3. Finally, we outline a computation method enabling us to determine the sources of captured gamma rays by the age theory and we give an example of the application in a composite shield. (author)Fren. [French] 1. La notion de section efficace effective de deplacement a ete introduite pour calculer commodement les epaisseurs de protection des reacteurs. Nous avons construit un dispositif experimental destine a mesurer les sections efficaces effectives de deplacement dont la valeur n'avait pas ete publiee a cette epoque. La premiere partie de cette communication decrit le dispositif utilise, la methode de calcul employee et les resultats obtenus. 2. A partir de cette notion, nous avons essaye de definir une section efficace de deplacement fonction de l'energie. Ceci permet d'utiliser la methode du deplacement pour des calculs d'attenuation de neutrons rapides dont le spectre est quelconque. Une verification experimentale a ete faite dans le cas de neutrons de fission filtres par une epaisseur notable de graphite. 3. Enfin une mde de calcul permettant de determiner les sources de gamma de capture par la theorie de l'age est exposee et un exemple d'application donne dans une protection composite. (auteur)

  19. Microsoft excel's automatic data processing and diagram drawing of RIA internal quality control parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Pingfan; Liu Guoqiang

    2006-01-01

    We did automatic data processing and diagram drawing of various parameters of RIA' s internal quality control (IQC)by the use of Microsoft Excel (ME). By use of AVERAGE and STDEV of ME, we got x-bar, s and CV%. With pearson, we got the serum quality control coefficients (r). Inputing the original data to diagram's self-definition item, the diagram was drawn automatically. By the use of logic judging, we got the quality control judging results with the status, timing and data of various quality control parameters. For the past four years, the ME data processing and diagram drawing as well as quality control judging have been showed to be accurate, convenient and correct. It was quick and easy to manage and the automatic computer processing of RIA's IQC was realized. Conclusion: the method is applicable to all types of RIA' s IQC. (authors)

  20. Method for measurement of relative differences in thermal expansion coefficients (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.E.

    1978-06-01

    The report describes a test which was conducted to determine the variation in thermal expansion coefficients of specimens from several material heats of Type 304 stainless steel. The purpose of this document is to identify the procedures, equipment, and analysis used in performing this test. From a review of the data which were used in establishing the values given for mean coefficient of thermal expansion in the 1968 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, a +-3.3-percent maximum variation was determined for Type 304 CRES in the temperature range of interest. The results of the test reduced this variation to +-0.53 percent based on a 95/99-percent tolerance interval for the material tested. The testing equipment, procedure, and analysis are not complicated and this type of test is recommended for applications in which the variation in thermal expansion coefficients is desired for a limited number of material heats

  1. Determination of uranyl nitrate diffusion coefficients in organic and aqueous media using the porous diaphragm method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierice, G.O.

    1974-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient is one of the parameters necessary for the obtention of the extraction exponential coefficients, that are contained within the H.T.U. (height of transfer unity) calculation expression, when operating with continuous organic phase. The organic phase used was tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and varsol in the 35% and 65% proportions respectively. After each experiment, the uranium content present in each compartment was spectrophotometrically determined and the quantities contained in the aqueous phases were determined by means of volumetric titration. It was found out that the uranyl ion diffusion coefficient is two and one half times less in organic phase, this just being attributed to the greater interactions of the uranyl ions in organic than in aqueous medium

  2. New method and installation for rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Gulabyants, Loren; Livshits, Mihail; Kovler, Konstantin

    2014-04-01

    The mathematical apparatus and the experimental installation for the rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials are developed. The single test lasts not longer than 18 h and allows testing numerous materials, such as gaseous and liquid media, as well as soil, concrete and radon-proof membranes, in which diffusion coefficient of radon may vary in an extremely wide range, from 1·10(-12) to 5·10(-5) m(2)/s. The uncertainty of radon diffusion coefficient estimation depends on the permeability of the sample and varies from about 5% (for the most permeable materials) to 40% (for less permeable materials, such as radon-proof membranes). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanovsky, A.; Proehl, G.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version

  4. Determination of the diffusion coefficient of salts in non-Newtonian liquids by the Taylor dispersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mey, Paula; Varges, Priscilla R.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do RJ (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    This research looked for a method to determine the binary diffusion coefficient D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water.D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water. (author)

  5. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1997-01-01

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μ ρ) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the μ ρ determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for μ ρ determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, μ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, μ ρ was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for μ ρ and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author)

  6. Determination of temperature dependence of piezoelectric coefficients matrix of lead zirconate titanate ceramics by quasi-static and resonance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fei; Xu Zhuo; Wei Xiaoyong; Yao Xi, E-mail: lifei1216@gmail.co [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-05-07

    The piezoelectric coefficients (d{sub 33}, -d{sub 31}, d{sub 15}, g{sub 33}, -g{sub 31}, g{sub 15}) of soft and hard lead zirconate titanate ceramics were measured by the quasi-static and resonance methods, at temperatures from 20 to 300 {sup 0}C. The results showed that the piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33}, -d{sub 31} and d{sub 15} obtained by these two methods increased with increasing temperature for both hard and soft PZT ceramics, while the piezoelectric coefficients g{sub 33}, -g{sub 31} and g{sub 15} decreased with increasing temperature for both hard and soft PZT ceramics. In this paper, the observed results were also discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to piezoelectric response.

  7. 40 CFR 799.6756 - TSCA partition coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... using the CLogP3 computer program in paragraph (e)(9) of this section. 4 Hawker and Connell (1988... (B) Constant temperature bath with circulation pump-bath and capable of controlling temperature to 25...-partition coefficient correlation. Environmental Science and Technology 14:1227-1229 (1980). (2) Bruggemann...

  8. Simple Method to Determine the Partition Coefficient of Naphthenic Acid in Oil/Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch-Larsen, Anders; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2008-01-01

    The partition coefficient for technical grade naphthenic acid in water/n-decane at 295 K has been determined (K-wo = 2.1 center dot 10(-4)) using a simple experimental technique with large extraction volumes (0.09 m(3) of water). Furthermore, nonequilibrium values at different pH values...

  9. A simple method for finding the scattering coefficients of quantum graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum walks are roughly analogous to classical random walks, and similar to classical walks they have been used to find new (quantum) algorithms. When studying the behavior of large graphs or combinations of graphs, it is useful to find the response of a subgraph to signals of different frequencies. In doing so, we can replace an entire subgraph with a single vertex with variable scattering coefficients. In this paper, a simple technique for quickly finding the scattering coefficients of any discrete-time quantum graph will be presented. These scattering coefficients can be expressed entirely in terms of the characteristic polynomial of the graph’s time step operator. This is a marked improvement over previous techniques which have traditionally required finding eigenstates for a given eigenvalue, which is far more computationally costly. With the scattering coefficients we can easily derive the “impulse response” which is the key to predicting the response of a graph to any signal. This gives us a powerful set of tools for rapidly understanding the behavior of graphs or for reducing a large graph into its constituent subgraphs regardless of how they are connected

  10. Determinig the Shape Coefficient A of Groove on the Pen for the Shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křístek, Ivo; Havlík, Jiří; Mosler, Václav; Daniš, Igor

    2017-12-01

    This article focuses on creating a diagram for determining the shape coefficient α for a tongue groove on the shaft. Experimental determination of curve diagrams by comparing diagrams and monograms used using FEM calculations.

  11. An improved method based on wavelet coefficient correlation to filter noise in Doppler ultrasound blood flow signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Renzhi; Zu, Yunxiao; Shao, Lin

    2018-04-01

    The blood echo signal maintained through Medical ultrasound Doppler devices would always include vascular wall pulsation signal .The traditional method to de-noise wall signal is using high-pass filter, which will also remove the lowfrequency part of the blood flow signal. Some scholars put forward a method based on region selective reduction, which at first estimates of the wall pulsation signals and then removes the wall signal from the mixed signal. Apparently, this method uses the correlation between wavelet coefficients to distinguish blood signal from wall signal, but in fact it is a kind of wavelet threshold de-noising method, whose effect is not so much ideal. In order to maintain a better effect, this paper proposes an improved method based on wavelet coefficient correlation to separate blood signal and wall signal, and simulates the algorithm by computer to verify its validity.

  12. Estimation of octanol/water partition coefficient and aqueous solubility of environmental chemicals using molecular fingerprints and machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octanol/water partition coefficient (logP) and aqueous solubility (logS) are two important parameters in pharmacology and toxicology studies, and experimental measurements are usually time-consuming and expensive. In the present research, novel methods are presented for the estim...

  13. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  14. 3D analytical method for the external dynamics of ship collisions and investigation of the coefficient of restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Junfeng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for predicting the dynamic responses of a ship in a collision scenario features speed and accuracy,and the external dynamics constitute an important part. A 3D simplified analytical method is implemented by MATLAB and used to calculate the energy dissipation of ship-ship collisions. The results obtained by the proposed method are then compared with those of a 2D simplified analytical method. The total dissipated energy can be obtained through the proposed analytical method, and the influence of the collision heights,angles and locations on the dissipated energy is discussed on that basis. Furthermore,the effects of restitution on the conservative coefficients and the effects of conservative coefficients on energy dissipation are discussed. It is concluded that the proposed 3D analysis yields a lesser energy dissipation than that of the 2D analysis,and the collision height has a significant influence on the dissipated energy. In using the proposed simplified method,it is not safe to simplify the conservative coefficient as zero when the collision angle is greater than 90 degrees. In the future research, to get more accurate energy dissipation, it is a good way to adopt the 3D simplified analytical method instead of the 2D method.

  15. Determination of the Solute Diffusion Coefficient by the Droplet Migration Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Liu; Jing Teng; Jeongyun Choi

    2007-07-01

    Further analysis of droplet migration in a temperature gradient field indicates that different terms can be used to evaluate the solute diffusion coefficient in liquid (D{sub L}) and that there exists a characteristic curve that can describe the motion of all the droplets for a given composition and temperature gradient. Critical experiments are subsequently conducted in succinonitrile (SCN)-salol and SCN-camphor transparent alloys in order to observe dynamic migration processes of a number of droplets. The derived diffusion coefficients from different terms are the same within experimental error. For SCN-salol alloys, D{sub L} = (0.69 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and for SCN-camphor alloys, D{sub L} = (0.24 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s.

  16. Approximate Solutions of Delay Differential Equations with Constant and Variable Coefficients by the Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olvera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We expand the application of the enhanced multistage homotopy perturbation method (EMHPM to solve delay differential equations (DDEs with constant and variable coefficients. This EMHPM is based on a sequence of subintervals that provide approximate solutions that require less CPU time than those computed from the dde23 MATLAB numerical integration algorithm solutions. To address the accuracy of our proposed approach, we examine the solutions of several DDEs having constant and variable coefficients, finding predictions with a good match relative to the corresponding numerical integration solutions.

  17. Retrieval method of aerosol extinction coefficient profile based on backscattering, side-scattering and Raman-scattering lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Junjian; Tao, Zongming; Wang, Shenhao; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhou, Pucheng; Yao, Ling; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile is an essential parameter for atmospheric radiation model. It is difficult to get higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of backscattering lidar from the ground to the tropopause especially in near range. Higher SNR problem can be solved by combining side-scattering and backscattering lidar. Using Raman-scattering lidar, aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) can be got. Based on side-scattering, backscattering and Raman-scattering lidar system, aerosol extinction coefficient is retrieved precisely from the earth's surface to the tropopause. Case studies show this method is reasonable and feasible.

  18. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  19. The relationship between the Johnson-Baranger time-dependent folded diagram expansion and the time-independent methods of perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.M.J. de

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between the Johnson-Baranger time-dependent folded diagram (JBFD) expansion, and the time independent methods of perturbation theory, are investigated. In the nondegenerate case, the JBFD expansion and the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation expansion, for the ground state energy, are identical. On the other hand, in the degenerate case, for the nonhermitian effective interaction considered, the JBFD expansion, of the effective interaction, is equal to the perturbative expansion of the effective interaction of the nonhermitian eigenvalue problem of Bloch and Brandow-Des Cloizeaux. For the two hermitian effective interactions, the JBFD expansion of the effective interaction differs from the perturbation expansion of the effective interaction of the hermitian eigenvalue problem of Des Cloizeaux [pt

  20. Communication: A method to compute the transport coefficient of pure fluids diffusing through planar interfaces from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorel, Romain; Oulebsir, Fouad; Galliero, Guillaume

    2017-09-14

    The computation of diffusion coefficients in molecular systems ranks among the most useful applications of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. However, when dealing with the problem of fluid diffusion through vanishingly thin interfaces, classical techniques are not applicable. This is because the volume of space in which molecules diffuse is ill-defined. In such conditions, non-equilibrium techniques allow for the computation of transport coefficients per unit interface width, but their weak point lies in their inability to isolate the contribution of the different physical mechanisms prone to impact the flux of permeating molecules. In this work, we propose a simple and accurate method to compute the diffusional transport coefficient of a pure fluid through a planar interface from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, in the form of a diffusion coefficient per unit interface width. In order to demonstrate its validity and accuracy, we apply our method to the case study of a dilute gas diffusing through a smoothly repulsive single-layer porous solid. We believe this complementary technique can benefit to the interpretation of the results obtained on single-layer membranes by means of complex non-equilibrium methods.

  1. Optimizing UML Class Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergievskiy Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of object-oriented development technologies rely on the use of the universal modeling language UML; class diagrams play a very important role in the design process play, used to build a software system model. Modern CASE tools, which are the basic tools for object-oriented development, can’t be used to optimize UML diagrams. In this manuscript we will explain how, based on the use of design patterns and anti-patterns, class diagrams could be verified and optimized. Certain transformations can be carried out automatically; in other cases, potential inefficiencies will be indicated and recommendations given. This study also discusses additional CASE tools for validating and optimizing of UML class diagrams. For this purpose, a plugin has been developed that analyzes an XMI file containing a description of class diagrams.

  2. Algorithmic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Algorithmic phase diagrams are a neat and compact representation of the results of comparing the execution time of several algorithms for the solution of the same problem. As an example, the recent results are shown of Gannon and Van Rosendale on the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems of equations in the form of such diagrams. The act of preparing these diagrams has revealed an unexpectedly complex relationship between the best algorithm and the number and size of the tridiagonal systems, which was not evident from the algebraic formulae in the original paper. Even so, for a particular computer, one diagram suffices to predict the best algorithm for all problems that are likely to be encountered the prediction being read directly from the diagram without complex calculation.

  3. Colocalization coefficients evaluating the distribution of molecular targets in microscopy methods based on pointed patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Sobol, Margaryta; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 4 (2016), s. 391-406 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA ČR GA15-08738S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Grant - others:Human Frontier Science Program(FR) RGP0017/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Colocalization * Quantitative analysis * Pointed patterns * Transmission electron microscopy * Manders' coefficients * Immunohistochemistry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  4. Fast and reliable method for computing free-bound emission coefficients for hydrogenic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, A; Canto, J

    1985-12-01

    An approximate formula for the computation of the free-bound emission coefficient for hydrogenic ions is presented. The approximation is obtained through a manipulation of the (free-bound) Gaunt factor which intentionally distinguish the dependence on frequency from the dependence on temperature and ionic composition. Numerical tests indicate that the derived formula is very precise, fast and easy to use, making the calculation of the free-bound contribution from an ionized region of varying temperature and ionic composition a very simple and time-saving task.

  5. A fast and reliable method for computing free-bound emission coefficients for hydrogenic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, A.; Canto, J.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate formula for the computation of the free-bound emission coefficient for hydrogenic ions is presented. The approximation is obtained through a manipulation of the (free-bound) Gaunt factor which intentionally distinguish the dependence on frequency from the dependence on temperature and ionic composition. Numerical tests indicate that the derived formula is very precise, fast and easy to use, making the calculation of the free-bound contribution from an ionized region of varying temperature and ionic composition a very simple and time-saving task. (author)

  6. A finite-difference method for the variable coefficient Poisson equation on hierarchical Cartesian meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeli, Alice; Bergmann, Michel; Iollo, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    We consider problems governed by a linear elliptic equation with varying coefficients across internal interfaces. The solution and its normal derivative can undergo significant variations through these internal boundaries. We present a compact finite-difference scheme on a tree-based adaptive grid that can be efficiently solved using a natively parallel data structure. The main idea is to optimize the truncation error of the discretization scheme as a function of the local grid configuration to achieve second-order accuracy. Numerical illustrations are presented in two and three-dimensional configurations.

  7. Decomposition of the configuration-interaction coefficients in the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lötstedt, Erik, E-mail: lotstedt@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-04-21

    An approximate implementation of the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method is proposed, in which the matrix of configuration-interaction coefficients is decomposed into a product of matrices of smaller dimension. The applicability of this method in which all the configurations are kept in the expansion of the wave function, while the configuration-interaction coefficients are approximately calculated, is discussed by showing the results on three model systems: a one-dimensional model of a beryllium atom, a one-dimensional model of a carbon atom, and a one-dimensional model of a chain of four hydrogen atoms. The time-dependent electronic dynamics induced by a few-cycle, long-wavelength laser pulse is found to be well described at a lower computational cost compared to the standard multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock treatment. Drawbacks of the method are also discussed.

  8. Monte Carlo Finite Volume Element Methods for the Convection-Diffusion Equation with a Random Diffusion Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a framework for the construction of Monte Carlo finite volume element method (MCFVEM for the convection-diffusion equation with a random diffusion coefficient, which is described as a random field. We first approximate the continuous stochastic field by a finite number of random variables via the Karhunen-Loève expansion and transform the initial stochastic problem into a deterministic one with a parameter in high dimensions. Then we generate independent identically distributed approximations of the solution by sampling the coefficient of the equation and employing finite volume element variational formulation. Finally the Monte Carlo (MC method is used to compute corresponding sample averages. Statistic error is estimated analytically and experimentally. A quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC technique with Sobol sequences is also used to accelerate convergence, and experiments indicate that it can improve the efficiency of the Monte Carlo method.

  9. Method to estimate drag coefficient at the air/ice interface over drifting open pack ice from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, U.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge in near real time, of the surface drag coefficient for drifting pack ice is vital for predicting its motions. And since this is not routinely available from measurements it must be replaced by estimates. Hence, a method for estimating this variable, as well as the drag coefficient at the water/ice interface and the ice thickness, for drifting open pack ice was developed. These estimates were derived from three-day sequences of LANDSAT-1 MSS images and surface weather charts and from the observed minima and maxima of these variables. The method was tested with four data sets in the southeastern Beaufort sea. Acceptable results were obtained for three data sets. Routine application of the method depends on the availability of data from an all-weather air or spaceborne remote sensing system, producing images with high geometric fidelity and high resolution.

  10. [Correlation coefficient-based principle and method for the classification of jump degree in hydrological time series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi Yi; Xie, Ping; Sang, Yan Fang; Gu, Hai Ting

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of jump is one of the importantly external forms of hydrological variabi-lity under environmental changes, representing the adaption of hydrological nonlinear systems to the influence of external disturbances. Presently, the related studies mainly focus on the methods for identifying the jump positions and jump times in hydrological time series. In contrast, few studies have focused on the quantitative description and classification of jump degree in hydrological time series, which make it difficult to understand the environmental changes and evaluate its potential impacts. Here, we proposed a theatrically reliable and easy-to-apply method for the classification of jump degree in hydrological time series, using the correlation coefficient as a basic index. The statistical tests verified the accuracy, reasonability, and applicability of this method. The relationship between the correlation coefficient and the jump degree of series were described using mathematical equation by derivation. After that, several thresholds of correlation coefficients under different statistical significance levels were chosen, based on which the jump degree could be classified into five levels: no, weak, moderate, strong and very strong. Finally, our method was applied to five diffe-rent observed hydrological time series, with diverse geographic and hydrological conditions in China. The results of the classification of jump degrees in those series were closely accorded with their physically hydrological mechanisms, indicating the practicability of our method.

  11. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D.

    2010-09-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  12. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works.

  13. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  14. Research and development of groundwater dating (Part 3). A proposal of determination method for diffusion coefficients of dissolved helium in rock and applicability of estimation of diffusion coefficients using anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashihara, Tomohiro; Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2006-01-01

    Dissolved helium in groundwater is one of the most suitable tracers for the groundwater dating. The diffusion coefficients in aquitard and aquifer were important to estimate an accumulation of the helium in groundwater. However, few papers have been reported about the diffusion of helium in rocks. In this study, effective diffusion coefficients of the helium in sandstones and mudstone were determined using a through-diffusion method. The effective diffusion coefficients of helium were in the range of 1.5 x 10 -10 to 1.1 x 10 -9 m 2 s -1 and larger than those of Br - ions. Geometrical factors for the diffusion of helium were also larger than those for the diffusion of Br - ions. This fact suggests that diffusion path of helium in the rocks is not more restricted than that of Br - ions. The diffusion coefficients of helium were also estimated using the diffusion coefficient of helium in bulk water and formation factors for diffusion of Br - ions. The estimated diffusion coefficients of helium were larger than the effective diffusion coefficients. It is clarified that the effective diffusion coefficients of helium are underestimated by the estimation method using anions. (author)

  15. Second order finite-difference ghost-point multigrid methods for elliptic problems with discontinuous coefficients on an arbitrary interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Armando; Russo, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we propose a second-order accurate numerical method to solve elliptic problems with discontinuous coefficients (with general non-homogeneous jumps in the solution and its gradient) in 2D and 3D. The method consists of a finite-difference method on a Cartesian grid in which complex geometries (boundaries and interfaces) are embedded, and is second order accurate in the solution and the gradient itself. In order to avoid the drop in accuracy caused by the discontinuity of the coefficients across the interface, two numerical values are assigned on grid points that are close to the interface: a real value, that represents the numerical solution on that grid point, and a ghost value, that represents the numerical solution extrapolated from the other side of the interface, obtained by enforcing the assigned non-homogeneous jump conditions on the solution and its flux. The method is also extended to the case of matrix coefficient. The linear system arising from the discretization is solved by an efficient multigrid approach. Unlike the 1D case, grid points are not necessarily aligned with the normal derivative and therefore suitable stencils must be chosen to discretize interface conditions in order to achieve second order accuracy in the solution and its gradient. A proper treatment of the interface conditions will allow the multigrid to attain the optimal convergence factor, comparable with the one obtained by Local Fourier Analysis for rectangular domains. The method is robust enough to handle large jump in the coefficients: order of accuracy, monotonicity of the errors and good convergence factor are maintained by the scheme.

  16. Some Methods for Calculating Competition Coefficients from Resource-Utilization Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Thomas W

    When relative frequencies of resource kinds in the diet are known, the competition coefficient giving the effect of competitor j on i may be computed as \\documentclass{aastex} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{bm} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pifont} \\usepackage{stmaryrd} \\usepackage{textcomp} \\usepackage{portland,xspace} \\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\pagestyle{empty} \\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document}$$\\alpha_{ij}=\\left(\\frac{T_{j}}{T_{i}}\\right)\\left[\\frac{{\\sum\\limits_{k=1}^{m}}(d_{ik}/f_{k})\\:(d_{jk}/f_{k})\\:b_{ik}}{\\sum\\limits_{k=1}^{m}(d_{ik}/f_{k})^{2}\\:b_{ik}}\\right],$$\\end{document} where T j /T i = the ratio of the number of items consumed by an individual of competitor j to that consumed by an individual of competitor i, measured over an interval of time that includes all regular fluctuations in consumption for both species; d ik = the frequency of resource k in the diet of competitor i (and similarly for d jk ); f k = the standing frequency of resource k in the environment; b ik = the net calories gained by an individual of competitor i from an item of resource k, or more approximately the calories contained in an item of resource k, or still more approximately the weight or volume of an item of resource k; and the summations are taken over all resources eaten by at least one of the competing species. The coefficient follows from MacArthur's (1968) consumer-resource system when the ratio of the carrying capacity to intrinsic rate of increase is constant for all resources. When relative frequencies of time spent foraging in habitat kinds are known, the competition coefficient may be computed as \\documentclass{aastex} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{bm} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pifont} \\usepackage{stmaryrd} \\usepackage{textcomp} \\usepackage{portland,xspace} \\usepackage

  17. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  18. A Maximum Power Transfer Tracking Method for WPT Systems with Coupling Coefficient Identification Considering Two-Value Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power transfer tracking (MPTT is meant to track the maximum power point during the system operation of wireless power transfer (WPT systems. Traditionally, MPTT is achieved by impedance matching at the secondary side when the load resistance is varied. However, due to a loosely coupling characteristic, the variation of coupling coefficient will certainly affect the performance of impedance matching, therefore MPTT will fail accordingly. This paper presents an identification method of coupling coefficient for MPTT in WPT systems. Especially, the two-value issue during the identification is considered. The identification approach is easy to implement because it does not require additional circuit. Furthermore, MPTT is easy to realize because only two easily measured DC parameters are needed. The detailed identification procedure corresponding to the two-value issue and the maximum power transfer tracking process are presented, and both the simulation analysis and experimental results verified the identification method and MPTT.

  19. Application of matriciant method for calculation of the third order aberration coefficients for magnetic field with regard to boundary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordik, S.N.; Ponomarev, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    To study nonlinear dynamics of charged particles in magnetic sector analyzers one applied the matriciant method. When calculating matriciants (transfer matrices) one took account of the boundary-value effects associated with the effect of scattering field, as well as, the higher harmonics of the sector magnetic field up to the third order inclusive. In case of the rectangular distribution of field components along the optical axis one obtained analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients up to the third order exclusive. To simulate the real field with the width of scattering field not equal to zero one applied smooth distribution of components for which calculation of similar aberration coefficients was conducted using the conservative numerical method [ru

  20. Efficient evaluation of influence coefficients in three-dimensional extended boundary-node method for potential problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Taku; Saitoh, Ayumu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    For the purpose of speed-up of the three-dimensional eXtended Boundary-Node Method (X-BNM), an efficient algorithm for evaluating influence coefficients has been developed. The algorithm can be easily implemented into the X-BNM without using any integration cells. By applying the resulting X-BNM to the Laplace problem, the performance of the algorithm is numerically investigated. The numerical experiments show that, by using the algorithm, computational costs for evaluating influence coefficients in the X-BNM are reduced considerably. Especially for a large-sized problem, the algorithm is efficiently performed, and the computational costs of the X-BNM are close to those of the Boundary-Element Method (BEM). In addition, for the problem, the X-BNM shows almost the same accuracy as that of the BEM. (author)

  1. Evaluating new methods for direct measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient in nuclear power plants during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.; Kalya, Z.; Nemes, I.; Pos, I.; Por, G.

    2007-01-01

    Moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity is not monitored during fuel cycles in WWER reactors, because it is not very easy or impossible to measure it without disturbing the normal operation. Two new methods were tested in our WWER type nuclear power plant to try methodologies, which enable to measure that important to safety parameter during the fuel cycle. One is based on small perturbances, and only small changes are requested in operation, the other is based on noise methods, which means it is without interference with reactor operation. Both method is new that aspects that they uses the plant computer data(VERONA) based signals calculated by C P ORCA diffusion code (Authors)

  2. A New Method of Constructing a Drug-Polymer Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram Using Hot-Melt Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiwei; Jones, David S; Donnelly, Conor; Brannigan, Timothy; Li, Shu; Andrews, Gavin P

    2018-04-02

    Current experimental methodologies used to determine the thermodynamic solubility of an API within a polymer typically involves establishing the dissolution/melting end point of the crystalline API within a physical mixture or through the use of the glass transition temperature measurement of a demixed amorphous solid dispersion. The measurable "equilibrium" points for solubility are normally well above the glass transition temperature of the system, meaning extrapolation is required to predict the drug solubility at pharmaceutically relevant temperatures. In this manuscript, we argue that the presence of highly viscous polymers in these systems results in experimental data that exhibits an under or overestimated value relative to the true thermodynamic solubility. In previous work, we demonstrated the effects of experimental conditions and their impact on measured and predicted thermodynamic solubility points. In light of current understanding, we have developed a new method to limit error associated with viscosity effects for application in small-scale hot-melt extrusion (HME). In this study, HME was used to generate an intermediate (multiphase) system containing crystalline drug, amorphous drug/polymer-rich regions as well as drug that was molecularly dispersed in polymer. An extended annealing method was used together with high-speed differential scanning calorimetry to accurately determine the upper and lower boundaries of the thermodynamic solubility of a model drug-polymer system (felodipine and Soluplus). Compared to our previously published data, the current results confirmed our hypothesis that the prediction of the liquid-solid curve using dynamic determination of dissolution/melting end point of the crystalline API physical mixture presents an underestimation relative to the thermodynamic solubility point. With this proposed method, we were able to experimentally measure the upper and lower boundaries of the liquid-solid curve for the model system. The

  3. Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2009-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...

  4. Three-dimensional transport coefficient model and prediction-correction numerical method for thermal margin analysis of PWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion Engineering Inc. designs its modern PWR reactor cores using open-core thermal-hydraulic methods where the mass, momentum and energy equations are solved in three dimensions (one axial and two lateral directions). The resultant fluid properties are used to compute the minimum Departure from Nuclear Boiling Ratio (DNBR) which ultimately sets the power capability of the core. The on-line digital monitoring and protection systems require a small fast-running algorithm of the design code. This paper presents two techniques used in the development of the on-line DNB algorithm. First, a three-dimensional transport coefficient model is introduced to radially group the flow subchannel into channels for the thermal-hydraulic fluid properties calculation. Conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for this channels are derived using transport coefficients to modify the calculation of the radial transport of enthalpy and momentum. Second, a simplified, non-iterative numerical method, called the prediction-correction method, is applied together with the transport coefficient model to reduce the computer execution time in the determination of fluid properties. Comparison of the algorithm and the design thermal-hydraulic code shows agreement to within 0.65% equivalent power at a 95/95 confidence/probability level for all normal operating conditions of the PWR core. This algorithm accuracy is achieved with 1/800th of the computer processing time of its parent design code. (orig.)

  5. Application of QMC methods to PDEs with random coefficients : a survey of analysis and implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Frances; Dick, Josef; Le Gia, Thong; Nichols, James; Sloan, Ian; Graham, Ivan; Scheichl, Robert; Nuyens, Dirk; Schwab, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    have been written on this topic using a variety of methods. QMC methods are relatively new to this application area. I will consider different models for the randomness (uniform versus lognormal) and contrast different QMC algorithms (single-level

  6. Stochastic spectral Galerkin and collocation methods for PDEs with random coefficients: A numerical comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Bä ck, Joakim; Nobile, Fabio; Tamellini, Lorenzo; Tempone, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has recently been devoted to the development of Stochastic Galerkin (SG) and Stochastic Collocation (SC) methods for uncertainty quantification. An open and relevant research topic is the comparison of these two methods

  7. Porosity, Bulk Density, and Volume Reduction During Drying: Review of Measurement Methods and Coefficient Determinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Khalloufi, S.; Martynenko, A.; Dalen, van G.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Almeida-Rivera, C.

    2015-01-01

    Several experimental methods for measuring porosity, bulk density and volume reduction during drying of foodstuff are available. These methods include among others geometric dimension, volume displacement, mercury porosimeter, micro-CT, and NMR. However, data on their accuracy, sensitivity, and

  8. Oxygen release technique as a method for the determination of "δ-pO2-T" diagrams for MIEC oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Ilya; Bychkov, Sergey; Matvienko, Alexander; Nemudry, Alexander

    2014-03-28

    A new approach to the determination of oxygen nonstoichiometry (δ) of MIEC oxides as a continuous function of pO2 at high temperatures was developed. The description of the model allowing one to distinguish the contribution of oxygen released from the samples to the partial pressure of oxygen at the outlet of the continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor after the stepwise change of the oxygen partial pressure of inlet gas from 0.2 to 10(-5) atm and to calculate the dependence of δ on pO2 is presented. The criterion for assessing the achievement of quasi equilibrium release of oxygen from the MIEC oxides is proposed. The adequacy of the method was confirmed by comparing the obtained and published data for well-studied SrCo0.8Fe0.2O3-δ and SrFeO3-δ MIEC oxides.

  9. Thermal hysteresis kinetic effects of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems studied by FORC diagram method on an Ising-like model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atitoaie, Alexandru; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community is manifesting a high research interest on spin crossover compounds and their recently synthesized nanoparticles, due to their various appealing properties, such as the bistability between a diamagnetic low spin state and a paramagnetic high spin state (HS), inter-switchable by temperature or pressure changes, light irradiation or magnetic field. The utility of these compounds showing hysteresis covers a broad area of applications, from the development of more efficient designs of temperature and pressure sensors to automotive and aeronautic industries and even a new type of molecular actuators. We are proposing in this work a study regarding the kinetic effects and the distribution of reversible and irreversible components on the thermal hysteresis of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems. We are considering here tridimensional systems with different sizes and also systems of nanoparticles with a Gaussian size distribution. The correlations between the kinetics of the thermal hysteresis, the distributions of sizes and intermolecular interactions and the transition temperature distributions were established by using the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method using a Monte Carlo technique within an Ising-like system.

  10. Thermal hysteresis kinetic effects of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems studied by FORC diagram method on an Ising-like model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atitoaie, Alexandru, E-mail: atitoaie@phys-iasi.ro [Department. of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania); National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, Iasi (Romania); Stoleriu, Laurentiu [Department. of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Tanasa, Radu [Department. of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian [Department. of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community is manifesting a high research interest on spin crossover compounds and their recently synthesized nanoparticles, due to their various appealing properties, such as the bistability between a diamagnetic low spin state and a paramagnetic high spin state (HS), inter-switchable by temperature or pressure changes, light irradiation or magnetic field. The utility of these compounds showing hysteresis covers a broad area of applications, from the development of more efficient designs of temperature and pressure sensors to automotive and aeronautic industries and even a new type of molecular actuators. We are proposing in this work a study regarding the kinetic effects and the distribution of reversible and irreversible components on the thermal hysteresis of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems. We are considering here tridimensional systems with different sizes and also systems of nanoparticles with a Gaussian size distribution. The correlations between the kinetics of the thermal hysteresis, the distributions of sizes and intermolecular interactions and the transition temperature distributions were established by using the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method using a Monte Carlo technique within an Ising-like system.

  11. Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A Clemmov-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) type diagram, the ECW-CMA diagram, for representing the operational possibilities of electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) systems for fusion plasmas is presented. In this diagram, with normalized density and normalized magnetic field coordinates, the parameter range in which it is possible to achieve a given task (e.g. O-mode current drive for stabilizing a neoclassical tearing mode) appears as a region. With also the Greenwald density limit shown, this diagram condenses the information on operational possibilities, facilitating the overview required at the design phase. At the operations phase it may also prove useful in setting up experimental scenarios by showing operational possibilities, avoiding the need for survey type ray-tracing at the initial planning stages. The diagram may also serve the purpose of communicating operational possibilities to non-experts. JET and ITER like plasmas are used, but the method is generic. (author)

  12. A CUMULATIVE MIGRATION METHOD FOR COMPUTING RIGOROUS TRANSPORT CROSS SECTIONS AND DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS FOR LWR LATTICES WITH MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaoyuan Liu; Kord Smith; Benoit Forget; Javier Ortensi

    2016-05-01

    A new method for computing homogenized assembly neutron transport cross sections and dif- fusion coefficients that is both rigorous and computationally efficient is proposed in this paper. In the limit of a homogeneous hydrogen slab, the new method is equivalent to the long-used, and only-recently-published CASMO transport method. The rigorous method is used to demonstrate the sources of inaccuracy in the commonly applied “out-scatter” transport correction. It is also demonstrated that the newly developed method is directly applicable to lattice calculations per- formed by Monte Carlo and is capable of computing rigorous homogenized transport cross sections for arbitrarily heterogeneous lattices. Comparisons of several common transport cross section ap- proximations are presented for a simple problem of infinite medium hydrogen. The new method has also been applied in computing 2-group diffusion data for an actual PWR lattice from BEAVRS benchmark.

  13. Determination coefficient distribution rhenium and tungsten using method extraction with solvent methyl ethyl ketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riftanio Natapratama Hidayat; Maria Christina Prihatiningsih; Duyeh Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the distribution coefficient (K d ) of the rhenium and tungsten conducted for the purpose of knowing the value of K d of the two elements. K d value determination is applied to the process of separation rhenium-188 from target of tungsten-188 for the purposes purification of radioisotopes that are made to meet the radionuclide and radiochemical purity. The K d value determination using solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Prior to the determination of K d values, determined beforehand the optimum conditions of extraction process based on the effect of agitation time, the volume of MEK, and the pH of the solution. Confirmation the results of the extraction was conducted using UV-Vis spectrophotometer with a complexing KSCN under acidic conditions and reductant SnCl 2 . The results showed that the optimum condition extraction process to feed each of 10 ppm is when the agitation for 10 minutes, the volume of MEK in 20 ml, and the pH below 5. Obtained the maximum recovery of rhenium are drawn to the organic phase as much as 9.545 ppm. However, the condition of the extraction process does not affect the migration of tungsten to the organic phase. Then the maximum K d values obtained at 2.7566 rhenium and tungsten maximum K d is 0.0873. Optimum conditions of extraction process can be further tested on radioactive rhenium and tungsten as an alternative to the separation of radioisotopes. (author)

  14. Derivation of kinetic coefficients by atomistic methods for studying defect behavior in Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insepov, Z.; Rest, J.; Yacout, A.M.; Kuksin, A.Yu.; Norman, G.E.; Stegailov, V.V.; Starikov, S.V.; Yanilkin, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A multiscale concept couples molecular dynamics (MD) with ab initio and kinetic rate theory. ► Evolution of a system of self-interstitial atoms and vacancies in Mo is studied by MD. ► Formation of di-SIA clusters and SIA–vacancy recombination is analyzed. ► 1D diffusion of self-interstitials at various temperature and defect concentrations were studied. ► This paper provides a powerful predictive tool for simulating irradiation of nuclear materials. - Abstract: A multiscale concept for irradiated materials simulation is formulated based on coupling molecular dynamics simulations (MD) where the potential was obtained from ab initio data of energies of the basic defect structures, with kinetic mesoscale models. The evolution of a system containing self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies in crystalline molybdenum is investigated by means of MD. The kinetics of formation of di-SIA clusters and SIA–vacancy recombination is analyzed via approaches used in the kinetic theory of radiation ageing. The effects of 1D diffusion of SIAs, temperature, and defect concentrations on the reaction rates are also studied. This approach can validate both the kinetic mechanisms and the appropriate kinetic coefficients, offering the potential to significantly reduce the uncertainty of the kinetic methodology and providing a powerful predictive tool for simulating irradiation behavior of nuclear materials.

  15. Fabrication And Determination Of Coefficient Absorption Of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon By Direct Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Agus; Darsono; Sujitno, Tjipto; Suprapto

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by direct evaporation method have been done. The experiment was carried out at pressure conditions of 2 x 10-5 torr, RF frequency of 13.56 MHz, hydrogen gas flow of 0,8 1/minute, electrode distance of 2.48 cm. voltage electrode of 700 volt and evaporation time 1.45 minute. Using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, it is found that at wavelength of 359 nm, the absorbance degree of material that was by direct hydrogenated method was 0,886. This means that more hydrogen are absorbed by direct method While, if the hydrogenation is carried out by means of indirect method, the degree of absorbance at the wavelength of 359 nm is 0,103. From this result, it can be concluded that the direct methods is better than indirect method

  16. Risk assessment of underpass infrastructure project based on IS0 31000 and ISO 21500 using fishbone diagram and RFMEA (project risk failure mode and effects analysis) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanggono, Bambang; Margarette, Anastasia

    2017-12-01

    Completion time of highway construction is very meaningful for smooth transportation, moreover expected number of ownership motor vehicle will increase each year. Therefore, this study was conducted with to analyze the constraints that contained in an infrastructure development project. This research was conducted on Jatingaleh Underpass Project, Semarang. This research was carried out while the project is running, on the implementation, this project is experiencing delays. This research is done to find out what are the constraints that occur in execution of a road infrastructure project, in particular that causes delays. The method that used to find the root cause is fishbone diagram to obtain a possible means of mitigation. Coupled with the RFMEA method used to determine the critical risks that must be addressed immediately on road infrastructure project. The result of data tabulation in this study indicates that the most possible mitigation tool to make a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) recommendations to disrupt utilities that interfere project implementation. Process of risk assessment has been carried out systematically based on ISO 31000:2009 on risk management and for determination of delayed variables, the requirements of process groups according to ISO 21500:2013 on project management were used.

  17. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bisogni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cosmological model is at present not tested between the redshift of the farthest observed supernovae (z ~ 1.4 and that of the Cosmic Microwave Background (z ~ 1,100. Here we introduce a new method to measure the cosmological parameters: we show that quasars can be used as “standard candles” by employing the non-linear relation between their intrinsic UV and X-ray emission as an absolute distance indicator. We built a sample of ~1,900 quasars with available UV and X-ray observations, and produced a Hubble Diagram up to z ~ 5. The analysis of the quasar Hubble Diagram, when used in combination with supernovae, provides robust constraints on the matter and energy content in the cosmos. The application of this method to forthcoming, larger quasar samples, will also provide tight constraints on the dark energy equation of state and its possible evolution with time.

  18. Solutions of differential equations with regular coefficients by the methods of Richmond and Runge-Kutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the differential equation which describe the electric field within an inhomogeneous layer of permittivity, upon which a perpendicularly-polarized plane wave is incident, are considered. Richmond's method and the Runge-Kutta method are compared for linear and exponential profiles of permittivities. These two approximate solutions are also compared with the exact solutions.

  19. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.

  20. The Use of Alternative Regression Methods in Social Sciences and the Comparison of Least Squares and M Estimation Methods in Terms of the Determination of Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskuntuncel, Orkun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold; the first aim being to show the effect of outliers on the widely used least squares regression estimator in social sciences. The second aim is to compare the classical method of least squares with the robust M-estimator using the "determination of coefficient" (R[superscript 2]). For this purpose,…

  1. A new method for the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial; Un metodo nuevo para los coeficientes del polinomio caracteristico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, H.E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In linear algebra, one can associate an equation to each square matrix: its characteristic equation or secular equation. Starting from this equation, the one characteristic polynomial that codes several important properties of the matrix is obtained: its own values, it determinant and it appearance. The first method to calculate those coefficients of this polynomial were proposed by the french astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (1811-1877), from then on, many methods have intended to calculate these coefficients. In this work the author proposes a new one method and a bibliographical citation is given where the calculations with others methods that know each other for it, taking like reference the matrix used by Le Verrier are explained. It was concluded that it here proposed, besides being the only mexican method that is knew, has the advantage of being very easy of understanding and of calculating well, in the operations that it carries out, it doesn't use the division and it avoids fractions in matrices whose entrances are whole. This has a great importance for their use in the classroom for their great didactic value and in nuclear reactors and Genetic Engineering. (Author)

  2. A new method for the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial; Un metodo nuevo para los coeficientes del polinomio caracteristico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, H E [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In linear algebra, one can associate an equation to each square matrix: its characteristic equation or secular equation. Starting from this equation, the one characteristic polynomial that codes several important properties of the matrix is obtained: its own values, it determinant and it appearance. The first method to calculate those coefficients of this polynomial were proposed by the french astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (1811-1877), from then on, many methods have intended to calculate these coefficients. In this work the author proposes a new one method and a bibliographical citation is given where the calculations with others methods that know each other for it, taking like reference the matrix used by Le Verrier are explained. It was concluded that it here proposed, besides being the only mexican method that is knew, has the advantage of being very easy of understanding and of calculating well, in the operations that it carries out, it doesn't use the division and it avoids fractions in matrices whose entrances are whole. This has a great importance for their use in the classroom for their great didactic value and in nuclear reactors and Genetic Engineering. (Author)

  3. Recursive least squares method of regression coefficients estimation as a special case of Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodachev, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    The simple derivation of recursive least squares (RLS) method equations is given as special case of Kalman filter estimation of a constant system state under changing observation conditions. A numerical example illustrates application of RLS to multicollinearity problem.

  4. Stochastic spectral Galerkin and collocation methods for PDEs with random coefficients: A numerical comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Bäck, Joakim

    2010-09-17

    Much attention has recently been devoted to the development of Stochastic Galerkin (SG) and Stochastic Collocation (SC) methods for uncertainty quantification. An open and relevant research topic is the comparison of these two methods. By introducing a suitable generalization of the classical sparse grid SC method, we are able to compare SG and SC on the same underlying multivariate polynomial space in terms of accuracy vs. computational work. The approximation spaces considered here include isotropic and anisotropic versions of Tensor Product (TP), Total Degree (TD), Hyperbolic Cross (HC) and Smolyak (SM) polynomials. Numerical results for linear elliptic SPDEs indicate a slight computational work advantage of isotropic SC over SG, with SC-SM and SG-TD being the best choices of approximation spaces for each method. Finally, numerical results corroborate the optimality of the theoretical estimate of anisotropy ratios introduced by the authors in a previous work for the construction of anisotropic approximation spaces. © 2011 Springer.

  5. Comparison of experimental methods for determination of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobajas, M.; Garcia-Calvo, E. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Alcala, Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Mass transfer in bioreactors has been examined. In the present work, dynamic methods are used for the determination of K{sub L}a values for water, model media and a fermentation broth (Candida utilis) in an airlift reactor. The conventional dynamic method is applied at the end of the microbial process in order to avoid an alteration in the metabolism of the microorganisms. New dynamic methods are used to determine K{sub L}a in an airlift reactor during the microbial growth of Candida utilis on glucose. One of the methods is based on the continuous measurement of carbon dioxide production while the other method is based on the relationship between the oxygen transfer and biomass growth rates. These methods of determining K{sub L}a does not interfere with the microorganisms action. A theoretical mass transfer model has been used for K{sub L}a estimation for the systems described above. Some differences between calculated and measured values are found for fermentation processes due to the model is developed for two-phase air-water systems. Nevertheless, the average deviation between the predicted values and those obtained from the relationship between oxygen transfer and biomass production rates are lower than 25% in any case. (orig.)

  6. A solid-phase extraction method for rapidly determining the adsorption coefficient of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, Laurence; Roberts, Gary; Whitley, David C.; Sharpe, Alan; Mills, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of pharmaceuticals in the environment can be assessed by measuring their adsorption coefficients (Kd) between aqueous and solid phases. Measuring this coefficient in sewage sludge gives an indication of their partitioning behaviour in a wastewater treatment plant and hence contributes to an understanding of their subsequent fate. The regulatory approved method for measuring Kd in sewage sludge is the US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) guideline 835.1110, which is labour intensive and time consuming. We describe an alternative method for measuring the Kd of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge using a modified solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique. SPE cartridges were packed at different sludge/PTFE ratios (0.4, 6.0, 24.0 and 40.0% w/w sludge) and eluted with phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The approach was tested initially using three pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, diclofenac and oxytetracycline) that covered a range of Kd values. Subsequently, the sorption behaviour of ten further pharmaceuticals with varying physico-chemical properties was evaluated. Results from the SPE method were comparable to those of the OPPTS test, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 between the two approaches. SPE cartridges packed with sludge and PTFE were stable for up to one year; use within one month reduced variability in measurements (to a maximum of 0.6 log units). The SPE method is low-cost, easy to use and enables the rapid measurement of Kd values for a large number of chemicals. It can be used as an alternative to the more laborious full OPPTS test in environmental fate studies and risk assessments. PMID:25299795

  7. Atlas of hot isostatic beryllium powder pressing diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, P.I.; Papirov, I.I.; Tikhinskij, G.F.; Vasil'ev, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Diagrams of hot isotopic pressing (HIP) of beryllium powder with different grain size in a wide range of pressing parameters are built by mathematical modeling methods. The HIP diagrams presented are divided into 3 groups: parametric dependencies D=f(P,T); technological HIP diagrams; compacting mechanisms. The created data bank permits to optimise beryllium powder HIP with changing parameters. 4 refs., 23 figs

  8. Homotopy perturbation transform method for pricing under pure diffusion models with affine coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Rodrigue Bambe Moutsinga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing multivariate models in finance are based on diffusion models. These models typically lead to the need of solving systems of Riccati differential equations. In this paper, we introduce an efficient method for solving systems of stiff Riccati differential equations. In this technique, a combination of Laplace transform and homotopy perturbation methods is considered as an algorithm to the exact solution of the nonlinear Riccati equations. The resulting technique is applied to solving stiff diffusion model problems that include interest rates models as well as two and three-factor stochastic volatility models. We show that the present approach is relatively easy, efficient and highly accurate.

  9. Experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient in two-dimensions in ferrous sulphate gels using the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.; Harris, P.J.; Piercy, A.R.; Healy, B.

    2001-01-01

    A novel two-dimensional finite element method for modelling the diffusion which occurs in Fricke or ferrous sulphate type radiation dosimetry gels is presented. In most of the previous work, the diffusion coefficient has been estimated using simple one-dimensional models. This work presents a two-dimensional model which enables the diffusion coefficient to be determined in a much wider range of experimental situations. The model includes the provision for the determination of a drift parameter. To demonstrate the technique comparative diffusion measurements between ferrous sulphate radiation dosimetry gels, with and without xylenol orange chelating agent and carbohydrate additives have been undertaken. Diffusion coefficients of 9.7±0.4, 13.3±0.6 and 9.5±0.8 10-3 cm 2 per h -1 were determined for ferrous sulphate radiation dosimetry gels with and without xylenol orange and with xylenol orange and sucrose additives respectively. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  10. On a numerical method for solving integro-differential equations with variable coefficients with applications in finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, O.; Rodochenko, V.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new general numerical method aimed to solve integro-differential equations with variable coefficients. The problem under consideration arises in finance where in the context of pricing barrier options in a wide class of stochastic volatility models with jumps. To handle the effect of the correlation between the price and the variance, we use a suitable substitution for processes. Then we construct a Markov-chain approximation for the variation process on small time intervals and apply a maturity randomization technique. The result is a system of boundary problems for integro-differential equations with constant coefficients on the line in each vertex of the chain. We solve the arising problems using a numerical Wiener-Hopf factorization method. The approximate formulae for the factors are efficiently implemented by means of the Fast Fourier Transform. Finally, we use a recurrent procedure that moves backwards in time on the variance tree. We demonstrate the convergence of the method using Monte-Carlo simulations and compare our results with the results obtained by the Wiener-Hopf method with closed-form expressions of the factors.

  11. General method and exact solutions to a generalized variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Shanghai Jiao-Tong Univ., Shangai; Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    A general method to uniformly construct exact solutions in terms of special function of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented by means of a more general ansatz and symbolic computation. Making use of the general method, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by the method proposed by Fan (J. Phys. A., 36 (2003) 7009) and find other new and more general solutions, which include polynomial solutions, exponential solutions, rational solutions, triangular periodic wave solution, soliton solutions, soliton-like solutions and Jacobi, Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. A general variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation is chosen to illustrate the method. As a result, some new exact soliton-like solutions are obtained. planets. The numerical results are given in tables. The results are discussed in the conclusion

  12. Massive 3-loop ladder diagrams for quarkonic local operator matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes; Hasselhuhn, Alexander; Wissbrock, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Klein, Sebastian [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-06-15

    3-loop diagrams of the ladder-type, which emerge for local quarkonic twist-2 operator matrix elements, are computed directly for general values of the Mellin variable N using Appell-function representations and applying modern summation technologies provided by the package Sigma and the method of hyperlogarithms. In some of the diagrams generalized harmonic sums with {xi} element of {l_brace}1,1/2,2{r_brace} emerge beyond the usual nested harmonic sums. As the asymptotic representation of the corresponding integrals shows, the generalized sums conspire giving well behaved expressions for large values of N. These diagrams contribute to the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering in the region Q{sup 2} >> m{sup 2}.

  13. Massive 3-loop ladder diagrams for quarkonic local operator matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Blümlein, Johannes; Hasselhuhn, Alexander; Klein, Sebastian; Schneider, Carsten; Wißbrock, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    3-loop diagrams of the ladder-type, which emerge for local quarkonic twist-2 operator matrix elements, are computed directly for general values of the Mellin variable N using Appell-function representations and applying modern summation technologies provided by the package Sigma and the method of hyperlogarithms. In some of the diagrams generalized harmonic sums with ξ∈{1,1/2,2} emerge beyond the usual nested harmonic sums. As the asymptotic representation of the corresponding integrals shows, the generalized sums conspire giving well behaved expressions for large values of N. These diagrams contribute to the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering in the region Q 2 ≫m 2 .

  14. Massive 3-loop ladder diagrams for quarkonic local operator matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Bluemlein, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.bluemlein@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hasselhuhn, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Klein, Sebastian [Research Institut fuer Theoretische Physik E, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Schneider, Carsten [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Wissbrock, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    3-loop diagrams of the ladder-type, which emerge for local quarkonic twist-2 operator matrix elements, are computed directly for general values of the Mellin variable N using Appell-function representations and applying modern summation technologies provided by the package Sigma and the method of hyperlogarithms. In some of the diagrams generalized harmonic sums with {xi} Element-Of {l_brace}1,1/2,2{r_brace} emerge beyond the usual nested harmonic sums. As the asymptotic representation of the corresponding integrals shows, the generalized sums conspire giving well behaved expressions for large values of N. These diagrams contribute to the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering in the region Q{sup 2} Much-Greater-Than m{sup 2}.

  15. A frequency-domain method for solving linear time delay systems with constant coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mengshi; Chen, Wei; Song, Hanwen; Xu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    In an active control system, time delay will occur due to processes such as signal acquisition and transmission, calculation, and actuation. Time delay systems are usually described by delay differential equations (DDEs). Since it is hard to obtain an analytical solution to a DDE, numerical solution is of necessity. This paper presents a frequency-domain method that uses a truncated transfer function to solve a class of DDEs. The theoretical transfer function is the sum of infinite items expressed in terms of poles and residues. The basic idea is to select the dominant poles and residues to truncate the transfer function, thus ensuring the validity of the solution while improving the efficiency of calculation. Meanwhile, the guideline of selecting these poles and residues is provided. Numerical simulations of both stable and unstable delayed systems are given to verify the proposed method, and the results are presented and analysed in detail.

  16. SPET reconstruction with a non-uniform attenuation coefficient using an analytical regularizing iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; LeCoq, C.; Raynaud, C.; Kellershohn, C.

    1982-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the RIM technique when used in brain studies. The analytical Regulatorizing Iterative Method (RIM) is designed to provide fast and accurate reconstruction of tomographic images when non-uniform attenuation is to be accounted for. As indicated by phantom studies, this method improves the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio as compared to those obtained with FBP (Filtered Back Projection) technique. Preliminary results obtained in brain studies using AMPI-123 (isopropil-amphetamine I-123) are very encouraging in terms of quantitative regional cellular activity. However, the clinical usefulness of this mathematically accurate reconstruction procedure is going to be demonstrated in our Institution, in comparing quantitative data in heart or liver studies where control values can be obtained

  17. SPET reconstruction with a non-uniform attenuation coefficient using an analytical regularizing iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; LeCoq, C.; Raynaud, C.; Kellershohn

    1982-01-01

    The potential of the Regularizing Iterative Method (RIM), when used in brain studies, is evaluated. RIM is designed to provide fast and accurate reconstruction of tomographic images when non-uniform attenuation is to be accounted for. As indicated by phantom studies, this method improves the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio as compared to those obtained with Filtered Back Projection (FBP) technique. Preliminary results obtained in brain studies using isopropil-amphetamine I-123 (AMPI-123) are very encouraging in terms of quantitative regional cellular activity. However, the clinical usefulness of this mathematically accurate reconstruction procedure is going to be demonstrated, in comparing quantitative data in heart or liver studies where control values can be obtained

  18. The reliability of measuring pain distribution and location using body pain diagrams in patients with acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerst, Danielle; Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Mior, Silvano; Stern, Paula

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the interexaminer reliability of scoring pain distribution using paper and electronic body pain diagrams in patients with acute whiplash-associated disorder and to assess the intermethod reliability of measuring pain distribution and location using paper and electronic diagrams. We conducted an interexaminer reliability study on 80 participants recruited from a randomized controlled trial on the conservative management of acute grade I/II whiplash-associated disorder. Participants were assessed for inclusion/exclusion criteria by an experienced clinician. As part of the baseline assessment, participants independently completed paper and electronic pain diagrams. Diagrams were scored independently by 2 examiners using the body region method. Interexaminer and intermethod reliability was computed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for pain distribution and κ coefficient for pain location. We used Bland-Altman plots to compute limits of agreement. The interexaminer reliability was ICC = 0.925 for paper and ICC = 0.997 for the electronic body pain diagram. The intermethod reliability for measuring pain distribution ranged from ICC = 0.63 to ICC = 0.93. For pain location, the intermethod reliability varied from κ = 0.23 (posterior neck) to κ = 0.90 (right side of the face). We found good to excellent interexaminer reliability for scoring 2 versions of the body pain diagram. Pain distribution and pain location were reliably and consistently measured on body pain diagrams using paper and electronic methods; therefore, clinicians and researchers may choose either medium when using body pain diagrams. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Method for the determination of oxygen consumption rates and diffusion coefficients in multicellular spheroids

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller-Klieser, W.

    1984-01-01

    A method has been developed for the quantitative evaluation of oxygen tension (PO2) distributions in multicellular spheroids measured with O2-sensitive microelectrodes. The experimental data showed that multicellular tumor spheroids in stirred growth media were characterized by a diffusion-depleted zone surrounding the spheroids. This zone was elicited by an unstirred layer of medium next to the spheroid leading to a continuous decrease in the PO2 values from the bulk medium towards the spher...

  20. A method for determination of X-ray elastic constants of materials showing non-linear sin2ψ diagrams and its application to Zn-Ni-alloy electroplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yasuo.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the method and the experiment for the determination of the x-ray elastic constants of Zn-Ni-alloy electroplate. For this material, the sin 2 ψ method is not adequate to use because this material shows severely curved sin 2 ψ diagrams. Therefore, a new method developed by the authors was explained first. This new method is effective for materials showing nonlinear sin 2 ψ diagrams. Secondly, the experiment was made on the application of this method to the Zn-Ni-alloy electroplate. And it was found out that the experimental data agreed well to the theory of this method. As a result, the following values were obtained as the x-ray elastic constants of the sample measured: (1+ν)/E=8.44 TPa -1 ν/E=2.02 TPa -1 (author)

  1. Determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient and thickness of thin films by the method of waveguide mode excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Panchenko, V Ya; Savelyev, A G; Seminogov, V N; Khaydukov, E V [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-31

    We propose a method for measuring simultaneously the refractive index n{sub f}, extinction coefficient m{sub f} and thickness H{sub f} of thin films. The method is based on the resonant excitation of waveguide modes in the film by a TE- or a TM-polarised laser beam in the geometry of frustrated total internal reflection. The values of n{sub f}, m{sub f} and H{sub f} are found by minimising the functional φ = [N{sup -1}Σ{sup N}{sub i=1}(R{sub exp}(θ{sub i}) – R{sub thr}(θ{sub i})){sup 2}]{sup 1/2}, where R{sub exp}(θ{sub i}) and R{sub thr}(θ{sub i}) are the experimental and theoretical coefficients of reflection of the light beam from the interface between the measuring prism and the film at an angle of incidence θ{sub i}. The errors in determining n{sub f}, m{sub f} and H{sub f} by this method are ±2 × 10{sup -4}, ±1 × 10{sup -3} and ±0.5%, respectively. (fiber and integrated optics)

  2. Diagrams of natural deductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, S V

    1982-01-01

    The concept of natural deductions was investigated by the author in his analysis of the complexity of deductions in propositional computations (1975). Here some natural deduction systems are considered, and an analytical procedure proposed which results in a deduction diagram for each system. Each diagram takes the form of an orientated, charge graph, features of which can be used to establish the equivalence of classes of deductions. For each of the natural deduction systems considered, a system of equivalent transformation schemes is derived, which is complete with respect to the given definition of equivalence. 2 references.

  3. Method of non-interacting thermodynamic calculation of binary phase diagrams containing p disordered phases with variable composition and q phases with constant composition at (p, q) ≤ 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovskij, A.L.; Karpushkin, V.N.; Nikishina, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Method of non-interacting thermodynamic calculation of state diagram of binary systems contacting p disordered phases with variable composition and q phases with constant composition for (p, q) ≤ 10 case is developed. Determination of all possible solutions of phase equilibrium equations is realized in the method. Certain application examples of computer-realized method of T-x thermodynamic calculation using PC for Cr-W, Ni-W, Ni-Al, Ni-Re binary systems are given

  4. The mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Y; Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Ernst, C; Ziegler, U, E-mail: ydiao@uncc.ed [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    The writhe of a knot diagram is a simple geometric measure of the complexity of the knot diagram. It plays an important role not only in knot theory itself, but also in various applications of knot theory to fields such as molecular biology and polymer physics. The mean squared writhe of any sample of knot diagrams with n crossings is n when for each diagram at each crossing one of the two strands is chosen as the overpass at random with probability one-half. However, such a diagram is usually not minimal. If we restrict ourselves to a minimal knot diagram, then the choice of which strand is the over- or under-strand at each crossing is no longer independent of the neighboring crossings and a larger mean squared writhe is expected for minimal diagrams. This paper explores the effect on the correlation between the mean squared writhe and the diagrams imposed by the condition that diagrams are minimal by studying the writhe of classes of reduced, alternating knot diagrams. We demonstrate that the behavior of the mean squared writhe heavily depends on the underlying space of diagram templates. In particular this is true when the sample space contains only diagrams of a special structure. When the sample space is large enough to contain not only diagrams of a special type, then the mean squared writhe for n crossing diagrams tends to grow linearly with n, but at a faster rate than n, indicating an intrinsic property of alternating knot diagrams. Studying the mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams also provides some insight into the properties of the diagram generating methods used, which is an important area of study in the applications of random knot theory.

  5. A study on the determination of diffusion coefficient of carbon in 304 austenitic stainless steels by internal friction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.S.; Kim, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Internal friction peaks associated with the presence of carbon in 18-8 type 304 stainless steel have been observed from measurements with a torsion pendulum. The temperature for maximum internal friction lies between 250degC and 300degC with a frequency of vibration. The height of the peak rises and the position of the peak shifts to a lower temperature with an increase of the carbon content. And a comparison of the activation energy and the diffusion coefficient determined by internal friction methods with those measured in conventional macro-diffusion experiments reveals that the diffusion data measured by internal friction method and the diffusion data measured by conventional method exist in the same line. It follows from the above fact that observed internal friction peak is associated with the stress-induced diffusion of carbon in face-centered cubic alloys. (Author)

  6. Development of methods to evaluate uranium distribution coefficients in unsaturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sautman, M.T.; Simonson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    To date, batch sorption and dynamic column experiments have been performed for many elements as part of site characterization programs. These experiments were often conducted with samples having relatively high liquid/solid ratios (in some cases the solid volume was much smaller than the solution volume). The development of methods for measuring sorption parameters at low liquid/solid ratios was undertaken to attempt to judge whether or not results of saturated experiments are valid for use in performance assessments of sites located in unsaturated rocks. The amount of hydrologic saturation can affect the ionic strength, pH, and redox potential which can in turn affect sorption. In addition, the presence of the gas phase may affect the amount of wetting occurring on the solid's surface. This paper describes experimental procedures which were developed to evaluate the sorption of uranium by silica sand at predetermined levels of unsaturation

  7. Implementing Families of Implicit Chebyshev Methods with Exact Coefficients for the Numerical Integration of First- and Second-Order Differential Equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Jason

    2002-01-01

    A method is presented for the generation of exact numerical coefficients found in two families of implicit Chebyshev methods for the numerical integration of first- and second-order ordinary differential equations...

  8. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffe Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s. Transmitted causes ("causes of causes" tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

  9. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Michael; Gambhir, Manoj; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-03-19

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed.The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties.The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets.Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

  10. Homotopy Diagrams of Algebras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2002), s. 161-180 ISSN 0009-725X. [Winter School "Geometry and Physics" /21./. Srní, 13.01.2001-20.01.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/99/0675 Keywords : colored operad%cofibrant model%homotopy diagram Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  12. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  13. Limits of Voronoi Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenbergh, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    The classic Voronoi diagram of a configuration of distinct points in the plane associates to each point that part of the plane that is closer to the point than to any other point in the configuration. In this thesis we no longer require all points to be distinct. After the introduction in

  14. Predicting volume of distribution with decision tree-based regression methods using predicted tissue:plasma partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Alex A; Limbu, Kriti; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-01

    Volume of distribution is an important pharmacokinetic property that indicates the extent of a drug's distribution in the body tissues. This paper addresses the problem of how to estimate the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of chemical compounds in the human body using decision tree-based regression methods from the area of data mining (or machine learning). Hence, the pros and cons of several different types of decision tree-based regression methods have been discussed. The regression methods predict Vss using, as predictive features, both the compounds' molecular descriptors and the compounds' tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kt:p) - often used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetics. Therefore, this work has assessed whether the data mining-based prediction of Vss can be made more accurate by using as input not only the compounds' molecular descriptors but also (a subset of) their predicted Kt:p values. Comparison of the models that used only molecular descriptors, in particular, the Bagging decision tree (mean fold error of 2.33), with those employing predicted Kt:p values in addition to the molecular descriptors, such as the Bagging decision tree using adipose Kt:p (mean fold error of 2.29), indicated that the use of predicted Kt:p values as descriptors may be beneficial for accurate prediction of Vss using decision trees if prior feature selection is applied. Decision tree based models presented in this work have an accuracy that is reasonable and similar to the accuracy of reported Vss inter-species extrapolations in the literature. The estimation of Vss for new compounds in drug discovery will benefit from methods that are able to integrate large and varied sources of data and flexible non-linear data mining methods such as decision trees, which can produce interpretable models. Graphical AbstractDecision trees for the prediction of tissue partition coefficient and volume of distribution of drugs.

  15. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  16. Beyond Feynman Diagrams (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    For decades the central theoretical tool for computing scattering amplitudes has been the Feynman diagram. However, Feynman diagrams are just too slow, even on fast computers, to be able to go beyond the leading order in QCD, for complicated events with many jets of hadrons in the final state. Such events are produced copiously at the LHC, and constitute formidable backgrounds to many searches for new physics. Over the past few years, alternative methods that go beyond ...

  17. Measurement method of the distribution coefficient on the sorption process. Basic procedure of the method relevant to the barrier materials used for the deep geological disposal: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This standard was approved by Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberation of the Subcommittee on the Radioactive Waste Management, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee and the Standard Committee, and after obtaining about 600 comments from specialists of about 30 persons. This document defines the basic measurement procedure of the distribution coefficient (hereafter referred as Kd) to judge the reliability, reproducibility and applications and to provide the requirements for inter-comparison of Kd for a variety of barrier materials used for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The basic measurement procedure of Kd is standardized, following the preceded standard, 'Measurement Method of the Distribution Coefficient on the Sorption Process - Basic Procedure of Batch Method Relevant to the Barrier Materials Used for the Shallow Land Disposal: 2002 (hereafter referred as Standard for the Shallow Land Disposal)', and considering recent progress after its publication and specific issues to the deep geological disposal. (J.P.N.)

  18. Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.

    1983-01-01

    The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras

  19. A Rapid Identification Method for Calamine Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Based on Multi-Reference Correlation Coefficient Method and Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yangbo; Chen, Long; Huang, Bisheng; Chen, Keli

    2017-07-01

    As a mineral, the traditional Chinese medicine calamine has a similar shape to many other minerals. Investigations of commercially available calamine samples have shown that there are many fake and inferior calamine goods sold on the market. The conventional identification method for calamine is complicated, therefore as a result of the large scale of calamine samples, a rapid identification method is needed. To establish a qualitative model using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid identification of various calamine samples, large quantities of calamine samples including crude products, counterfeits and processed products were collected and correctly identified using the physicochemical and powder X-ray diffraction method. The NIR spectroscopy method was used to analyze these samples by combining the multi-reference correlation coefficient (MRCC) method and the error back propagation artificial neural network algorithm (BP-ANN), so as to realize the qualitative identification of calamine samples. The accuracy rate of the model based on NIR and MRCC methods was 85%; in addition, the model, which took comprehensive multiple factors into consideration, can be used to identify crude calamine products, its counterfeits and processed products. Furthermore, by in-putting the correlation coefficients of multiple references as the spectral feature data of samples into BP-ANN, a BP-ANN model of qualitative identification was established, of which the accuracy rate was increased to 95%. The MRCC method can be used as a NIR-based method in the process of BP-ANN modeling.

  20. Diffusion coefficient of alginate microcapsules used in pancreatic islet transplantation, a method to cure type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdahmadi, Avid; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Botvinick, Elliot

    2018-02-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising approach of providing insulin in type 1 diabetes. One strategy to protect islets from the host immune system is encapsulation within a porous biocompatible alginate membrane. This encapsulation provides mechanical support to the cells and allows selective diffusion of oxygen, nutrients and insulin while blocking immunoglobulins. These hydrogels form by diffusion of calcium ions into the polymer network and therefore they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and fluctuations in temperature. We investigated the effects of gel concentration, crosslinking time and ambient conditions on material permeability, volume, and rigidity, all of which may change the immunoisolating characteristics of alginate. To measure diffusion coefficient as a method to capture structural changes we studied the diffusion of fluorescently tagged dextrans of different molecular weight into the midplane of alginate microcapsules, the diffusion coefficient is then calculated by fitting observed fluorescence dynamics to the mathematical solution of 1-D diffusion into a sphere. These measurements were performed after incubation in different conditions as well as after an in vivo experiment in six immunocompetent mice for seven days. Additionally, the changes in gel volume after incubation at different temperatures and environmental conditions as well as changes in compression modulus of alginate gels during crosslinking were investigated. Our result show that increase of polymer concentration and crosslinking time leads to a decrease in volume and increase in compression modulus. Furthermore, we found that samples crosslinked and placed in physiological environment, experience an increase in volume. As expected, these volume changes affect diffusion rates of fluorescent dextrans, where volume expansion is correlated with higher calculated diffusion coefficient. This observation is critical to islet protection since higher permeability due

  1. A Two-Stage Estimation Method for Random Coefficient Differential Equation Models with Application to Longitudinal HIV Dynamic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Wu, Hulin; Zhu, Li-Xing

    2011-07-01

    We propose a two-stage estimation method for random coefficient ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. A maximum pseudo-likelihood estimator (MPLE) is derived based on a mixed-effects modeling approach and its asymptotic properties for population parameters are established. The proposed method does not require repeatedly solving ODEs, and is computationally efficient although it does pay a price with the loss of some estimation efficiency. However, the method does offer an alternative approach when the exact likelihood approach fails due to model complexity and high-dimensional parameter space, and it can also serve as a method to obtain the starting estimates for more accurate estimation methods. In addition, the proposed method does not need to specify the initial values of state variables and preserves all the advantages of the mixed-effects modeling approach. The finite sample properties of the proposed estimator are studied via Monte Carlo simulations and the methodology is also illustrated with application to an AIDS clinical data set.

  2. Beam shape coefficients calculation for an elliptical Gaussian beam with 1-dimensional quadrature and localized approximation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Jianqi

    2018-06-01

    The use of a shaped beam for applications relying on light scattering depends much on the ability to evaluate the beam shape coefficients (BSC) effectively. Numerical techniques for evaluating the BSCs of a shaped beam, such as the quadrature, the localized approximation (LA), the integral localized approximation (ILA) methods, have been developed within the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). The quadrature methods usually employ the 2-/3-dimensional integrations. In this work, the expressions of the BSCs for an elliptical Gaussian beam (EGB) are simplified into the 1-dimensional integral so as to speed up the numerical computation. Numerical results of BSCs are used to reconstruct the beam field and the fidelity of the reconstructed field to the given beam field is estimated. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is much faster than the 2-dimensional integrations and it can acquire more accurate results than the LA method. Limitations of the quadrature method and also the LA method in the numerical calculation are analyzed in detail.

  3. Heat transfer coefficients during quenching of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S.; Jalil, J.M. [University of Technology, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Heat transfer coefficients for quenching in water have been measured as a function of temperature using steel probes for a variety of iron alloys. The coefficients were derived from measured cooling curves combined with calculated heat-capacities. The resulting data were then used to calculate cooling curves using the finite volume method for a large steel sample and these curves have been demonstrated to be consistent with measured values for the large sample. Furthermore, by combining the estimated cooling curves with time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams it has been possible to predict the variation of hardness as a function of distance via the quench factor analysis. The work should prove useful in the heat treatment of the steels studied, some of which are in the development stage. (orig.)

  4. A Simple Method Using a Topography Correction Coefficient for Estimating Daily Distribution of Solar Irradiance in Complex Terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.I.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate solar radiation data are critical to evaluate major physiological responses of plants. For most upland crops and orchard plants growing in complex terrain, however, it is not easy for farmers or agronomists to access solar irradiance data. Here we suggest a simple method using a sun-slope geometry based topographical coefficient to estimate daily solar irradiance on any sloping surfaces from global solar radiation measured at a nearby weather station. An hourly solar irradiance ratio (W i ) between sloping and horizontal surface is defined as multiplication of the relative solar intensity (k i ) and the slope irradiance ratio (r i ) at an hourly interval. The k i is the ratio of hourly solar radiation to the 24 hour cumulative radiation on a horizontal surface under clear sky conditions. The r i is the ratio of clear sky radiation on a given slope to that on a horizontal reference. Daily coefficient for slope correction is simply the sum of W i on each date. We calculated daily solar irradiance at 8 side slope locations circumventing a cone-shaped parasitic volcano (c.a., 570 m diameter for the bottom circle and 90 m bottom-to-top height) by multiplying these coefficients to the global solar radiation measured horizontally. Comparison with the measured slope irradiance from April 2007 to March 2008 resulted in the root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.61 MJ m −2 for the whole period but the RMSE for April to October (i.e., major cropping season in Korea) was much lower and satisfied the 5% error tolerance for radiation measurement. The RMSE was smallest in October regardless of slope aspect, and the aspect dependent variation of RMSE was greatest in November. Annual variation in RMSE was greatest on north and south facing slopes, followed by southwest, southeast, and northwest slopes in decreasing order. Once the coefficients are prepared, global solar radiation data from nearby stations can be easily converted to the solar irradiance map at landscape

  5. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND SEEBECK COEFFICIENT IN Ca(LaMnO COMPOUNDS PREPARED BY SOLID STATE REACTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge I. Villa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the solid state reaction method samples of  Ca1-xLaxMnO3 (0 ≤ x ≥ 0.15 were prepared. Their transport properties were studied by electrical resistivity rho(T and Seebeck coefficient S(T measurements as a function of temperature and lanthanum content, in the temperature range between 100 and 290K. The structural and morphological properties were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient is negative throughout the studied temperature range indicating a conduction given by negative charge carriers, its magnitude decreases with the lanthanum content from |-261| mV/K to |-120| mV/K. The electrical resistivity shows a semiconducting behavior, it was interpreted in terms of small polaron hopping model. Thermoelectric properties of the obtained compounds were studied by the thermoelectric power factor PF, which reaches maximum values around 2mW/K2cm, these values become this kind of ceramics promising thermoelectric compound, to be used in technological applications.

  6. A convenient method for calculation of ionic diffusion coefficients for accurate selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryahina, K.; Spanel, P.

    2005-07-01

    A method to calculate diffusion coefficients of ions important for the selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, is presented. The ions, on which this method is demonstrated, include the SIFT-MS precursors H3O+(H2O)0,1,2,3, NO.+(H2O)0,1,2 and O2+ and the product ions relevant to analysis of breath trace metabolites ammonia (NH3+(H2O)0,1,2, NH4+(H2O)0,1,2), acetaldehyde (C2H4OH+(H2O)0,1,2), acetone (CH3CO+, (CH3)2CO+, (CH3)2COH+(H2O)0,1, (CH3)2CO.NO+), ethanol (C2H5OHH+(H2O)0,1,2) and isoprene (C5H7+, C5H8+, C5H9+). Theoretical model of the (12, 4) potential for interaction between the ions and the helium atoms is used, with the repulsive part approximated by the mean hard-sphere cross section and the attractive part describing ion-induced dipole interactions. The reduced zero-field mobilities at 300 K are calculated using the Viehland and Mason theory [L.A. Viehland, S.L. Lin, E.A. Mason, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables, 60 (1995) 37-95], parameterised by a simple formula as a function of the mean hard-sphere cross section, and converted to diffusion coefficients using the Einstein relation. The method is tested on a set of experimental data for simple ions and cluster ions.

  7. Ideal related K-theory with coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...... to determine the new groups, and will in a companion paper be used to prove a universal multi-coefficient theorem for the one distinguished ideal case for a large class of algebras......In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...

  8. Peircean diagrams of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Some very good arguments can be given in favor of the Augustinean wisdom, according to which it is impossible to provide a satisfactory definition of the concept of time. However, even in the absence of a proper definition, it is possible to deal with conceptual problems regarding time. It can...... be done in terms of analogies and metaphors. In particular, it is attractive to make use of Peirce's diagrams by means of which various kinds of conceptual experimentation can be carried out. This paper investigates how Peircean diagrams can be used within the study of time. In particular, we discuss 1......) the topological properties of time, 2) the implicative structure in tense logic, 3) the notions of open future and branching time models, and finally 4) tenselogical alternatives to branching time models....

  9. Control wiring diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  10. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  11. An estimation method for echo signal energy of pipe inner surface longitudinal crack detection by 2-D energy coefficients integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shiyuan, E-mail: redaple@bit.edu.cn; Sun, Haoyu, E-mail: redaple@bit.edu.cn; Xu, Chunguang, E-mail: redaple@bit.edu.cn; Cao, Xiandong, E-mail: redaple@bit.edu.cn; Cui, Liming, E-mail: redaple@bit.edu.cn; Xiao, Dingguo, E-mail: redaple@bit.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China NO.5 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-03-31

    The echo signal energy is directly affected by the incident sound beam eccentricity or angle for thick-walled pipes inner longitudinal cracks detection. A method for analyzing the relationship between echo signal energy between the values of incident eccentricity is brought forward, which can be used to estimate echo signal energy when testing inside wall longitudinal crack of pipe, using mode-transformed compression wave adaptation of shear wave with water-immersion method, by making a two-dimension integration of “energy coefficient” in both circumferential and axial directions. The calculation model is founded for cylinder sound beam case, in which the refraction and reflection energy coefficients of different rays in the whole sound beam are considered different. The echo signal energy is calculated for a particular cylinder sound beam testing different pipes: a beam with a diameter of 0.5 inch (12.7mm) testing a φ279.4mm pipe and a φ79.4mm one. As a comparison, both the results of two-dimension integration and one-dimension (circumferential direction) integration are listed, and only the former agrees well with experimental results. The estimation method proves to be valid and shows that the usual method of simplifying the sound beam as a single ray for estimating echo signal energy and choosing optimal incident eccentricity is not so appropriate.

  12. Simulation of temporal and spatial distribution of required irrigation water by crop models and the pan evaporation coefficient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-min; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shu-min; Hu, Yu-kun

    2009-07-01

    Hebei Plain is the most important agricultural belt in North China. Intensive irrigation, low and uneven precipitation have led to severe water shortage on the plain. This study is an attempt to resolve this crucial issue of water shortage for sustainable agricultural production and water resources management. The paper models distributed regional irrigation requirement for a range of cultivated crops on the plain. Classic crop models like DSSAT- wheat/maize and COTTON2K are used in combination with pan-evaporation coefficient method to estimate water requirements for wheat, corn, cotton, fruit-trees and vegetables. The approach is more accurate than the static approach adopted in previous studies. This is because the combination use of crop models and pan-evaporation coefficient method dynamically accounts for irrigation requirement at different growth stages of crops, agronomic practices, and field and climatic conditions. The simulation results show increasing Required Irrigation Amount (RIA) with time. RIA ranges from 5.08×109 m3 to 14.42×109 m3 for the period 1986~2006, with an annual average of 10.6×109 m3. Percent average water use by wheat, fruit trees, vegetable, corn and cotton is 41%, 12%, 12%, 11%, 7% and 17% respectively. RIA for April and May (the period with the highest irrigation water use) is 1.78×109 m3 and 2.41×109 m3 respectively. The counties in the piedmont regions of Mount Taihang have high RIA while the central and eastern regions/counties have low irrigation requirement.

  13. Graphic constructions of characteristic diagrams in chemical engineering and the application of differential geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the experimental concentration-time ( cA,t diagram this work gives the construction of the rate of reaction-time (rA,t diagram using the pure graphic method. The diagram was constructed based on the constructed tangents in arbitrary points of the starting diagram by drawing lines parallel to them in the predetermined pole. The evidence of the construction was derived using differential geometry, i.e. the main theorem of differential calculus. Differential properties between the observed values were used in the method. Starting from the analytic relations rA = rA(t and cA = cA(t, which can be very complex (polynomes of the n-th order, and, eliminating time t in order to give a full description of the process, we obtain the analytical relation rA = rA(cA, which is then graphically represented. Hoewever, this elimination of time can also be done graphically, in a relatively simple way. After that, through the use of the integral calculus, it was shown that concentration increase in a time interval is proportional to the (rA,t diagram surface area. Using a similar procedure, further in the paper, it was shown that the time increase is proportional to the (1/rA, cA diagram surface area. In order for the method to be applicable in practice, we have derived relations for appropriate coefficients of proportionality. Verification of the method is illustrated by the two characteristic examples from chemical kinetics at different monotonies of the starting experimental functions.

  14. Analytic two-loop results for self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with one non-zero mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L.

    1999-01-01

    For a large class of two-loop self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with only one non-zero mass (m) and the vertices also with only one non-zero external momentum squared (q 2 ) the first few expansion coefficients are calculated by the large mass expansion. This allows us to 'guess' the general structure of these coefficients and to verify them in terms of certain classes of 'basis elements', which are essentially harmonic sums. Since for this case with only one non-zero mass the large mass expansion and the Taylor series in terms of q 2 are identical, this approach yields analytic expressions of the Taylor coefficients, from which the diagram can be easily evaluated numerically in a large domain of the complex q 2 -plane by well known methods. It is also possible to sum the Taylor series and present the results in terms of polylogarithms

  15. Feynman diagram drawing made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillargeon, M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a drawing package optimised for Feynman diagrams. These can be constructed interactively with a mouse-driven graphical interface or from a script file, more suitable to work with a diagram generator. It provides most features encountered in Feynman diagrams and allows to modify every part of a diagram after its creation. Special attention has been paid to obtain a high quality printout as easily as possible. This package is written in Tcl/Tk and in C. (orig.)

  16. Ring diagrams and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Ring diagrams at finite temperatures carry most infrared-singular parts among Feynman diagrams. Their effect to effective potentials are in general so significant that one must incorporate them as well as 1-loop diagrams. The author expresses these circumstances in some examples of supercooled phase transitions

  17. Automation of Feynman diagram evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentyukov, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language can be used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general

  18. A formal MIM specification and tools for the common exchange of MIM diagrams: an XML-Based format, an API, and a validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Augustin; Karac, Evrim I; Sunshine, Margot; Chang, Lucas; Nussinov, Ruth; Aladjem, Mirit I; Kohn, Kurt W

    2011-05-17

    The Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) notation offers a standard set of symbols and rules on their usage for the depiction of cellular signaling network diagrams. Such diagrams are essential for disseminating biological information in a concise manner. A lack of software tools for the notation restricts wider usage of the notation. Development of software is facilitated by a more detailed specification regarding software requirements than has previously existed for the MIM notation. A formal implementation of the MIM notation was developed based on a core set of previously defined glyphs. This implementation provides a detailed specification of the properties of the elements of the MIM notation. Building upon this specification, a machine-readable format is provided as a standardized mechanism for the storage and exchange of MIM diagrams. This new format is accompanied by a Java-based application programming interface to help software developers to integrate MIM support into software projects. A validation mechanism is also provided to determine whether MIM datasets are in accordance with syntax rules provided by the new specification. The work presented here provides key foundational components to promote software development for the MIM notation. These components will speed up the development of interoperable tools supporting the MIM notation and will aid in the translation of data stored in MIM diagrams to other standardized formats. Several projects utilizing this implementation of the notation are outlined herein. The MIM specification is available as an additional file to this publication. Source code, libraries, documentation, and examples are available at http://discover.nci.nih.gov/mim.

  19. A new method for brain tumor detection using the Bhattacharyya similarity coefficient, color conversions and neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Mansori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is widely applied for examination and diagnosis of brain tumors based on its advantages of high resolution in detecting the soft tissues and especially of its harmless radiation damages to human bodies. The goal of the processing of images is automatic segmentation of brain edema and tumors, in different dimensions of the magnetic resonance images. Methods: The proposed method is based on the unsupervised method which discovers the tumor region, if there is any, by analyzing the similarities between two hemispheres and computes the image size of the goal function based on Bhattacharyya coefficient which is used in the next stage to detect the tumor region or some part of it. In this stage, for reducing the color variation, the gray brain image is segmented, then it is turned to gray again. The self-organizing map (SOM neural network is used the segmented brain image is colored and finally the tumor is detected by matching the detected region and the colored image. This method is proposed to analyze MRI images for discovering brain tumors, and done in Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, in 2014. Results: The results for 30 randomly selected images from data bank of MRI center in Hamedan was compared with manually segmentation of experts. The results showed that, our proposed method had the accuracy of more than 94% at Jaccard similarity index (JSI, 97% at Dice similarity score (DSS, and 98% and 99% at two measures of specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: The experimental results showed that it was satisfactory and can be used in automatic separation of tumor from normal brain tissues and therefore it can be used in practical applications. The results showed that the use of SOM neural network to classify useful magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and demonstrated a good performance.

  20. Method for internal conversion coefficients determination by means of a magnetic spectrometer. Application to 129Xe and 77Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arqueros, F.; Campos, J.

    1986-01-01

    The method used for efficiency calibration of a magnetic electron spectrometer and its applications to conversion electron spectrometry is described. The present results point out that apparatus combining magnetic deflection and semiconductor detection have a nondecreasing interest in nuclear spectrometry for applications where good resolution and large background rejection are both necessary. The present apparatus can be employed with source of relatively low activity, (0.lμCi). The nuclides studied were 129 Xe and 77 Se resulting from 129 Cs and 77 Br decay. The parent nulcides were produced in ISOLDE on line isotope separator at CERN. The efficiency calibration method used for energies higher than 200 keV made use of the well known beta spectrum of 36 Cl. The calibration for low energies was made with Auger electron intensities and suitable conversion lines of 129 Xenon. Results for relative intensities of conversion electron lines and intense gamma lines of 129 Xe and 77 Se are given. From these measurements internal conversion coefficients for transitions of both nuclides were obtained. The results were in agreement with theoretical calculations. (author)

  1. The classification of diagrams in perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Afnan, I.R.

    1995-01-01

    The derivation of scattering equations connecting the amplitudes obtained from diagrammatic expansions is of interest in many branches of physics. One method for deriving such equations is the classification-of-diagrams technique of Taylor. However, as we shall explain in this paper, there are certain points of Taylor's method which require clarification. First, it is not clear whether Taylor's original method is equivlant to the simpler classification-of-diagrams scheme used by Thomas, Rinat, Afnan, and Blankleider (TRAB). Second, when the Taylor method is applied to certain problems in a time-dependent perturbation theory it leads to the over-counting of some diagrams. This paper first restates Taylor's method, in the process uncovering reasons why certain diagrams might be double-counted in the Taylor method. In then explores how far Taylor's method is equivalent to the simpler TRAB method. Finally, it examines precisely why the double-counting occurs in Taylor's method and derives corrections which compensate for this double-counting. copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc

  2. A new method of spatio-temporal topographic mapping by correlation coefficient of K-means cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Yao, Dezhong

    2007-01-01

    It would be of the utmost interest to map correlated sources in the working human brain by Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). This work is to develop a new method to map correlated neural sources based on the time courses of the scalp ERPs waveforms. The ERP data are classified first by k-means cluster analysis, and then the Correlation Coefficients (CC) between the original data of each electrode channel and the time course of each cluster centroid are calculated and utilized as the mapping variable on the scalp surface. With a normalized 4-concentric-sphere head model with radius 1, the performance of the method is evaluated by simulated data. CC, between simulated four sources (s (1)-s (4)) and the estimated cluster centroids (c (1)-c (4)), and the distances (Ds), between the scalp projection points of the s (1)-s (4) and that of the c (1)-c (4), are utilized as the evaluation indexes. Applied to four sources with two of them partially correlated (with maximum mutual CC = 0.4892), CC (Ds) between s (1)-s (4) and c (1)-c (4) are larger (smaller) than 0.893 (0.108) for noise levels NSRclusters located at left, right occipital and frontal. The estimated vectors of the contra-occipital area demonstrate that attention to the stimulus location produces increased amplitude of the P1 and N1 components over the contra-occipital scalp. The estimated vector in the frontal area displays two large processing negativity waves around 100 ms and 250 ms when subjects are attentive, and there is a small negative wave around 140 ms and a P300 when subjects are unattentive. The results of simulations and real Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs) data demonstrate the validity of the method in mapping correlated sources. This method may be an objective, heuristic and important tool to study the properties of cerebral, neural networks in cognitive and clinical neurosciences.

  3. Using the apparent diffusion coefficient to identifying MGMT promoter methylation status early in glioblastoma: importance of analytical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundle-Thiele, Dayle [Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Day, Bryan; Stringer, Brett [Brain Cancer Research Unit, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Fay, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jennifer [Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Jeffree, Rosalind L [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Thomas, Paul [Queensland PET Service, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Bell, Christopher [Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Salvado, Olivier [CSIRO Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Gal, Yaniv [Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Coulthard, Alan [Discipline of Medical Imaging, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland (Australia); Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Crozier, Stuart [Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Rose, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.rose@csiro.au [CSIRO Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Accurate knowledge of O{sup 6}-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter subtype in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is important for treatment. However, this test is not always available. Pre-operative diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to probe tumour biology using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); however, its ability to act as a surrogate to predict MGMT status has shown mixed results. We investigated whether this was due to variations in the method used to analyse ADC. We undertook a retrospective study of 32 patients with GBM who had MGMT status measured. Matching pre-operative MRI data were used to calculate the ADC within contrast enhancing regions of tumour. The relationship between ADC and MGMT was examined using two published ADC methods. A strong trend between a measure of ‘minimum ADC’ and methylation status was seen. An elevated minimum ADC was more likely in the methylated compared to the unmethylated MGMT group (U = 56, P = 0.0561). In contrast, utilising a two-mixture model histogram approach, a significant reduction in mean measure of the ‘low ADC’ component within the histogram was associated with an MGMT promoter methylation subtype (P < 0.0246). This study shows that within the same patient cohort, the method selected to analyse ADC measures has a significant bearing on the use of that metric as a surrogate marker of MGMT status. Thus for dMRI data to be clinically useful, consistent methods of data analysis need to be established prior to establishing any relationship with genetic or epigenetic profiling.

  4. Using the apparent diffusion coefficient to identifying MGMT promoter methylation status early in glioblastoma: importance of analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundle-Thiele, Dayle; Day, Bryan; Stringer, Brett; Fay, Michael; Martin, Jennifer; Jeffree, Rosalind L; Thomas, Paul; Bell, Christopher; Salvado, Olivier; Gal, Yaniv; Coulthard, Alan; Crozier, Stuart; Rose, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of O 6 -methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter subtype in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is important for treatment. However, this test is not always available. Pre-operative diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to probe tumour biology using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); however, its ability to act as a surrogate to predict MGMT status has shown mixed results. We investigated whether this was due to variations in the method used to analyse ADC. We undertook a retrospective study of 32 patients with GBM who had MGMT status measured. Matching pre-operative MRI data were used to calculate the ADC within contrast enhancing regions of tumour. The relationship between ADC and MGMT was examined using two published ADC methods. A strong trend between a measure of ‘minimum ADC’ and methylation status was seen. An elevated minimum ADC was more likely in the methylated compared to the unmethylated MGMT group (U = 56, P = 0.0561). In contrast, utilising a two-mixture model histogram approach, a significant reduction in mean measure of the ‘low ADC’ component within the histogram was associated with an MGMT promoter methylation subtype (P < 0.0246). This study shows that within the same patient cohort, the method selected to analyse ADC measures has a significant bearing on the use of that metric as a surrogate marker of MGMT status. Thus for dMRI data to be clinically useful, consistent methods of data analysis need to be established prior to establishing any relationship with genetic or epigenetic profiling

  5. Methods for measuring nuclear properties of materials, Safety coefficient method and measurement of effective absorption coefficient of graphite by safety coefficient method; Razvijanje metoda merenja nuklearnih karakteristika materijala, Razrada metode koeficijenta opasnosti i merenje efektivnog apsorpcionog preseka grafita metodom koeficijenta opasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglic, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-11-15

    Reactivity of a reactor depends on production, absorption and leaking of neutrons. Change of absorption causes reactivity change, and this fact is used for determining the neutron absorption cross section for the sample inserted in the reactor core. Method for determining the absorption cross section based on reactivity change is called method of safety coefficient. Measurements of neutron absorption cross section for graphite was done in the RA reactor vertical experimental channel VK-5. taking into account the results obtained for five types of graphite this method is considered to be reliable for use. Comparison of nuclear properties of different types of graphite was done as well. Reaktivnost reaktora zavisi od proizvodnje neutrona, apsorpcije i isticanja neutrona. Promena apsorpcije izaziva promene reaktivnosti reaktora pa se ova osobina koristi za odedjivanje neutronskog apsorpcionog preseka uzorka koji se unosi u reaktor. Metoda merenja apsorpcionog preseka na bazi promene reaktivnosti nazvana je metodom koeficijenta opasnosti. Merenje apsorpcionog preseka grafita uradjeno je na reaktoru RA u vertikalnom eksperimentalnom kanalu VK-5. S obzirom na rezultate koji su dobijeni za pet vrsta grafita moze se smatrati da je opravdano koriscenje ove metode. Izvrseno je i poredjenje nuklearnih osobina pomenutih tipova grafita.

  6. Free vibration analysis of straight-line beam regarded as distributed system by combining Wittrick-Williams algorithm and transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myung Soo; Yang, Kyong Uk [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Kondou, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Bonkobara, Yasuhiro [University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We developed a method for analyzing the free vibration of a structure regarded as a distributed system, by combining the Wittrick-Williams algorithm and the transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method. A computational algorithm was formulated for analyzing the free vibration of a straight-line beam regarded as a distributed system, to explain the concept of the developed method. To verify the effectiveness of the developed method, the natural frequencies of straight-line beams were computed using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method, the exact solution, and the developed method. By comparing the computational results of the developed method with those of the other methods, we confirmed that the developed method exhibited superior performance over the other methods in terms of computational accuracy, cost and user convenience.

  7. A comparison of confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient in community-based cluster randomization trials with a binary outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschel, Melissa C; Svec, Ivana; Darlington, Gerarda A; Donner, Allan

    2016-04-01

    Many investigators rely on previously published point estimates of the intraclass correlation coefficient rather than on their associated confidence intervals to determine the required size of a newly planned cluster randomized trial. Although confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient that can be applied to community-based trials have been developed for a continuous outcome variable, fewer methods exist for a binary outcome variable. The aim of this study is to evaluate confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient applied to binary outcomes in community intervention trials enrolling a small number of large clusters. Existing methods for confidence interval construction are examined and compared to a new ad hoc approach based on dividing clusters into a large number of smaller sub-clusters and subsequently applying existing methods to the resulting data. Monte Carlo simulation is used to assess the width and coverage of confidence intervals for the intraclass correlation coefficient based on Smith's large sample approximation of the standard error of the one-way analysis of variance estimator, an inverted modified Wald test for the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, and intervals constructed using a bootstrap-t applied to a variance-stabilizing transformation of the intraclass correlation coefficient estimate. In addition, a new approach is applied in which clusters are randomly divided into a large number of smaller sub-clusters with the same methods applied to these data (with the exception of the bootstrap-t interval, which assumes large cluster sizes). These methods are also applied to a cluster randomized trial on adolescent tobacco use for illustration. When applied to a binary outcome variable in a small number of large clusters, existing confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient provide poor coverage. However, confidence intervals constructed using the new approach combined with Smith

  8. Kelp diagrams : Point set membership visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, K.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Speckmann, B.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present Kelp Diagrams, a novel method to depict set relations over points, i.e., elements with predefined positions. Our method creates schematic drawings and has been designed to take aesthetic quality, efficiency, and effectiveness into account. This is achieved by a routing algorithm, which

  9. Warped penguin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for μ→eγ using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the μ→eγ bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  10. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called "disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  11. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  12. Measurement of methanol diffusion coefficient in polymer electrode membrane by small NMR sensor. 1st report. Development of method of measure methanol diffusion coefficient and evaluation of measured results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Ito, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    A method for measuring the diffusion coefficient of methanol in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) was developed using the NMR method. A circular coil of 0.6mm inside diameter was used as a small NMR sensor. The PEM was inserted in a penetration cell, where methanol solvent is supplied to one side of the PEM and nitrogen gas is supplied to the other side of the PEM. The small NMR sensor was placed on the nitrogen gas side of the PEM. The small NMR sensor detects the NMR signal from the methanol solvent which permeates the PEM. The CH and OH components of the methanol solvent were obtained from the NMR signal by spectral analysis. The methanol concentration in the PEM was determined by the ratio of CH to OH components. The methanol concentration was acquired at intervals of 30s and was measured for 2000s. After 1500 seconds, the methanol concentration in the PEM reaches a steady state. The final methanol concentration was about 20% of the methanol concentration of the solvent. It assumed that the diffusion phenomenon of methanol in a PEM was a one-dimensional transport phenomenon, and the time-dependent change of methanol concentration was analyzed by parameterizing the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient of methanol in a PEM was determined by comparison with the measurement result of the time change of methanol concentration and the analysis results. The concentration difference diffusion coefficient of methanol in PEM obtained using this method was 3.5 * 10 -10 m 2 /s. (author)

  13. Use of mass spectral method for plotting P-T and T-x pro ection of state diagram of LiF-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Yu.M.; Rykov, A.N.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    T-x and P-T projections of the state diagram for the system LiF-ZrF 4 were constructed. The Knudsen effusion technique with the mass-spectral analysis of the evaporation products was employed to determine the vapor composition and pressure. LiF, LiF 2 , Li 3 F 3 , ZrF 4 , LiZrF 5 , Li 2 ZrF 6 , LiZrF 9 molecules were found in the saturated vapor of the system. Heats of evaporation of the molecules and their partial pressures depending on the melt composition were determined. Dissociation enthalpies of the complex molecules were calcuted

  14. Repair of Partly Misspecified Causal Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Chris J; Kasza, Jessica; Simpson, Julie A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2017-07-01

    Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed," meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram. The overall procedure is cast as a preprocessing technique that is agnostic to subsequent causal inferences. Results based on simulated data and data derived from an observational cohort illustrate the potential for data-assisted elicitation in epidemiologic applications. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B208.

  15. Calculation of Nonlinear Thermoelectric Coefficients of InAs1-xSbx Using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghian, RB; Bahk, JH; Bian, ZX; Shakouri, A

    2011-12-28

    It was found that the nonlinear Peltier effect could take place and increase the cooling power density when a lightly doped thermoelectric material is under a large electrical field. This effect is due to the Seebeck coefficient enhancement from an electron distribution far from equilibrium. In the nonequilibrium transport regime, the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation ceases to apply. The Monte Carlo method, on the other hand, proves to be a capable tool for simulation of semiconductor devices at small scales as well as thermoelectric effects with local nonequilibrium charge distribution. InAs1-xSb is a favorable thermoelectric material for nonlinear operation owing to its high mobility inherited from the binary compounds InSb and InAs. In this work we report simulation results on the nonlinear Peltier power of InAs1-xSb at low doping levels, at room temperature and at low temperatures. The thermoelectric power factor in nonlinear operation is compared with the maximum value that can be achieved with optimal doping in the linear transport regime.

  16. Band structure of one-dimensional doped photonic crystal with three level atoms using the Fresnel coefficients method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A.; Rahmat, A.; Bakkeshizadeh, S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) composed of double-layered dielectrics. Electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of this crystal depends on the incident electromagnetic wave frequency. We suppose that three level atoms have been added to the second layer of each dielectric and this photonic crystal (PC) has been doped. These atoms can be added to the layer with different rates. In this paper, we have calculated and compared the band structure of the mentioned PC considering the effect of added atoms to the second layer with different rates through the Fresnel coefficients method. We find out that according to the effective medium theory, the electric permittivity of the second layer changes. Also the band structure of PC for both TE and TM polarizations changes, too. The width of bandgaps related to “zero averaged refractive index” and “Bragg” increases. Moreover, new gap branches appear in new frequencies at both TE and TM polarizations. In specific state, two branches of “zero permittivity” gap appear in the PC band structure related to TM polarization. With increasing the amount of the filling rate of total volume with three level atoms, we observe a lot of changes in the PC band structure.

  17. VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  18. Pembuatan Kakas Bantu untuk Mendeteksi Ketidaksesuaian Diagram Urutan (Sequence Diagram dengan Diagram Kasus Penggunaan (Use Case Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrias Meisyal Yuwantoko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah diagram urutan dibuat  berdasarkan alur yang ada pada deskripsi kasus penggunaan. Alur tersebut dire- presentasikan dalam  bentuk  interaksi antara aktor  dan  sistem. Pemeriksaan rancangan diagram urutan perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui ketidaksesuaian urutan alur  kasus penggunaan dengan urutan pesan yang dikirimkan oleh objek-objek pada diagram urutan. Rancangan diagram yang sesuai merupakan kunci ketepatan (correctness implementasi  perangkat lunak. Namun, pemeriksaan ketidaksesuaian masih dilakukan secara manual. Hal ini menjadi masalah apabila sebuah proyek perangkat lunak memiliki banyak  rancangan diagram dan sumber daya manusia tidak  mencukupi. Pemeriksaan membutuhkan waktu yang lama dan memiliki dampak pada waktu pengembangan perangkat lunak. Penelitian ini mengusulkan pembuatan kakas bantu  untuk mendeteksi ketidaksesuaian diagram urutan dengan diagram kasus penggunaan. Ketidaksesuaian dilihat dari kemiripan semantik kalimat antara alur pada deskripsi kasus penggunaan dan triplet. Dari hasil pembuatan kakas bantu, kakas bantu yang dibuat dapat mendeteksi ketidaksesuaian diagram urutan dengan diagram kasus penggunaan. Kakas  bantu ini diharapkan tidak hanya membantu pemeriksaan rancangan diagram akan tetapi mempercepat waktu pengembangan perangkat lunak.

  19. Proposal of reference stress for a surface flaw on a cylindrical component from a review-with-comparison of the local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kenji; Konosu, Shinji; Ohno, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The Remaining Strength Factor (RSF) approach in Part 5 of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 is an assessment method for a cylindrical component with a local metal loss based on surface correction factors. Also, reference stress solutions that are applied in the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) method for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw are provided in Annex D using surface correction factors. In the recently-developed p-M diagram method, the reference stress solution for local metal loss evaluation in a cylindrical component is derived using bulging factors, which are similar but not identical to the surface correction factors used in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. This paper describes the results of a comparative study among the RSF approach, reference stress solutions for the FAD method, and the p-M diagram method, in terms of plastic collapse evaluation of a cylindrical component. These results were compared with the FEA and experimental results to confirm how these estimated stresses could be validated. This study also involves recommended reference stress solutions for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw or a local metal loss, which should be adopted as fitness-for-service rules, and a discussion on the influence of the design margin of the construction code on allowable flaw depth. - Highlights: → We compared local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M method. → Experiments and FEA verified the p-M estimate stress state around a flaw accurate. → API 579-1 for local metal loss may underestimate stress state for certain conditions. → Existing reference stresses for crack-like flaws may underestimate stress state too. → We propose the reference stress for a surface flaw subjected to pressure and moment.

  20. The study of Ashby-type sintering diagrams for uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeoni, P.

    1980-01-01

    Computer modelling of binary and ternary Ashby-type sintering diagrams for stoechiometric and hyperstoechiometric uranium dioxide (in the range O/U = 2, 0-2, 10). Material data and mass transfer equations, selected from the literature, were used. Sintering isochronous curves were calculated and traced as well. Improvement of a modern dilatometric method by reading and processing experimental curves on a computer and by determining for them a criterion of proximity to the theoretical model equation. It was possible: to develop a reliable method of determination for the dominant mechanism, diffusion coefficient and real process activation energy; to draw up the real sintering diagram; to understand the quantitative and qualitative changes occuring during the actual sintering process of UO 2 , concerning massing and modification of pore shape; to recommend the technological parameters of the thermal regime concerning the elimination of lubricant and binder additives in order to obtain high quality sintered tablets. (author)

  1. Development of a non-intrusive method for the determination of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaziere, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Moderator Temperature Coefficient of reactivity (MTC) plays an important role in the feedback mechanism and thus in the inherent stability of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). Due to the inaccuracy of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques, many power utilities nowadays only measure the zero-power MTC since its determination is relatively straightforward and accurate. For the at-power MTC determination during the remaining fuel cycle, core calculations are assumed to be reliable enough. Nevertheless, these calculations were never benchmarked and most importantly, the use of high burnup fuel might induce a slightly positive MTC at Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) due to the high initial boron concentration. Even if in such a case the Doppler effect would still insure a negative reactivity feedback, monitoring the MTC throughout the cycle could become crucial. In this respect, not only the sign of the MTC is of importance, but also its magnitude. Consequently, developing a method that would permit monitoring the MTC during the fuel cycle is of great interest. One of the main disadvantages of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques is that the reactor has to be perturbed in order to induce a change of the moderator temperature. The modification of other parameters that can only be estimated by core calculation represents also a severe drawback of these methods, both for their precision and their reliability. A measurement performed at Ringhals-4 by using the so-called boron dilution method revealed that the uncertainty associated to the MTC estimation could even be much larger than previously expected due to the calculated reactivity corrections. These corrections are very sensitive to the input parameters chosen for the core simulation, and slight mis-estimations of these have large reactivity effects. It is known that if the reactivity noise and the moderator temperature noise could be measured, the MTC could be determined without disturbing

  2. Development of a non-intrusive method for the determination of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, C

    2000-07-01

    The Moderator Temperature Coefficient of reactivity (MTC) plays an important role in the feedback mechanism and thus in the inherent stability of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). Due to the inaccuracy of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques, many power utilities nowadays only measure the zero-power MTC since its determination is relatively straightforward and accurate. For the at-power MTC determination during the remaining fuel cycle, core calculations are assumed to be reliable enough. Nevertheless, these calculations were never benchmarked and most importantly, the use of high burnup fuel might induce a slightly positive MTC at Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) due to the high initial boron concentration. Even if in such a case the Doppler effect would still insure a negative reactivity feedback, monitoring the MTC throughout the cycle could become crucial. In this respect, not only the sign of the MTC is of importance, but also its magnitude. Consequently, developing a method that would permit monitoring the MTC during the fuel cycle is of great interest. One of the main disadvantages of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques is that the reactor has to be perturbed in order to induce a change of the moderator temperature. The modification of other parameters that can only be estimated by core calculation represents also a severe drawback of these methods, both for their precision and their reliability. A measurement performed at Ringhals-4 by using the so-called boron dilution method revealed that the uncertainty associated to the MTC estimation could even be much larger than previously expected due to the calculated reactivity corrections. These corrections are very sensitive to the input parameters chosen for the core simulation, and slight mis-estimations of these have large reactivity effects. It is known that if the reactivity noise and the moderator temperature noise could be measured, the MTC could be determined without disturbing

  3. Formal Analysis Of Use Case Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Klimek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Use case diagrams play an important role in modeling with UML. Careful modeling is crucialin obtaining a correct and efficient system architecture. The paper refers to the formalanalysis of the use case diagrams. A formal model of use cases is proposed and its constructionfor typical relationships between use cases is described. Two methods of formal analysis andverification are presented. The first one based on a states’ exploration represents a modelchecking approach. The second one refers to the symbolic reasoning using formal methodsof temporal logic. Simple but representative example of the use case scenario verification isdiscussed.

  4. Novel Exponentially Fitted Two-Derivative Runge-Kutta Methods with Equation-Dependent Coefficients for First-Order Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of exponentially fitted two-derivative Runge-Kutta (EFTDRK methods for the numerical solution of first-order differential equations is investigated. The revised EFTDRK methods proposed, with equation-dependent coefficients, take into consideration the errors produced in the internal stages to the update. The local truncation errors and stability of the new methods are analyzed. The numerical results are reported to show the accuracy of the new methods.

  5. A novel multiple headspace extraction gas chromatographic method for measuring the diffusion coefficient of methanol in water and in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2015-03-13

    A novel method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) of methanol in water and olive oil has been developed. Based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC), the methanol released from the liquid sample of interest in a closed sample vial was determined in a stepwise fashion. A theoretical model was derived to establish the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the GC signals from MHE-GC measurements. The results showed that the present method has an excellent precision (RSDwater and olive oil, when compared with data reported in the literature. The present method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of volatile analyte(s) into food simulants from food and beverage packaging material, both in research studies and in actual applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new generalized expansion method and its application in finding explicit exact solutions for a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.; Zahran, M.A.; Fan Engui

    2004-01-01

    A generalized expansion method is proposed to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for general variable coefficients non-linear evolution equations. The new approach admits the following types of solutions (a) polynomial solutions, (b) exponential solutions, (c) rational solutions, (d) triangular periodic wave solutions, (e) hyperbolic and solitary wave solutions and (f) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. The efficiency of the method has been demonstrated by applying it to a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation. Then, new and rich variety of exact explicit solutions have been found

  7. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  8. The Method of Analysis Derived Coefficients of Database as a New Method of Historical Research (for Example, a Database of Ballistic Parameters of Naval Artillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In paper there is proposed a new method of historical research, based on analysis of derivatives coefficients of database (for example, the form factor in the database of ballistic data. This method has a much greater protection from subjectivism and direct falsification, compared with the analysis obtained directly from the source of the numerical series, as any intentional or unintentional distortion of the raw data provides a significant contrast ratio derived from the average sample values. Application of this method to the analysis of ballistic data base of naval artillery allowed to find the facts, forcing a new look at some of the events in the history data on the German naval artillery before World War I, probably overpriced for disinformation opponents of the Entente; during the First World War, Spain, apparently held secret talks with the firm Bofors ended purchase of Swedish shells; the first Russian naval rifled guns were created obvious based on the project Blackly, not Krupp as traditionally considered.

  9. Feynman diagrams without Feynman parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    1978-01-01

    Dimensionally regularized Feynman diagrams are represented by means of products of k-functions. The infinite part of these diagrams is found very easily, also if they are overlapping, and the separation of the several kinds of divergences comes out quite naturally. Ward identities are proven in a transparent way. Series expansions in terms of the external momenta and their inner products are possible

  10. Diagram Techniques in Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Geoffrey E.

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. Elementary examples; 2. Angular momentum coupling diagram techniques; 3. Extension to compact simple phase groups; 4. Symmetric and unitary groups; 5. Lie groups and Lie algebras; 6. Polarisation dependence of multiphoton processes; 7. Quantum field theoretic diagram techniques for atomic systems; 8. Applications; Appendix; References; Indexes.

  11. Contingency diagrams as teaching tools

    OpenAIRE

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Contingency diagrams are particularly effective teaching tools, because they provide a means for students to view the complexities of contingency networks present in natural and laboratory settings while displaying the elementary processes that constitute those networks. This paper sketches recent developments in this visualization technology and illustrates approaches for using contingency diagrams in teaching.

  12. A novel method for the determination of adsorption partition coefficients of minor gases in a shale sample by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Pan, Lei; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2013-10-04

    A novel method has been developed for the determination of adsorption partition coefficient (Kd) of minor gases in shale. The method uses samples of two different sizes (masses) of the same material, from which the partition coefficient of the gas can be determined from two independent headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) measurements. The equilibrium for the model gas (ethane) was achieved in 5h at 120°C. The method also involves establishing an equation based on the Kd at higher equilibrium temperature, from which the Kd at lower temperature can be calculated. Although the HS-GC method requires some time and effort, it is simpler and quicker than the isothermal adsorption method that is in widespread use today. As a result, the method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for shale gas-related research and applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact decision support diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  14. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  15. Long-term chloride migration coefficient in slag cement-based concrete and resistivity as an alternative test method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, R.; Hunger, M.; Spiesz, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on investigations of the resistivity and chloride migration coefficient (DRCM) obtained in the accelerated Rapid Chloride Migration test for slag cement-based concretes. Determinations of the resistivity and DRCM were performed on 47 different concrete compositions, up to the

  16. Robust Coefficients Alpha and Omega and Confidence Intervals with Outlying Observations and Missing Data: Methods and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Cronbach's coefficient alpha is a widely used reliability measure in social, behavioral, and education sciences. It is reported in nearly every study that involves measuring a construct through multiple items. With non-tau-equivalent items, McDonald's omega has been used as a popular alternative to alpha in the literature. Traditional estimation…

  17. Robust Coefficients Alpha and Omega and Confidence Intervals with Outlying Observations and Missing Data Methods and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Cronbach's coefficient alpha is a widely used reliability measure in social, behavioral, and education sciences. It is reported in nearly every study that involves measuring a construct through multiple items. With non-tau-equivalent items, McDonald's omega has been used as a popular alternative to alpha in the literature. Traditional estimation…

  18. Identification Methods and Test Results for Tilting Pad and Fixed Geometry Journal Bearing Dynamic Coefficients – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Dimond

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid film journal bearings (FFBs are used to support high-speed rotors in turbomachinery which often operate above the rotor first bending critical speed. The FFBs provide both lateral support and dynamic coefficients: stiffness, damping, and mass terms, related to machine vibrations. Detailed numerical values of the bearing dynamic characteristics are necessary for proper design and operation of rotating machinery.

  19. A nonequilibrium simulation method for calculating tracer diffusion coefficients of small solutes in n-alkane liquids and polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Briels, Willem J.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.

    1998-01-01

    The tracer diffusion coefficients of methane in n-alkane liquids of increasing chain length were calculated by measuring the friction from short time nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The frictional constant was calculated from the exponentially decaying distance between two methane

  20. The intraclass correlation coefficient applied for evaluation of data correction, labeling methods and rectal biopsy sampling in DNA microarray experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellis, E.P.M.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Burema, J.; Keijer, J.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) can be used as a relatively simple statistical measure to assess methodological and biological variation in DNA microarray analysis. The ICC is a measure that determines the reproducibility of a variable, which can easily be calculated from

  1. A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qing; Zhu Jiamin; Hong Bihai

    2008-01-01

    A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method is proposed and applied to a (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified and generalized Broer-Kaup system. It is shown that the method presented by Huang and Zhang [Huang DJ, Zhang HQ. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2005; 23:601] is a special case of our method. The results obtained in the paper include many new formal solutions besides the all solutions found by Huang and Zhang

  2. Modification of Displacement Coefficient Method in Estimation of Target Displacement for Regular Concrete Bridges Based on ASCE 41-06 Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Bahram Beheshti-Aval

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Displacement Coefficient Method (DCM stipulated in the ASCE 41-06 standard is becoming the preferred method for seismic rehabilitation of buildings in many high-seismic-hazard countries. Applications of the method for non-building constructions such as bridges are beyond the scope of this standard. Thus its application to this kind of structure should be approached with care. Target displacement has reasonable accuracy for buildings with strong columns and weak beams, where there is the development of plastic hinges. Due to high stiffness and strength of the deck relative to the piers in most bridges, this mechanism does not occur, and it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of DCM for such structures. In this research, an attempt is made to evaluate the credibility of DCM in the ASCE/SEI 41-06 standard for estimating target drifts in concrete regular bridges under strong ground motions. To apply the extension of the method to bridge structures, the definition of new correction factor CB, which should be multiplied to previous coefficients, is required. This novel coefficient can improve the accuracy of the mentioned method in accessing seismic displacement demands. The coefficient is presented for soil types A to D based on NEHRP soil classification. The validity of the modified DCM is examined for several bridges with use of nonlinear dynamic analysis. Good correlation is found between both procedures.

  3. Self-consistent-field method and τ-functional method on group manifold in soliton theory. II. Laurent coefficients of soliton solutions for sln and for sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Seiya; Providencia, Joao da; Komatsu, Takao

    2007-01-01

    To go beyond perturbative method in terms of variables of collective motion, using infinite-dimensional fermions, we have aimed to construct the self-consistent-field (SCF) theory, i.e., time dependent Hartree-Fock theory on associative affine Kac-Moody algebras along the soliton theory. In this paper, toward such an ultimate goal we will reconstruct a theoretical frame for a υ (external parameter)-dependent SCF method to describe more precisely the dynamics on the infinite-dimensional fermion Fock space. An infinite-dimensional fermion operator is introduced through Laurent expansion of finite-dimensional fermion operators with respect to degrees of freedom of the fermions related to a υ-dependent and a Υ-periodic potential. As an illustration, we derive explicit expressions for the Laurent coefficients of soliton solutions for sl n and for su n on infinite-dimensional Grassmannian. The associative affine Kac-Moody algebras play a crucial role to determine the dynamics on the infinite-dimensional fermion Fock space

  4. Large momentum expansion of two-loop self-energy diagrams with arbitrary masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydychev, A.I.; Smirnov, V.A.; Tausk, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    For two-loop two-point diagrams with arbitrary masses, an algorithm to derive the asymptotic expansion at large external momentum squared is constructed. By using a general theorem on asymptotic expansions of Feynman diagrams, the coefficients of the expansion are calculated analytically. For some two-loop diagrams occurring in the Standard Model, comparison with results of numerical integration shows that our expansion works well in the region above the highest physical threshold. (orig.)

  5. A Method for Estimating Mass-Transfer Coefficients in a Biofilter from Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Michael; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Feilberg, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) was used in combination with a developed computer model to study and improve management of a biofilter (BF) treating malodorous ventilation air from a meat rendering facility. The MIMS was used to determine percentage removal efficiencies (REs) of selected...... sulfur gases and to provide toluene retention profiles for the model to determine the air velocity and overall mass-transfer coefficient of toluene. The mass-transfer coefficient of toluene was used as a reference for determining the mass transfer of sulfur gases. By presenting the model to scenarios...... of a filter bed with a consortium of effective sulfur oxidizers, the most likely mechanism for incomplete removal of sulfur compounds from the exhaust air was elucidated. This was found to be insufficient mass transfer and not inadequate bacterial activity as anticipated by the manager of the BF. Thus...

  6. AN EFFICIENT ANALYSIS FOR ABSORPTION AND GAIN COEFFICIENTS IN 'SINGLE STEP-INDEX WAVEGUIDE'S BY USING THE ALPHA METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa TEMİZ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some design parameters such as normalized frequency and especially normalized propagation constant have been obtained, depending on some parameters which are functions of energy eigenvalues of the carriers such as electrons and holes confined in a single step-index waveguide laser (SSIWGL or single stepindex waveguide (SSIWG. Some optical expressions about the optical power and probability quantities for the active region and cladding layers of the SSIWG or SSIWGL have been investigated. Investigations have been undertaken in terms of these parameters and also individually the optical even and odd electric field waves with the lowest-modes were theoretically computed. Especially absorption coefficients and loss coefficients addition to some important quantities of the single step-index waveguide lasers for the even and odd electric field waves are evaluated.

  7. A new statistical method for transfer coefficient calculations in the framework of the general multiple-compartment model of transport for radionuclides in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F; Arruda-Neto, J D; Manso, M V; Helene, O M; Vanin, V R; Rodriguez, O; Mesa, J; Likhachev, V P; Filho, J W; Deppman, A; Perez, G; Guzman, F; de Camargo, S P

    1999-10-01

    A new and simple statistical procedure (STATFLUX) for the calculation of transfer coefficients of radionuclide transport to animals and plants is proposed. The method is based on the general multiple-compartment model, which uses a system of linear equations involving geometrical volume considerations. By using experimentally available curves of radionuclide concentrations versus time, for each animal compartment (organs), flow parameters were estimated by employing a least-squares procedure, whose consistency is tested. Some numerical results are presented in order to compare the STATFLUX transfer coefficients with those from other works and experimental data.

  8. A new statistical method for transfer coefficient calculations in the framework of the general multiple-compartment model of transport for radionuclides in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Manso, M.V.; Rodriguez, O.; Mesa, J.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Helene, O.M.; Vanin, V.R.; Likhachev, V.P.; Pereira Filho, J.W.; Deppman, A.; Perez, G.; Guzman, F.; Camargo, S.P. de

    1999-01-01

    A new and simple statistical procedure (STATFLUX) for the calculation of transfer coefficients of radionuclide transport to animals and plants is proposed. The method is based on the general multiple-compartment model, which uses a system of linear equations involving geometrical volume considerations. By using experimentally available curves of radionuclide concentrations versus time, for each animal compartment (organs), flow parameters were estimated by employing a least-squares procedure, whose consistency is tested. Some numerical results are presented in order to compare the STATFLUX transfer coefficients with those from other works and experimental data. (author)

  9. A subtle calculation method for nanoparticle’s molar extinction coefficient: The gift from discrete protein-nanoparticle system on agarose gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruibo; Yuan, Ming; Gao, Haiyang; Bai, Zhijun; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhang, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Discrete biomolecule-nanoparticle (NP) conjugates play paramount roles in nanofabrication, in which the key is to get the precise molar extinction coefficient of NPs. By making best use of the gift from a specific separation phenomenon of agarose gel electrophoresis (GE), amphiphilic polymer coated NP with exact number of bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins can be extracted and further experimentally employed to precisely calculate the molar extinction coefficient of the NPs. This method could further benefit the evaluation and extraction of any other dual-component NP-containing bio-conjugates.

  10. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Wen-xue; MA Zhong-ming; WEI Tao

    2017-01-01

    Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014) long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded) on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored....

  11. Effect of the coefficient of friction and tightening speed on the preload induced at the dental implant complex with the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaqi, Haddad Arabi; Mousavi Mashhadi, Mahmoud; Geramipanah, Farideh; Safari, Hamed; Paknejad, Mojgan

    2015-05-01

    To prevent screw loosening, a clear understanding of the factors influencing secure preload is necessary. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of coefficient of friction and tightening speed on screw tightening based on energy distribution method with exact geometric modeling and finite element analysis. To simulate the proper boundary conditions of the screw tightening process, the supporting bone of an implant was considered. The exact geometry of the implant complex, including the Straumann dental implant, direct crown attachment, and abutment screw were modeled with Solidworks software. Abutment screw/implant and implant/bone interfaces were designed as spiral thread helixes. The screw-tightening process was simulated with Abaqus software, and to achieve the target torque, an angular displacement was applied to the abutment screw head at different coefficients of friction and tightening speeds. The values of torque, preload, energy distribution, elastic energy, and efficiency were obtained at the target torque of 35 Ncm. Additionally, the torque distribution ratio and preload simulated values were compared to theoretically predicted values. Upon reducing the coefficient of friction and enhancing the tightening speed, the angle of turn increased at the target torque. As the angle of turn increased, the elastic energy and preload also increased. Additionally, by increasing the coefficient of friction, the frictional dissipation energy increased but the efficiency decreased, whereas the increase in tightening speed insignificantly affected efficiency. The results of this study indicate that the coefficient of friction is the most influential factor on efficiency. Increasing the tightening speed lowered the response rate to the frictional resistance, thus diminishing the coefficient of friction and slightly increasing the preload. Increasing the tightening speed has the same result as reducing the coefficient of friction. Copyright © 2015

  12. A Simple Method for Determining Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid Materials with a Computer-aided Electromagnetic Dilatometer Measuring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. EZZOUINE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a newly designed electromagnetic dilatometer with micrometer accuracy for the measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion of a solid in the 30 °C – 96 °C temperature range .The device has a graphical user interface to view real time data measurement. Iron and copper were subjected to temperature change in the thermal expansion experiment causing them to expand linearly. The voltage delivered in the electromagnetic dilatometer system, which includes the information about linear expansion and temperature change were transferred to a computer via a data acquisition card, presented by a program created in the LabVIEW environment, and the amount of linear expansion was detected in real time. The minimal change in length of the sample that can be resolved is 5µm, which yields the sensitivity comprised between 10-4 µm and 10-5 µm. In order to calibrate the electromagnetic dilatometer, thermal expansion coefficients of copper and Iron have been measured. By this technique, the thermal expansion coefficient can be determined with an acceptable accuracy. The present results appear also to agree well with those reported previously in the literature.

  13. Simultaneous evaluation of effective diffusion coefficients of the substrates in a biofilm with a novel experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyenal, H.; Tanyolac, A. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-08-01

    A pure culture of Zoogloea ramigera was grown as a film on active carbon particles in a differential fluidized bed biofilm reactor. Pseudo-steady state conditions were established within this reactor and thus, the stable substrate concentrations and flux values were obtained within definite time intervals, along with homogeneous biofilm thickness and density. The free-growth kinetics of the culture were studied in a continuous fermenter and a multi-substrate growth model was used to describe the utilization of limiting substrate in the biofilm. The limiting substrates for the culture were determined to be glucose, ammonium and oxygen. The effective diffusion coefficients of these substrates were calculated simultaneously with a diffusion-reaction model. Results of the model solution revealed that the effective diffusion coefficient for all three substrates through the biofilm decreased with increased biofilm density and observed biofilm thickness up to a critical value of about 90 x 10{sup -6} m. After this critical point, all diffusion coefficients started to increase slowly due to diminished biofilm density. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Para-equilibrium phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Koukkari, Pertti; Pajarre, Risto; Eriksson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A rapidly cooled system may attain a state of para-equilibrium. • In this state rapidly diffusing elements reach equilibrium but others are immobile. • Application of the Phase Rule to para-equilibrium phase diagrams is discussed. • A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is described. - Abstract: If an initially homogeneous system at high temperature is rapidly cooled, a temporary para-equilibrium state may result in which rapidly diffusing elements have reached equilibrium but more slowly diffusing elements have remained essentially immobile. The best known example occurs when homogeneous austenite is quenched. A para-equilibrium phase assemblage may be calculated thermodynamically by Gibbs free energy minimization under the constraint that the ratios of the slowly diffusing elements are the same in all phases. Several examples of calculated para-equilibrium phase diagram sections are presented and the application of the Phase Rule is discussed. Although the rules governing the geometry of these diagrams may appear at first to be somewhat different from those for full equilibrium phase diagrams, it is shown that in fact they obey exactly the same rules with the following provision. Since the molar ratios of non-diffusing elements are the same in all phases at para-equilibrium, these ratios act, as far as the geometry of the diagram is concerned, like “potential” variables (such as T, pressure or chemical potentials) rather than like “normal” composition variables which need not be the same in all phases. A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is presented. In the limit, if a para-equilibrium calculation is performed under the constraint that no elements diffuse, then the resultant phase diagram shows the single phase with the minimum Gibbs free energy at any point on the diagram; such calculations are of interest in physical vapor deposition when deposition is so rapid that phase

  15. An efficient method for the determination of fourth virial coefficient with Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, Bahtiyar A. [Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpaşa University, 60250, Tokat (Turkey); Somuncu, Elif; Askerov, Iskender M. [Department of Physics, Giresun University, Giresun (Turkey)

    2016-08-10

    In this work, a new theoretical approach is proposed for calculating fourth virial coefficient with Lennard-Jones potential. The established algorithm can be used to evaluate the thermodynamics properties and the intermolecular interaction potentials of liquids and gases with an improved accuracy. Note that the evaluation of the high-order virial coefficients is very valuable for accurate calculation of thermodynamic parameters. By using the suggested method, the fourth virial coefficient of CH{sub 4}, Ar, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and SF{sub 6} molecules are evaluated. The calculation results are useful for accurate interpretation of the experimental data and of the determination of related physical properties.

  16. A novel inverse numerical modeling method for the estimation of water and salt mass transfer coefficients during ultrasonic assisted-osmotic dehydration of cucumber cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Hosein; Karimi, Farzaneh; Labbafi, Mohsen; Fathi, Morteza

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the moisture and salt diffusivity during ultrasonic assisted-osmotic dehydration of cucumbers. Experimental measurements of moisture and salt concentration versus time were carried out and an inverse numerical method was performed by coupling a CFD package (OpenFOAM) with a parameter estimation software (DAKOTA) to determine mass transfer coefficients. A good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Mass transfer coefficients were from 3.5 × 10 -9 to 7 × 10 -9  m/s for water and from 4.8 × 10 -9  m/s to 7.4 × 10 -9  m/s for salt at different conditions (diffusion coefficients of around 3.5 × 10 -12 -11.5 × 10 -12  m 2 /s for water and 5 × 10 -12  m/s-12 × 10 -12  m 2 /s for salt). Ultrasound irradiation could increase the mass transfer coefficient. The values obtained by this method were closer to the actual data. The inverse simulation method can be an accurate technique to study the mass transfer phenomena during food processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef; Ooms, Jeroen C L

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disease staging), psychology (stages of cognitive development), human development (pubertal stages) and chronic diseases (stages of dementia). Transition probabilities between successive stages are modeled as smoothly varying functions of age. Age-conditional references are calculated from the modeled probabilities by the mid-P value. It is possible to eliminate the influence of age by calculating standard deviation scores (SDS). The method is applied to the empirical data to produce reference charts on secondary sexual maturation. The mean of the empirical SDS in the reference population is close to zero, whereas the variance depends on age. The stage line diagram provides quick insight into both status (in SDS) and tempo (in SDS/year) of development of an individual child. Other measures (e.g. height SDS, body mass index SDS) from the same child can be added to the chart. Diagrams for sexual maturation are available as a web application at http://vps.stefvanbuuren.nl/puberty. The stage line diagram expresses status and tempo of discrete changes on a continuous scale. Wider application of these measures scores opens up new analytic possibilities. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition

  19. Studies on the matched potential method for determining the selectivity coefficients of ion-selective electrodes based on neutral ionophores: experimental and theoretical verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, K; Dragoe, D; Shibata, M; Umezawa, Y

    2001-06-01

    A theory is presented that describes the matched potential method (MPM) for the determination of the potentiometric selectivity coefficients (KA,Bpot) of ion-selective electrodes for two ions with any charge. This MPM theory is based on electrical diffuse layers on both the membrane and the aqueous side of the interface, and is therefore independent of the Nicolsky-Eisenman equation. Instead, the Poisson equation is used and a Boltzmann distribution is assumed with respect to all charged species, including primary, interfering and background electrolyte ions located at the diffuse double layers. In this model, the MPM-selectivity coefficients of ions with equal charge (ZA = ZB) are expressed as the ratio of the concentrations of the primary and interfering ions in aqueous solutions at which the same amounts of the primary and interfering ions permselectively extracted into the membrane surface. For ions with unequal charge (ZA not equal to ZB), the selectivity coefficients are expressed as a function not only of the amounts of the primary and interfering ions permeated into the membrane surface, but also of the primary ion concentration in the initial reference solution and the delta EMF value. Using the measured complexation stability constants and single ion distribution coefficients for the relevant systems, the corresponding MPM selectivity coefficients can be calculated from the developed MPM theory. It was found that this MPM theory is capable of accurately and precisely predicting the MPM selectivity coefficients for a series of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) with representative ionophore systems, which are generally in complete agreement with independently determined MPM selectivity values from the potentiometric measurements. These results also conclude that the assumption for the Boltzmann distribution was in fact valid in the theory. The recent critical papers on MPM have pointed out that because the MPM selectivity coefficients are highly concentration

  20. Causal Diagrams for Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pearl, Judea

    1994-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to show how graphical models can be used as a mathematical language for integrating statistical and subject-matter information. In particular, the paper develops a principled, nonparametric framework for causal inference, in which diagrams are queried to determine if the assumptions available are sufficient for identifiying causal effects from non-experimental data. If so the diagrams can be queried to produce mathematical expressions for causal effects in ter...

  1. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  2. Phase diagrams of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the pressure-temperature phase diagrams of the elements is presented, with graphs of the experimentally determined solid-solid phase boundaries and melting curves. Comments, including theoretical discussion, are provided for each diagram. The crystal structure of each solid phase is identified and discussed. This work is aimed at encouraging further experimental and theoretical research on phase transitions in the elements

  3. A novel method for the investigation of liquid/liquid distribution coefficients and interface permeabilities applied to the water-octanol-drug system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul C; di Cagno, Massimiliano; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2011-09-01

    In this work a new, accurate and convenient technique for the measurement of distribution coefficients and membrane permeabilities based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described. This method is a novel implementation of localized NMR spectroscopy and enables the simultaneous analysis of the drug content in the octanol and in the water phase without separation. For validation of the method, the distribution coefficients at pH = 7.4 of four active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely ibuprofen, ketoprofen, nadolol, and paracetamol (acetaminophen), were determined using a classical approach. These results were compared to the NMR experiments which are described in this work. For all substances, the respective distribution coefficients found with the two techniques coincided very well. Furthermore, the NMR experiments make it possible to follow the distribution of the drug between the phases as a function of position and time. Our results show that the technique, which is available on any modern NMR spectrometer, is well suited to the measurement of distribution coefficients. The experiments present also new insight into the dynamics of the water-octanol interface itself and permit measurement of the interface permeability.

  4. A combination between the differential and the perturbation theory methods for calculating sensitivity coefficients; Uma combinacao entre os metodos diferencial e da teoria de pertubacao para o calculo dos coeficientes de sensibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Antonio Andrade

    1998-07-01

    A new method for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients is developed. The new method is a combination of two methodologies used for calculating theses coefficients, which are the differential and the generalized perturbation theory methods. The method utilizes as integral parameter the average flux in an arbitrary region of the system. Thus, the sensitivity coefficient contains only the component corresponding to the neutron flux. To obtain the new sensitivity coefficient, the derivatives of the integral parameter, {phi}, with respect to {sigma} are calculated using the perturbation method and the functional derivatives of this generic integral parameter with respect to {sigma} and {phi} are calculated using the differential method. (author)

  5. A self-consistent, multivariate method for the determination of gas-phase rate coefficients, applied to reactions of atmospheric VOCs and the hydroxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jacob T.; Lidster, Richard T.; Cryer, Danny R.; Ramirez, Noelia; Whiting, Fiona C.; Boustead, Graham A.; Whalley, Lisa K.; Ingham, Trevor; Rickard, Andrew R.; Dunmore, Rachel E.; Heard, Dwayne E.; Lewis, Ally C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Hamilton, Jacqui F.; Dillon, Terry J.

    2018-03-01

    Gas-phase rate coefficients are fundamental to understanding atmospheric chemistry, yet experimental data are not available for the oxidation reactions of many of the thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) observed in the troposphere. Here, a new experimental method is reported for the simultaneous study of reactions between multiple different VOCs and OH, the most important daytime atmospheric radical oxidant. This technique is based upon established relative rate concepts but has the advantage of a much higher throughput of target VOCs. By evaluating multiple VOCs in each experiment, and through measurement of the depletion in each VOC after reaction with OH, the OH + VOC reaction rate coefficients can be derived. Results from experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions were in good agreement with the available literature for the reaction of 19 VOCs, prepared in synthetic gas mixtures, with OH. This approach was used to determine a rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 2,3-dimethylpent-1-ene for the first time; k = 5.7 (±0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In addition, a further seven VOCs had only two, or fewer, individual OH rate coefficient measurements available in the literature. The results from this work were in good agreement with those measurements. A similar dataset, at an elevated temperature of 323 (±10) K, was used to determine new OH rate coefficients for 12 aromatic, 5 alkane, 5 alkene and 3 monoterpene VOC + OH reactions. In OH relative reactivity experiments that used ambient air at the University of York, a large number of different VOCs were observed, of which 23 were positively identified. Due to difficulties with detection limits and fully resolving peaks, only 19 OH rate coefficients were derived from these ambient air samples, including 10 reactions for which data were previously unavailable at the elevated reaction temperature of T = 323 (±10) K.

  6. Efficient computation of clipped Voronoi diagram for mesh generation

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-04-01

    The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometric structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact domain (i.e. a bounded and closed 2D region or a 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite or partially outside of the domain, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm to compute the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 2D region or a 3D volume. We also apply the proposed method to optimal mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient computation of clipped Voronoi diagram for mesh generation

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wang, Wen Ping; Lé vy, Bruno L.; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometric structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact domain (i.e. a bounded and closed 2D region or a 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite or partially outside of the domain, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm to compute the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 2D region or a 3D volume. We also apply the proposed method to optimal mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase diagram of an extended Agassi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, J. E.; Dukelsky, J.; Pérez-Fernández, P.; Arias, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    Background: The Agassi model [D. Agassi, Nucl. Phys. A 116, 49 (1968), 10.1016/0375-9474(68)90482-X] is an extension of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model [H. J. Lipkin, N. Meshkov, and A. J. Glick, Nucl. Phys. 62, 188 (1965), 10.1016/0029-5582(65)90862-X] that incorporates the pairing interaction. It is a schematic model that describes the interplay between particle-hole and pair correlations. It was proposed in the 1960s by D. Agassi as a model to simulate the properties of the quadrupole plus pairing model. Purpose: The aim of this work is to extend a previous study by Davis and Heiss [J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 12, 805 (1986), 10.1088/0305-4616/12/9/006] generalizing the Agassi model and analyze in detail the phase diagram of the model as well as the different regions with coexistence of several phases. Method: We solve the model Hamiltonian through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation, introducing two variational parameters that play the role of order parameters. We also compare the HFB calculations with the exact ones. Results: We obtain the phase diagram of the model and classify the order of the different quantum phase transitions appearing in the diagram. The phase diagram presents broad regions where several phases, up to three, coexist. Moreover, there is also a line and a point where four and five phases are degenerated, respectively. Conclusions: The phase diagram of the extended Agassi model presents a rich variety of phases. Phase coexistence is present in extended areas of the parameter space. The model could be an important tool for benchmarking novel many-body approximations.

  9. He's variational iteration method applied to the solution of the prey and predator problem with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufoglu, Elcin; Erbas, Baris

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, a mathematical model of the problem of prey and predator is presented and He's variational iteration method is employed to compute an approximation to the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. The results are compared with the results obtained by Adomian decomposition method and homotopy perturbation method. Comparison of the methods show that He's variational iteration method is a powerful method for obtaining approximate solutions to nonlinear equations and their systems

  10. The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsiung Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s, temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation, corrosion and passivation, precipitation and adsorption for water treatment and leaching and metal recovery for hydrometallurgy. Two basic methods were developed to construct an Eh-pH diagram concerning the ligand component(s. The first method calculates and draws a line between two adjacent species based on their given activities. The second method performs equilibrium calculations over an array of points (500 × 800 or higher are preferred, each representing one Eh and one pH value for the whole system, then combines areas of each dominant species for the diagram. These two methods may produce different diagrams. The fundamental theories, illustrated results, comparison and required conditions behind these two methods are presented and discussed in this paper. The Gibbs phase rule equation for an Eh-pH diagram was derived and verified from actual plots. Besides indicating the stability area of water, an Eh-pH diagram normally shows only half of an overall reaction. However, merging two or more related diagrams together reveals more clearly the possibility of the reactions involved. For instance, leaching of Au with cyanide followed by cementing Au with Zn (Merrill-Crowe process can be illustrated by combining Au-CN and Zn-CN diagrams together. A second example of the galvanic conversion of chalcopyrite can be explained by merging S, Fe–S and Cu–Fe–S diagrams. The calculation of an Eh-pH diagram can be extended easily into another dimension, such

  11. Measurements of local mass transfer coefficient of Flow Accelerated Corrosion at feeder outlet pipes in CANDU using Plaster of Paris method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyuk Kwon; Dong Un Seo; Goon-Cherl Park

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is a corrosion mechanism that results in wall thinning in piping systems and components. FAC on carbon steels in pure water has occurred in a number of industry and power plant. A pipe wall thinning due to the FAC at nuclear power plant is just reported in confined to carbon steel pipe on the secondary system which does not equip a radioactive component. Recently, at Canadian Deuterium Uranium type reactor, it is reported that the feeder lines suffer the wall thinning on the primary system to equip 380 feeder pipes. Differently from the fast FAC rate of the secondary system on PWR, FAC rate of feeder pipes on CANDU is not more than the 0.2 mm/year. Although the FAC rate of feeder pipe is relatively slow, the narrow thickness margin of 2.6089 mm is endangered sufficiently by only the slow FAC rate. The FAC is governed by the mass transfer coefficient which is determined by the flow field. To well predict the FAC rate, mass transfer coefficient should be well measured or calculated. New measurement method of mass transfer coefficient is developed to obtain the coefficient for the complex shape like feeder pipe. The method evaluated the naphthalene sublimation method to apply it under the water flow. The naphthalene sublimation method can be used to study mass and heat transfer with confidence for a variety of applications, but with certain restrictions. At present, Plaster of paris method can modified the sublimation method to overcome the restrictions. This method is particularly useful in complex flows on geometries and for flows with large gradients in wall transport rate. The test specimen can be easily prepared by several methods, including dipping, machining, spraying, and casting. The local transfer coefficients can be determined with high accuracy and in detail by automated measurement systems that eliminate most human errors during the measurement process. To evaluate the method, the

  12. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  13. On the Bias in the Danckwerts’ Plot Method for the Determination of the Gas–Liquid Mass-Transfer Coefficient and Interfacial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German E. Cortes Garcia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Danckwerts’ plot method is a commonly used graphical technique to independently determine the interfacial area and mass-transfer coefficient in gas–liquid contactors. The method was derived in 1963 when computational capabilities were limited and intensified process equipment did not exist. A numerical analysis of the underlying assumptions of the method in this paper has shown a bias in the technique, especially for situations where mass-transfer rates are intensified, or where there is limited liquid holdup in the bulk compared to the film layers. In fact, systematic errors of up to 50% in the interfacial area, and as high as 90% in the mass-transfer coefficients, can be expected for modern, intensified gas–liquid contactors, even within the commonly accepted validity limits of a pseudo-first-order reaction and Hatta numbers in the range of 0.3 < Ha < 3. Given the current computational capabilities and the intensified mass-transfer rates in modern gas–liquid contactors, it is therefore imperative that the equations for reaction and diffusion in the liquid films are numerically solved and subsequently used to fit the interfacial area and mass-transfer coefficient to experimental data, which would traditionally be used in the graphical Danckwerts’ method.

  14. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras-Chaverri, M; Galavis, P; Bakic, P; Vetter, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8 − +0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9 − 105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses current

  15. Diagram of the uranium prospection perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.

    1982-01-01

    We call diagrams to the drawn up one continuous of parameters physicists of the formation trimmed by a perforation based on the depth. The method is interesting not only for the putting in evidence of the mineralized levels but also it stops to determine the variations of lithology had by one part to the intrinsic properties of minerals (quartz, clays, carbonates) and to their variation of tenor and by another one, to variations of porosity and permeability of the formation

  16. Moving-window bis-correlation coefficients method for visible and near-infrared spectral discriminant analysis with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The moving-window bis-correlation coefficients (MW-BiCC was proposed and employed for the discriminant analysis of transgenic sugarcane leaves and β-thalassemia with visible and near-infrared (Vis–NIR spectroscopy. The well-performed moving-window principal component analysis linear discriminant analysis (MW-PCA–LDA was also conducted for comparison. A total of 306 transgenic (positive and 150 nontransgenic (negative leave samples of sugarcane were collected and divided to calibration, prediction, and validation. The diffuse reflection spectra were corrected using Savitzky–Golay (SG smoothing with first-order derivative (d=1, third-degree polynomial (p=3 and 25 smoothing points (m=25. The selected waveband was 736–1054nm with MW-BiCC, and the positive and negative validation recognition rates (V_REC+, V_REC− were 100%, 98.0%, which achieved the same effect as MW-PCA–LDA. Another example, the 93 β-thalassemia (positive and 148 nonthalassemia (negative of human hemolytic samples were collected. The transmission spectra were corrected using SG smoothing with d=1, p=3 and m=53. Using MW-BiCC, many best wavebands were selected (e.g., 1116–1146, 1794–1848 and 2284–2342nm. The V_REC+ and V_REC− were both 100%, which achieved the same effect as MW-PCA–LDA. Importantly, the BiCC only required calculating correlation coefficients between the spectrum of prediction sample and the average spectra of two types of calibration samples. Thus, BiCC was very simple in algorithm, and expected to obtain more applications. The results first confirmed the feasibility of distinguishing β-thalassemia and normal control samples by NIR spectroscopy, and provided a promising simple tool for large population thalassemia screening.

  17. Introducing a novel method to estimate the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities utilizing thermoelectric modules; Special application in solar engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    The main objective of the present study is to introduce a novel method to measure the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities, used in solar applications, utilizing thermoelectric modules. Applying mathematical and thermodynamics modeling, the governing equations related...... to the total heat transfer coefficient between thermoelectric and glass cover as a function of ambient temperature, glass temperature, and output voltage has been derived. Investigating the accuracy of the proposed equation, an experimental case study has been performed. The experimental setup consists...... of three parts; a heat sink, a thermoelectric module, and a glass cover. All the experiments have been performed on the typical winter day and under the real climatic conditions of Semnan (35° 33′ N, 53° 23′ E), Iran. The results showed that the proposed method has the ability to measure the total heat...

  18. Calculation of Friction Coefficient and Analysis of Fluid Flow in a Stepped Micro-Channel for Wide Range of Knudsen Number Using Lattice Boltzmann (MRT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bakhshan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro scale gas flows has attracted significant research interest in the last two decades. In this research, the fluid flow of gases in the stepped micro-channel at a wide range of Knudsen number has been analyzed with using the Lattice Boltzmann (MRT method. In the model, a modified second-order slip boundary condition and a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity are used to consider the velocity slip at the boundaries and to cover the slip and transition regimes of flow and to gain an accurate simulation of rarefied gases. It includes the slip and transition regimes of flow. The flow specifications such as pressure loss, velocity profile, streamline and friction coefficient at different conditions have been presented. The results show good agreement with available experimental data. The calculation shows that the friction coefficient decreases with increasing the Knudsen number and stepping the micro-channel has an inverse effect on the friction coefficient. Furthermore, a new correlation is suggested for calculation of the friction coefficient in the stepped micro-channel as below: C_f Re  = 3.113+2.915/(1 +2 Kn+ 0.641 exp⁡(3.203/(1 + 2 Kn

  19. Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Arthur

    Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…

  20. The generalized successive approximation and Padé Approximants method for solving an elasticity problem of based on the elastic ground with variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bayram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have applied a generalized successive numerical technique to solve the elasticity problem of based on the elastic ground with variable coefficient. In the first stage, we have calculated the generalized successive approximation of being given BVP and in the second stage we have transformed it into Padé series. At the end of study a test problem has been given to clarify the method.

  1. Series expansions without diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model

  2. Novel medium-throughput technique for investigating drug-cyclodextrin complexation by pH-metric titration using the partition coefficient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargó, Gergő; Boros, Krisztina; Péter, László; Malanga, Milo; Sohajda, Tamás; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, György T

    2018-05-05

    The present study was aimed to develop a medium-throughput screening technique for investigation of cyclodextrin (CD)-active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) complexes. Dual-phase potentiometric lipophilicity measurement, as gold standard technique, was combined with the partition coefficient method (plotting the reciprocal of partition coefficients of APIs as a function of CD concentration). A general equation was derived for determination of stability constants of 1:1 CD-API complexes (K 1:1,CD ) based on solely the changes of partition coefficients (logP o/w N -logP app N ), without measurement of the actual API concentrations. Experimentally determined logP value (-1.64) of 6-deoxy-6[(5/6)-fluoresceinylthioureido]-HPBCD (FITC-NH-HPBCD) was used to estimate the logP value (≈ -2.5 to -3) of (2-hydroxypropyl)-ß-cyclodextrin (HPBCD). The results suggested that the amount of HPBCD can be considered to be inconsequential in the octanol phase. The decrease of octanol volume due to the octanol-CD complexation was considered, thus a corrected octanol-water phase ratio was also introduced. The K 1:1,CD values obtained by this developed method showed a good accordance with the results from other orthogonal methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying the 5 Why method to verification of non-compliance causes established after application of the Ishikawa diagram in the process of improving the production of drive half-shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon T. Dziuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry is one of the most important branches of the global industry. For this purpose, products are produced by an extensive network of suppliers. They supply components directly to the (OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer or to the secondary market of parts. In recent years, the economic situation in these companies has dramatically deteriorated and it is associated with a decrease in new car sales. These companies are constantly making decisions to improve their production processes using various quality tools. These actions may help to increase their competitive advantage and thereby improve their financial situation. The surveyed company produces drive half-shafts for different types of cars. The studies were carried out to analyse the causes of non-compliance - falling band from the housing on the drive shaft. In order to identify and verify the causes for non-compliance and undertake corrective action following methods were used: Ishikawa diagram, 5WHY and brainstorming.

  4. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the characterization of testicular germ cell neoplasms: Effect of ROI methods on apparent diffusion coefficient values and interobserver variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Athina C., E-mail: a_tsili@yahoo.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Ntorkou, Alexandra, E-mail: alexdorkou@hotmail.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas, E-mail: astrakas@uoi.gr [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Xydis, Vasilis, E-mail: vxydis@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Tsampalas, Stavros, E-mail: stamp@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Sofikitis, Nikolaos, E-mail: akrosnin@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I., E-mail: margyrop@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 45110, Ioannina (Greece)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Seminomas have lower mean ADC compared to NSGCNs. • Round ROI is accurate in characterizing TGCNS. • ROI shape has no significant effect on interobserver variability. - Abstract: Introduction: To evaluate the difference in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements at diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging of differently shaped regions-of-interest (ROIs) in testicular germ cell neoplasms (TGCNS), the diagnostic ability of differently shaped ROIs in differentiating seminomas from nonseminomatous germ cell neoplasms (NSGCNs) and the interobserver variability. Materials and methods: Thirty-three TGCNs were retrospectively evaluated. Patients underwent MR examinations, including DWI on a 1.5-T MR system. Two observers measured mean tumor ADCs using four distinct ROI methods: round, square, freehand and multiple small, round ROIs. The interclass correlation coefficient was analyzed to assess interobserver variability. Statistical analysis was used to compare mean ADC measurements among observers, methods and histologic types. Results: All ROI methods showed excellent interobserver agreement, with excellent correlation (P < 0.001). Multiple, small ROIs provided the lower mean ADC in TGCNs. Seminomas had lower mean ADC compared to NSGCNs for each ROI method (P < 0.001). Round ROI proved the most accurate method in characterizing TGCNS. Conclusion: Interobserver variability in ADC measurement is excellent, irrespective of the ROI shape. Multiple, small round ROIs and round ROI proved the more accurate methods for ADC measurement in the characterization of TGCNs and in the differentiation between seminomas and NSGCNs, respectively.

  5. Using a Density-Management Diagram to Develop Thinning Schedules for Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Dean; V. Clark Baldwin

    1993-01-01

    A method for developing thinning schedules using a density-management diagram is presented. A density-management diagram is a form of stocking chart based on patterns of natural stand development. The diagram allows rotation diameter and the upper and lower limits of growing stock to be easily transformed into before and after thinning densities. Site height lines on...

  6. Diagrams in creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Through the use of a diagrammatic method it seems possible to support a both intuitive and controlled framework for creation of artistic work using 3D printing technology in combination with artistic sensibility. The paper investigates to what extend such a method can be used to evaluate...... for an artistic sensitivity and unpredictability as a main driver and parameter. Using the Peirce inspired diagrammatic approach can be useful as a framework for understanding the creation of art on a crossbreed platform involving both traditional skills, artistic inspiration, and newest technologies, such as 3D...... printing....

  7. Monte Carlo Method in the calculate of conversion coefficients for dose in children's organs and tissues subjected to dentistric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, E.C.M.; Khoury, H.; Lima, F.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing utilization of oral X-rays, specially in youngsters and children, prompts the assessment of equivalent doses in their organs and tissues. With this purpose, Monte Carlo code was adopted to simulate an X-ray source irradiating phantoms of the MIRD-5 type with different ages (10, 15 and 40 years old) to calculate the conversion coefficients which transform the exposure at skin to equivalent doses at several organs and tissues of interest. In order to check the computer program, simulations were performed for adult patients using the original code (ADAM,FOR developed by GSF Germany) and the adapted program (MCDRO,PAS). Good agreement between results obtained by both programs was observed. Applications to incisive, canine and molar teeth were simulated. The conversion factors were calculated for the following organs and tissues: thyroid, active bone marrow (head and whole body), bone (facial skeleton, cranium and whole body), skin (head and whole body) and crystalline. Based on the obtained results, it follows that the younger the patient and the langer the field area, the higher the doses in assessed organs and tissues

  8. Cohort Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...... differs between cohorts. This article focuses on the protective and detrimental cohort effect in relation to the risk of death from apoplexy. A dummy variable method is recommended to describe the changing cohort effect over a century....

  9. The geometry of on-shell diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Mariotti, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    The fundamental role of on-shell diagrams in quantum field theory has been recently recognized. On-shell diagrams, or equivalently bipartite graphs, provide a natural bridge connecting gauge theory to powerful mathematical structures such as the Grassmannian. We perform a detailed investigation of the combinatorial and geometric objects associated to these graphs. We mainly focus on their relation to polytopes and toric geometry, the Grassmannian and its stratification. Our work extends the current understanding of these connections along several important fronts, most notably eliminating restrictions imposed by planarity, positivity, reducibility and edge removability. We illustrate our ideas with several explicit examples and introduce concrete methods that considerably simplify computations. We consider it highly likely that the structures unveiled in this article will arise in the on-shell study of scattering amplitudes beyond the planar limit. Our results can be conversely regarded as an expansion in the understanding of the Grassmannian in terms of bipartite graphs.

  10. Principle of the determination of neutron multiplication coefficients by the Monte Carlo method. Application. Description of a code for ibm 360-75; Principe de la determination des coefficients de multiplication neutronique par methode de Monte-Carlo. Application. Description d'un code pour IBM 360-75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J; Parisot, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The determination of neutron multiplication coefficients by the Monte Carlo method can be carried out in different ways; the are first examined particularly complex geometries; it makes use of multi-group isotropic cross sections. The performances of this code are illustrated by some examples. (author) [French] La determination des coefficients de multiplication neutronique par methode de Monte Carlo peut se faire par differentes voies, elles sont successivement examinees et comparees. On en deduit un code rapide pour des geometries particulierement complexes, il utilise des sections efficaces multigroupes isotropes. Les performances de ce code sont demontrees par quelques exemples. (auteur)

  11. New detectors for powders diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convert, P.

    1975-01-01

    During the last few years, all the classical neutron diffractometers for powders have used one or maybe a few counters. So, it takes a long time to obtain a diagram which causes many disadvantages: 1) very long experiments: one or two days (or flux on the sample about 10 6 n/cm 2 /a); 2) necessity of big samples: many cm 3 ; 3) necessity of having the whole diagram before changing anything in the experiment: magnetic field, temperature, quality of the sample; 4) necessity of having collimators of a few times ten minutes to obtain correct statistics in the diagram. Because of these disadvantages, several attempts have been made to speed up the experimental procedure such as using more counters, the detection of neutrons on a resistive wire, etc. In Grenoble, new position-sensitive detectors have been constructed using a digital technique

  12. Age-specific effective doses for pediatric MSCT examinations at a large children's hospital using DLP conversion coefficients: a simple estimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Wang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for an easily accessible method for effective dose estimation in pediatric CT. To estimate effective doses for a variety of pediatric neurological and body CT examinations in five age groups using recently published age- and region-specific dose length product (DLP) to effective dose conversion coefficients. A retrospective review was performed of 1,431 consecutive CT scans over a 12-week period using age- and weight-adjusted CT protocols. Age- and region-specific DLP to effective dose conversion coefficients were applied to console-displayed DLP data. Effective dose estimates for single-phase head CT scans in neonatal, and 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old age groups were 4.2, 3.6, 2.4, 2.0 and 1.4 mSv, respectively. For abdomen/pelvis CT scans the corresponding effective doses were 13.1, 11.1, 8.4, 8.9 and 5.9 mSv. The range of pediatric CT effective doses is wide, from ultralow dose protocols (<1 mSv) to extended-coverage body examinations (10-15 mSv). Age- and region-specific pediatric DLP to effective dose conversion coefficients provide an accessible and user-friendly method for estimating pediatric CT effective doses that is available to radiologists working without medical physics support. (orig.)

  13. Classification of criticality calculations with correlation coefficient method and its application to OECD/NEA burnup credit benchmarks phase III-A and II-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    A method for classifying benchmark results of criticality calculations according to similarity was proposed in this paper. After formulation of the method utilizing correlation coefficients, it was applied to burnup credit criticality benchmarks Phase III-A and II-A, which were conducted by the Expert Group on Burnup Credit Criticality Safety under auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). Phase III-A benchmark was a series of criticality calculations for irradiated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies, whereas Phase II-A benchmark was a suite of criticality calculations for irradiated Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel pins. These benchmark problems and their results were summarized. The correlation coefficients were calculated and sets of benchmark calculation results were classified according to the criterion that the values of the correlation coefficients were no less than 0.15 for Phase III-A and 0.10 for Phase II-A benchmarks. When a couple of benchmark calculation results belonged to the same group, one calculation result was found predictable from the other. An example was shown for each of the Benchmarks. While the evaluated nuclear data seemed the main factor for the classification, further investigations were required for finding other factors. (author)

  14. A new method to calculate pressure drop and shell-side heat transfer coefficient in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista Filho, B.D.; Konuk, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new method to calculate pressure drop (Δp) and shell-side heat transfer coefficient (h sub(c)) in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with segmental baffles is presented. The method is based on the solution of the equations of conservation of mass and momentum between two baffles. The calculated distributions of pressure and velocities given respectively, Δp and h sub(c). The values of Δp and h sub(c) are correlated for a given geometry whit the shell side fluid properties and flow rate. The calculated and experimental results agree very well for a U-Tube heat exchanger. (Author) [pt

  15. Absorption and scattering coefficients estimation in two-dimensional participating media using the generalized maximum entropy and Levenberg-Marquardt methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal T, Mariella J.; Roberty, Nilson C.; Silva Neto, Antonio J.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    2002-01-01

    The solution of inverse problems in participating media where there is emission, absorption and dispersion of the radiation possesses several applications in engineering and medicine. The objective of this work is to estimative the coefficients of absorption and dispersion in two-dimensional heterogeneous participating media, using in independent form the Generalized Maximum Entropy and Levenberg Marquardt methods. Both methods are based on the solution of the direct problem that is modeled by the Boltzmann equation in cartesian geometry. Some cases testes are presented. (author)

  16. Improved procedure for the computation of Lamb’s coefficients in the physalis method for particle simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudmundsson, K.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The physalis method was designed for the simulation of flows with suspended spherical particles. It differs from standard immersed boundary methods due to the use of a local spectral representation of the solution in the neighborhood of each particle, which is used to bridge the gap between the

  17. On the worst scenario method: Application to a quasilinear elliptic 2D-problem with uncertain coefficients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harasim, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 5 (2011), s. 459-480 ISSN 0862-7940 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Worst scenario method * nonlinear differential equation * Kachanov method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.480, year: 2011 http://am.math.cas.cz/am56-5/2.html

  18. A method to compare calculated and experimental 14 MeV neutron attenuation coefficient and to determine the total removal cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elay, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method to compare calculated and experimental neutron attenuation coefficients (chi) when samples are o, different geometries but the same material is proposed. The best Σ (total removal cross section) is determined by using the fact that the logarithm of the attenuation coefficient varies linearly with respect to Σ i.e. lg chi = + asub(s) Σ, where asub(s) is a parameter that characterises all the geometrical experimental conditions of the neutron source, the sample and the relative source-to-sample geometry. In order to increase the precision, samples of different geometries but the same material were used. Values of chi are determined experimentally and asub(s) calculated for these geometries. The graph of lg chi as a function of asub(s) together with a simple fit to a straight line is sufficient to determine Σ (the slope of the line). (T.G.)

  19. Mollier-h,x diagram for moist flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Hultsch, T; Suder, M

    1984-07-01

    Diagrams and formulae are presented for calculation of enthalpy and moisture content of flue gas from brown coal, heating oil, black coal and brown coal briquet combustion. The enthalpy (in kJ/kg) and moisture (g/kg) diagrams were established by computer graphics for pressure 0.1 MPa. A further diagram is provided for enthalpy and flue gas moisture, varying the combustion air supply according to coal dust and to grate firing. These thermodynamic calculations are regarded as significant for assessing methods of flue gas cooling below the moisture dew point and for waste heat recovery. 3 references.

  20. Investigation of Pear Drying Performance by Different Methods and Regression of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an air heated solar collector (AHSC dryer was designed to determine the drying characteristics of the pear. Flat pear slices of 10 mm thickness were used in the experiments. The pears were dried both in the AHSC dryer and under the sun. Panel glass temperature, panel floor temperature, panel inlet temperature, panel outlet temperature, drying cabinet inlet temperature, drying cabinet outlet temperature, drying cabinet temperature, drying cabinet moisture, solar radiation, pear internal temperature, air velocity and mass loss of pear were measured at 30 min intervals. Experiments were carried out during the periods of June 2017 in Elazig, Turkey. The experiments started at 8:00 a.m. and continued till 18:00. The experiments were continued until the weight changes in the pear slices stopped. Wet basis moisture content (MCw, dry basis moisture content (MCd, adjustable moisture ratio (MR, drying rate (DR, and convective heat transfer coefficient (hc were calculated with both in the AHSC dryer and the open sun drying experiment data. It was found that the values of hc in both drying systems with a range 12.4 and 20.8 W/m2 °C. Three different kernel models were used in the support vector machine (SVM regression to construct the predictive model of the calculated hc values for both systems. The mean absolute error (MAE, root mean squared error (RMSE, relative absolute error (RAE and root relative absolute error (RRAE analysis were performed to indicate the predictive model’s accuracy. As a result, the rate of drying of the pear was examined for both systems and it was observed that the pear had dried earlier in the AHSC drying system. A predictive model was obtained using the SVM regression for the calculated hc values for the pear in the AHSC drying system. The normalized polynomial kernel was determined as the best kernel model in SVM for estimating the hc values.

  1. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn V.

    2007-01-01

    When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption...... that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the influence diagram framework. The extension allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a linear conversion function between the currencies...

  2. Diagrams for symmetric product orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakman, Ari; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a diagrammatic language for symmetric product orbifolds of two-dimensional conformal field theories. Correlation functions of twist operators are written as sums of diagrams: each diagram corresponds to a branched covering map from a surface where the fields are single-valued to the base sphere where twist operators are inserted. This diagrammatic language facilitates the study of the large N limit and makes more transparent the analogy between symmetric product orbifolds and free non-abelian gauge theories. We give a general algorithm to calculate the leading large N contribution to four-point correlators of twist fields.

  3. Solutions of Heat-Like and Wave-Like Equations with Variable Coefficients by Means of the Homotopy Analysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomari, A. K.; Noorani, M. S. M.; Nazar, R.

    2008-01-01

    We employ the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to obtain approximate analytical solutions to the heat-like and wave-like equations. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ, which provides a convenient way of controlling the convergence region of series solutions. The analysis is accompanied by several linear and nonlinear heat-like and wave-like equations with initial boundary value problems. The results obtained prove that HAM is very effective and simple with less error than the Adomian decomposition method and the variational iteration method

  4. Operator expansions in the minimal subtraction scheme. II. Explicit formulas for coefficient functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetyrkin, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown in an arbitrary model that the coefficient functions of the operator expansion (renormalized in the minimal subtraction scheme) are finite. Explicit formulas convenient for calculating them in practice are obtained. The gluing method and the formalism of the R* operation are used to transform the formulas in such a way that the coefficient functions can be expressed in terms of ordinary diagrams containing neither nonstandard propagators nor an additional loop integration. An important feature of the representation for the coefficient functions is that the R* operation, which subtracts simultaneously the ultraviolet and infrared divergences, guarantees the existence of the coefficient functions in the limit when the dimensional regularization is lifted without any restrictions

  5. Phase diagrams, thermodynamic properties and sound velocities derived from a multiple Einstein method using vibrational densities of states : an application to MgO–SiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Michael H G; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer; van den Berg, Arie P.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous paper, we showed a technique that simplifies Kieffer’s lattice vibrational method by representing the vibrational density of states with multiple Einstein frequencies. Here, we show that this technique can be applied to construct a thermodynamic database that accurately represents

  6. A self-consistent, multivariate method for the determination of gas-phase rate coefficients, applied to reactions of atmospheric VOCs and the hydroxyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Shaw

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase rate coefficients are fundamental to understanding atmospheric chemistry, yet experimental data are not available for the oxidation reactions of many of the thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs observed in the troposphere. Here, a new experimental method is reported for the simultaneous study of reactions between multiple different VOCs and OH, the most important daytime atmospheric radical oxidant. This technique is based upon established relative rate concepts but has the advantage of a much higher throughput of target VOCs. By evaluating multiple VOCs in each experiment, and through measurement of the depletion in each VOC after reaction with OH, the OH + VOC reaction rate coefficients can be derived. Results from experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions were in good agreement with the available literature for the reaction of 19 VOCs, prepared in synthetic gas mixtures, with OH. This approach was used to determine a rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 2,3-dimethylpent-1-ene for the first time; k =  5.7 (±0.3  ×  10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. In addition, a further seven VOCs had only two, or fewer, individual OH rate coefficient measurements available in the literature. The results from this work were in good agreement with those measurements. A similar dataset, at an elevated temperature of 323 (±10 K, was used to determine new OH rate coefficients for 12 aromatic, 5 alkane, 5 alkene and 3 monoterpene VOC + OH reactions. In OH relative reactivity experiments that used ambient air at the University of York, a large number of different VOCs were observed, of which 23 were positively identified. Due to difficulties with detection limits and fully resolving peaks, only 19 OH rate coefficients were derived from these ambient air samples, including 10 reactions for which data were previously unavailable at the elevated reaction temperature of T =  323 (±10 K.

  7. Diagrams in the polaron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smondyrev, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The perturbation theory for the polaron energy is systematically treated on the diagrammatic basis. Feynman diagrams being constructed allow to calculate the polaron energy up to the third order in powers of the coupling constant. Similar calculations are performed for the average number of virtual phonons

  8. Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponticopoulos, L.

    1980-10-01

    An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

  9. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

    Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...

  10. Coherent quantum transport in disordered systems: II. Temperature dependence of carrier diffusion coefficients from the time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xinxin; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Jianshu

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method for carrier quantum dynamics (Zhong and Zhao 2013 J. Chem. Phys. 138 014111), a truncated version of the stochastic Schrödinger equation/wavefunction approach that approximately satisfies the detailed balance principle and scales well with the size of the system, is applied to investigate the carrier transport in one-dimensional systems including both the static and dynamic disorders on site energies. The predicted diffusion coefficients with respect to temperature successfully bridge from band-like to hopping-type transport. As demonstrated in paper I (Moix et al 2013 New J. Phys. 15 085010), the static disorder tends to localize the carrier, whereas the dynamic disorder induces carrier dynamics. For the weak dynamic disorder, the diffusion coefficients are temperature-independent (band-like property) at low temperatures, which is consistent with the prediction from the Redfield equation, and a linear dependence of the coefficient on temperature (hopping-type property) only appears at high temperatures. In the intermediate regime of dynamic disorder, the transition from band-like to hopping-type transport can be easily observed at relatively low temperatures as the static disorder increases. When the dynamic disorder becomes strong, the carrier motion can follow the hopping-type mechanism even without static disorder. Furthermore, it is found that the memory time of dynamic disorder is an important factor in controlling the transition from the band-like to hopping-type motions. (paper)

  11. The use of QSAR methods for determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient using the example of hydroxyester HE-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziałowska-Tic, Joanna

    2017-10-01

    According to the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, the number of experiments involving the use of animals needs to be reduced. The methods which can replace animal testing include computational prediction methods, for instance, the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). These methods are designed to find a cohesive relationship between differences in the values of the properties of molecules and the biological activity of a series of test compounds. This paper compares the results of the author's own results of examination on the n-octanol/water coefficient for the hydroxyester HE-1 with those generated by means of three models: Kowwin, MlogP, AlogP. The test results indicate that, in the case of molecular similarity, the highest determination coefficient was obtained for the model MlogP and the lowest root-mean square error was obtained for the Kowwin method. When comparing the mean logP value obtained using the QSAR models with the value resulting from the author's own experiments, it was observed that the best conformity was that recorded for the model AlogP, where relative error was 15.2%.

  12. The use of QSAR methods for determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient using the example of hydroxyester HE-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziałowska-Tic Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, the number of experiments involving the use of animals needs to be reduced. The methods which can replace animal testing include computational prediction methods, for instance, the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR. These methods are designed to find a cohesive relationship between differences in the values of the properties of molecules and the biological activity of a series of test compounds. This paper compares the results of the author's own results of examination on the n-octanol/water coefficient for the hydroxyester HE-1 with those generated by means of three models: Kowwin, MlogP, AlogP. The test results indicate that, in the case of molecular similarity, the highest determination coefficient was obtained for the model MlogP and the lowest root-mean square error was obtained for the Kowwin method. When comparing the mean logP value obtained using the QSAR models with the value resulting from the author's own experiments, it was observed that the best conformity was that recorded for the model AlogP, where relative error was 15.2%.

  13. Algorithms and programs for consequence diagram and fault tree construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1976-12-01

    A presentation of algorithms and programs for consequence diagram and sequential fault tree construction that are intended for reliability and disturbance analysis of large systems. The system to be analyzed must be given as a block diagram formed by mini fault trees of individual system components. The programs were written in LISP programming language and run on a PDP8 computer with 8k words of storage. A description is given of the methods used and of the program construction and working. (author)

  14. Irradiation distribution diagrams and their use for estimating collectable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronnelid, M.; Karlsson, B.

    1997-01-01

    A method for summarising annual or seasonal solar irradiation data in irradiation distribution diagrams, including both direct and diffuse irradiation, is outlined. The practical use of irradiation distribution diagrams is discussed in the paper. Examples are given for the calculation of collectable irradiation on flat plate collectors or trough-like concentrators like the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), and for the calculation of overhang geometries for windows to prevent overheating of buildings. (author)

  15. Diagrams of ion stability in radio-frequency mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakov, M.Yu.

    1994-01-01

    For solving radio-frequency mass spectrometry problems and dynamic ion containment are studied and systematized different ways for constructing the ion stability diagrams. A new universal set of parameters is proposed for diagram construction-angular variables, which are the phase raid of ion oscillational motion during positive and negative values of the supplying voltage. An effective analytical method is proposed for optimization of the parameters of the pulsed supplying voltage, in particular its repetition rate

  16. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  17. Study on the influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on the analysis of bulk samples and thin films: Fundamental parameters method and theoretical coefficient algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of X-ray tube spectral distribution is necessary in theoretical methods of matrix correction, i.e. in both fundamental parameter (FP) methods and theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Thus, the influence of X-ray tube distribution on the accuracy of the analysis of thin films and bulk samples is presented. The calculations are performed using experimental X-ray tube spectra taken from the literature and theoretical X-ray tube spectra evaluated by three different algorithms proposed by Pella et al. (X-Ray Spectrom. 14 (1985) 125-135), Ebel (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 255-266), and Finkelshtein and Pavlova (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 27-32). In this study, Fe-Cr-Ni system is selected as an example and the calculations are performed for X-ray tubes commonly applied in X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), i.e., Cr, Mo, Rh and W. The influence of X-ray tube spectra on FP analysis is evaluated when quantification is performed using various types of calibration samples. FP analysis of bulk samples is performed using pure-element bulk standards and multielement bulk standards similar to the analyzed material, whereas for FP analysis of thin films, the bulk and thin pure-element standards are used. For the evaluation of the influence of X-ray tube spectra on XRF analysis performed by theoretical influence coefficient methods, two algorithms for bulk samples are selected, i.e. Claisse-Quintin (Can. Spectrosc. 12 (1967) 129-134) and COLA algorithms (G.R. Lachance, Paper Presented at the International Conference on Industrial Inorganic Elemental Analysis, Metz, France, June 3, 1981) and two algorithms (constant and linear coefficients) for thin films recently proposed by Sitko (X-Ray Spectrom. 37 (2008) 265-272)

  18. A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHILDBEARING COEFFICIENT IN THE ALTAI REGION BASED ON METHOD OF FUZZY LINEAR REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Vladimirovich Varaksin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Construction of a mathematical model of the dynamics of childbearing change in the Altai region in 2000–2016, analysis of the dynamics of changes in birth rates for multiple age categories of women of childbearing age. Methodology. A auxiliary analysis element is the construction of linear mathematical models of the dynamics of childbearing by using fuzzy linear regression method based on fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy linear regression is considered as an alternative to standard statistical linear regression for short time series and unknown distribution law. The parameters of fuzzy linear and standard statistical regressions for childbearing time series were defined with using the built in language MatLab algorithm. Method of fuzzy linear regression is not used in sociological researches yet. Results. There are made the conclusions about the socio-demographic changes in society, the high efficiency of the demographic policy of the leadership of the region and the country, and the applicability of the method of fuzzy linear regression for sociological analysis.

  19. Study of variance and covariance terms in linear attenuation coefficient measurements of irregular samples through the two media method by gamma-ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, R.Y.R.Renato Yoichi Ribeiro.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The two media method permits the application of Beer's law (Thesis (Master Degree), Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR, Brazil, pp. 23) for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular thickness samples by gamma-ray transmission. However, the use of this methodology introduces experimental complexity due to the great number of variables to be measured. As consequence of this complexity, the uncertainties associated with each of these variables may be correlated. In this paper, we examine the covariance terms in the uncertainty propagation, and quantify the correlation among the uncertainties of each of the variables in question

  20. Application of the Monte Carlo method for building up models for octanol-water partition coefficient of platinum complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, Andrey A.; Toropova, Alla P.

    2018-06-01

    Predictive model of logP for Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes built up with the Monte Carlo method using the CORAL software has been validated with six different splits into the training and validation sets. The improving of the predictive potential of models for six different splits has been obtained using so-called index of ideality of correlation. The suggested models give possibility to extract molecular features, which cause the increase or vice versa decrease of the logP.

  1. Classification of alpha-active workplace aerosols based on coefficient of transportability as measured by the dialysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhryakov, V.F.; Suslova, K.G.; Tseveloyova, I.A.; Aladova, E.E.; Filipy, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes a method by which potentially inhaled workplace aerosols containing plutonium compounds are classified on the basis of measured transportability in Ringer's solution. It is suggested that the criterion 'transportability' be used in the ICRP respiratory tract model. Transportability is measured as the fraction of plutonium alpha activity, deposited on a collecting filter, that passes through a semi-permeable membrane in Ringer's physiological solution during two days of dialysis. First order kinetic equations are used for explanation of dialysis results. The dissolution characteristics of alpha-active aerosols are important in interpretation of their passage from the lungs after inhalation. (author)

  2. Diffusion weighted imaging for differentiating benign from malignant orbital tumors: Diagnostic performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient based on region of interest selection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao Quan; Hu, Hao Hu; Su, Guo Yi; Liu, Hu; Shi, Hai Bin; Wu, Fei Yun [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements based on three different region of interest (ROI) selection methods, and compare their diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant orbital tumors. Diffusion-weighted imaging data of sixty-four patients with orbital tumors (33 benign and 31 malignant) were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently measured the ADC values using three different ROIs selection methods including whole-tumor (WT), single-slice (SS), and reader-defined small sample (RDSS). The differences of ADC values (ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS}) between benign and malignant group were compared using unpaired t test. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine and compare their diagnostic ability. The ADC measurement time was compared using ANOVA analysis and the measurement reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman method and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Malignant group showed significantly lower ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS} than benign group (all p < 0.05). The areas under the curve showed no significant difference when using ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS} as differentiating index, respectively (all p > 0.05). The ROI{sub SS} and ROI{sub RDSS} required comparable measurement time (p > 0.05), while significantly shorter than ROI{sub WT} (p < 0.05). The ROI{sub SS} showed the best reproducibility (mean difference ± limits of agreement between two readers were 0.022 [-0.080–0.123] × 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; ICC, 0.997) among three ROI method. Apparent diffusion coefficient values based on the three different ROI selection methods can help to differentiate benign from malignant orbital tumors. The results of measurement time, reproducibility and diagnostic ability suggest that the ROI{sub SS} method are potentially useful for clinical practice.

  3. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  4. High-throughput determination of octanol/water partition coefficients using a shake-flask method and novel two-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Go; Suzuka, Chihiro; Shoji, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Yoichi; Yanagida, Akio

    2016-01-05

    A high-throughput method for determining the octanol/water partition coefficient (P(o/w)) of a large variety of compounds exhibiting a wide range in hydrophobicity was established. The method combines a simple shake-flask method with a novel two-phase solvent system comprising an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4)-1-octanol (25:25:4, v/v/v; AN system). The AN system partition coefficients (K(AN)) of 51 standard compounds for which log P(o/w) (at pH 7.4; log D) values had been reported were determined by single two-phase partitioning in test tubes, followed by measurement of the solute concentration in both phases using an automatic flow injection-ultraviolet detection system. The log K(AN) values were closely related to reported log D values, and the relationship could be expressed by the following linear regression equation: log D=2.8630 log K(AN) -0.1497(n=51). The relationship reveals that log D values (+8 to -8) for a large variety of highly hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic compounds can be estimated indirectly from the narrow range of log K(AN) values (+3 to -3) determined using the present method. Furthermore, log K(AN) values for highly polar compounds for which no log D values have been reported, such as amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleosides, and nucleotides, can be estimated using the present method. The wide-ranging log D values (+5.9 to -7.5) of these molecules were estimated for the first time from their log K(AN) values and the above regression equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions ( k nots ) of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (≈ 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique c hains , separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) ''activity streams'' approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  6. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Stathopoulos, Andreas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Yoon, Boram [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  7. Phase diagram of Pr-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    An area of the Pr-P system, adjoining to the Pr ordinate, is plotted up by the DTA method. Presence of P solid solution in Pr is established. Data on thermal stability of PrP, PrP 2 , PrP 5 and PrP 7 are generalized. The diagram of phase transformations in Pr-P system is plotted up proceeding from the whole complex of the data, presented. A supposition is made on a possible formation of solid solutions between the highest polyphosphide and phosphorus [ru

  8. Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show

  9. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-06-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  10. Method to allow the estimation of heat transfer coefficients in solar stills; Metodo para determinar coeficientes locales de transferencia de calor en destiladores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Cerda, Eduardo; Porta Gandara, Miguel A [CIBNOR, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Fernandez Zayas, Jose Luis [UNAM Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work reports an experimental method that allows to estimate the heat transfer coefficients in the neighborhood of walls or flat plates subject to convective transport phenomena. This method can be applied to a great variety of thermal systems since it is based on the knowledge of the border condition for the temperature at the surface of the plate, and the temperature profile that characterize the dimensionless coefficient of heat transfer in the fluid, according to its definition given by the Nusselt number. The approach of this work are the foundations of the method and the system that has been developed to apply it, that incorporates automatic acquisition equipment for continuos monitoring of the information and elements to control the parameters of interest. In addition, the experimental cavities on which the method will be evaluated are discussed, considering two different scales, as well as experiments in cavities filled with air, and with a mixture of air and steam water, as is the case for solar distillation. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un metodo que permite determinar de manera experimental coeficientes de transferencia de calor por conveccion. Este metodo puede ser aplicado a una gran variedad de sistemas termicos ya que se fundamenta en el conocimiento de la condicion de frontera para la temperatura en la superficie de la placa, y del perfil de temperaturas que caracteriza el coeficiente adimensional de transferencia de calor en el fluido, de acuerdo a la definicion de este, dada por el numero de Nusselt. El trabajo que aqui se reporta esta enfocado a la fundamentacion del metodo y al equipamiento que se ha desarrollado para instrumentarlo, que incorpora equipos automaticos de adquisicion continua de informacion y elementos de control para los parametros de interes. Se presentan ademas, las cavidades experimentales sobre las que sera evaluado el metodo, que considera dos escalas diferentes, asi como experimentos en cavidades llenas de aire

  11. Using influence diagrams for data worth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif Heger, A.; White, Janis E.

    1997-01-01

    Decision-making under uncertainty describes most environmental remediation and waste management problems. Inherent limitations in knowledge concerning contaminants, environmental fate and transport, remedies, and risks force decision-makers to select a course of action based on uncertain and incomplete information. Because uncertainties can be reduced by collecting additional data., uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques have received considerable attention. When costs associated with reducing uncertainty are considered in a decision problem, the objective changes; rather than determine what data to collect to reduce overall uncertainty, the goal is to determine what data to collect to best differentiate between possible courses of action or decision alternatives. Environmental restoration and waste management requires cost-effective methods for characterization and monitoring, and these methods must also satisfy regulatory requirements. Characterization and monitoring activities imply that, sooner or later, a decision must be made about collecting new field data. Limited fiscal resources for data collection should be committed only to those data that have the most impact on the decision at lowest possible cost. Applying influence diagrams in combination with data worth analysis produces a method which not only satisfies these requirements but also gives rise to an intuitive representation of complex structures not possible in the more traditional decision tree representation. This paper demonstrates the use of influence diagrams in data worth analysis by applying to a monitor-and-treat problem often encountered in environmental decision problems

  12. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  13. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...

  14. Basics of introduction to Feynman diagrams and electroweak interactions physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Mikhov, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Feynman diagrams are the main computational method for the evaluation of the matrix elements of different processes. Although it is a perturbative method, its significance is not restricted to perturbation theory only. In this book, the elements of quantum field theory, the Feynman diagram method, the theory of electroweak interactions and other topics are discussed. A number of classical weak and electroweak processes are considered in details. This involves, first of all, the construction of the matrix elements of the process using both the Feynman diagram method (when perturbation theory can be applied) and the invariance principles (when perturbation theory fails). Then the cross sections and the decay probabilities are computed. The text is providing widely used computational techniques and some experimental data. (A.B.). 32 refs., 7 appendix

  15. Small-threshold behaviour of two-loop self-energy diagrams: two-particle thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, F.A.; Davydychev, A.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow; Smirnov, V.A.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour of two-loop two-point diagrams at non-zero thresholds corresponding to two-particle cuts is analyzed. The masses involved in a cut and the external momentum are assumed to be small as compared to some of the other masses of the diagram. By employing general formulae of asymptotic expansions of Feynman diagrams in momenta and masses, we construct an algorithm to derive analytic approximations to the diagrams. In such a way, we calculate several first coefficients of the expansion. Since no conditions on relative values of the small masses and the external momentum are imposed, the threshold irregularities are described analytically. Numerical examples, using diagrams occurring in the standard model, illustrate the convergence of the expansion below the first large threshold. (orig.)

  16. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  17. On the Robustness and Prospects of Adaptive BDDC Methods for Finite Element Discretizations of Elliptic PDEs with High-Contrast Coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Zampini, Stefano

    2016-06-02

    Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) methods have proven to be powerful preconditioners for large and sparse linear systems arising from the finite element discretization of elliptic PDEs. Condition number bounds can be theoretically established that are independent of the number of subdomains of the decomposition. The core of the methods resides in the design of a larger and partially discontinuous finite element space that allows for fast application of the preconditioner, where Cholesky factorizations of the subdomain finite element problems are additively combined with a coarse, global solver. Multilevel and highly-scalable algorithms can be obtained by replacing the coarse Cholesky solver with a coarse BDDC preconditioner. BDDC methods have the remarkable ability to control the condition number, since the coarse space of the preconditioner can be adaptively enriched at the cost of solving local eigenproblems. The proper identification of these eigenproblems extends the robustness of the methods to any heterogeneity in the distribution of the coefficients of the PDEs, not only when the coefficients jumps align with the subdomain boundaries or when the high contrast regions are confined to lie in the interior of the subdomains. The specific adaptive technique considered in this paper does not depend upon any interaction of discretization and partition; it relies purely on algebraic operations. Coarse space adaptation in BDDC methods has attractive algorithmic properties, since the technique enhances the concurrency and the arithmetic intensity of the preconditioning step of the sparse implicit solver with the aim of controlling the number of iterations of the Krylov method in a black-box fashion, thus reducing the number of global synchronization steps and matrix vector multiplications needed by the iterative solver; data movement and memory bound kernels in the solve phase can be thus limited at the expense of extra local ops during the setup of

  18. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  19. eulerAPE: drawing area-proportional 3-Venn diagrams using ellipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Luana; Rodgers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Venn diagrams with three curves are used extensively in various medical and scientific disciplines to visualize relationships between data sets and facilitate data analysis. The area of the regions formed by the overlapping curves is often directly proportional to the cardinality of the depicted set relation or any other related quantitative data. Drawing these diagrams manually is difficult and current automatic drawing methods do not always produce appropriate diagrams. Most methods depict the data sets as circles, as they perceptually pop out as complete distinct objects due to their smoothness and regularity. However, circles cannot draw accurate diagrams for most 3-set data and so the generated diagrams often have misleading region areas. Other methods use polygons to draw accurate diagrams. However, polygons are non-smooth and non-symmetric, so the curves are not easily distinguishable and the diagrams are difficult to comprehend. Ellipses are more flexible than circles and are similarly smooth, but none of the current automatic drawing methods use ellipses. We present eulerAPE as the first method and software that uses ellipses for automatically drawing accurate area-proportional Venn diagrams for 3-set data. We describe the drawing method adopted by eulerAPE and we discuss our evaluation of the effectiveness of eulerAPE and ellipses for drawing random 3-set data. We compare eulerAPE and various other methods that are currently available and we discuss differences between their generated diagrams in terms of accuracy and ease of understanding for real world data.

  20. APPLICATION OF FISHBONE DIAGRAM TO DETERMINE THE RISK OF AN EVENT WITH MULTIPLE CAUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe ILIE; Carmen Nadia CIOCOIU

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagram (also known as Ishikawa diagram) was created with the goal of identifying and grouping the causes which generate a quality problem. Gradually, the method has been used also to group in categories the causes of other types of problems which an organization confronts with. This made Fishbone diagram become a very useful instrument in risk identification stage. The article proposes to extend the applicability of the method by including in the analysis the probabilities and the i...

  1. A study on the estimation method of internal stresses caused by the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between concrete and reinforcement at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazu, Tsutomu

    1998-01-01

    When a reinforced concrete member is exposed to high temperature conditions over 100degC, tensile strain occurs in the concrete and compressive strain occurs in reinforcements due to a difference of thermal expansion coefficients between concrete and reinforcement. Its mechanism is the same as that of restrained stress caused by drying shrinkage of concrete; tensile stress occurs in the concrete because drying shrinkage strain is restrained by reinforcements, but there is a different point that the phenomenon at a high temperature condition includes the change of mechanical properties of concrete and reinforcement. In the study, the phenomenon is measured in the experiments and is clarified quantitatively. Moreover, the estimation method, which is derived from expanding the equation of average strain of reinforcement in the CEB Design Manual, is suggested and is verified by the comparison with the experimental results. (author)

  2. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao linear de amostras irregulares de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-07-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient ({mu}) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the {mu} determination. It consists of the {mu} determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of {mu} was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  3. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    Solution of decision problems, which involve utilities of several currencies, have traditionally required the problems to be converted into decision problems involving utilities of only one currency. This conversion are carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption...... that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the Influence Diagram framework, which allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a conversion function between the currencies, discovers...

  4. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Stoltze, Per

    1997-01-01

    We discuss surface alloy phases and their stability based on surface phase diagrams constructed from the surface energy as a function of the surface composition. We show that in the simplest cases of pseudomorphic overlayers there are four generic classes of systems, characterized by the sign...... is based on density-functional calculations using the coherent-potential approximation and on effective-medium theory. We give self-consistent density-functional results for the segregation energy and surface mixing energy for all combinations of the transition and noble metals. Finally we discuss...

  5. The development of a high-throughput measurement method of octanol/water distribution coefficient based on hollow fiber membrane solvent microextraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, James J; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yong; Li, Youxin

    2014-09-15

    This paper describes the development of a novel high-throughput hollow fiber membrane solvent microextraction technique for the simultaneous measurement of the octanol/water distribution coefficient (logD) for organic compounds such as drugs. The method is based on a designed system, which consists of a 96-well plate modified with 96 hollow fiber membrane tubes and a matching lid with 96 center holes and 96 side holes distributing in 96 grids. Each center hole was glued with a sealed on one end hollow fiber membrane tube, which is used to separate the aqueous phase from the octanol phase. A needle, such as microsyringe or automatic sampler, can be directly inserted into the membrane tube to deposit octanol as the accepted phase or take out the mixture of the octanol and the drug. Each side hole is filled with aqueous phase and could freely take in/out solvent as the donor phase from the outside of the hollow fiber membranes. The logD can be calculated by measuring the drug concentration in each phase after extraction equilibrium. After a comprehensive comparison, the polytetrafluoroethylene hollow fiber with the thickness of 210 μm, an extraction time of 300 min, a temperature of 25 °C and atmospheric pressure without stirring are selected for the high throughput measurement. The correlation coefficient of the linear fit of the logD values of five drugs determined by our system to reference values is 0.9954, showed a nice accurate. The -8.9% intra-day and -4.4% inter-day precision of logD for metronidazole indicates a good precision. In addition, the logD values of eight drugs were simultaneously and successfully measured, which indicated that the 96 throughput measure method of logD value was accurate, precise, reliable and useful for high throughput screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive operational modal identification for slow linear time-varying structures based on frozen-in coefficient method and limited memory recursive principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Guan, Wei; Wang, J. Y.; Zhong, Bineng; Lai, Xiongming; Chen, Yewang; Xiang, Liang

    2018-02-01

    To adaptively identify the transient modal parameters for linear weakly damped structures with slow time-varying characteristics under unmeasured stationary random ambient loads, this paper proposes a novel operational modal analysis (OMA) method based on the frozen-in coefficient method and limited memory recursive principal component analysis (LMRPCA). In the modal coordinate, the random vibration response signals of mechanical weakly damped structures can be decomposed into the inner product of modal shapes and modal responses, from which the natural frequencies and damping ratios can be well acquired by single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) identification approach such as FFT. Hence, for the OMA method based on principal component analysis (PCA), it becomes very crucial to examine the relation between the transformational matrix and the modal shapes matrix, to find the association between the principal components (PCs) matrix and the modal responses matrix, and to turn the operational modal parameter identification problem into PCA of the stationary random vibration response signals of weakly damped mechanical structures. Based on the theory of "time-freezing", the method of frozen-in coefficient, and the assumption of "short time invariant" and "quasistationary", the non-stationary random response signals of the weakly damped and slow linear time-varying structures (LTV) can approximately be seen as the stationary random response time series of weakly damped and linear time invariant structures (LTI) in a short interval. Thus, the adaptive identification of time-varying operational modal parameters is turned into decompositing the PCs of stationary random vibration response signals subsection of weakly damped mechanical structures after choosing an appropriate limited memory window. Finally, a three-degree-of-freedom (DOF) structure with weakly damped and slow time-varying mass is presented to illustrate this method of identification. Results show that the LMRPCA

  7. The Use of Kruskal-Newton Diagrams for Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishaleck, T.; White, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The method of Kruskal-Newton diagrams for the solution of differential equations with boundary layers is shown to provide rapid intuitive understanding of layer scaling and can result in the conceptual simplification of some problems. The method is illustrated using equations arising in the theory of pattern formation and in plasma physics.

  8. Probabilistic optimization of safety coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; Devictor, N.; Magistris, F. de

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a reliability-based method for the optimization of safety coefficients defined and used in design codes. The purpose of the optimization is to determine the partial safety coefficients which minimize an objective function for sets of components and loading situations covered by a design rule. This objective function is a sum of distances between the reliability of the components designed using the safety coefficients and a target reliability. The advantage of this method is shown on the examples of the reactor vessel, a vapour pipe and the safety injection circuit. (authors)

  9. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  10. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  11. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  12. Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R

    2017-06-01

    The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. A method to determine exactly the effective atomic number, electron density and absorbtion coefficient of materials from two Computer-Tomography measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, G.

    1981-01-01

    By the method of computer tomography, which is in use since about 10 years, X-ray images of a layer of interest can be produced without interference from the material present above this layer. An integral measurement of the attenuation of continuous X-radiation is sufficient to record the different attenuation behaviour in a layer for the purpose of image formation. For more information, however, can be obtained by taking into account the spectral distribution of the X-ray source and the energy dependence of the attenuation, which varies for different materials. In the experimental part of this work the measurement of the spectral distribution is described together with the necessary corrections, and the possible application of the cross sections for the relevant interaction processes, which are known from the literature is studied. As shown in the theoretical part, the attenuation coefficient can be described by an effective atomic number and the electron density of the absorber in the case of an arbitrary mixture of absorbing materials and a continuous X-ray spectrum. These two unknown material parameters can be determined by a method based on the measurement of two spectra with different spectral distribution. This is demonstrated by a one-dimensional and a two-dimensional computer simulation. (orig./WU) [de

  14. Project of computer program for designing the steel with the assumed CCT diagram

    OpenAIRE

    S. Malara; J. Trzaska; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was developing a project of computer aided method for designing the chemicalcomposition of steel with the assumed CCT diagram.Design/methodology/approach: The purpose has been achieved in four stages. At the first stage characteristicpoints of CCT diagram have been determined. At the second stage neural networks have been developed, andnext CCT diagram terms of similarity have been worked out- at the third one. In the last one steel chemicalcomposition optimizat...

  15. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Enrico [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only dlog-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2015)202.

  16. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV ′ transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C

  17. Anatomy of geodesic Witten diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Kuo, En-Jui [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kyono, Hideki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-05-12

    We revisit the so-called “Geodesic Witten Diagrams” (GWDs) https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2016)146, proposed to be the holographic dual configuration of scalar conformal partial waves, from the perspectives of CFT operator product expansions. To this end, we explicitly consider three point GWDs which are natural building blocks of all possible four point GWDs, discuss their gluing procedure through integration over spectral parameter, and this leads us to a direct identification with the integral representation of CFT conformal partial waves. As a main application of this general construction, we consider the holographic dual of the conformal partial waves for external primary operators with spins. Moreover, we consider the closely related “split representation” for the bulk to bulk spinning propagator, to demonstrate how ordinary scalar Witten diagram with arbitrary spin exchange, can be systematically decomposed into scalar GWDs. We also discuss how to generalize to spinning cases.

  18. Leak before break piping evaluation diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabi, R.J.; Peck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally Leak Before Break (LBB) has been applied to the evaluation of piping in existing nuclear plants. This paper presents a simple method for evaluating piping systems for LBB during the design process. This method produces a piping evaluation diagram (PED) which defines the LBB requirements to the piping designer for use during the design process. Several sets of LBB analyses are performed for each different pipe size and material considered in the LBB application. The results of this method are independent of the actual pipe routing. Two complete LBB evaluations are performed to determine the maximum allowable stability load, one evaluation for a low normal operating load, and the other evaluation for a high normal operating load. These normal operating loads span the typical loads for the particular system being evaluated. In developing the allowable loads, the appropriate LBB margins are included in the PED preparation. The resulting LBB solutions are plotted as a set of allowable curves for the maximum design basis load, such is the seismic load versus the normal operating load. Since the required margins are already accounted for in the LBB PED, the piping designer can use the diagram directly with the results of the piping analysis and determine immediately if the current piping arrangement passes LBB. Since the LBB PED is independent of pipe routing, changes to the piping system can be evaluated using the existing PED. For a particular application, all that remains is to confirm that the actual materials and pipe sizes assumed in creating the particular design are built into the plant

  19. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  20. Selected topics on the nonrelativistic diagram technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The construction of the diagrams describing various processes in the four-particle systems is considered. It is shown that these diagrams, in particular the diagrams corresponding to the simple mechanisms often used in nuclear and atomic reaction theory, are readily obtained from the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations. The covariant four-dimensional formalism of nonrelativistic Feynman graphs and its connection to the three-dimensional graph technique are briefly discussed