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Sample records for codex alimentarius

  1. 76 FR 3600 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, are sponsoring a public meeting on February... of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which...

  2. 77 FR 5483 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, are sponsoring a public meeting on February... of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which...

  3. 78 FR 8101 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... on Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of.... Department of Health and Human Services, is sponsoring a public meeting on February 11, 2013, from 9:00 a.m... Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex...

  4. 76 FR 5130 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fat and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... effort to ensure that the public and in particular minorities, women, and persons with disabilities, are.... Manager for Codex Alimentarius. [FR Doc. 2011-1916 Filed 1-27-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-DM-P ...

  5. 77 FR 21077 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... guidelines; (c) studying specific labeling problems assigned to it by Codex; and (d) studying problems... Production, Processing, Labeling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods. (a) Inclusion of Ethylene for... on: April 3, 2012. Karen Stuck, U.S. Manager for Codex Alimentarius. [FR Doc. 2012-8505 Filed 4-6-12...

  6. 78 FR 6804 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...; (c) Studying specific labeling problems assigned to it by Codex; and (d) Studying problems associated... the Production, Processing, Labeling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods. (a) Use of ethylene... Washington, DC on January 24, 2013. Mary Frances Lowe, U.S. Manager for Codex Alimentarius. [FR Doc. 2013...

  7. 78 FR 13313 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Practice for Weed Control to Prevent and Reduce Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Contamination in Food and Feed... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2013-0011] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods AGENCY: Office of the Under...

  8. 76 FR 10556 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Amendment to the Standard for Quick Frozen Fish Sticks. Proposed Food Additive Provisions in Standards for... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2010-0036] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products AGENCY: Office of the...

  9. 75 FR 10206 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ..., in an effort to ensure that minorities, women, and persons with disabilities are aware of this notice... March 1, 2010. Karen Stuck, U.S. Manager for Codex Alimentarius. [FR Doc. 2010-4694 Filed 3-4-10; 8:45...

  10. 75 FR 4523 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... About the 42nd Session of the CCFA Contact: Dennis M. Keefe, Ph.D., Manager, International Activities..., in an effort to ensure that minorities, women, and persons with disabilities are aware of this notice..., 2010. Karen Stuck, U.S. Manager for Codex Alimentarius. [FR Doc. 2010-1666 Filed 1-27-10; 8:45 am...

  11. 77 FR 30993 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Alimentarius Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... undertaken by international governmental and non governmental organizations; determines priorities and... International Organizations Election of Chairperson and Vice Chairperson Designation of Countries Responsible... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Codex was established in 1963 by two United Nations organizations, the...

  12. 78 FR 83 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Import and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...The Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), is sponsoring a public meeting on January 24, 2013. The objective of the public meeting is to provide information and receive public comments on agenda items and draft United States (U.S.) positions that will be discussed at the 20th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems (CCFICS) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held in Chiang Mai, Thailand, February 18-22, 2013. The Under Secretary for Food Safety recognizes the importance of providing interested parties the opportunity to obtain background information on the 20th Session of the CCFICS and to address items on the agenda.

  13. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  14. 76 FR 3601 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ..., women, and persons with disabilities, are aware of this notice, FSIS will announce it on-line through... their accounts. Done at Washington, DC, on January 12, 2011. Karen Stuck, U.S. Manager for Codex...

  15. 78 FR 4829 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... will be held in Langkawi, Malaysia, February 25-March 1, 2013. The Under Secretary for Food Safety and... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2012-0055] Codex... for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office...

  16. 77 FR 54875 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... final product requirements) Proposed Food Additive Provisions in Standards for Fish and Fishery Products... (held at Step 7) Section 4 Food Additives Draft Standard for Quick Frozen Scallop Adductor Muscle Meat... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2012-0035] Codex...

  17. Dose implications of adopting the CAC [Codex Alimentarius Commission] standard for the control of food in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, C.B.; Au, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Based on several assumptions on food consumption and contamination, the dose implication in using the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) standard for the control of food in Hong Kong following a nuclear accident has been studied. Calculations are performed on six likely contaminated food types and on three radionuclide groups. Results show that the maximum individual doses arisig from the ingestion pathway are most probably below 0.2 mSv. This dose is so low that it would not cause any serious health problem to the people of Hong Kong. (author)

  18. 77 FR 3230 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2011-0034] Codex... of Sampling and Testing in International Food Trade Endorsement of Methods of Analysis Provisions in... subscription service which provides automatic and customized access to selected food safety news and...

  19. The Codex standard and code for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwin, L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief background on the work by the Codex Alimentarius Commission on irradiated foods is given. An Australian model food standard for irradiated foods, based on the Codex standard, is being developed

  20. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  1. 75 FR 27981 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Alimentarius Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... undertaken by international governmental and non- governmental organizations. The CAC will finalize standards... Nations organizations, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO...

  2. 78 FR 23899 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Alimentarius Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... information to regulations, directives, and notices. Customers can add or delete subscriptions themselves, and... meeting on June 18, 2013. The objective of the public meeting is to provide information and receive public... Rome, Italy. The Under Secretary for Food Safety recognizes the importance of providing interested...

  3. 76 FR 19742 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Alimentarius Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ..., July 4-9, 2011. The Under Secretary for Food Safety recognizes the importance of providing interested... Matters arising from the FAO and the WHO (a) FAO/WHO Project and Trust Fund for Enhanced Participation in....) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille...

  4. Basic principles set out in the Codex Alimentarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about food innocuousness, toxicology , nutrition, incertitude, availability data and interpretation, certitude grade, when evaluate the risk, danger identification, exposition population, qualitative probability and estimation, cuantitative risk, exposure limits, methods, methods based on the concept of threshold, general equation

  5. 75 FR 61119 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ..., Processing, and Marketing of Natural Mineral Waters at Step 4. Proposed Draft Revision of the Principles for... on the Application of General Principles of Food Hygiene to the Control of Viruses in Food at Step 4...

  6. 77 FR 5481 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its Acetylated Derivatives in Cereals and Cereal-Based Products. Proposed Draft Maximum... on Ochratoxin A in Cocoa. Discussion Paper on Guidance for Risk Management Options in Light of...

  7. 76 FR 8710 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Deoxynivalenol and its Acetylated Derivatives in Cereals and Cereal-based Products. Proposed Draft Maximum Levels... Assessment Methodologies. Discussion Paper on Ochratoxin A in Cocoa. Discussion Paper on Furan. Discussion...

  8. 77 FR 51511 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... notices. Customers can add or delete subscriptions themselves, and have the option to password protect.... The objective of the public meeting is to provide information and receive public comments on agenda... AMS recognize the importance of providing interested parties the opportunity to obtain background...

  9. 77 FR 61736 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... notices. Customers can add or delete subscriptions themselves, and have the option to password protect... meeting is to provide information, receive public comments on agenda items, and draft United States (U.S..., 2012. The Under Secretary for Food Safety and FDA recognize the importance of providing interested...

  10. 75 FR 10205 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on General Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    .... Customers can add or delete subscriptions themselves, and have the option to password protect their accounts... of the public meeting is to provide information and receive public comments on agenda items and draft...-16, 2010. The Office for Food Safety recognizes the importance of providing interested parties the...

  11. 77 FR 7125 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on General Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... recognizes the importance of providing interested parties the opportunity to obtain background information on... range from recalls to export information to regulations, directives, and notices. Customers can add or... public meeting on March 28, 2012. The objective of the public meeting is to provide information and...

  12. 76 FR 59381 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ..._Subscription/ . Options range from recalls, export information, regulations, directives, and notices. Customers... November 15, 2011. The objective of the public meeting is to provide information and receive public... FDA recognize the importance of providing interested parties the opportunity to obtain background...

  13. 78 FR 59336 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... . Options range from recalls to export information to regulations, directives and notices. Customers can add... October 23, 2013. The objective of the public meeting is to provide information and receive public... FDA recognize the importance of providing interested parties the opportunity to obtain background...

  14. 75 FR 1027 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... information to regulations, directives and notices. Customers can add or delete subscriptions themselves, and... information and receive public comments on agenda items and draft United States positions that will be.... The Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety and the AMS recognize the importance of providing...

  15. 76 FR 18149 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ...) Mandatory nutrition labeling. Guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and marketing of... USDA's Target Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TTY). To file a written complaint of discrimination... able to provide information to a much broader, more diverse audience. In addition, FSIS offers an e...

  16. 76 FR 59656 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Import and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ..., disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases... and Task Forces. Activities of the FAO and the WHO relevant to the work of the CCFICS. Activities of other international organizations relevant to the work of the CCFICS. Proposed draft Principles and...

  17. 77 FR 3229 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... of protection of human health; preparing priority lists of pesticides for evaluation by the Joint FAO... activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs...

  18. 75 FR 14418 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Implementation of the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity, and Health (a) Proposed Draft Revision of..., Physical Activity, and Health Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labeling and Marketing of... recognize the importance of providing interested parties the opportunity to obtain background information on...

  19. 77 FR 43234 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Agriculture (USDA), and the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), are sponsoring a public meeting on August 30... Session of the CCFFV Contact: Dorian Lafond, Agricultural Marketing Service, Fruits and Vegetables... (Braille, large print, or audiotape.) should contact USDA's Target Center at 202-720-2600 (voice and TTY...

  20. 76 FR 63280 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Statement USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color... discrimination, write USDA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW..., women, and persons with disabilities, are aware of this notice, FSIS will announce it on-line through...

  1. 76 FR 18150 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (CCFFV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ...), and the Fruit and Vegetable Programs of the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), are sponsoring... USDA's Target Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TTY). To file a written complaint of discrimination... able to provide information to a much broader, more diverse audience. In addition, FSIS offers an e...

  2. 75 FR 60718 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., November 1-5, 2010. The Under Secretary for Food Safety and FDA recognizes the importance of providing... require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, or audiotape... for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health professionals, and other individuals who...

  3. 76 FR 3603 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Under Secretary for Food Safety and the FDA recognize the importance of providing interested parties the... international groups working in methods of analysis and sampling and quality assurance systems for laboratories... apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of...

  4. 78 FR 56858 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...). USDA Nondiscrimination Statement The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age...) 720-2600 (voice and TTY). To file a written complaint of discrimination, write USDA Office of the...

  5. 76 FR 71308 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Codex Task Force on Animal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... the AFTF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address: http://www... Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of food standards, codes of... food producing animals. The guidelines should include specific science based risk assessment criteria...

  6. 78 FR 1196 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Ad Hoc Codex Intergovernmental Task Force on Animal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... related to the 7th Session of the AFTF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address... World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of food standards, codes of practice, and other... animals. The guidelines should include specific science-based risk assessment criteria to apply to feed...

  7. 78 FR 37202 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address: http://www.codexalimentarius... Session of the CCRVDF Contact: Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science and Policy, Office of New... Organization and the World Health Organization. Through adoption of food standards, codes of practice, and...

  8. 77 FR 16806 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... related to the 20th Session of the CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following... CCRVDF CONTACT: Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of...

  9. 75 FR 48928 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Session of the CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address: http://www... contact: Dr. Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of...

  10. Controlling the Outcome of Melting Radioactive Sources in Scrap Metal: from Exclusion, Exemption and Clearance towards a 'Codex Metallarius'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.J., E-mail: agonzale@sede.arn.gov.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-07-15

    Orphan radiation sources have been inadvertently incorporated into scrap metal and traces of radioactive residues have appeared in finished metal products causing public anxiety, despair in industry and governmental concern. The international principles of exclusion, exemption and clearance can be used to tackle this problem. They are described in detail, as they are becoming universally established for defining the scope of radiation protection regulations. However, notwithstanding the relevance of these principles, the paper suggests a straightforward professional consensus for discontinuing radiological control of commodities with minute traces of radioactive residues. The consensus should unambiguously specify a generic activity concentration in inedible commodities, including metals, below which radiological control may be effectively relinquished. A subsequent legally binding intergovernmental undertaking could resolve the current regulatory ambiguity, facilitate commercial exchange and ensure adequate public protection. For metals, it might take the form of a 'Codex Metallarius' (similar to the existing Codex Alimentarius for edible commodities) establishing a generic level of radiological acceptability for finished metal products. Furthermore, it is proposed that there should be an international convention to prevent radioactive sources becoming orphaned from regulatory control and then inadvertently appearing in trash and scrap. (author)

  11. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 KGy. The latter value shold not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  12. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  13. Etude sur le Latin dus codex Bobiensis (k) des evangiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogterp, Pieter Willem

    1930-01-01

    Le manuscrit dus texte, dont nous allons entreprendre l'étude, se trouve à la Biblioteca Nazionale de Turin (G VII 15). Il est universellement connu sous le nom de Codex Bobiensis (k d'après Tischendorf) et contient des parties de l'évangile selon S. Matthieu (I, 1-III, 10; IV, 2-XIV, 17; XV, 20-36)

  14. Coppo’s Piran codex – structure and condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedert Vodopivec

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with a number of precious museum pieces, the Maritime Museum »Sergej Mašera « in Piran keeps within its collection two manuscripts bound in a single text-block, i.e. De Summa totius Orbis and Portolano, together with printed woodcut maps. Coppo’s codex as a whole, is probably the most precious cartographic document kept in Slovenia and considered to be an artefact with world class cultural status. As parts of the Codex differ in content, they also vary in terms of their material profile. The manuscript and printed part differ due to the type of record, paper, form, manner of binding and degree of damage. For drawing, printing and colouring of the maps, the same materials were used as its contemporaries: paper, iron-gall inks and pigments. The textual part of the Codex is hardly readable and in many places badly damaged due to the corrosive activity of metal ions in iron-gall inks and copper pigments. Apart from itsinestimable information value, any potential damage to the Codex demands constant strict protection and exhibition only on exceptional occasions.

  15. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  16. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme executive committee of the Codex Alimentarius Commission 35. session WHO headquarters, Geneva, 4-8 July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document gives recommendations for maximum permissible radioactivity doses in food contaminated with radionuclides as the result of a nuclear accident. The aim is to provide a system that can be uniformly and simply applied by government authorities to control trade in contaminated food, and yet that achieves a more than adequate level of public health protection. 1 tab

  17. Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Champ, Martine; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37 degrees C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization > or =3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (S(R)) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.

  18. Nutrition issues in Codex: health claims, nutrient reference values and WTO agreements: a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J; Hathcock, John; Jukes, David; Richardson, David P; Calder, Philip C; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike; Nicklas, Theresa; Mühlebach, Stefan; Kwon, Oran; Lewis, Janine; Lugard, Maurits J F; Prock, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Codex documents may be used as educational and consensus materials for member governments. Also, the WTO SPS Agreement recognizes Codex as the presumptive international authority on food issues. Nutrient bioavailability is a critical factor in determining the ability of nutrients to provide beneficial effects. Bioavailability also influences the quantitative dietary requirements that are the basis of nutrient intake recommendations and NRVs. Codex, EFSA and some national regulatory authorities have established guidelines or regulations that will permit several types of health claims. The scientific basis for claims has been established by the US FDA and EFSA, but not yet by Codex. Evidence-based nutrition differs from evidence-based medicine, but the differences are only recently gaining recognition. Health claims on foods may provide useful information to consumers, but many will interpret the information to mean that they can rely upon the food or nutrient to eliminate a disease risk. NRVs are designed to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the nutritive values of foods, helping to illustrate how specific foods fit into the overall diet. The INL-98 and the mean of adult male and female values provide NRVs that are sufficient when used as targets for individual intakes by most adults. WTO recognizes Codex as the primary international authority on food issues. Current regulatory schemes based on recommended dietary allowances are trade restrictive. A substantial number of decisions by the EFSA could lead to violation of WTO agreements.

  19. 77 FR 30407 - 1,2-Ethanediamine, N

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Alimentarius Commission (Codex), as required by FFDCA section 408(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint U.N... section 408(n)(4) of FFDCA. As such, the Agency has determined that this action will not have a...

  20. Ungeklärte Fragen zu den Handschriften Codex Calixtinus und Ripoll 99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Förster Binz, Verena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There are still a number of unanswered questions in connection with the Codex Calixtinus (E-SCc s.s. They concern the origin of the compilation as it stands in the Codex Calixtinus and also partly in the manuscript Ripoll 99 (E-Bac 99, as well as the relationship between these two sources. This article takes up observations which are based on a detailed comparison of the versions of the tunes from the Mass for the Feast of St. James which appears in both Mss. and of these two with manuscripts in the tradition of Aquitaine and Central France. Several factors suggest that the original compilation was of Spanish or Southern French provenance and was edited and copied in Central France, also that the Mss. Ripoll 99 is neither a copy of the Codex Calixtinus nor based on a common original.

    [de] Im Zusammenhang mit dem Codex Calixtinus (E-SCc s.s. gibt es nach wie vor eine Reihe ungeklärter Fragen. Sie betreffen den Ursprung der im Codex Calixtinus und zum Teil auch in der Handschrift Ripoll 99 (E-Bac 99 überlieferten Kompilation sowie das Verhältnis zwischen diesen beiden Quellen. Der vorliegende Beitrag nimmt Beobachtungen auf, die auf einem detaillierten Vergleich der Melodiefassungen der in beiden Handschriften enthaltenen Messe für das Hauptfest des Jacobus und auf einer Gegeniiberstellung derselben mit Handschriften aus dem zentralfranzösischen und dem aquitanischen Überlieferungskontext basieren. Mehrere Faktoren sprechen dafür, daß die ursprtingliche Kompilation spanischer oder südfranzösischer Provenienz war und in Zentralfrankreich redigiert und kopiert wurde und daß die Handschrift Ripoll 99 keine Abschrift des Codex Calixtinus ist und auch nicht auf der selben Vorlage basiert wie dieser.

  1. X-ray radiography inspection of core model of the CODEX AIT-2 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasko, M.; Hozer, Z.; Maroti, L.; Windberg, P

    1999-01-01

    X-ray radiography is an advanced non-destructive technique to visualize and analyze the different damages of the investigated objects. An oxidation phenomena in severe accident was simulated by the CODEX AIT-2 test facility. The placement, the extension and features of the damages were discovered by radioscopy and film technique before cutting into slices the AIT-2 boundle. (author)

  2. Simulation of the Paks-2 incident. The CODEX-CT-1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windberg, P.; Hozer, Z.; Nagy, I.; Vimi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was simulated with an electrically heated fuel bundle in the CODEX facility. The test conditions included seven hours of oxidation in hydrogen rich steam and final water quenching of the brittle fuel rods. The final state of the bundle showed similar picture that was observed after the incident at the power plant in 2003. (author)

  3. Application of image processing technology to problems in manuscript encapsulation. [Codex Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Korsmo, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    The long term effects of encapsulation individual sheets of the Codex Hammer were investigated. The manuscript was simulated with similar sheets of paper which were photographed under repeatable raking light conditions to enhance their surface texture, encapsulated in plexiglas, cycled in an environmental test chamber, and rephotographed at selected intervals. The film images were digitized, contrast enhanced, geometrically registered, and apodized. An FFT analysis of a control sheet and two experimental sheets indicates no micro-burnishing, but reveals that the ""mesoscale'' deformations with sizes 8mm are degrading monotonically, which is of no concern. Difference image analysis indicates that the sheets were increasingly stressed with time and that the plexiglas did not provide a sufficient environmental barrier under the simulation conditions. The relationship of these results to the Codex itself is to be determined.

  4. Maize, Quetzalcoatl, and Grass Imagery: Science in the Central Mexican Codex Borgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Before the Spanish-led defeat of the Aztecs in 1521, manuscripts were ubiquitous in Mesoamerica. Regrettably very few survive. One of them is the Aztec (Eastern Nahua) Codex Borgia painted in the Late Postclassic period (ca. 1250–1521 CE). Many of its 76 pages include maize imagery in polychrome. The plant appears amid gods of fertility hovering above naked females; associated with Quetzalcoatl, the god of wind; and rendered to look strikingly similar to grass. The questions I address in this...

  5. Proper Names in the 17th Century Olonets Codex of Verbal Charms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey L. Toporkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the corpus of names found in the charms of the Olonets Codex from the second quarter of the 17th century. The author seeks to identify the background of the characters’ naming, to propose the ways of their detailed cataloguing, as well as to provide a commentary revealing the certain names’ semantics and contextual meanings (e.g. Ivan Khorober, Mari(yin Son, Gongoi and Gogeia, Maurij Oak, etc. The statistical analysis of the Olonets Codex texts (to comprise about 90 charms has found several groups of personal names, including those of the Christian pantheon characters, the names of other characters from the Old and New Testaments, the names of Orthodox saints, the names of spirits — masters of the forest and natural objects. Most frequently, the charms would mention the Christ and the Mother of God either as Biblical characters or as direct recipients of the prayer (for help, patronage, healing and subjects of certain actions aimed to protect the person or to punish their enemies. Most outstanding characters like St. George the Victorious, Wonderworkers Cosmas and Damian, Ilya the Prophet, King Solomon, and Adam can be treated both as Christian and folk-mythological images. For instance, St. George was also referred to as the lord of wolves and other wild animals; Ilya the Prophet was impersonated as the horseman and thunderer, related to heavenly, earthly, and water powers and even to the departed parents. Along with those of Christian tradition, the Olonets Codex charms mention mythological creatures as well. Namely, the king Gongoi and the queen Gogeya, the king Parphey, the king Shustiy, the king Zhazhda (Thirst. It is due to the personalization of natural objects that nominations like the dawn Ogrofena, the oak Maurij, and the oak Yegor have appeared; given that the latter names may also have their sacred precedents (oak Yegor ← St. George.

  6. Codex Troano - Análise Particional e principais gestos composicionais no III movimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Codeço

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Codex Troano é uma das peças referenciais dentro da obra de Roberto Victorio, sendo também uma das mais importantes obras brasileiras para grupo de percussão. O presente trabalho foca o terceiro de seus três movimentos e pretende revelar seu plano composicional a partir de dados da Análise Particional. Para isso, o enfoque gestual será lançado sobre os dados da AP. Para a realização da análise, será tomado como referencial o indexograma, ferramenta gráfica da AP.

  7. Non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex from Brescia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Idone, Ambra; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Baraldi, Pietro; Crivello, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Purple codices are among the most relevant and prestigious book productions of Late Antique and Medieval age. They usually contained texts from Holy Writings written with golden or silver inks on parchment dyed in a purple hue. According to the tradition, the colour of parchment was obtained by the well renowned Tyrian purple dye. From the material point of view, however, very little is known about the compounds actually used in the manufacture of these manuscripts. Presently, the information available is limited to the ancient art treatises, with very few diagnostic evidences supporting them and, moreover, none confirming the presence of Tyrian purple. It is more than apparent, then, the need to have at disposal larger and more complete information at the concern, in order to verify what came to us from the literary tradition only. In this study, preliminary results are presented from non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex, the so-called CodexBrixianus, held in the Biblioteca Civica Queriniana at Brescia (Italy). Analyses were carried out with XRF spectrometry, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, molecular spectrofluorimetry and optical microscopy. The results suggest the hypothesis that Tyrian purple had been used as a minor component mixed with other less precious dyes such as folium or orchil.

  8. Regional electoral process in a context of discussion about the project of the electoral codex of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Олеговна Лисянская

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article are analyzed pluses and minuses of different electoral systems, their applicability to the Russian conditions, considering the reforms of the electoral legislation of Russia. The project of the Electoral Codex as possible document that regulates regional electoral process put under consideration.

  9. Regional electoral process in a context of discussion about the project of the electoral codex of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Елена Олеговна Лисянская

    2009-01-01

    In the given article are analyzed pluses and minuses of different electoral systems, their applicability to the Russian conditions, considering the reforms of the electoral legislation of Russia. The project of the Electoral Codex as possible document that regulates regional electoral process put under consideration.

  10. CODEX-B4C experiment. Core degradation test with boron carbide control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Nagy, I.; Windberg, P.; Balasko, M.; Matus, L.; Prokopiev, O.; Pinter, A.; Horvath, M.; Gyenes, Gy.; Czitrovszky, A.; Nagy, A.; Jani, P.

    2003-11-01

    The CODEX-B4C bundle test has been successfully performed on 25 th May 2001 in the framework of the COLOSS project of the EU 5 th FWP. The high temperature degradation of a VVER-1000 type bundle with B 4 C control rod was investigated with electrically heated fuel rods. The experiment was carried out according to a scenario selected in favour of methane formation. Degradation of control rod and fuel bundle took place at temperatures ∼2000 deg C, cooling down of the bundle was performed in steam atmosphere. The gas composition measurement indicated no methane production during the experiment. High release of aerosols was detected in the high temperature oxidation phase. The on-line measured data are collected into a database and are available for code validation and development. (author)

  11. CODEX-B4C experiment. Core degradation test with boron carbide control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozer, Z; Nagy, I; Windberg, P; Balasko, M; Matus, L; Prokopiev, O; Pinter, A; Horvath, M; Gyenes, Gy [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Czitrovszky, A; Nagy, A; Jani, P [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2003-11-01

    The CODEX-B4C bundle test has been successfully performed on 25{sup th} May 2001 in the framework of the COLOSS project of the EU 5{sup th} FWP. The high temperature degradation of a VVER-1000 type bundle with B{sub 4}C control rod was investigated with electrically heated fuel rods. The experiment was carried out according to a scenario selected in favour of methane formation. Degradation of control rod and fuel bundle took place at temperatures {approx}2000 deg C, cooling down of the bundle was performed in steam atmosphere. The gas composition measurement indicated no methane production during the experiment. High release of aerosols was detected in the high temperature oxidation phase. The on-line measured data are collected into a database and are available for code validation and development. (author)

  12. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci’s Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Tarsitani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents.

  13. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci's Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitani, Gianfranco; Moroni, Catia; Cappitelli, Francesca; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Maggi, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC) of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents.

  14. CODEX weak lensing: concentration of galaxy clusters at z ˜ 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibirka, N.; Cypriano, E. S.; Brimioulle, F.; Gruen, D.; Erben, T.; van Waerbeke, L.; Miller, L.; Finoguenov, A.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Henry, J. Patrick; Rykoff, E.; Rozo, E.; Dupke, R.; Kneib, J.-P.; Shan, H.; Spinelli, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present a stacked weak-lensing analysis of 27 richness selected galaxy clusters at 0.40 ≤ z ≤ 0.62 in the COnstrain Dark Energy with X-ray galaxy clusters (CODEX) survey. The fields were observed in five bands with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We measure the stacked surface mass density profile with a 14σ significance in the radial range 0.1 White profile (NFW) profile and including the off-centring effect. We select the background sample using a conservative colour-magnitude method to reduce the potential systematic errors and contamination by cluster member galaxies. We perform a Bayesian analysis for the stacked profile and constrain the best-fitting NFW parameters M_{200c} = 6.6^{+1.0}_{-0.8} × 10^{14} h^{-1} M_{⊙} and c_{200c} = 3.7^{+0.7}_{-0.6}. The off-centring effect was modelled based on previous observational results found for redMaPPer Sloan Digital Sky Survey clusters. Our constraints on M200c and c200c allow us to investigate the consistency with numerical predictions and select a concentration-mass relation to describe the high richness CODEX sample. Comparing our best-fitting values for M200c and c200c with other observational surveys at different redshifts, we find no evidence for evolution in the concentration-mass relation, though it could be mitigated by particular selection functions. Similar to previous studies investigating the X-ray luminosity-mass relation, our data suggest a lower evolution than expected from self-similarity.

  15. NMR characterization of segmental dynamics in poly(alkyl methacrylate) using CODEX and PUREX exchange techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Slow side group dynamics in a series of five poly(alkyl methacrylate)s with varying side group sizes (PMAA, PMMA, PEMA, PiBMA, and PcHMA, with -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 , and -cyclohexyl alkyl substituents, respectively) have been studied quantitatively by center band-only detection of exchange (CODEX) and pure exchange (PUREX) 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Flips and small-angle motions of the ester groups associated with the β-relaxation are observed distinctly, and the fraction of slowly flipping groups has been measured with 3% precision. In PMMA, 34% of side groups flip, while the fraction is 31% in PEMA at 25 C. Even the large isobutyl ether and cyclohexylester side groups can flip in the glassy state, although the flipping fraction is reduced to 22% and ∼10%, respectively. In poly methacrylic acid, no slow side group flips are detected. In PMMA, the flipping fraction is temperature-independent between 25 C and 80 C, while in Pemal it increases continuously from 31 to 60% between 25 C and 60 C. A similar doubling is also observed in Pi BMA. (author)

  16. Sahagún's "Florentine codex," a little known Aztecan natural history of the Valley of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Henry M

    2006-01-01

    Franciscan missionary Fray Bernardino de Sahagún arrived in New Spain (Mexico) in 1529 to proselytize Aztecs surviving the Conquest, begun by Hernán Cortés in 1519. About 1558 he commenced his huge opus "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España" completed in Latin-Nahuatl manuscript in 1569. The best surviving version, the "Florentine Codex," 1579 in Spanish-Nahuatl, is the basis for the editions published since 1829. The first English translation was issued in 13 volumes between 1950 and 1982, and the first facsimile was published in 1979. Book 11, "Earthly things," is a comprehensive natural history of the Valley of Mexico based on pre-Cortésian Aztec knowledge. Sahagún's work, largely unknown among English-speaking biologists, is an untapped treasury of information about Aztecan natural history. It also establishes the Aztecs as the preeminent pioneering naturalists of North American, and Sahagún and his colleagues as their documentarians.

  17. chemical characteristic of selected imported and local honey sold

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    . Standard for Honey, Rev.2, 24th Session of the Codex Alimentarius, CODEX ROME. CAA, Codigo Alimentario Argentino,(2004). Secretariat de Agricultura, Ganaderia y pesca, Buenos. Aires, Argentina.Fennema, O.R. (2003). Food. Chemistry ...

  18. News on MS Raqqada 2003/2 (olim Great Mosque of Qayrawan 120/829): the “double discovery” of a codex a long time disappeared

    OpenAIRE

    Penelas, Mayte

    2008-01-01

    News on the finding of the photographs of the codex of the Great Mosque of Qayrawan on which Levi Della Vida relied while working on the Mozarab text of world history. I offer an advance of the contents of those photographs as regards both the world history and the other texts of a polemical nature that are also part of the codex, at present Raqqada 2003/2. Noticia del hallazgo de las fotografías del códice de la Gran Mezquita de Qayrawan en las que se basó Levi Della Vida para su trabajo ...

  19. For the study of the manuscript biblical tradition: a new proposal for the analysis of codex 2437

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Oliveira Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article submitted to Horizonte Journal proposes a new way to study the codex 2437, a manuscript written in Greek between the centuries XII and XIII that brings the four Gospels of the canonical New Testament. The interest in this document is growing and it can be justified because it is part of the collection of the National Library of Rio de Janeiro, being considered the oldest manuscript in Latin America. The manuscript is, therefore, a cultural and material heritage that we need to preserve and study more. Our suggestion for the research aims to complement the traditional studies of textual criticism with a methodological framework that was extracted from the History of Writing Culture and contemporary literary studies, fields of knowledge that encourage us to take books not to deal only with its contents, but also to consider some aspects of materiality, paratexts and the history of their uses and readings.

  20. Risk assessments of regional climate change over Europe: generation of probabilistic ensemble and uncertainty assessment for EURO-CODEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.; Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative risk analysis of regional climate change is crucial for risk management and impact assessment of climate change. Two major challenges to assessing the risks of climate change are: CMIP5 model runs, which drive EURO-CODEX downscaling runs, do not cover the full range of uncertainty of future projections; Climate models may underestimate the probability of tail risks (i.e. extreme events). To overcome the difficulties, this study offers a viable avenue, where a set of probabilistic climate ensemble is generated using the Surrogate/Model Mixed Ensemble (SMME) method. The probabilistic ensembles for temperature and precipitation are used to assess the range of uncertainty covered by five bias-corrected simulations from the high-resolution (0.11º) EURO-CODEX database, which are selected by the PESETA (The Projection of Economic impacts of climate change in Sectors of the European Union based on bottom-up Analysis) III project. Results show that the distribution of SMME ensemble is notably wider than both distribution of raw ensemble of GCMs and the spread of the five EURO-CORDEX in RCP8.5. Tail risks are well presented by the SMME ensemble. Both SMME ensemble and EURO-CORDEX projections are aggregated to administrative level, and are integrated into impact functions of PESETA III to assess climate risks in Europe. To further evaluate the uncertainties introduced by the downscaling process, we compare the 5 runs from EURO-CORDEX with runs from the corresponding GCMs. Time series of regional mean, spatial patterns, and climate indices are examined for the future climate (2080-2099) deviating from the present climate (1981-2010). The downscaling processes do not appear to be trend-preserving, e.g. the increase in regional mean temperature from EURO-CORDEX is slower than that from the corresponding GCM. The spatial pattern comparison reveals that the differences between each pair of GCM and EURO-CORDEX are small in winter. In summer, the temperatures of EURO

  1. A comparison of contributions from the Aztec cities of Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan to the bird chapter of the Florentine Codex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Haemig

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Florentine Codex is a Renaissance-era illuminated manuscript that contains the earliest-known regional work on the birds of México. Its Nahuatl language texts and scholia (the latter later incorporated into its Spanish texts were written in the 1560s by Bernardino de Sahagún’s research group of elite native Mexican scholars in collaboration with Aztecs from two cities: Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan. In the present study, I compared the contributions from these two cities and found many differences. While both cities contributed accounts and descriptions of land and water birds, those from Tlatelolco were mainly land birds, while those from Tenochtitlan were mainly water birds. Tlatelolco contributed over twice as many bird accounts as Tenochtitlan, and supplied the only information about medicinal uses of birds. Tenochtitlan peer reviewed the Tlatelolco bird accounts and improved many of them. In addition, Tenochtitlan contributed all information on bird abundance and most information about which birds were eaten and not eaten by humans. Spanish bird names appear more frequently in the Aztec language texts from Tenochtitlan. Content analysis of the Tenochtitlan accounts suggests collaboration with the water folk Atlaca (a prehistoric lacustrine culture and indigenous contacts with Spanish falconers. The Renaissance-era studies of Sahagún’s research group, on a now lost island in the formerly vast, bird-rich wetlands of the Valley of México, constitute the birth of Mexican ornithology and, coincidently, give the history of Mexican ornithology a distinctive, Aztlán-like beginning, significantly different from the ornithological histories of neighboring countries.

  2. La flora como recurso terapéutico : el caso de los extractos fluidos de los Laboratorios Codex en México

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch Martínez, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Entre las fuentes para una historia social de la terapéutica en México, es pertinente analizar la producción de sus laboratorios farmacéuticos, aún cuando reflejen de manera limitada e indirecta la práctica terapéutica misma. Una primera aproximación a los extractos fluidos de los Laboratorios Codex producidos en el segundo cuarto del siglo XX, permite destacar la diversidad florística de la materia prima empleada en ellos y sus propiedades terapéuticas, avaladas entonces por las autoridades ...

  3. From social movement to food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1998-01-01

    The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector...

  4. From social movement to food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1998-01-01

    The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector....

  5. Risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Lizarazu, X.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation Colombia risk evaluation experiences, sanitarian regulations evolution, chemical dangers food, biological dangers food, codex alimentarius, trade, industrial effects, dangers identification, data collection and risk profile

  6. Introduction of the risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campon, G.; Martinez, I.

    2013-01-01

    An introduction of risks analysis was given in the exposition which main issues were: food innocuousness, world, regional and national food context,change of paradigms, health definition, risk, codex, standardization, food chain role, trade agreement, codex alimentarius, food transmission diseases cost impact

  7. Codex Theodosianus et falsarii monetae

    OpenAIRE

    San Vicente González de Aspuru, José Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    En el año 309, Constantino introdujo en la circulación monetaria romana el solidus de oro. Desde entonces, los emperadores hicieron grandes esfuerzos por proteger esta moneda. Su falsificación se equiparó a la traición, ya que se interpretaba como una ofensa sacrílega hacia la persona del emperador, y se condenaba a sus autores a la pena capital más dura e infamante, la de ser quemados vivos. En este estudio se recoge la legislación que se aplicaba a los falsarios de oro, plata y ...

  8. UNA PROPUESTA DE ESCALA DE INTENSIDAD SÍSMICA OBTENIDA DEL CÓDICE NÁHUATL TELLERIANO REMENSIS (A Proposal of a Seismic Intensity Scale Obtained from the Nahuatl Codex Telleriano Remensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Garduño-Monroy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antes de la llegada de los españoles a América, entre los siglos XIV y XVI, los hechos y acontecimientos de la vida diaria fueron registrados por los pueblos nativos con símbolos en los códices. Muchos de esos códices fueron destruidos por los españoles al ser considerados una forma de idolatría. Sin embargo, en México y en el extranjero existen aún varios códices que fueron dibujados por los tlacuilos, personas con conocimientos en diferentes disciplinas como los procesos naturales, la biodiversidad, las guerras y los problemas sociales y religiosos. Uno de ellos, con una gran cantidad de información, es el códice conocido como Telleriano Remensis. Este contiene representaciones de diversos procesos naturales como el clima, las erupciones volcánicas y los sismos, así como de procesos de tipo social, político y religioso, entre otros. Un análisis geocientífico cuidadoso de este códice, consultando la literatura relacionada, ha permitido encontrar evidencias de doce eventos sísmicos que quedaron registrados en el espacio y en el tiempo. Los sismos se representaron con dos símbolos combinados correspondientes a la tierra y al movimiento. Por separado, ninguno de estos dos símbolos está relacionado con los sismos, si bien juntos sí representan un evento sísmico cuyos efectos podrían reflejar una intensidad o grado V en la escala de intensidad sísmica ambiental conocida como ESI (Environmental Seismic Intensity 2007. Pero también se plantea la posibilidad de que el pueblo náhuatl hubiera conseguido una escala de intensidades de sismos antes de las escalas modernas. ENGLISH: Before the arrival of the Spaniards in America, between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries A.D., events and daily life were described through symbols in documents called codices. During the conquest, the Spaniards destroyed many of the codices because they were viewed as idolatrous. In Mexico and overseas there exist a number of codex that were

  9. The challenge of setting risk-based microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Kirk; Nørrung, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    After more than 20 years of work with discussing the setting of microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes in foods, Codex Alimentarius on Food Hygiene has finalised a proposal that was recently adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The effort of developing procedures for making...... the microbiological criteria risk-based to the greatest extent possible has challenged scientists and managers during this long time period. Yet, the establishment of microbiological criteria for L. monocytogenes is still being discussed and several approaches are possible. Setting of microbiological criteria...

  10. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1982-09-01

    Recent international moves that are likely to result in an increasing acceptance of irradiated foods are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the activities of the FAO, WHO, Codex Alimentarius and to attitudes in the United States and the Asian-Pacific region. In 1979, the Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted a Recommended General Standard for Irradiated Food. A resume is given of a revised version of the standard that is presently under consideration. However, remaining barriers to trade in irradiated food are briefly discussed, such as legal and regulatory problems, labelling, public acceptance and economic viability

  11. Effect of water deficiency on anatomical structure of codex in root hair zone of maize root tip%水分亏缺对玉米根毛区皮层解剖结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 李万春; 汪李宏; 岳文俊; 马旭凤; 姚雅琴; 张富仓

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The research was to study the effect of water deficiency on anatomical structure of codex in maize root hair zone for drought resistance mechanism.【Method】 Taking Gaonong 901 maize which has certain drought resistance in a pot experiment as four groups named control,light deficiency,moderate deficiency,severe deficiency with water treatments:75%-85% of field capacity(CK),65%-75% of field capacity(LS),55%-65% of field capacity(MS),and 45%-55% of field capacity(SS).Tissues of roots which were 10 cm distance from root tips prepared emgedded in epoxy resins were cut into half thin section for optical microscope.With green and the counterstain safranin,armour aniline blue and fluorescent dyes,the changes of cortical cell and casparian band were found through observation under Olympus BX51 microscope and calculation by image pro plus 6.0.【Result】 With increasing water deficiency,codex parenchyma cells were irregularly arranged and width of codex in root hair zone of maize seedling and jointing got thinner.Both in seedling and jointing stage,the length of endodermis in root hair zone decreased unconspicuously,and the width of endodermis changed obviously.Comparatively,the endodermis in seedling changed more obviously than that in jointing,which caused by mature casparian band enhanced mechanical strength of endodermis.Fluorescence observations showed that casparian band of axial walls of endodermis thickened on seedling stage with light deficiency.Both axial and inner tangential walls of casparian band of endodermis thickened more obviously at jointing stage with light and moderate deficiency.Endodermis which had less modified structure deformated obviously with severe deficiency.【Conclusion】 The structure of codex in root hair zone of maize at seedling was more sensitive than at jointing with water deficiency.The tolerance of roots to proper water deficit may be increased by changes such as width of codex and ligno

  12. Global Harmonization of Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Árpád; Yang, Yong Zhen

    2016-01-13

    International trade plays an important role in national economics. The Codex Alimentarius Commission develops harmonized international food standards, guidelines, and codes of practice to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. The Codex maximum residue limits (MRLs) elaborated by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues are based on the recommendations of the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticides (JMPR). The basic principles applied currently by the JMPR for the evaluation of experimental data and related information are described together with some of the areas in which further developments are needed.

  13. Physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of A pis dorsata, A pis mellifera and Z iziphus jujube honey samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira Fahim

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimentarius Commission. Evaluation of these honey samples confirms antimicrobial potential of particular types of honeys indigenous to Pakistan.

  14. Quantitation of coeliac toxicity in wheat using genomics and proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, T.H.P.; Schaart, J.G.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Several tests are currently marketed for measuring the amount of gluten in food products and to determine whether products are gluten-free. Of these tests, the Codex Alimentarius approved the R-Biopharm R5 ELISA as the gluten detection standard. This test is based on recognition by a monoclonal

  15. 75 FR 60231 - Acephate, Cacodylic Acid, Dicamba, Dicloran, et al.; Tolerance Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...- 0262 in the subject line on the first page of your submission. All objections and requests for a... FFDCA section 408(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization/World... served, including food service, manufacturing and processing establishments, such as restaurants...

  16. Dietary fibre: new frontiers for food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamp, J. W. van der

    2010-01-01

    ... papers of the Dietary fibre analysis workshop and the HEALTHGRAIN Symposium Cereal grain fibre and health , both held in conjunction with DF09. This book is titled Dietary fibre- new frontiers for food and health . With the adoption - after decades of debate - of almost identical definitions of dietary fibre by Codex Alimentarius and the European Un...

  17. Legal aspects and international implications of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Alain.

    1977-11-01

    This paper reports on the status of work on food irradiation at international level, namely the IAEA/FAO/WHO Vienna recommendations, the proposed EEC directive, and the Codex alimentarius draft standards. It then deals with the legal aspects of the subject, in particular the problems concerning definitions, controls and instructions, and finally reviews the regulations for international trade in irradiated foodstuffs. (NEA) [fr

  18. Critical notes on microbiological risk assessment of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Schothorst, van M.

    2000-01-01

    Although numerous papers on Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) of food products have been published, a number of issues related to it remain unresolved. This paper explains the role of Microbiological Risk Assessment in the context of Risk Analysis as outlined by Codex Alimentarius. It reviews

  19. Assessing the Impact of Current National Policies to Reduce Salt ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assessing the Impact of Current National Policies to Reduce Salt and Trans Fatty Acids in Argentina ... The Codex Alimentarius, or international food safety standards, will also decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) ... Researchers will develop a strategy to share results with policymakers and other stakeholders. ... Journal articles.

  20. fortification des farines tropicales par l'introduction de proteines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Université d'Abomey Calavy, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Bénin ... valeur recommandée par le Codex Alimentarius pour ce type de complément alimentaire destiné aux enfants. ..... neurotransmission, coagulation sanguine et.

  1. Transboundary Trade in Genetically Modified Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bracht

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the regulatory approach to GM foods at three levels: Codex Alimentarius, the WTO and the EU. The key issue is the latitude of the EU to have regional food safety measures that impose import restrictions on GM foods from third countries. This latitude is limited by the EU...

  2. The Global Arena of Food Law: Emerging Contours of a Meta-Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Meulen (Bernd)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFood is one of the most regulated social and economic sectors. At the global level several organisations such as the UN, FAO, WHO, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the WTO play a role in food governance through formulating and enforcing rules regarding production, manufacturing,

  3. Overview of the PREPARE WP3: management of contaminated goods in post-accidental situation – Synthesis of European stakeholders' panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charron, S.; Lafage, S.; Asselt, Van E.; Baptista, M.; Bourgondiën, Van M.; Brandhoff, P.; Cabianca, T.; Camps, J.; Cessac, B.; Crouail, P.; Durand, V.; Gallego, E.; Gil, O.; Holmes, S.; Hourdakis, C.; Jones, K.; Kamenopoulou, V.; Lecomte, J.F.; Liland, A.; Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Martins, J.O.; McMahon, C.; Montero, M.; Murith, C.; Olyslaegers, G.; Organo, C.; Paiva, I.; Peltonen, T.; Portugal, L.; Potiriadis, C.; Prades, A.; Reis, M.; Rossignol, N.; Schneider, T.; Sala, R.; Smith, V.; Tafili, V.; Teles, P.; Tomkiv, Y.; Trueba, C.; Turcanu, C.; Turtiainen, T.; Twenhöfel, C.; Vaz, P.; Duranova, Tatiana; Raskob, Wolfgang; Schneider, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations and requirements for the management of foodstuffs including drinking water and
    feedstuffs (but not other commodities) contaminated after a nuclear accident or a radiological event have been developed by
    international bodies such as Codex Alimentarius Commission or European

  4. Análisis iconográfico preliminar de fragmentos de las vasijas estilo códice procedentes de Calakmul A preliminary iconographic analysis of codex style vessels from Calakmul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana García Barrios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cerámicas estilo códice fueron elaboradas durante la segunda mitad del siglo VII y principios del VIII d.C. en un área de la Cuenca del Mirador que abarca ciudades como Nakbé, Tintal, Pacaya y otras como Calakmul. En este último lugar se han recuperado en los últimos años más de 700 fragmentos cerámicos que tienen un gran parecido estilístico con muchas de las temáticas de las vasijas que se encuentran en colecciones privadas y museos, todas ellas procedentes del saqueo masivo de la década de los setenta. Entre los temas reconocidos en los fragmentos de Calakmul se encuentran diferentes episodios del mito del Dios del Maíz, así como el lanzamiento del Bebé Jaguar y otros episodios donde participa el Dios Viejo, así como el título ampliamente empleado en estas cerámicas que designa a un grupo de poder conocido como chatan winik.The codex style vessels were elaborated during second half of 7th century and the beginning of 8th century A.C., in the area of "Cuenca del Mirador" that includes cities like Nakbé, Tintal, Pacaya and Calakmul. In this city, in the past last years, there has been a recovery of more than 700 ceramic fragments, which have a great stylistic similarity with many of the thematic ceramics which are in private collections and museums, all of them coming from the massive sacking during 70's years. Between the subjects recognized in the fragments of Calakmul, it can be found different episodes from the myth of God of maíz, as well as the launching of "baby jaguar" or Unen B'ahlam, along with other subjects where the Old God participates, and the title widely used in these vessels designates a group of power known as chatan winik.

  5. Nota biobibliográfica + poética + creaciones («Rebel·lió: problema visual», «Tarot de Marsella: poema aleatorio», «Codex mundi. Contingencia: escritura fractal II-3», «Blanc o nada. Topoemalogía (trilingüe», «New York, Portbou, Benjamin» y «Bar 12 heures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Dachs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nota biobibliográfica + poética + creaciones («Rebel·lió: problema visual», «Tarot de Marsella: poema aleatorio», «Codex mundi. Contingencia: escritura fractal II-3», «Blanc o nada. Topoemalogía (trilingüe», «New York, Portbou, Benjamin» y «Bar 12 heures» + cuestionario (Victoria Pineda

  6. Discriminación visual como determinante de estilo y asignación tipológica de la cerámica códice de Calakmul, Campeche Visual Discrimination as a Style and Typological Classification Determiner for "Codex"Ceramics in Calakmul, Campeche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylviane Boucher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los aproximadamente 600 fragmentos de cerámica de estilo códice recuperados por el Proyecto Arqueológico Calakmul, corresponderían a un mínimo de 86 vasijas. La mayoría proviene de contextos asociados al palacio, Estructura XX, de la Gran Acrópolis donde, probablemente, se celebraban importantes eventos sociales y políticos entre la aristocracia maya, como se ha planteado. Los análisis químicos de pasta de cerámica códice han dado como resultado divisiones principales dentro de ésta, aunque se ha propuesto como único foco de fabricación la región de la cuenca de El Mirador. Los nuevos hallazgos en Calakmul nos permiten cuestionar el origen único de este estilo. Mientras que se generan datos comparativos para una caracterización de las huellas químicas de pasta, proponemos un análisis con base en modas cerámicas y en el sistema Tipo-variedad.This paper, primarily, addresses the approximately 600 codex style sherds recovered during the Calakmul Archaeological Project. These sherds make up a minimum of 86 vessels. The majority of these come from archaeological contexts associated with the palace structure known as Structure XX in the Great Acropolis, where important social and political events took place among maya aristocracy. Paste chemical analysis of codex style ceramics have resulted in several divisions. Nevertheless it was proposed that they formed an homogeneous group, with one focus of production, El Mirador Basin. New discoveries in Calakmul permit us to question the premise of a single origin for this style. While new comparative data is generated from paste characterization of chemical fingerprints, we propose an analysis based on concepts of ceramic modes and the Type-variety system.

  7. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 11, No. 2, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Agrochemicals Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory implements the food and environmental safety subprogramme that provides assistance in four main areas, namely, coordinating and supporting research, providing technical and advisory services, providing laboratory support and training, and collecting, analyzing and disseminating information, primarily in areas related to the use of ionizing radiation, pesticide and veterinary drug residues, and radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. Many of our subprogramme activities are undertaken in collaboration with other international bodies, such as the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, by providing direct support in their efforts to enhance food quality and safety, protect consumers and promote trade in food and agricultural products. This assistance is primarily directed to the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods, the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues and the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods

  8. Regulatory corpus related to the contamination of food products by radionuclides. Application in France and comparative study with Belgium, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. Report nr 298

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, C.; Crouail, P.

    2006-07-01

    The first part of this report gives an overview of the international legal context: arrangements of the Codex Alimentarius, standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Committee on food additives and contaminants, recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, role of the IAEA. The second part presents European regulations: those adopted after the Chernobyl accident, those to be applied in case of a radiological accident. A synthesis of international and European regulations is proposed. The regulations applicable in France are presented (protection of population against hazards of ionizing radiations, application modalities). The other parts of the report present the legal framework, the modalities of food product control, and the post-Chernobyl peculiarities for Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. The author finally proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis

  9. Challenges in Risk Assessment: Quantitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The process of risk analysis consists out of three components, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. These components are internationally well spread by Codex Alimentarius Commission as being the basis for setting science based standards, criteria on food safety hazards, e.g. setting maximum limits of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. However, the technical component risk assessment is hard to elaborate and to understand. Key in a risk assessment is the translation of biological or...

  10. Unintended Effects in Genetically Modified Food/Feed Safety: A Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Antonio; Paoletti, Claudia

    2018-04-20

    Identifying and assessing unintended effects in genetically modified food and feed are considered paramount by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), and Codex Alimentarius, despite heated debate. This paper addresses outstanding needs: building consensus on the history-of-safe-use concept, harmonizing criteria to select appropriate conventional counterparts, and improving endpoint selection to identify unintended effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Análise físico-química e legalidade em bebidas de laranja
    Physical-chemical analysis and legality in orange beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FIGUEIRA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi mensurar o °Brix, acidez titulável (AT e ratio em sucos concentrados, sucos, néctares e refrigerantes de laranja comerciais e compará-los com os seus Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ publicados pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA e Codex Alimentarius. Quatro sucos concentrados, vinte e dois sucos, sete néctares e treze refrigerantes foram analisados. A densidade das bebidas foi mensurada em densímetro digital e convertida para °Brix, utilizando uma tabela que relaciona estas variáveis. A AT foi calculada conforme as Normas Analíticas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O ratio foi obtido pela razão entre °Brix e AT. Todos os sucos concentrados estavam em acordo com o Codex Alimentarius. A grande maioria dos sucos e refrigerantes comerciais respeita a legislação brasileira. Os néctares de laranja não puderam ser comparados com padrões legais, pois estes são inexistentes tanto no MAPA quanto no Codex Alimentarius.

  12. Changes in the viability of the eggs of Ascaris suum under the influence of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Boyko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common parasitic diseases of pigs globally is ascariasis. It is caused by the nematode Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 (Nematoda, Ascaridata, which parasitises the small intestine of pigs in its mature form and the respiratory system at the larval stage. This helminthiasis causes immense damage to swine-rearing. Control of the ascariasis pathogen in the host’s organism and in the environment is essential for the health of the animals and successful swine-rearing. The results of studying the effect of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods – cinnamaldehyde (0656 Codex Alimentarius, benzoic acid (Е210 Codex Alimentarius and methylparaben (Е218 Codex Alimentarius , on the viability of invasive eggs of A. suum are useful for determining the minimum concentration of solution of these substances for use against eggs of A. suum (10 g/l. The lowest efficiency against invasive eggs of A. suum was obtained for methylparaben (LD50 = 3850 ± 2130 mg/l, the highest was obtained with cinnamaldehyde (LD50 = 2437 ± 864 mg/l, and benzoic acid (LD50 = 1240 ± 680 mg/l.

  13. Tupamaro de Caxamarca: tonadas sobre la muerte del Inca Atahualpa contenidas en el códice Martínez Compañón (1782-85 Tupamaro de Caxamarca: Tunes about the Death of the Inca Atahualpa contained in the Codex Martínez Compañón (1782-85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Palmiero

    2011-12-01

    ágicos hechos de Cajamarca. Pero más allá de determinar si algunas de las tonadas del Códice pudieran ser parte de una representación de la captura y muerte de Atahualpa de finales de la colonia, nos interesó interpretar estos cantos como signos portadores de un discurso colonial propio en dos sentidos: la relectura de hechos históricos cuales la captura y la muerte de Atahualpa; la persistencia de códigos andinos en la rememoración de ciertos rituales como el "llanto ceremonial". En este sentido se consideró, para el análisis musical, la existencia de un tono -visto en un primer momento como elemento perteneciente a un sistema de tonos incaicos cercano al sistema de modos eclesiásticos-, que llamaremos "llanto del Inca", su relación con el llanto ceremonial incaico y su rol en la transmisión de significados ligados a la ritualidad andina colonial.Throughout the colonial period a memory of the history of the Andean tribes was created. This memory considered the Inca empire as its main reference and the Inca as its natural symbol. From the narration of the facts of the Inca history, particularly those referring to the Spanish conquest, sprang up the myth of the Inca death to which contributed both conquerors and those who were conquered. During the eighthteenth century the death of the Inca was presented in numerous theatrical performances accompanied with music. The codex Martínez Compañón (1782-85 consists of nine volumes with about 1500 color plates depicting different aspects of both the social life and the natural phenomena of the Trujillo zone in Peru. Thirty eight plates, included in volume II, are related directly or indirectly with music of oral tradition of the period. The original folio numbers of these plates are all preceded by the letter E, standing for '"estampa" (plate. A total of twenty scores appear between E. 176 though E. 193. Judging from the title the text of the following two tunes -"E 188: Allegro tonada El tupamaro, Caxamarca" and "E. 191

  14. Ethographic ubiquity: original fake, expanded codex, transurban subject, performative doll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Canevacci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available My essay presents the emerging of fake as a concept that does not mean false, but a post-dualistic mix of false/truth. The relation between digital culture and ubiquitous subjectivity is fundamental during its process; in the same way, the relation between aura and reproducibility cannot be determined dialectically as Benjamin did. Digital auratic reproducibility is the contemporary context and communicational metropolis is characterized by spontaneous and public performance: so, my conclusion is an analysis of some “living” doll and their uncanny presence.

  15. Argentine National Pharmacopoeia (Argentine Codex Medicamentarius). 6. ed., suppl. 1982.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Standards of mandatory application, established by Law No. 22729 of February, 1983, on radiopharmaceuticals and radiosterilization of products for medical use, issued as a supplement to the text of the Argentine National Pharmacopoeia. In particular, the general characteristics, identification and purity tests, radioactivity valuation, top date of utilization, and form of conservation of different radiopharmaceuticals are described. (C.A.K.) [es

  16. The role of validated analytical methods in JECFA drug assessments and evaluation for recommending MRLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Joe O

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is one of three Codex committees tasked with applying risk analysis and relying on independent scientific advice provided by expert bodies organized by FAO/WHO when developing standards. While not officially part of the Codex Alimentarius Commission structure, JECFA provides independent scientific advice to the Commission and its specialist committees such as the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF) in setting maximum residue limits (MRLs) for veterinary drugs. Codex methods of analysis (Types I, II, III, and IV) are defined in the Codex Procedural Manual as are criteria to be used for selecting methods of analysis. However, if a method is to be used under a single laboratory condition to support regulatory work, it must be validated according to an internationally recognized protocol and the use of the method must be embedded in a quality assurance system in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. This paper examines the attributes of the methods used to generate residue depletion data for drug registration and/or licensing and for supporting regulatory enforcement initiatives that experts consider to be useful and appropriate in their assessment of methods of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Dating of Mayan Calendar using Long-periodic Astronomical Phenomena in Dresden Codexical Phenomena in Dresden Codex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, V.; Böhm, B.; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Vondrák, Jan; Kostelecký, J.

    -, č. 186 (2013), s. 53-64 ISSN 1450-698X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : ephemerides * eclipses * time Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.100, year: 2013

  18. Encadrement des produits et des procédés : réglementation et normalisation du commerce international

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morin Odile

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Produits et procédés sont encadrés à la fois par des réglementations et, à un autre niveau, par des normes du commerce international. Cette présentation traite des textes réglementaires au niveau communautaire et national. On rappellera que l’entrée en vigueur d’un règlement européen est suivie d’une transposition dans le droit de chaque pays membre et que la réglementation nationale s’applique en l’absence de dispositions communautaires. En matière de commerce international, seront évoquées les actions de normalisation du Conseil Oléicole International (COI pour les huiles d’olive et de grignons d’olive et celles du Codex Alimentarius pour les huiles et graisses comestibles. L’ensemble des dispositions réglementaires constitue un cadre englobant les productions de l’amont vers l’aval, à la fois sur un plan vertical (oléagineux, huiles et corps gras, huiles d’olive, margarines, procédés de raffinage et transversalement (composés organiques volatils, OGM, solvants d’extraction, additifs, contaminants…. Le cas de l’huile d’olive est particulier en ce qu’il bénéficie d’un encadrement au niveau international (normes commerciales COI et Codex Alimentarius, européen et national (réglementation. Le Codex Alimentarius, quant à lui, établit des normes à caractère vertical (huiles végétales, graisses animales, huiles d’olive, matières grasses tartinables… et horizontal (additifs, résidus de pesticides…. L’essentiel de cet encadrement est résumé dans les tableaux qui illustrent cette contribution.

  19. The World Trade Organization and organic food trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    disagreement on whether the WTO's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (addresses food labelling) covers production standards based on ethical values such as those defining organic food standards. Another problem is that two sets of international standards for organic food exist—the Codex Alimentarius...... guidelines and the standards of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. Finally, many certification bodies are private organisations certifying on the basis of government standards. This blurs the distinction between private and public and questions whether WTO rules apply...

  20. New developments in quantitative risk assessment of campylobacteriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie; Nauta, Maarten

    meat to ready-to-eat foods is the main pathway of consumer exposure. Undercooking appears to be of minor importance. However, this conclusion may need to be reconsidered in the light of increasing consumption of minced meat preparations. Five QMRA models have been compared in detail, and detailed......Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) is now broadly accepted as an important decision support tool in food safety risk management. It has been used to support decision making at the global level (Codex Alimentarius, FAO and WHO), at the European level (European Food Safety Authority...

  1. Undesirable compounds in oils and fats: analysis and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, for some undesirable compounds representative of the major origins, a comparison between the efficiency of the analytical methods used (sensitivity, precision and existing regulations. An idea of the different origins of the presence of undesirable compounds in oils and fats is given. Then a focus is done on guidelines on contaminant analysis provided by European directives or Codex Alimentarius. The reliability of some existing test methods compared to regulations is also examined: lead, hexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticide residues.

  2. Determination of pesticide residues in fruits of Nawabshah district, Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, T.; Ahmad, I.; Tahir, S.

    2011-01-01

    Eight fruit samples of apple, guava, orange, grapes, pear, persimmon, banana and pear purchased from the local markets of Nawabshah district, Sindh and residues of pesticide of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid and organochlorine (OC) (i.e., dichlorvos, fenvalerate, dimethoate, methyl parathion, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, endosulfan, deltamethrin, mevinphos, chlorpyriphos, profenofos and dicofol) were monitored in fruit samples by Gas Chromatography (GC). All the fruit samples were found contaminated except banana and among these only apple samples were found exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL) of Codex Alimentarius Commission. (author)

  3. Linkage between speciation of Cd in mangrove sediment and its bioaccumulation in total soft tissue of oyster from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Gadi, S.D.; Bardhan, P.

    diffraction particle size analyzer from Malvern Instruments. Laser diffractometry size analysis is based on the principle that particles of a given size diffract light through a given angle, the angle increasing with decreasing particle size....06 0.25 ± 0.04 92.52 Fraction 4 0.13 ± 0.08 0.12 ± 0.01 92.32 Authorities Cd (maximum permissible limit ) Malaysian Food act (1983) 1 European Commission 1 FDA, (2007) 4 Australia (2011) 2 New Zealand (2011) 2 Codex Alimentarius Commission (2006...

  4. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.

  5. Assessment of health risk of exposure to mercury through intake under canned tuna in health registration process period January 2010-December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.; Tovar, M.; Alvarez, J.; Arraez, M.; Hordziejewicz, I.; Loreto, I.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about: Assessing the health risk due to exposure to mercury through ingestion canned tuna under sanitary registration process in the country, using the risk assessment tool recommended by the Codex Alimentarius establishing safety according to the use of local diets. The analytical method appied was Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Amalgamation (SS TDA AS). As a recommendation was important to maintain an ongoing program of monitoring of mercury in tuna as being a highly recommended food as being excellent source of protein and fatty acids beneficial to health can also be a source of mercury poisoning in cases of people who have a high consumption thereof in the diet

  6. Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyssen, Peter J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

  7. Radiation and the vegetable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible uses of irradiation in the vegetable industry are considered. Interest has been increasing because of possible bans on chemical fumigants and clearance of irradiation as an acceptable process, up to certain dose limits, by Codex Alimentarius and the US FDA. Inhibition of sprouting in potatoes and onions would be one possibility for exploitation. However, the main incentive for vegetable irradiation would be as a quarantine treatment for exported products. The shelf-life of a few vegetables could also be increased by combining radiation with heat treatments. Costs in New Zealand and consumer attitudes are briefly considered

  8. [Incorporation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) in food legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Rey, Liliana C; Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero Prada, Jaime R

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP), recommended by different international organizations as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the International Convention for Vegetables Protection (ICPV) amongst others, contributes to ensuring the innocuity of food along the agro-alimentary chain and requires of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for its implementation, GMP's which are legislated in most countries. Since 1997, Colombia has set rules and legislation for application of HACCP system in agreement with international standards. This paper discusses the potential and difficulties of the legislation enforcement and suggests some policy implications towards food safety.

  9. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  10. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  11. Assessment of possible allergenicity of hypothetical ORFs in common food crops using current bioinformatic guidelines and its implications for the safety assessment of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gregory J; Zhang, Shiping; Mirsky, Henry P; Cressman, Robert F; Cong, Bin; Ladics, Gregory S; Zhong, Cathy X

    2012-10-01

    Before a genetically modified (GM) crop can be commercialized it must pass through a rigorous regulatory process to verify that it is safe for human and animal consumption, and to the environment. One particular area of focus is the potential introduction of a known or cross-reactive allergen not previously present within the crop. The assessment of possible allergenicity uses the guidelines outlined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization's (WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) to evaluate all newly expressed proteins. Some regulatory authorities have broadened the scope of the assessment to include all DNA reading frames between stop codons across the insert and spanning the insert/genomic DNA junctions. To investigate the utility of this bioinformatic assessment, all naturally occurring stop-to-stop frames in the non-transgenic genomes of maize, rice, and soybean, as well as the human genome, were compared against the AllergenOnline (www.allergenonline.org) database using the Codex criteria. We discovered thousands of frames that exceeded the Codex defined threshold for potential cross-reactivity suggesting that evaluating hypothetical ORFs (stop-to-stop frames) has questionable value for making decisions on the safety of GM crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of the safety of the red pepper spice with FMEA and post processing EWMA quality control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozilgen, Sibel; Bucak, Seyda; Ozilgen, Mustafa

    2013-06-01

    Although there are numerous decades-old studies drawing attention to the presence of aflatoxins in spices, and particularly in red pepper spice, the problem has not been eradicated. In the present study, information presented in the literature, about production method of red pepper spice, its contamination with aflatoxin, and the uncertainty about the data are assessed to find out the points where improvement may be achieved. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) are performed to assess the risk. The highest total risk attributable to chemical plus physical plus biological causes is associated with the washing stage (RPN=363), which is followed by the receiving (RPN=342) and the storage (RPN=342) stages. The highest risk attributable to biological causes (RPN=180) is associated with microbial growth and aflatoxin production due to insufficient control of drying conditions. The highest chemical risk (RPN=144) is found for the presence of unintentional food additives, such as pesticides, herbicides, hormones, and heavy metals in fresh red pepper fruits. EWMA (exponentially weighted average) charts are employed to monitor aflatoxin production during storage. They successfully distinguished between the batches, which turned to be unsafe. Risk associated with unintentional additives may be reduced by using certified additives only. Better drying control will definitely reduce the risk associated with the drying process. Codex Alimentarius plan has worldwide acceptance for assessing safety of the nuts. Risk of accepting the batches contaminated with aflatoxin may be eliminated by applying the Codex Alimentarius sampling plan before putting the dry pulverized red pepper into the storage facility.

  13. Analysis of application of different approaches to secure safe drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendić Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis, the risk systems include the systems within which services sensitive to risk are executed. The complex service of population supply with safe drinking water is considered to be risky. Guidelines for drinking water quality of the World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of effective preventive approaches to risk-based management of the safety and quality of drinking water. For example, Food Safety Law of the Republic of Serbia stipulates mandatory application of HACCP system in order to obtain safe drinking water. Different approaches to preventive risk-based management for the sake of the safety and quality of drinking water are applied nowadays. In this paper we consider the following approaches: Original Codex Alimentarius HACCP system and some of its modified versions; International standard ISO 22000: 2005 Food safety management systems - Requirements for any organization in the food chain; Water Safety Plan (WSP of the World Health Organization (WHO; Generalized HACCP system. All of these approaches are based, to a greater or lesser extent, on the original Codex Alimentarius HACCP system. The paper gives a situation analysis (SWOT analysis of considered approaches.

  14. Experiências internacionais de regulamentação das alegações de saúde em rótulos de alimentos International experiences with health claims in food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Giuberti Coutinho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing frequency, consumers are seeking information on the foods they eat. Food labels are an important source of this type of information, and the Codex Alimentarius, created by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, provides a global reference for coordinated food quality and identification standards. The Codex Alimentarius agenda includes nutritional information and "health claims," which are defined as any representation that states, suggests, or implies that a relationship exists between a food or a constituent of that food and health. Although food labeling seems to effectively assist consumers in choosing among processed foods, consumers are not always capable of reading or interpreting nutritional information correctly, so health claims may allow for more precise decision-making for these products. The present paper examines the use of health claims in countries and regions that have already implemented this type of regulation (Brazil, Chile, Canada, United States of America, the European Union, and Japan.

  15. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  16. 3. Standardization of food irradiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twum-Danso, L.

    1981-01-01

    The need is stressed for clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of irradiation facilities. This requires the establishment of a responsible body. The example of Ghana is used as illustration. Food standards are mandatory. The Ghana Standards Board was established under NLC Decree 199, subsequently superseded by NRC Decree 173:1973 as amended by AFRC Decree 44:1977. The aims and functions of the Board are described, and forms in which its powers are operative. Two types of certificate are granted: the Certification Mark and the Exemption Certificate. The formulation of food standards is done through technical committees. The National Codex (Alimentarius) Committee is responsible for establishing food standards for Board approval. Membership of this committee is drawn from available expertise from industry, research institutions, government departments, the universities, etc. The various steps in the preparation of Codex Standards are outlined. For the certification of irradiated food in Ghana the international requirements as outlined by CXFA (Codex Committee on Food Additives) need to be met

  17. Beta agonists in livestock feed: status, health concerns, and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, T J; Alvey, J C; Stelzleni, A M

    2014-09-01

    Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride in animal feeds, usage of those compounds has been a topic of worldwide debate. Ractopamine and zilpaterol are β-adrenergic agonists used as veterinary drugs to increase weight gain in certain animals raised for food. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established maximum residue limits for ractopamine, which were adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex). No maximum residue limits for zilpaterol have been adopted by JECFA, and new reports of animal mobility issues confront the use of this feed additive. However, many countries disagree with the Codex standards and are restricting or banning meat products containing β agonists. The bans by major importers of U.S. meat products have prompted some to advocate that the United States use the World Trade Organization dispute settlement body. This paper looks at the developments to provide a fuller accounting of what the issues may mean to U.S. firms selling meat products containing residues of β agonists.

  18. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Michelle S.M.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Fernando, Daniel; Villa, Cesar A.; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  19. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 2, July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    This most recent edition of Food and Environmental Protection newsletter highlights the continuing efforts at strengthening inter-agency collaboration in activities related to food contamination, including the ongoing participation in subsidiary bodies of the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. Among other issues are recent activities of jointly managed (with our Monaco laboratories) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Applications of Radiotracer and Radioassay Technologies to Seafood Safety Risk Analysis, and on Survey of Fumonisin B1 Contamination of Food Grade Commercial Maize Kernel Lots in Nigeria, at the recently held 3rd Session of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods (CCCF). These discussions led to Codex agreement to consider research arising from the CRP in the establishment of maximum levels for cadmium (oysters, scallops and cephalopods) in seafood, as well as the consideration of the IAEA generated data on fumonisins. Other inter-agency collaborative activities include input to the recently held Fourth Session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), particularly in relation to the development of standards for the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment

  20. Regulation on trading of irradiated food in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastro, N.L. Del [IPEN-CNEN/ SP, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria 05508-900 SP, Caixa Postal 11049, Cep 05422-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The International Consultative Group on food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established in 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO, following the adoption by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated foods and the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of radiation Facilities for the treatment of food. Today, several countries from South America and the Caribbean have regular representatives in the ICGFI. Some of the countries also have regulations about food irradiation: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. After a meeting in Peru in April 1997, Latin American countries agreed to attempt a harmonization of national laws according to an approved regional model regulation on irradiated food. The model legislation is based on the principles of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and Recommended Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, as well as on the relevant recommendations of the ICGFI. The model regulation establishes the authority, objectives, scope, definitions, general requirements, facilities, control procedures, documentation inspection, labeling and also provides and advisory technological dose limit by classes of food. (Author)

  1. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 2, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This most recent edition of Food and Environmental Protection newsletter highlights the continuing efforts at strengthening inter-agency collaboration in activities related to food contamination, including the ongoing participation in subsidiary bodies of the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. Among other issues are recent activities of jointly managed (with our Monaco laboratories) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Applications of Radiotracer and Radioassay Technologies to Seafood Safety Risk Analysis, and on Survey of Fumonisin B1 Contamination of Food Grade Commercial Maize Kernel Lots in Nigeria, at the recently held 3rd Session of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods (CCCF). These discussions led to Codex agreement to consider research arising from the CRP in the establishment of maximum levels for cadmium (oysters, scallops and cephalopods) in seafood, as well as the consideration of the IAEA generated data on fumonisins. Other inter-agency collaborative activities include input to the recently held Fourth Session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), particularly in relation to the development of standards for the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment

  2. Regulation on trading of irradiated food in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. Del

    1997-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established in 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO, following the adoption by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated foods and the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of radiation Facilities for the treatment of food. Today, several countries from South America and the Caribbean have regular representatives in the ICGFI. Some of the countries also have regulations about food irradiation: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. After a meeting in Peru in April 1997, Latin American countries agreed to attempt a harmonization of national laws according to an approved regional model regulation on irradiated food. The model legislation is based on the principles of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and Recommended Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, as well as on the relevant recommendations of the ICGFI. The model regulation establishes the authority, objectives, scope, definitions, general requirements, facilities, control procedures, documentation inspection, labeling and also provides and advisory technological dose limit by classes of food. (Author)

  3. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  4. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  5. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  6. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 4, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The 49th Extraordinary Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, held in Geneva, 26-27 Switzerland, in September 2001, agreed to advance the draft Proposed Revised Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods to Step 6 of the Codex procedure. The same Session also decided to accept the Proposed Codex Code of Practice for Radiation Processing of Food as new work for the Codex. Both the revised Codex Standard and Code of Practice, included in this issue, will be considered at the forthcoming Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 11-15 March 2002. The 18th Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), Rome, Italy, 23-25 October 2001, decided to phase out its activities with a final two year extension of its mandate from May 2002 to May 2004. This decision came following the successful achievements under the ICGFI mandate and the need to move on to a new type of organization with more emphasis on implementing the technology to meet the needs of member countries through enhancing food safety, security and trade and with active participation of the private sector. The highlights of the 18' ICGFI Meeting as well as its decisions are included in this issue. Irradiated food is gaining acceptance in many countries especially in the USA where over 2000 supermarkets are putting it on sale on a routine basis, apparently with no opposition from consumers. Sale of irradiated food went well beyond expectations. The tragic events of September 11 in New York and Washington, D.C. changed the world significantly. With the threat of anthrax spores in the mail, the reader may be interested to know that irradiation provides a ready solution to this problem as the US Postmaster General decided to purchase eight electron beam irradiators to treat mail to inactivate anthrax spores. While these machines are being built/installed, some one million pieces of mail have already been irradiated and

  7. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 4, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The 49th Extraordinary Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, held in Geneva, 26-27 Switzerland, in September 2001, agreed to advance the draft Proposed Revised Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods to Step 6 of the Codex procedure. The same Session also decided to accept the Proposed Codex Code of Practice for Radiation Processing of Food as new work for the Codex. Both the revised Codex Standard and Code of Practice, included in this issue, will be considered at the forthcoming Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 11-15 March 2002. The 18th Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), Rome, Italy, 23-25 October 2001, decided to phase out its activities with a final two year extension of its mandate from May 2002 to May 2004. This decision came following the successful achievements under the ICGFI mandate and the need to move on to a new type of organization with more emphasis on implementing the technology to meet the needs of member countries through enhancing food safety, security and trade and with active participation of the private sector. The highlights of the 18' ICGFI Meeting as well as its decisions are included in this issue. Irradiated food is gaining acceptance in many countries especially in the USA where over 2000 supermarkets are putting it on sale on a routine basis, apparently with no opposition from consumers. Sale of irradiated food went well beyond expectations. The tragic events of September 11 in New York and Washington, D.C. changed the world significantly. With the threat of anthrax spores in the mail, the reader may be interested to know that irradiation provides a ready solution to this problem as the US Postmaster General decided to purchase eight electron beam irradiators to treat mail to inactivate anthrax spores. While these machines are being built/installed, some one million pieces of mail have already been irradiated and

  8. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  9. THE CHALLENGES OF BUSINESS ETHICS: THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS ETHICS - ETHICAL CODEX IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Jamnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Past several decades management has become a vital concern to society. If we look at pools, we notice that the public does not have good opinion about management ethics and business. For the management community to turn this situation around, significant efforts are required. It should be understood what management ethics means, why it is important and how it should be integrated into decision making. Principles of ethics from moral philosophy and management theory are available to inform interested managers. Further requires that managers understand, and be sensitive to, all the stakeholders of the organization and their stakes. If the moral management model is to be achieved, managers need to integrate ethical wisdom with their managerial wisdom and to take steps to create and sustain an ethical climate in their organizations. When all that will be done, the desirable goals of moral management will be achievable.

  10. The codex of science: honesty, precision, and truth--and its violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Thomas F

    2013-04-01

    Science has made enormous achievements for our understanding of the world and for everyday life: we now know that we live on a spherical planet of the solar system, we understand the origin of the species, we can take a train, survive myocardial infarction, and fly to the moon. This has been made possible thanks to a persistent search for truth by great scientists and the scientific community at large. Our assumptions were often wrong, but the scientific process advanced by a productive interplay of conjectures and refutations. As in any profession, there is misconduct, i.e. sloppiness, plagiarism up to falsification, or even fabrication of data. Although eventually fraudulent science has and will be disproved, it is morally inappropriate, damages the reputation of research and journals in which its products are published, may endanger patients, and misuses grant money of federal and private institutions. Thus, as editors and readers, we should be aware of it based on its typical pattern, but we must avoid an atmosphere of distrust, as trust is the essence of scientific exchange and progress.

  11. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 6, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue of our newsletter also includes a summary of the consideration of the revised Codex Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods for Use in International Trade under our Feature Article. The Guideline Levels were considered by the 36th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC), which was held in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, from 22-26 March 2004. We are pleased to report that the full plenary session of the CCFAC agreed to forward the proposed draft Revised Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods for Use in International Trade to the forthcoming 27th Session (June 2004) of the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission for preliminary adoption. It is anticipated that the technical assistance provided by our colleagues in the Division of Radiation and Waste Safety will help to ensure the successful final adoption of the Guideline Levels by the 28th Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2005. It is recalled from the January 2004 issue of our Newsletter, the 20th Meeting (October 2003) of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) agreed that a new successor organization would not be created and that prior to the expiration of the ICGFI mandate on 8 May 2004, a working group consisting of government-designated experts would meet in Vienna in early 2004 to discuss and provide advice on future activities related to the application of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary purposes. The Report on The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (see page 13) provides a summary of the ICGFI Working Group deliberations, including its conclusions and recommendations to its sponsoring organizations and ICGFI member governments. These working group recommendations led in part to the holding of a successful Consultants Meeting on the Use of Ionising Radiation as a Quarantine Treatment which, among other responsibilities, proposed specific irradiation doses for

  12. Calidad de las aceitunas de mesa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Fernández, Antonio

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments the different regulations related to table olives at national or international scales. The Unified Qualitative standard Applying to Table Olives in International Trade and COI/Codex (International Olive Oil Council, IOC, and IOC/Codex Alimentarius, «Reglamentación Técnico Sanitaria para la elaboración, circulación y venta de aceitunas de mesa» (Spanish, «Normas de calidad para la exportación de aceitunas de mesa» (Spanish, and the United States Standards for Grades of Green and Canned Ripe Olives (USA are especially considered. The effects of the new regulations on Nutritional Labelling (mainly in USA, applications of the Analysis and Control of Critical Points (ACCP, and the problems derived from the application of the ISO 9000, or EN 29000, to this Sector are also discussed.

    El trabajo comenta las diferentes normas, tanto nacionales como internacionales, que regulan los aspectos de la calidad de las aceitunas de mesa. Se comentan especialmente la Norma Cualitativa Unificada Aplicable a Aceitunas de Mesa en el Comercio Internacional y las correspondientes COI/CODEX (Consejo Oleícola Internacional, COI, y COI/Codex Alimentarius, respectivamente, la Reglamentación Técnico Sanitaria para la elaboración, circulación, y venta de aceitunas de mesa (española, las Normas de calidad para la exportación de Aceitunas de Mesa (española, y las «United States Standards for Grades of Green and Canned Ripe Olives» (USA. Asimismo se analizan las implicaciones de las nuevas reglamentaciones sobre etiquetado nutricional (principalmente en el comercio con USA, la aplicación del Análisis de Riesgos y Control de Puntos Críticos (ARCPC, y la necesidad de adaptar el Sector al cumplimiento de las diversas normas de la serie ISO 9000 o su equivalente EN 29000.

  13. National Seminar. Acceptation and Commerce of Irradiated Foods. Memories; Seminario Nacional. Aceptacion y Comercio de Alimentos Irradiados. Memorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan-American Health Organization

    1998-12-31

    The foods availability is a worldwide problem at present, it looks two paradoxical aspects at first appearance. The malnutrition grade and the great losses by rottenness after the harvest time. An alternative to reduce these losses is the use of modern technologies such as food irradiation, which is a recognized process as like as secure and efficient how a conservation process by the FAO, the WHO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. At present this process is accepted in 40 countries. Since 1986 the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico offers irradiation services to the dried foods enterprises. This work contains magistral conferences dictated by international experts, reflecting the situation of this technology at the present time, the consumer position about the acceptance of irradiated foods, as well as regulations and standards applied in different continents. In the process part there are the installations would be required and the control to carry out. (Author)

  14. Trace element determination in tomato puree using particle induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Davila, E.; Miranda, J.

    2004-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) were used to determine the concentrations of trace elements in samples of 12 tomato puree brands sold in the Mexican market. While RBS offered information about the main elements present in the matrix, PIXE gave results on trace elements. As a whole, data for 17 elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) were obtained. To evaluate the results, a comparison with brands from USA, Japan, Colombia, and Chile was carried out, using tomato purees produced following the domestic technology recipe. Additionally, the results were considered in the light of the Codex Alimentarius and the Mexican standard. It was found that all of the brands fall within the limits established by these standards, being of the same order of magnitude as the foreign brands. (author)

  15. National Seminar. Acceptation and Commerce of Irradiated Foods. Memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The foods availability is a worldwide problem at present, it looks two paradoxical aspects at first appearance. The malnutrition grade and the great losses by rottenness after the harvest time. An alternative to reduce these losses is the use of modern technologies such as food irradiation, which is a recognized process as like as secure and efficient how a conservation process by the FAO, the WHO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. At present this process is accepted in 40 countries. Since 1986 the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico offers irradiation services to the dried foods enterprises. This work contains magistral conferences dictated by international experts, reflecting the situation of this technology at the present time, the consumer position about the acceptance of irradiated foods, as well as regulations and standards applied in different continents. In the process part there are the installations would be required and the control to carry out. (Author)

  16. Safeguarding food and food products from radiological contamination through gammametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Bautista, Angel T.VII; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Cuyco, Danilo A.; Jimenez, Gloria R.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.; Morco, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate gammametric analysis in safeguarding food and food products from radioactive contamination caused by a nuclear accident. Different food and food products submitted for analysis from March 2011 to September 2011 were analyzed for Cesium-137, Cesium 134, and Iodine-131 radioactivity levels using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma spectrometer system. Radioactivity levels of the said samples were found to be less than 1-4 Bq/Kg for both Cs-137 and Cs-134, and less than 0.2 - 2 Bq/Kg for I-131, and were found to below the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade limits of 1,000 Bq/Kg for the sum of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in feeding stuffs, and that of 100 Bq/Kg for the sum of all isotopes of iodine notably I-131 in feeding stuff. (author)

  17. Dissipation and residue of bifenthrin in wheat under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Jiang, Naiwen; Liu, Fengmao; Liu, Congyun; Wang, Suli

    2013-02-01

    Field trials were carried out to investigate the dissipation and residue levels of bifenthrin in wheat. After extraction with acetonitrile, the samples were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half-lives of bifenthrin in wheat seedlings ranged from 2.4 to 10.5 days. At harvest time, the terminal residues of bifenthrin were below the maximum residue limit (0.5 mg/kg) set by Codex Alimentarius Committee or European Union in wheat grain, which suggested that the use of this pesticide was safe for humans. However, the relatively high residue levels of bifenthrin in wheat straw should be paid attention to.

  18. Critical notes on microbiological risk assessment of food Avaliação de risco microbiológico em alimentos: avaliação crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine W. Reij

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous papers on Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA of food products have been published, a number of issues related to it remain unresolved. This paper explains the role of Microbiological Risk Assessment in the context of Risk Analysis as outlined by Codex Alimentarius. It reviews some representative work in the area, with particular emphasis on the objectives, outputs and conclusions of the studies, and on how researchers propose using the resulting Risk Estimate for decision making. Several problems and sources of confusion concerning MRA are identified, such as terminology, the application of Risk Estimates to establish Food Safety Objectives and microbiological criteria for foods, lack of data, and the difference between Risk Assessment and the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP. In the context of Codex Alimentarius, MRA was developed as a tool for decision making and priority setting by government risk managers. However, elements of Risk Assessment can be used for other purposes. A transparent description of a Risk Assessment study is useful for Risk Communication. Industrial food safety managers can compare the effect of various hypothetical production scenarios using estimates of the level and the probability of a pathogen in the product at the time that it is consumed. This limited form of Risk Assessment could better be called Safety Assessment, and can be used as a tool for food product and process development.Embora inúmeros artigos já tenham sido publicados sobre Avaliação de Risco Microbiológico em alimentos, vários aspectos relacionados ao assunto continuam incompletos. O presente artigo explica o papel da Avaliação de Risco Microbiológico no contexto da Análise de Risco, segundo o Codex Alimentarius. Este trabalho revê alguns artigos representativos na área, com particular ênfase nos objetivos, resultados e conclusões dos estudos, e em como os pesquisadores usam os resultados do

  19. The transfer and growth of Salmonella modelled during pork processing and applied to a risk assessment for the catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide

    Salmonellosis is an important cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis in most European countries, and pork contributes significantly to the disease burden caused by Salmonella infections. A traditional, and very popular, pork product in Denmark is fried meatballs. Danish meatballs are typically...... made with ground pork as the main ingredient. They are consumed as a component in hot meals but are also widely used as filling in cold sandwiches. Because of their popularity, pork meatballs are often part of the product range in Danish catering settings. As illustrated by the fact that 55 of 77...... Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA), following the Codex Alimentarius Principles and using the modular process risk model (MPRM) methodology, was used as the tool to investigate the fate of Salmonella during processing of pork meatballs from the reception of whole pork cuttings, through processing, until...

  20. Gluten contamination in gluten-free bakery products: a risk for coeliac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Priscila; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Pratesi, Riccardo; Gandolfi, Lenora; Assunção, Pedro; Zandonadi, Renata Puppin

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to assess the safety of gluten-free bakery products for consumption by coeliac patients. Design/setting In the current exploratory cross-sectional quantitative study, a total of 130 samples were collected from twenty-five bakeries in Brasilia (Brazil). For the quantification of gluten, an ELISA was used. The threshold of 20 ppm gluten was considered as the safe upper limit for gluten-free food, as proposed in the Codex Alimentarius. The results revealed a total of 21·5 % of contamination among the bakery products sampled. Sixty-four per cent of the bakeries sold at least one contaminated product in our sample. These findings represent a risk for coeliac patients since the ingestion of gluten traces may be sufficient to adversely impact on their health.

  1. Segurança Alimentar no Quotidiano das Famílias Amarantinas

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Célia Maria Brás

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Gestão Integrada da Qualidade, Ambiente e Segurança Os cidadãos têm “a expectativa de que os alimentos que consomem sejam seguros e adequados para o consumo. As doenças e os danos provocados por alimentos são, na melhor das hipóteses, desagradáveis, e, na pior das hipóteses, fatais (Codex Alimentarius - Higiene do Alimentos Textos Básicos, 2006, p.10). Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo avaliar os hábitos das famílias da cidade de Amarante, ...

  2. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  3. Food and biomass production in small oil expression facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H.; Kanai, G.; Yakushido, K. [National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan). Biomass Production and Processing Research Team

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which rapeseeds were separated into high quality seed for food oil and low quality seed for biofuels. A laboratory-scale oilseed screw press was then used to examine the effects of choke opening and seed preheating on the rapeseed pressing performance and the quality of food oil and biofuels oil. Oil recovery and chlorophyll content was found to increase as maximum pressure increased. In terms of pressing performance, the rapeseed heated by microwaves yielded more oil and chlorophyll than without heating. The NEB ratio of microwave heating press with an 8.0 mm choke opening was advantageous. Rapeseed oil extracted from low quality seeds was found to have a high acid value. The quality of oil extracted by oilseed screw press was found to be good and met the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for edible oils.

  4. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  5. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vithanage, C R; Grimson, M J; Wills, P R [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand); Smith, B G, E-mail: cvit002@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Food Science Programmes, Department of Chemistry, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand)

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  6. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  7. Allergen labelling in meat, dairy and cereal products from the Serbian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirić, D.; Nikolić, D.; Ćirić, J.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Janković, V.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    Allergens in food are a great health risk, because of the ratio of severity of problems compared to small amounts of ingested allergen. Since 2014, Serbian producers and importers of food have been obliged to declare allergens from the list of Codex Alimentarius on the product packaging. Surveillance of different meat, diary, and cereal product took place in 2016, with aim of checking if the Serbian regulatory requirements for labelling of allergens in food are being fulfilled. Out of 68 different meat products, 20 were not labelled for allergens. Thirty-six labels of various dairy products were examined revealing that allergen information was included on 27 of them. Only one of eight examined cereal products did not have allergen labelling.

  8. National Seminar. Acceptation and Commerce of Irradiated Foods. Memories; Seminario Nacional. Aceptacion y Comercio de Alimentos Irradiados. Memorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan-American Health Organization

    1999-12-31

    The foods availability is a worldwide problem at present, it looks two paradoxical aspects at first appearance. The malnutrition grade and the great losses by rottenness after the harvest time. An alternative to reduce these losses is the use of modern technologies such as food irradiation, which is a recognized process as like as secure and efficient how a conservation process by the FAO, the WHO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. At present this process is accepted in 40 countries. Since 1986 the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico offers irradiation services to the dried foods enterprises. This work contains magistral conferences dictated by international experts, reflecting the situation of this technology at the present time, the consumer position about the acceptance of irradiated foods, as well as regulations and standards applied in different continents. In the process part there are the installations would be required and the control to carry out. (Author)

  9. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Pre-packaged Processed Meat and Poultry Products to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures for the irradiation of pre-packaged refrigerated and frozen processed meat and poultry products. Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines "meat" (including poultry and game) as "the edible part of any mammal slaughtered in an abattoir," and "poultry meat" as "the edible part of slaughtered domesticated birds, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons." (CAC/RCP 13-1976) Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3). 1.2 This guide addresses all refrigerated and frozen meat and poultry products NOT covered by Guide F 1356. 1.3 This guide provides information regarding absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load. Such doses are typically less than 10 kilogray (kGy).

  10. Optimization and Validation of kit of detection Antibiotics on Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Malek

    2013-01-01

    According to the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission Directive each food has a maximum residual antibiotic (MRLs) however, for honey is still no limit set. Among the main methods that guarantee the detection of antibiotic residues include the Premi Test which is a qualitative method for the detection of antibiotics in honey, but it remains a non-specific method for this matrix and long enough (three hours of incubation). Through this work, we were able to develop and optimize a new kit called Honey test. This kit is able to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in honey by a bacterial strain radio-resistant called D.ra. The duration of treatment is only 30 minutes, requiring incubation at 37 Degree C and treatment with UV at 366 nm. This work will be the subject of a national patent.

  11. Endosulfan in water soils and fruits usage impact in a production intensive rural area of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, R.; Stapff, M.; Mandl, B.; Franchi, S.; Enrich, N.; Campelo, E.

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of a project aimed to detect agrochemical remainders in soil, fruits and groundwater was carried out in four rural properties located in the vegetable and fruit production region of Salto. The presence of endosulfan was tracked because the alert was given from Europe about the withdrawal of this chemical from the authorized product list, considering that it may be a potencial threat with long persistence for human health. From this first sampling phase was concluded that there is a high persistence in soil, in harvested fruit the remainings found stay below the Maximum Limits for Residuum of the Alimentarius Codex, and it is not detected at all in groundwater. The advantages of working with an interdisciplinary approach were highly valuable to perform this study of the impact of the remainings of one of the chemicals currently used for the agricultural production in our country

  12. Essential and toxic heavy metals in cereals and agricultural products marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Sharafi, Kiomars; Khamotian, Razieh; Atafar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Levels of some essential and toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and copper in cereals and agricultural products obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, west Iran, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average concentrations for lead and cadmium in some cereals were higher than the maximum levels set by the Codex Alimentarius. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating cereals and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. In combination with recent cereal consumption data, the EWIs of heavy metals were calculated for the Kermanshah population. EWI data for the studied metals through cereal consumption were lower than the PTWI values. Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu levels in all samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar cereals from various parts of the world.

  13. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing of foods has been studied for over 30 years. To a considerable extent this research was carried out in the framework of various international projects. After optimistic beginnings in the 1950s and long delays, caused by uncertainty about the health safety of foods so treated, food irradiation has now reached the stage of practical application in several countries. In order to prepare the way for world-wide accceptance of the new process, the Codex Alimentarius Commission has accepted an 'International General Standard for Irradiated Foods' and an 'International Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods'. Psychological barriers to a process associated with the word 'radiation' are still formidable; it appears, however, that acceptance by authorities, food industry and consumers continues to grow

  14. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  15. Performing IgE serum testing due to bioinformatics matches in the allergenicity assessment of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E

    2008-10-01

    Proteins introduced into genetically modified (GM) organisms through genetic engineering must be evaluated for their potential to cause allergic disease under various national laws and regulations. The Codex Alimentarius Commission guidance document (2003) calls for testing of serum IgE binding to the introduced protein if the gene was from an allergenic source, or the sequence of the transferred protein has >35% identity in any segment of 80 or more amino acids to a known allergen or shares significant short amino acid identities. The Codex guidance recognized that the assessment will evolve based on new scientific knowledge. Arguably, the current criteria are too conservative as discussed in this paper and they do not provide practical guidance on serum testing. The goals of this paper are: (1) to summarize evidence supporting the level of identity that indicates potential risk of cross-reactivity for those with existing allergies; (2) to provide example bioinformatics results and discuss their interpretation using published examples of proteins expressed in transgenic crops; and (3) to discuss key factors of experimental design and methodology for serum IgE tests to minimize the rate of false negative and false positive identification of potential allergens and cross-reactive proteins.

  16. Rukopisni zbornik Varia Dalmatica (Codex Lucianus) kao svjedočanstvo humanističke književne komunikacije

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Neven

    2008-01-01

    Lokalnoj književnoj komunikaciji — prepoznatljivoj, za potrebe ovog teksta, po apostrofiranju konkretnoga, stvarnog adresata — namijenjeno je 99 tekstova rukopisnog zbornika Varia Dalmatica (Zadar, Znanstvena biblioteka, sign. 25290, ms. 617). Svi su tekstovi nastali do siječnja 1614, a prepisao ih je Trogiranin Petar Lucić; samo je četiri pjesme povodom njegove smrti prepisao Petrov sin Ivan, budući glasoviti povjesničar. Tekstovi lokalne književne komunikacije većinom su pjesme (samo su dva...

  17. Treatment of clozapine-associated obesity and diabetes with exenatide in adults with schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial (CODEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Dan J; Russell, Anthony W; Gamble, Clare; Winckel, Karl; Mayfield, Karla; Hollingworth, Sam; Hickman, Ingrid; Siskind, Victor; Kisely, Steve

    2018-04-01

    Clozapine causes obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (e.g. exenatide) can counter clozapine-associated GLP-1 dysregulation in animals, and may be beneficial in people on clozapine. This randomized, controlled, open-label, pilot trial evaluated weekly exenatide for weight loss among clozapine-treated obese adults with schizophrenia, with or without T2DM. A total of 28 outpatients were randomized to once-weekly extended-release subcutaneous exenatide or usual care for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was proportion of participants with >5% weight loss. All 28 participants completed the study; 3/14 in the exenatide group and 2/14 in the usual care group had T2DM. Six people on exenatide achieved >5% weight loss vs one receiving usual care (P = .029). Compared with usual care, participants on exenatide had greater mean weight loss (-5.29 vs -1.12 kg; P = .015) and body mass index reduction (-1.78 vs -0.39 kg/m 2 ; P = .019), and reduced fasting glucose (-0.34 vs 0.39 mmol/L; P = .036) and glycated haemoglobin levels (-0.21% vs 0.03%; P = .004). There were no significant differences in other metabolic syndrome components. Exenatide may be a promising therapeutic agent for glycaemic control and weight loss in clozapine-treated people with obesity, and could assist in reducing clozapine-associated cardio-metabolic morbidity and mortality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 78 FR 71457 - Food Additive Regulations; Incorporation by Reference of the Food Chemicals Codex, 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... 172.800(b)(2) to replace ``parts per million'' with ``mg/kg'' to be consistent with terminology used... ``parts per million'' with ``mg/kg'' to be consistent with terminology used elsewhere in the regulations... medical supervision to meet nutritional requirements in specific medical conditions and comply with the...

  19. Weltliche Einflüsse in der Notre-Dame-Musik? Überlegungen zu einer Klausel im Codex F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büttner, Fred

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The unlimited validity of the rectilinear evolution that, according to Friedrich Ludwig, led from Notre Dame Clausula to Latin and thenceforth to French Motet was most recently questioned by Wolf Frobenius in his article "Zum genetischen Verhältnis zwischen Notre-Dame-Klauseln und ihren Motetten" (1987. Nevertheless, Frobenius does not thoroughly examine the pieces concerned, with hardly more far-reaching conclusions being attached to the priority claimed for many French Motets when comparing their concordances as Clausula and Latin Motet. With a setting of the choral melisma "ne" (Sm8 - already used by Ludwig in order to substantiate his estimation of the historical precedence of the Clausula - as an example, the point of view held by Frobenius is therefore once again subjected to critical scrutiny. Thus several traits can be established in the specifics of the Clausula that point to the field of secular music. Although this corroborates the considerations made by Frobenius, on the other hand such a result will open up new perspectives for further research into the School of Notre Dame.

    [de] Spätestens durch den Aufsatz „Zum genetischen Verhältnis zwischen Notre-Dame-Klauseln und ihren Motetten" von Wolf Frobenius (1987 wurde die uneingeschränkte Gültigkeit des geradlinigen Entwicklungsgangs, den Friedrich Ludwig von der Notre-Dame-Klausel über die lateinische bis zur franzosischen Motette zeichnete, in Frage gestellt. Jedoch bleibt Frobenius eine gründliche Untersuchung der betreffenden Stücke ebenso schuldig, wie auch an die behauptete Priorität vieler französischer Motetten gegenüber ihren Konkordanzen als Klausel und lateinische Motette kaum weiterreichende Schlußfolgerungen geknüpft werden. Anhand des „Ne"-Satzes Sm8, den bereits Ludwig exemplarisch hervorhob, um seine Auffassung von der Klausel als ältestem Stadium zu belegen, wird deshalb die Sichtweise von Frobenius noch einmal auf ihre Stichhaltigkeit überprüft. Dabei lassen sich im Klauselsatz verschiedene Züge festmachen, die auf den Bereich der weltlichen Musik deuten. Gibt dieses Ergebnis einerseits Frobenius Recht, so eroffnet es andererseits Perspektiven, aus denen neue Aufgaben fur die Notre-Dame-Forschung abgeleitet werden können.

  20. Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae in high-temperature, short-term pasteurized pilot-plant milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, P; Richter, E; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Walte, H-G C; Matzen, S; Kiesner, C

    2015-03-01

    Experiments to determine the efficacy of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization of milk in terms of inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were mainly performed between 1930 and 1960. Among the target organisms were Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, the Codex Alimentarius prescribes that HTST treatment of milk should lead to a significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during milk pasteurization. Due to the development of improved methods for the detection of survivors and of more advanced heating technology, verification of this requirement seemed to be necessary. To address recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. bovis ssp. caprae (M. caprae) in the southern regions of Germany, this organism was tested and compared with M. bovis ssp. bovis (M. bovis). Experiments were performed in a pilot plant for HTST pasteurization of milk with 3 strains of M. caprae and 1 strain of M. bovis. In preliminary trials at a fixed holding time of 25 s, the temperature at which significant inactivation occurred was 62.5°C for all strains. To determine D-values (decimal reduction times) for the inactivation kinetics, the strains were tested at 65, 62.5, and 60°C at holding times of 16.5, 25, and 35 s. At 65°C, the D-values of all strains ranged from 6.8 to 7.8 s, and at 62.5°C, D-values ranged from 14.5 to 18.1 s. Low inactivation was observed at 60°C. When the low slope of the inactivation curve allowed calculation of a D-value, these ranged from 40.8 to 129.9 s. In terms of log10 reductions, the highest values for all strains were 4.1 to 4.9 log at 65°C, with a holding time of 35 s. The tested strains of M. caprae and M. bovis showed similar low resistance to heat. Standard HTST treatment should result in a high reduction of these organisms and thus the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for inactivation of pathogens by this process are far exceeded. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  1. Abrangência do requisito segurança em certificados de qualidade da cadeia produtiva de alimentos no Brasil Scope of safety requirement in quality certificates used in food production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Rezende Peretti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os certificados ou selos de qualidade são utilizados em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil, com o intuito de diferenciar produtos ou unidades de produção de alimentos. São considerados mecanismos de regulação da qualidade, que podem ser concedidos por organismos governamentais, credenciados a eles ou ainda por organizações não governamentais. Os motivos para a certificação são os mais diversos possíveis, destacando-se: demanda de clientes internacionais, imagem dos produtos junto aos clientes, demanda de consumidores mais exigentes ou ainda agregar valor ao produto ou serviço. Os procedimentos para concessão dos certificados variam, especialmente considerando-se a esfera de concessão (âmbito governamental ou associações do setor produtivo. Este trabalho, de caráter exploratório, avaliou a abrangência do requisito segurança em 13 procedimentos de certificação da qualidade identificados na cadeia produtiva de alimentos no Brasil. Constatou-se a predominância da utilização das ferramentas Boas Práticas de Fabricação e Boas Práticas Agrícolas, sendo que o sistema APPCC, ferramenta reconhecida pelo Codex Alimentarius para o gerenciamento de perigos na produção de alimentos é utilizado apenas por apenas 3 dos 13 certificados avaliados.Quality certificates or seals are used in many countries, including in Brazil, in order to differentiate products or food production plants. They are considered quality regulation mechanisms, which can be given by government agencies, authorized institutions or nongovernmental organizations. The reasons for certification are many, such as: international clients demand, image of the products among the clients, demanding consumers request, or to add value to a product or service. Procedures for getting permission to use these certificates may vary, especially considering if it is given by a governmental or nongovernmental agency. This article, an exploratory study, evaluated the scope

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and fatty acids profile of olive oils from different varieties of olive tree in southern Minas Gerais - Brazil / Características físico-químicas e perfil de ácidos graxos de azeites obtidos de diferentes variedades de oliveiras introduzidas no Sul de Minas Gerais - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cardoso de Angelis Pereira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work had as an objective, to analyze, both physically and chemically, five olive tree varieties kept in the EPAMIG Germplasm Bank at the Experimental Farm, in the town of Maria da Fé, MG. Physical characteristics of the fruits and seeds (weight, diameter and length and some chemical characteritics of the oils extracted from five varieties (acidity, iodine, saponification, peroxide indices and the fatty acid profile were evaluated. The Negroa variety presented an average percent of lipids (28.2% significantly higher than the others (p Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar, física e quimicamente, cinco variedades de oliveiras mantidas no banco de germoplasma pela EPAMIG, na Fazenda Experimental no município de Maria da Fé, MG. Foram avaliadas características físicas dos frutos e sementes (peso, diâmetro e comprimento e algumas características químicas dos azeites extraídos de cinco variedades (índice de acidez, iodo, saponificação, peróxidos e perfil de ácidos graxos. A variedade Negroa apresentou percentual médio de lipideos (28,2% significativamente maior que as demais (p < 0,05. Dentre as variedades estudadas a Negroa e JB1 apresentaram maior produtividade e valores de acidez, índice de saponificação, iodo e peróxidos mais compatíveis com as normas da ANVISA (2005 e o Codex Alimentarius (2003. Todas as variedades cultivadas em Maria da Fé apresentaram conteúdos de ácido oléico dentro do recomendado pelo Codex alimentarius e significativamente maior que o teor de ácido oléico do azeite comercial extra virgem analisado (p < 0,05. O perfil de ácidos graxos encontrado demonstrou que todas as variedades (JB1, Negroa, Ascolano 315, 0025 e 0004 estão com seus valores adequados para os principais grupos de ácidos graxos, quando comparados com a legislação. Os resultados indicam que das variedades analisadas a Negroa e JB1 apresentam melhor potencial para utilização na produção de azeite de oliva.

  3. ESTRATEGIA ARPCC EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLAS GERMINADAS HACCP STRATEGY IN THE PRODUCTION OF GERMINATED SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA CAROLINA CHAPARRO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El Análisis de Riesgos y Puntos Críticos de Control conocido como ARPCC (HACCP, es un método sistemático, preventivo dirigido a la identificación, evaluación y control de los peligros asociados con las materias primas, ingredientes, procesos, comercialización y uso por el consumidor, a fin de garantizar la inocuidad del alimento. Este artículo expone una propuesta de una estrategia ARPCC orientada a garantizar la inocuidad de las semillas germinadas, basada en el sistema de ARPCC. Para ello se determinaron los riesgos (biológicos, físicos y químicos, se identificaron Puntos Críticos de Control (PCC, se establecieron límites críticos, se propusieron medidas preventivas y acciones correctivas. La metodología implementada se fundamentó en la aplicación de los Siete Principios Básicos establecidos por el Codex Alimentarius, obteniendo como resultado el diseño de la estrategia; como resultado se entregan los procedimientos indicados para obtener semillas germinadas para la alimentación humana totalmente inocuos.The Analysis of Risks and Critical Control points known like ARPCC (HACCP, it is a systematic, preventive method directed to the identification, evaluation and control of the dangers associated with the raw materials, ingredients, processes, marketing and use for the costumer in order to guarantee the innocuousness of the food. This article suggests a strategy ARPCC orientated to guaranteeing the innocuousness of the seeds germinated, based on ARPCC's system. For it the risks was established, biological, chemical and physical, there were identified Critical Points of Control (PCC, critical limits were established, they proposed preventive measures and corrective actions. The implemented methodology was based on the application of seven basic principles established by the Codex Alimentarius; the result was, the design of the strategy and the presentation of the indicated procedure to obtain germinated seeds for the human

  4. Benefits of food irradiation to the trade in seafood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollar, Alexander M

    1986-12-31

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission of 1979 recognizes the purposes of irradiating teleost fish and fish products, which are to control insect infestation of dried fish during storage and marketing (average dose up to 1 kGy). To reduce microbiological load of packaged or un packaged fish or fish products (average dose up to 2.2 kGy). To reduce the numbers of certain pathogenic micro-organisms in packaged or un packaged fish and fish products (average dose up to 2.2 kGy). Dried Fish Products The most promising application for radiation processing of fish products is disinfestation. Insect damage reduces the amount of marketable product by 20% or more, and also results in loss of nutritional value . Merchants adjust market prices by mark-ups to recover the value of the product lost, increasing costs to consumers for a product of lower quality. Radiation at less than 0.7 kGy will prevent insect development without affecting nutritional values and will prevent market losses. Merchants will be able to sell products at reasonable mark-ups since storage losses will be reduced sharply. Packaging will be required to prevent re infestation. The cost of treatment and packaging will be less than 1% of the value of the product. Manufactured Fish Products Combined heat and radiation processing of medium moisture manufactured fish products such as fish sausage, fish balls, fish noodles and similar analogues will eliminate most micro-organisms responsible for market losses and potential health problems. A radiation dose, less than 2 kGy, combined with mild heat, 45 degrees C, will achieve at least 5 log reduction in the most probable microbiological contaminants. The cost of such radiation processing will be less than 5% of the value of the product. Marketing of the packaged product could be through traditional channels or in the evolving supermarket system. Shrimp, Shellfish and Fish Fillets. The primary problem for the more traditional product forms is quality control of the raw

  5. Benefits of food irradiation to the trade in seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollar, Alexander M.

    1985-01-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission of 1979 recognizes the purposes of irradiating teleost fish and fish products, which are to control insect infestation of dried fish during storage and marketing (average dose up to 1 kGy). To reduce microbiological load of packaged or un packaged fish or fish products (average dose up to 2.2 kGy). To reduce the numbers of certain pathogenic micro-organisms in packaged or un packaged fish and fish products (average dose up to 2.2 kGy). Dried Fish Products The most promising application for radiation processing of fish products is disinfestation. Insect damage reduces the amount of marketable product by 20% or more, and also results in loss of nutritional value . Merchants adjust market prices by mark-ups to recover the value of the product lost, increasing costs to consumers for a product of lower quality. Radiation at less than 0.7 kGy will prevent insect development without affecting nutritional values and will prevent market losses. Merchants will be able to sell products at reasonable mark-ups since storage losses will be reduced sharply. Packaging will be required to prevent re infestation. The cost of treatment and packaging will be less than 1% of the value of the product. Manufactured Fish Products Combined heat and radiation processing of medium moisture manufactured fish products such as fish sausage, fish balls, fish noodles and similar analogues will eliminate most micro-organisms responsible for market losses and potential health problems. A radiation dose, less than 2 kGy, combined with mild heat, 45 degrees C, will achieve at least 5 log reduction in the most probable microbiological contaminants. The cost of such radiation processing will be less than 5% of the value of the product. Marketing of the packaged product could be through traditional channels or in the evolving supermarket system. Shrimp, Shellfish and Fish Fillets. The primary problem for the more traditional product forms is quality control of the raw

  6. Pesquisa de gliadina em medicamentos: informação relevante para a orientação de pacientes com doença celíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SDEPANIAN Vera Lucia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Racional - Alguns medicamentos podem conter gliadina, portanto, sua utilização poderá ser prejudicial aos pacientes com doença celíaca. Objetivo - Detectar a presença de gliadina em medicamentos comumente comercializados no Brasil. Métodos - Foram analisados 78 medicamentos sorteados a partir de uma lista de 180 produtos comumente comercializados. Os medicamentos analisados foram: analgésicos (n = 9, anti-helmínticos (n = 3, antiácidos (n = 8, antibióticos (n = 13, anticolesterolêmicos (n = 1, anticonvulsivantes (n = 2, antidepressivos (n = 2, antidiabéticos (n = 1, antieméticos (n = 3, anti-hipertensivos (n = 3, anti-histamínicos (n = 3, antiinflamatórios (n = 7, antitérmicos (n = 2, broncodilatadores (n = 1, descongestionantes (n = 4, laxantes (n = 1, contraceptivos orais (n = 5 e vitaminas (n = 10. As amostras foram analisadas pela técnica de ELISA utilizando anticorpo monoclonal ômega-gliadina, considerada de eleição segundo o Codex Alimentarius Commission WHO/FAO. Todas as amostras foram analisadas em duplicata. O nível de detecção do teste é de 4 mg de gliadina/100 g de produto. Resultados - Dentre os 78 medicamentos analisados, em apenas 1 (1,3% foi detectada a presença de gliadina (5,5 mg/100 g. O componente ativo do medicamento é ranitidina. De acordo com o Codex Alimentarius Commission WHO/FAO, o limite máximo diário permitido ao consumo pelos indivíduos com doença celíaca é igual a 10 mg de gliadina. Considerando a quantidade de gliadina num único comprimido de ranitidina, a quantidade ingerida seria bem menor do que a máxima permitida ao consumo pelo paciente com doença celíaca. Conclusões - Neste estudo não foi identificada gliadina em medicamentos em quantidade que constitua risco para pacientes com doença celíaca.

  7. The challenge of defining risk-based metrics to improve food safety: inputs from the BASELINE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, Gerardo; De Cesare, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    In 2002, the Regulation (EC) 178 of the European Parliament and of the Council states that, in order to achieve the general objective of a high level of protection of human health and life, food law shall be based on risk analysis. However, the Commission Regulation No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs requires that food business operators ensure that foodstuffs comply with the relevant microbiological criteria. Such criteria define the acceptability of a product, a batch of foodstuffs or a process, based on the absence, presence or number of micro-organisms, and/or on the quantity of their toxins/metabolites, per unit(s) of mass, volume, area or batch. The same Regulation describes a food safety criterion as a mean to define the acceptability of a product or a batch of foodstuff applicable to products placed on the market; moreover, it states a process hygiene criterion as a mean indicating the acceptable functioning of the production process. Both food safety criteria and process hygiene criteria are not based on risk analysis. On the contrary, the metrics formulated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2004, named Food Safety Objective (FSO) and Performance Objective (PO), are risk-based and fit the indications of Regulation 178/2002. The main aims of this review are to illustrate the key differences between microbiological criteria and the risk-based metrics defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and to explore the opportunity and also the possibility to implement future European Regulations including PO and FSO as supporting parameters to microbiological criteria. This review clarifies also the implications of defining an appropriate level of human protection, how to establish FSO and PO and how to implement them in practice linked to each other through quantitative risk assessment models. The contents of this review should clarify the context for application of the results collected during the EU funded project named BASELINE (www

  8. Influence of de-hulled rapeseed roasting on the physicochemical composition and oxidative state of oil; Influencia del tostado de colza descascarillada sobre la composición fisicoquímica y el estado oxidativo del aceite.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rękas, A.; Siger, A.; Wroniak, M.; Ścibisz, I.; Derewiaka, D.; Anders, A.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of roasting time on the contents of bioactive compounds (tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds), antioxidant capacity and physicochemical properties of rapeseed oil pressed from de-hulled seeds was investigated. The de-hulled seeds were roasted at a temperature of 165 °C for 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. The results of this study show that a roasting pre-treatment led to a gradual increase in canolol content (from 1.34 to 117.33 mg/100 g), total phytosterols (from 573.51 to 609.86 mg/100 g) and total carotenoids (0.82 to 2.41 mg/100 g), while only slight changes in the contents of tocopherols were noted. With the increase in roasting time a gradual increase in oxidative stability (from 4.27 to 6.85 h), and antioxidant capacity, seen mainly in the hydrophilic fraction of oil (from 0.32 to 2.30 mmol TEAC/l) was found. Although roasting resulted in the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products, the quality parameters of oils were within Codex Alimentarius limits. [Spanish] Se estudió el efecto del tiempo de tostado sobre el contenido de compuestos bioactivos (tocoferoles, fitoesteroles, compuestos fenólicos), capacidad antioxidante y propiedades fisicoquímicas del aceite de prensado de semillas descascarilladas de colza. Las semillas descascarilladas se tostaron a una temperatura de 165 ºC durante 20, 40, 60, 80 y 100 min. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el pretratamiento con tostado condujo a un aumento gradual del contenido de canolol (de 1,34 a 117,33 mg/100 g), fitosteroles totales (de 573,51 a 609,86 mg/100 g) y carotenoides totales (0,82 a 2,41 mg/ 100 g). Sólo se observaron ligeros cambios en el contenido de tocoferoles. Con el incremento del tiempo de tostado se observó un aumento gradual de la estabilidad oxidativa (de 4,27 a 6,85 h) y se encontró capacidad antioxidante, observada principalmente en la fracción hidrofílica de aceite (de 0,32 a 2,30 mmol TEAC/l). Aunque, el tostado produjo formación de

  9. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  10. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  11. Determinación de residuos de plaguicidas órgano fosforados en muestras de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Castro

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la presencia de residuos de diez plaguicidas organofosforados (POPs en tomates adquiridos en la central de abastos y en una cadena de supermercados de Bogotá, usando extracción líquido-líquido (LLE y determinación analítica mediante un equipo de Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución (HRGC - Detector Fotométrico de Llama (FPD. Los plaguicidas analizados fueron: Clorfevinfos, Clorpirifos, Demeton O, Demeton S, Diclorofentión, Dimetoato, Famfur, Leptofos, Metilparation y Triclorfon. Se analizaron diez muestras obtenidas en la central mayoritaria de abastos y ocho muestras de una cadena de supermercados de las cuales el 55% presentó contaminación con Dimetoato, aunque ninguna sobrepasó el límite máximo de residuos (LMR de 1 mg/kg establecido por el Codex alimentario. También se encontraron residuos de Metilparatíon y Clorfevinfos, en ambos casos dentro de los límites permitidos. / The presence of ten organophosphorus pesticides was studied in tomatoes acquired from markets in Bogotá (Colombia, using Liquid-liquid Extraction (LLE and High Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC with flame photometric detector (FPD. The pesticides analyzed were: Chlorfevinphos, Chlorpyrifos, Demeton O, Demeton S, Dichlofenthion, Dimethoate, Famphur, Leptophos and Trichlorfon. Eighteen samples were analyzed in which fifty five percent were contaminated with Dimethoate. Dimethoate levels in the contaminated samples were below the maximun residue levels (MRL of 1 mg/kg established by the Codex alimentarius. Residues of Methyl parathion and Chlorfevinphos were also found, below the MRL.

  12. Food Allergen Labeling: A Latin American Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Food allergy is a public health concern almost all over the world. Although most of the countries that regulate the declaration of allergens in prepackaged foods include the list recommended by the Codex Alimentarius, some countries have added other allergens to this list due to prevalence data and regional incidence, whereas others have incorporated exceptions for some products derived from allergenic foods. Within this context, the situation in Latin America regarding these regulations is diverse. Data about prevalence of food hypersensitivity are very limited in the region. The countries that have established regulations are Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Chile, Mexico, and Venezuela. Argentina has approved a regulation for the labeling of food allergens in November 2016. It only needs to be published in the Official Bulletin to go into effect. All countries follow the Codex list that includes latex and excludes sulfites, except Brazil. On the other hand, Argentina is the only country that includes exceptions. As for the methodologies for the detection of allergens in foods, this issue is a serious problem for both the food industry and control laboratories. Available methodologies are based mainly on commercial ELISA kits; currently, there are no Latin American companies that produce them, so ELISA kits are expensive and their acquisition is complicated. There is an initiative in Argentina to address all these gaps in the region through the Platform of Food Allergens (PFA), a nonprofit organization that integrates health professionals, patients, representatives of the food industry, government, and scientists. The different actions carried out by the PFA have made it possible to contact different scientific groups from other Latin American countries in order to expand this initiative and thereby promote and strengthen both public and private capacities in the region.

  13. [New aspects of safety assessment and food contamination with antibiotics of tetracycline group in the light of harmonization of hygienic standards in Russia and Customs Union with the international standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    To address the issue of harmonization of Russian MRLs for tetracycline in food and on the basis of the tasks of preserving the value of hygienic standard for the more restrictive level than similar standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in this survey we analyzed the evidences of the negative effects of subingibitory amounts of these antibiotics (lying below the MIC for clinically relevant microorganisms). The inadequacy of the microbiological JECFA ADI and the necessity of using of methodology of analyzing the effects of biological active substances in small doses for assessing the risk of food contamination of tetracycline subingibitory concentrations were demonstrated. Current scientific information on the functions of antibiotics as signaling molecules in the microbial world and the role of tetracycline as a leading factor in the regulation of transcription in microorganisms and activation of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes transferred to the family of conjugative transposons Tn916-Tn1545 also was reviewed in paper. Evidence-based data regarding the basic contribution of subingibitory concentrations of tetracycline in the spread of worst transmissible type of antibiotic resistance and the formation of new pathogens, associated with it, are represented. To reduce the risk of direct adverse effects on microbial ecosystem in the human body and its habitat, and to minimize the indirect risk of new infections, the necessity of saving the current Russian level residues of tetracycline (< or = 0.01 mg/kg of product), which is low by contrast to the Codex MRLs (< or = 0.1-1.2 mg/kg), was proved. Tetracycline concentrations in food, regulated in Russian Federation, below 0.1 MIC for clinically significant microorganisms which aren't capable to initiation of the above described negative changes.

  14. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  15. The FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on ''Evaluation of Methods of Analysis for Determining Mycotoxin Contamination of Food and Feed''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doko, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The present Co-ordinated Research Programme is to complement the FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre (TRC) for Food and Pesticide Control under the Centre's mission ''to assist Member States and their institutions to fulfill requirements to support the implementation of international safeguards/agreements relevant to food safety and control, the safe use of pesticides and sanitary and phytosanitary measures, by providing training, quality assurance services and technology transfer''. Based on the Global Environment Monitoring System - Food Contamination Monitoring and Assessment Programme (GEMS/Food) data and other national data on mycotoxin contamination, mycotoxins are a widespread problem of the food supplies in most countries. As a result, many countries have enacted regulations to control the level of mycotoxins in the national food supply as well as in food moving in international trade. At the international level, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, through its Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants and relevant commodity committees is considering the establishment of international guideline levels for various mycotoxins based on risk assessments performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Codex activities are of particular importance in view of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement specifically refers to Codex standards, guidelines and recommendations as representing the international consensus on health and safety requirements for food based on sound scientific risk assessment. This will require national authorities to give greater attention to the development of consistent and standardised approaches to regulations and their enforcement, including sampling and methods of analysis. Consequently, it is essential that the analytical capabilities of laboratories in developing countries are strengthened in order to enable them to effectively monitor the mycotoxin content of food in

  16. Current status of nutrition labelling and claims in the South-East Asian region: are we in harmony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-Siong; Tamin, Suryani; Ilyas, Rosmulyati; Ramos, Adelisa; Tan, Wei-Ling; Lai, Darwin Kah-Soon; Kongchuntuk, Hataya

    2002-01-01

    the region to enact regulations on nutrition claims. Recently enacted regulations or amendments to existing regulations of almost all the countries reviewed have included provisions for nutrition claims. Malaysia is in the process of gazetting regulations to clearly stipulate the permitted nutrition claims and the conditions required to make these claims along the guidelines of Codex Alimentarius Commission. Only two countries in the region permit health claims to be made - Indonesia and Philippines. Other countries in the region are following developments in Codex and examining the need for allowing these claims. There are more differences than similarities in the regulations on nutrition labelling and claims among countries in the South-East Asian region as no previous efforts have been made to address these. Hopefully, through this first regional meeting, countries can initiate closer interaction, with a view to working towards greater harmonization of nutrition labelling and health claims in the region.

  17. MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectionery products were used. Numbers of coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from <1x101 to 4x102 cfu.g-1, the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1, the number of yeasts from <1x101 to 5.5x102 cfu.g-1, cells of Salmonella sp. were not detected and the number of staphylococci was from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1. All investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  18. STUDY ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND MINERAL CONTENT OF FIVE HONEYS PRODUCED IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOUNIR HABATI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the physicochemical, antioxidant properties and mineral content of five Honeys from the Central Region of Algeria (Laghouat. Physicochemical properties were examined according to the official methods of analysis of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists; antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma assays, the minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results compared to those recommended by Codex Alimentarius indicated that the quality of the tested honey was very good. The samples exhibited good antioxidant activity. A linear positive relationship existed between antioxidant activity and total phenolics (R2 = 0.95/flavonoids (R2 = 0.99. The analyzed honey samples possess valuable antioxidants for culinary and medicinal uses. The analysis revealed the presence of (K 220.88 ± 1.72 ppm, (Na 85.84 ± 1.72 ppm, (Fe 0.1922 ± 0.47 ppm, (Co 0.9144 ± 1.63 ppm, (Cu 0.1252 ± 1.76 ppm and nickel (Ni 0.0463 ± 0.10 ppm in the collected samples. Toxic elements identified in the studied honeys are safe because they are below the maximum residual limit. Therefore, these results indicate that the areas of production of these honeys are unpolluted by the toxic elements.

  19. Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Kasama, Hirotaka; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles, currently under discussion by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) requires 2 methods: one for fried noodles and the other for nonfried noodles. The method to determine the moisture content of fried noodles by drying at 105 degrees C for 2 h used in the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) system of Japan can be applied to this purpose. In the present study, the JAS method for fried noodles was modified to be suitable for nonfried noodles by extending the drying time to 4 h. An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate interlaboratory performance statistics for these 2 methods. Ten participating laboratories each analyzed 5 test materials of fried and nonfried noodles as blind duplicates. After removal of outliers statistically, the repeatability (RSDr) and the reproducibility (RSD(R)) of these methods were 1.6-2.6 and 3.9-4.8% for fried noodles, and 0.3-1.5 and 1.3-2.9% for nonfried noodles, respectively.

  20. Influence of de-hulled rapeseed roasting on the physicochemical composition and oxidative state of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rękas, A.; Siger, A.; Wroniak, M.; Ścibisz, I.; Derewiaka, D.; Anders, A.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of roasting time on the contents of bioactive compounds (tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds), antioxidant capacity and physicochemical properties of rapeseed oil pressed from de-hulled seeds was investigated. The de-hulled seeds were roasted at a temperature of 165 °C for 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. The results of this study show that a roasting pre-treatment led to a gradual increase in canolol content (from 1.34 to 117.33 mg/100 g), total phytosterols (from 573.51 to 609.86 mg/100 g) and total carotenoids (0.82 to 2.41 mg/100 g), while only slight changes in the contents of tocopherols were noted. With the increase in roasting time a gradual increase in oxidative stability (from 4.27 to 6.85 h), and antioxidant capacity, seen mainly in the hydrophilic fraction of oil (from 0.32 to 2.30 mmol TEAC/l) was found. Although roasting resulted in the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products, the quality parameters of oils were within Codex Alimentarius limits. [es

  1. Up-to-date review on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Gruenewald, T.

    1984-01-01

    Public interest was focussed on food irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany after petitions for the treatment of spices had been filed and after the Federal Government's attitude concerning radiation processing of food has been discussed in the Parliament. The review discusses potential and limitations of the method and presents literature references as examples for the relevant applications rather than listing all available references. Electron-, gamma-, Roentgen- and bremsstrahlung-rays are used to obtain desinfestation, shelf-life extension, eradication of pathogene microorganisms, and product improvement. The relation between dose and effected radiochemical changes on the one hand and estimation of the wholesomeness of radiation processed food on the other hand, is discussed. 'Codex Alimentarius', a world-wide body for the standardization of food regulations, has recommended the general use of food irradiation up to a maximum dose limit of 10 kGy which covers the most promising applications. Under the premises of the European Community harmonization of food law is indispensable which means that some clearances in several countries have to be accepted by all countries in the Community. There is no need, based on scientific considerations, to label radiation processed foods. However, with regard to the growing environmental concern of the consumer, labelling of radiation processed products is recommended. For practical reasons only 'first generation' products should be labeled. (orig.) [de

  2. Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Strictly from the scientific point of view, no ceiling should be set for food irradiated with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The food irradiation technology itself is safe to such a degree that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration. That was the main conclusion of a week-long meeting on high dose irradiation organized jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The knowledge of what can and does occur chemically in high dose irradiated foods which derives from over 50 years of research tells us that one can go as high as 75 kGy, as has already been done in some countries, and the result is the same food is safe and wholesome and nutritionally adequate. (Author)

  3. Irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. A compilation of technical data for authorization and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established on 9 May 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO. ICGFI is composed of experts and other representatives designated by governments which have accepted the terms of the 'Declaration' establishing ICGFI and have pledged to make voluntary contributions, in cash or in kind, to carry out the activities of ICGFI. The functions of ICGFI are as follows: (a) To evaluate global developments in the field of food irradiation; (b) To provide a focal point of advice on the application of food irradiation to Member States and the Organization; and (c) To furnish information as required, through the Organization, to the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, and to the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This publication contains the most up to date data on irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. It was prepared at the request of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in response to the increasing acceptance and application of irradiation to ensure hygienic quality of food, especially those of animal origin.

  4. Assessment of pesticide residues in vegetables from the Western Usambara and Uruguru Mountains in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtashobya, Lewis A

    2017-09-25

    Assessment of levels of pesticide residues in vegetables was carried out in some villages in the Western Usambara and Uluguru Mountains of Tanzania where varieties of vegetables are grown. Tomatoes and cabbages were the most popular enterprise grown all year round and therefore were selected as the model crops for this study. Analysis of the cleaned sample extracts on a gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmation on the Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed dominance of organochlorine pesticides. Organophosphorous pesticides (parathion and marathion) were only detected in some samples, however, in most cases with higher concentrations compared to organochlorine pesticides. Levels of pesticide residues detected in vegetables were up to: parathion 5.07 μg/Kg, marathion 3.73 μg/Kg, α-endosulfan 0.32 μg/Kg, β-endosulfan 0.53 μg/Kg, dieldrin 1.36 μg/Kg, γ-HCH 0.25 μg/Kg, α-HCH 0.09 μg/Kg, and p, p'-DDT 0.64 μg/Kg. These results clearly show that vegetables are contaminated with different pesticide residues. However, the total levels of pesticide residues in both tomatoes and cabbages are lower than their respective codex alimentarius maximum residue levels (MRLs). This means that the vegetables produced in the area are suitable for human consumption.

  5. Determination of benzoylurea insecticides in food by pressurized liquid extraction and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutti, Monia; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    A method based on pressurized liquid extraction and LC-MS/MS has been developed for determining nine benzoylureas (BUs) in fruit, vegetable, cereals, and animal products. Samples (5 g) were homogenized with diatomaceous earth and extracted in a 22 mL cell with 22 mL of ethyl acetate at 80 degrees C and 1500 psi. After solvent concentration and exchange to methanol, BUs were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using an IT mass analyzer, which achieved several transitions of precursor ions that increase selectivity providing identification. LOQs were between 0.002 and 0.01 mg/kg, which are equal or lower than maximum residue limits established by the Codex Alimentarius. Excellent linearity was achieved over a range of concentrations from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg with correlation coefficients 0.995-0.999 (n=7). Validation of the total method was performed by analyzing in quintuplicate seven different commodities (milk, eggs, meat, rice, lettuce, avocado, and lemon) at three concentration levels (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg). The recoveries ranged from 58 to 97% and the RSDs from 5 to 19% depending on the compound and the commodity. The combination of pressurized liquid extraction with LC-MS/MS provides a sensitive and selective method for the determination of BUs in food.

  6. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruoma, Okezie I.

    2006-01-01

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer

  7. Needs of food irradiation and its commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    On July 5, 1983, the United States Food and Drug Administration filed a notice in the Federal Register approving the use of Cobalt 60 or Cesium 137 gamma radiation to reduce or control microbial contamination in spices, onion powder and garlic powder. The approval was the first in nineteen years issued by the FDA and appears to set the stage for increased regulatory approvals in the area of radiation preservation of foods. On July 8, 1983, the Codex Alimentarius Commission approved an international standard for irradiated foods. The standard had previously been introduced by experts in the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization. The ability of properly applied ionizing energy to inhibit sprouting, to eliminate the need for toxic chemical fumigants for insect disinfestation purposes, to extend refrigerated shelf life of many food products, to eliminate parasites and pathogens from our food chain and to preserve precooked packaged food products for indefinite storage without freezing or refrigeration, dictates the timeliness of food irradiation technology. (author)

  8. PENETAPAN KADAR SIKLAMAT DALAM SIRUP MERAH YANG DIJUAL DI BANJARMASIN UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Musiam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are ingredients that added to food to affect the nature or form of food. One of the food additives is sweetener. Synthetic sweetener that commonly used in food and beverage industry is cyclamate. Cyclamate excessive consumption will cause tumors and cancer. The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC established that the maximum levels of cyclamate that could be consumed by the body is 500 – 3000 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, this study aims to determine levels of cyclamate in red syrup that sold in Banjarmasin Utara. Identification of cyclamate used precipitation method with HCl 10%, BaCl2 10% and NaNO2 10% as reagents, and determination of cyclamate levels performed by gravimetric method. The results showed that 6 samples from 15 samples of red syrup which sold in Banjarmasin Utara contained cyclamate sweetener. Cyclamate contents were found in positive samples examined by gravimetric method and the results respectively were 46,21 mg/kg; 71,26 mg/kg; 97,86 mg/kg; 74,82 mg/kg; 84,46 mg/kg; and 105,24 mg/kg body weight. The results did not exceess the threshold if compare to the maximum levels that set by CAC, that were 500 – 3000 mg/kg body weight.

  9. Application of dietary fiber method AOAC 2011.25 in fruit and comparison with AOAC 991.43 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaruela, Eric de C; Santos, Aline de O; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B de; Araujo, Elias da S; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete W

    2018-01-01

    AOAC 2011.25 method enables the quantification of most of the dietary fiber (DF) components according to the definition proposed by Codex Alimentarius. This study aimed to compare the DF content in fruits analyzed by the AOAC 2011.25 and AOAC 991.43 methods. Plums (Prunus salicina), atemoyas (Annona x atemoya), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), and mature coconuts (Cocos nucifera) from different Brazilian regions (3 lots/fruit) were analyzed for DF, resistant starch, and fructans contents. The AOAC 2011.25 method was evaluated for precision, accuracy, and linearity in different food matrices and carbohydrate standards. The DF contents of plums, atemoyas, and jackfruits obtained by AOAC 2011.25 was higher than those obtained by AOAC 991.43 due to the presence of fructans. The DF content of mature coconuts obtained by the same methods did not present a significant difference. The AOAC 2011.25 method is recommended for fruits with considerable fructans content because it achieves more accurate values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Fiber Analysis of Four Pulses Using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency referred to as the dietary fiber gap. Using an analytical method American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC 2011.25 that conforms to the Codex Alimentarius Commission consensus definition for dietary fiber, the fiber content of these pulse crops was evaluated in seed types used for commercial production. These pulse crops have 2 to 3 times more fiber per 100 g edible portion than other dietary staples. Moreover, there is marked variation in fiber content among cultivars of the same crop. We conclude that pulse crop consumption should be emphasized in efforts to close the dietary fiber gap. The substantial differences in fiber content among currently available cultivars within a crop can be used to further improve gains in fiber intake without the need to change dietary habits. This provides a rationale for cultivar-based food labeling.

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  12. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  13. Risk-Based Approach for Microbiological Food Safety Management in the Dairy Industry: The Case of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Cheese Made from Pasteurized Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Maffre, Alexandre; Sanaa, Moez

    2014-01-01

    According to Codex Alimentarius Commission recommendations, management options applied at the process production level should be based on good hygiene practices, HACCP system, and new risk management metrics such as the food safety objective. To follow this last recommendation, the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment is an appealing approach to link new risk-based metrics to management options that may be applied by food operators. Through a specific case study, Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese made from pasteurized milk, the objective of the present article is to practically show how quantitative risk assessment could be used to direct potential intervention strategies at different food processing steps. Based on many assumptions, the model developed estimates the risk of listeriosis at the moment of consumption taking into account the entire manufacturing process and potential sources of contamination. From pasteurization to consumption, the amplification of a primo-contamination event of the milk, the fresh cheese or the process environment is simulated, over time, space, and between products, accounting for the impact of management options, such as hygienic operations and sampling plans. A sensitivity analysis of the model will help orientating data to be collected prioritarily for the improvement and the validation of the model. What-if scenarios were simulated and allowed for the identification of major parameters contributing to the risk of listeriosis and the optimization of preventive and corrective measures. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-12-01

    Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  15. Irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. A compilation of technical data for authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established on 9 May 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO. ICGFI is composed of experts and other representatives designated by governments which have accepted the terms of the 'Declaration' establishing ICGFI and have pledged to make voluntary contributions, in cash or in kind, to carry out the activities of ICGFI. The functions of ICGFI are as follows: (a) To evaluate global developments in the field of food irradiation; (b) To provide a focal point of advice on the application of food irradiation to Member States and the Organization; and (c) To furnish information as required, through the Organization, to the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, and to the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This publication contains the most up to date data on irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog legs. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. It was prepared at the request of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in response to the increasing acceptance and application of irradiation to ensure hygienic quality of food, especially those of animal origin

  16. Ensuring safe international trade: how are the roles and responsibilities evolving and what will the situation be in ten years' time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2011-04-01

    The roles of the international standard-setting bodies that are mandated to facilitate safe trade, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Plant Protection Convention and the World Trade Organization, are well documented, as are the roles of the international organisations responsible for global health issues: the OIE, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, developments in international trade, such as accelerating globalisation and the frequent emergence and re-emergence of diseases affecting both humans and animals, have brought new challenges and the need to reconsider the future roles of such organisations. New participants and new demands have also emerged to challenge these mandates, leading to potential areas of conflict. The need for countries to establish themselves as new trade partners, or to strengthen their positions while still maintaining safe trade, poses a challenge to standard-setting organisations, which must meet these demands while still remaining sensitive to the needs of developing countries. In this paper, the author describes and discusses some of these challenges and suggests how international organisations could evolve to confront such issues.

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N.; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  18. Food Safety in the Context of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a component of food security. According to Codex Alimentarius, food safety is “assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use”. Food products ‒ processed or fresh ‒ sold to final consumers must not affect their health as a result of direct consumption or processing, depending on the intended purpose of each. In order for a food product ‒ unprocessed, partially or totally processed or newly created ‒ to be safe, it must necessarily fulfil three conditions: to have innocuousness, to be salubrious, not to endanger the human body, that is the normal and healthy consumer; to have nutritional and energy value; food nutrients to be available for the body. Both the European and the national general regulatory frameworks on food safety set the consumer’s right to a safe diet. The normative acts adopted by the European Union (EU are aimed at harmonizing national food safety standards so that the free movement of food products can be achieved as efficiently as possible. In this respect, the European Union has developed a rich legislative body on food safety, animal health and welfare, and plant health, which is binding in all EU countries.

  19. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  20. Hacia el alineamiento global en la armonización regional: la regulación de los aditivos alimentarios en el Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Marichal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende analizar el modo en que la normativa internacional de agencias globales como la FAO, la OMC y la OMS limita y condiciona las posibilidades de una construcción autónoma de la regulación regional sobre alimentos. Esto se muestra a partir del análisis de un caso: el proceso de autorización de los aditivos alimentarios en el Mercosur. En primer lugar, se mapea brevemente la regulación alimentaria a nivel global, ante todo los Acuerdos de la OMC en la materia y las normas del CODEX ALIMENTARIUS (FAO/OMS. Se trata de mostrar su influencia en la armonización legislativa alimentaria en la región del Mercosur que tiene lugar a través de las resoluciones del Grupo Mercado Común (GMC. Segundo, se explica el caso analizado (la autorización de los aditivos alimentarios describiendo el modo en que la normativa regional genera un efecto de alineamiento en función de estándares producidos al exterior de la región. Sin embargo, esta normativa trae una excepción a la regla de alineamiento general (las especies botánicas de origen regional que nos permite vislumbrar una forma alternativa de regulación emancipatoria.

  1. Foliar Desiccators Glyphosate, Carfentrazone, and Paraquat Affect the Technological and Chemical Properties of Cowpea Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Lang, Gustavo Heinrich; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; de Oliveira, Maurício; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Vanier, Nathan Levien

    2017-08-16

    The effects of the use of glyphosate (GLY), glyphosate plus carfentrazone (GLY/CAR), and paraquat (PAR) as plant desiccators on the technological and chemical properties of cowpea grains were investigated. All studied desiccants provided lower cooking time to freshly harvested cowpea. However, the coat color of PAR- and GLY/CAR-treated cowpea was reddish in comparison to the control treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data sets showed a clear distinction among cowpea from the different treatments. Catechin-3-glucoside and epicatechin significantly contributed for discriminating GLY-treated cowpea, while citric acid was responsible for discriminating GLY/CAR-treated cowpea. Quercetin derivative and gluconic acid were responsible for discriminating control treatment. Residual glyphosate and paraquat content was higher than the maximum limits allowed by Codex Alimentarius and the European Union Commission. Improvements in the technological and chemical properties of cowpea may not be overlapped by the risks that those desiccants exhibit when exceeding the maximum limits of tolerance in food.

  2. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The new management of Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture looks forward to strengthening our collaboration with, among others, related units in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the World Trade Organization. These efforts will include subjects addressing overall food security, including food quality, food safety, plant health and the promotion of food trade in the areas of food irradiation and methods of analysis and sampling for contaminants, with a specific emphasis on developing countries. Increased efforts will also be applied in the application of safe technologies through the provision of training and support in the utilization of sound analytical methods, research, and web-based information systems for both sanitary and phytosanitary measures. It also plan to enhance the preparedness of our Member States in the application of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan and in strengthening links with other Units of the Division and the Seibersdorf Laboratories, specifically in the areas of agrochemicals, biotechnology and radionuclides. There are numerous activities planned in the form of Research Coordination Meetings, Workshops and Seminars on subjects ranging from pesticide residue analysis and formulation control, the use of irradiation to ensure the quality and safety of foods and the transfer of radionuclides from soils to plants

  3. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 5, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The new management of Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture looks forward to strengthening our collaboration with, among others, related units in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the World Trade Organization. These efforts will include subjects addressing overall food security, including food quality, food safety, plant health and the promotion of food trade in the areas of food irradiation and methods of analysis and sampling for contaminants, with a specific emphasis on developing countries. Increased efforts will also be applied in the application of safe technologies through the provision of training and support in the utilization of sound analytical methods, research, and web-based information systems for both sanitary and phytosanitary measures. It also plan to enhance the preparedness of our Member States in the application of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan and in strengthening links with other Units of the Division and the Seibersdorf Laboratories, specifically in the areas of agrochemicals, biotechnology and radionuclides. There are numerous activities planned in the form of Research Coordination Meetings, Workshops and Seminars on subjects ranging from pesticide residue analysis and formulation control, the use of irradiation to ensure the quality and safety of foods and the transfer of radionuclides from soils to plants.

  4. Needs of food irradiation and its commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welt, M A

    1984-01-01

    On July 5, 1983, the United States Food and Drug Administration filed a notice in the Federal Register approving the use of cobalt 60 or cesium 137 gamma radiation to reduce or control microbial contamination in spices, onion powder and garlic powder. The approval was the first in nineteen years issued by the FDA and appears to set the stage for increased regulatory approvals in the area of radiation preservation of foods. On July 8, 1983, the Codex Alimentarius Commission approved an international standard for irradiated foods. The standard had previously been introduced by experts in the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization. The ability of properly applied ionizing energy to inhibit sprouting, to eliminate the need for toxic chemical fumigants for insect disinfestation purposes, to extend refrigerated shelf life of many food products, to eliminate parasites and pathogens from our food chain and to preserve precooked packaged food products for indefinite storage without freezing or refrigeration, dictates the timeliness of food irradiation technology.

  5. Up-to-date review on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlermann, D A.E.; Gruenewald, T

    1984-01-01

    Public interest was focussed on food irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany after petitions for the treatment of spices had been filed and after the Federal Government's attitude concerning radiation processing of food has been discussed in the Parliament. The review discusses potential and limitations of the method and presents literature references as examples for the relevant applications rather than listing all available references. Electron-, gamma-, Roentgen- and bremsstrahlung-rays are used to obtain desinfestation, shelf-life extension, eradication of pathogene microorganisms, and product improvement. The relation between dose and effected radiochemical changes on the one hand and estimation of the wholesomeness of radiation processed food on the other hand, is discussed. 'Codex Alimentarius', a world-wide body for the standardization of food regulations, has recommended the general use of food irradiation up to a maximum dose limit of 10 kGy which covers the most promising applications. Under the premises of the European Community harmonization of food law is indispensable which means that some clearances in several countries have to be accepted by all countries in the Community. There is no need, based on scientific considerations, to label radiation processed foods. However, with regard to the growing environmental concern of the consumer, labelling of radiation processed products is recommended. For practical reasons only 'first generation' products should be labeled.

  6. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesta Bortey-Sam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava and Musa paradisiaca (plantain around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption.

  7. SYSTEM CONTROL OF SMOKING PROCESS AND MEASURING BENZO[A]PYRENE IN TRADITIONAL PRODUCTION OF BOSNIAN DRY CURED HAM (BOSANSKI PRŠUT BY IMPLEMENTING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Toroman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As it is well known, traditional production of smoked meat products requires technological processes, which carry some food safety hazards (e.g. content of Benzo[a]pyrene. (B[a]P. “OMEGA COMERC Ltd.”, a member of the meat industry in Visoko region, has implemented food safety management system according to the recommendations from Codex Alimentarius CAC-RCP (9, recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene. By implementing HACCP system, the Company established adequate control measures in producing Bosnian dry cured ham (bosanski pršut on traditional way including the smoking process in the chambers. By doing this, they have created conditions to measure B[a]P content in the Bosnian dry cured ham and implement HACCP system without impairing traditional production and food safety of the final product.The aim of this study is to present the effect of the specific production process onto the meat smoking in order to preserve hygienic, nutritional and sensory values, and also to control B[a]P content in the final product.Key words: Bosnian dry cured ham, traditional production, smoking process, Benzo[a]pyrene, HACCP

  8. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  9. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  10. Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in some samples of UHT, raw & pasteurized milk from Indian states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Vinutha; Nanjegowda, Divyashree Kallenahalli; Viswanath, Prema

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is a toxic metabolite found in the milk of lactating animals which have consumed feedstuffs contaminated with aflatoxin B(1). Ultra high temperature treated (UHT) milk is a product which is becoming popular in developing countries like India as there is a lack of proper cold storage or refrigeration facilities. In this study, 45 samples of UHT milk of popular brands prevalent in the market were analyzed for the presence of AFM(1) by reversed phase HPLC using fluorescent detector after cleanup of sample with immunoaffinity columns. All samples of plain UHT milk were positive for AFM(1) and 38% of these contained levels more than 0.5 μg/kg, the maximum permitted limit prescribed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and by the mandatory regulations of the country, the FSSAI Regulations, 2011. In 62.5% of flavored UHT milk, AFM(1) was below detectable levels (0.02 μgL(-1)). However, 12.5% of these samples also contained levels exceeding the maximum permitted limits. AFM(1) was present in 61.6% of the 52 raw milk samples analyzed from the two states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu with a range of 0.1-3.8 μgL(-1). 17.3% of these samples also exceeded the regulatory limits of the country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2006-04-03

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer.

  12. Validation of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method to determine six polyether ionophores in raw, UHT, pasteurized and powdered milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Jacob, Silvana do Couto; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Carlos, Betânia de Souza; da Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a method developed for the determination of six antibiotics from the polyether ionophore class (lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, salinomycin and semduramicin) at residue levels in raw, UHT, pasteurized and powdered milk using QuEChERS extraction and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The validation was conducted under an in-house laboratory protocol that is primarily based on 2002/657/EC Decision, but takes in account the variability of matrix sources. Overall recoveries between 93% and 113% with relative standard deviations up to 16% were obtained under intermediate precision conditions. CCα calculated values did not exceed 20% the Maximum Residue Limit for monensin and 25% the Maximum Levels for all other substances. The method showed to be simple, fast and suitable for verifying the compliance of raw and processed milk samples regarding the limits recommended by Codex Alimentarius and those adopted in European Community for polyether ionophores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; 1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); 2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, '86), and 3) in european countries (to may 31, '86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; 4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (( 134 Cs + 137 Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, 5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; 6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; 7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export's country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  14. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  15. DETERMINATION OF MINERAL CONTAIN AND BACTERIA CONTAMINANT ON ORGANIC AND NONORGANIC FRESH VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsojo Harsojo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of mineral content and bacteria contaminant on fresh vegetable of long bean (Vegan ungulate Wall., white cabbage (Basic tolerance L., and lettuce (Lectuca sativa L. that cultivated by organic and nonorganic system have been done. The mineral content has been analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy method, while bacteria contaminant by total plate count number using Nutrient Agar, Mac Conkey Agar, Baird Parker medium, and Salmonella using selective medium. The results showed that there are some essential mineral such as Fe, Zn, Ca, Co, and nonessential mineral Cd. There is tendency that fresh vegetable that cultivated by organic system contained Fe, Zn, Ca, Co and Cd mineral less than nonorganic. The Zn mineral content in nonorganic of fresh vegetable were higher than the limit of threshold number from Health Department, Republic of Indonesia (2004, while Cd mineral in organic or nonorganic of fresh vegetable were greater then threshold number from Codex Alimentarius Commision. The measurement of bacteria contaminant on organic and nonorganic of fresh vegetables contained aerob, coli, and Staphylococcus bacteria in organic of fresh vegetables were less compared to nonorganic of fresh vegetables.   Keywords: mineral, bacteria aerob, coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, organic, and nonorganic vegetable, neutron activation

  16. Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaferstein, F.

    1997-01-01

    Strictly from the scientific point of view, no ceiling should be set for food irradiated with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The food irradiation technology itself is safe to such a degree that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration. That was the main conclusion of a week-long meeting on high dose irradiation organized jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The knowledge of what can and does occur chemically in high dose irradiated foods which derives from over 50 years of research tells us that one can go as high as 75 kGy, as has already been done in some countries, and the result is the same food is safe and wholesome and nutritionally adequate. (Author)

  17. Comparative analyses of ber (zizyphus) honey with other types of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, F.; Mehmood, R.

    2007-01-01

    Eight different honey samples were collected from different ecological areas of Pakistan and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The aim was to evaluate the quality, difference in the composition and comparison of Ber/Sidder (Zizyphus spp.) honey with other types of honey. The two samples of Ber honey and six other floral honey i.e., Citrus, mixed (citrus + Justicia), Acacia modesta, multi-flora and mixed (zizyphus + sesamum) were collected from Apis mellifera colonies. The colonies of Apis mellifera foraged on the above-mentioned flora in different ecological areas i.e. ber honey from Bannu and Karak, Citrus and mixed (citrus + Justicia) honey from Mandi Bahauddin, Acacia honey from Peshawar + Islamabad and multi-flora from Lahore. Nine legal parameters of honey quality control were followed. All honey samples were well within the limits of Codex Alimentarius Commission except ber and citrus. The ber honey showed high pH (6.85) and low reducing sugars (67.66%), sucrose (1.0%), free acidity (6.09 meq/kg) and total acidity (7.68 meq/kg). Mixed honey (zizyphus + sesamum) exhibited highest pH (6.88), lowest free acidity (2.80 meq/kg) and total acidity (5.50 meq/kg). Citrus honey was also found high in Hydroxy-methyl-furfural (HMF, 22.75 meql kg). (author)

  18. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  19. Exposure assessment to synthetic food colours of a selected population in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratima; Bhat, R V; Sudershan, R V; Krishna, T P; Naidu, N

    2004-05-01

    An exposure assessment of synthetic food colours was carried out among 1-5- and 6-18-year-old individuals by the food frequency method. Children had an intake of solid food consumption in the range 2-465 g day(-1) and liquid food consumption in the range 25-840 ml day(-1) with added colours. Among the eight permitted colours in India, six were consumed by the subjects of the study. The intakes of some subjects exceeded the acceptable daily intake for colours such as tartrazine, sunset yellow and erythrosine, which is 7.5, 2.5 and 0.1 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Therefore, a uniform permissible limit of 100 mg kg(-1) prescribed under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act in India for all foods is not justified. The limits need to be revised according to the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which permits different maximum levels of additives to various food categories based on both the extent of consumption and the technological justification for its use.

  20. Use of Gamma Irradiation for the Control of the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in Bread Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbashi, E.E.B.M.; Ahmed, E.G.H.; Aljack, S.A.; Hamad, S.A.A.; Ahmed, M.E.; Elmamoun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Three doses of gamma irradiation (viz. 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy) were tested against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in bread flour in Khartoum, Sudan. Corresponding control exhibited two groups of infested and uninfested flours. The results obtained showed that all the doses used reduced the infestation in a range 46-100 % during a six month storage period. The 2 KGy mortality range, of the test insect, was 46 - 100%, whereas the corresponding readings for 2.5 KGy and 3 KGy were 90 - 100% and total kill (100%), respectively. However, a natural infestation occurred in all the treated flours and in the infested and uninfested controls as well. This may refer to the resistant eggs of this insect whose a smaller size than the major bulk flour particles and therefore not affected by the milling process and the irradiation doses used too.The treatment mortality in this test was corrected by the Abbott's formula. Moreover, the flour analyses results implied that all the chemical parameters (moisture %, ash % and protein %) and the quality parameters (wet gluten and falling number) are within the recommended levels of the Codex Alimentarius.It was also found that these doses used had no harmful effect on dough rheological properties.

  1. Food labeling issues in patients with severe food allergies: solving a hamlet-like doubt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Vincenzo; Di Girolamo, Francesco; Marzano, Valeria; Dahdah, Lamia; Mennini, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    We review the laws on labeling in the international community, the difficulties they pose to the food manufacturers to prepare the food labels and the methodologies to determine the concentration of potential allergens in foods. European Food Safety Authority and International Life Sciences Institute Europe are evaluating strategies to identify the threshold level of allergen that can trigger a reaction in individuals. The most used techniques to detect the presence of protein in food are Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction and real time polymerase chain reaction. Researchers are now trying to apply proteomics to estimate the amount of protein within the food.In order to protect the health of consumers, the Codex Alimentarius Commission updates constantly the list of allergens. In response to these regulations, some industries have also added some precautionary allergen labeling (PAL). It was generally agreed that PAL statements needed to be visible, simple, and safe. It was suggested that PAL be standardized, an action that would occur if the 'Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling' process was made mandatory. So far, no laboratory technique is able to reassure the consumers about the composition of foods found on the packaging. International authorities produced increasingly stringent laws, but more is still to do.

  2. Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2011-01-01

    In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are encouraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic development and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers.

  3. Monitoring pesticides residues and contaminants for some leafy vegetables at the market level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A. B. H.

    2004-03-01

    Pesticide residues and contaminants in selected leafy vegetables, namely (lettuce, garden rocket and salad onion) were monitored at market level in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia, during the period june to july 2001. Fifteen samples of vegetables from the City vegetable market of Riyadh were collected and subjected to multi-pesticide residue detection and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors (GC/MS,ECD). Results of sample extracts analysis showed that the two vegetables of: garden rocket and salad onion contain pesticide residues and contaminants which have no Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) collaborate with World Health and Food and Agriculture Organizations (WHO/FAO). Whereas lettuce vegetable was found free of any identified pesticide residues or contaminants. Garden rocket was shown to contain dibutyl phthalate (0.04 ppm)-steryl chloride (0.02 ppm) tridecane (0.06 ppm)-hexadecane (0.07 ppm)-BIS (ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.006 ppm) and pyridinium, 1-hexyl chloride (0.01 ppm). The salad onion was found to contain 9-octadecanamide (0.13 ppm)-tridecane (0.15 ppm) and tetradecane (0.16 ppm). There are no established MRL s for these pesticides and contaminants detected in garden rocket and salad onion, although when impacts on human health were reviewed some of them were found probably hazardous. (Author)

  4. AllerTool: a web server for predicting allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zong Hong; Koh, Judice L Y; Zhang, Guang Lan; Choo, Khar Heng; Tammi, Martti T; Tong, Joo Chuan

    2007-02-15

    Assessment of potential allergenicity and patterns of cross-reactivity is necessary whenever novel proteins are introduced into human food chain. Current bioinformatic methods in allergology focus mainly on the prediction of allergenic proteins, with no information on cross-reactivity patterns among known allergens. In this study, we present AllerTool, a web server with essential tools for the assessment of predicted as well as published cross-reactivity patterns of allergens. The analysis tools include graphical representation of allergen cross-reactivity information; a local sequence comparison tool that displays information of known cross-reactive allergens; a sequence similarity search tool for assessment of cross-reactivity in accordance to FAO/WHO Codex alimentarius guidelines; and a method based on support vector machine (SVM). A 10-fold cross-validation results showed that the area under the receiver operating curve (A(ROC)) of SVM models is 0.90 with 86.00% sensitivity (SE) at specificity (SP) of 86.00%. AllerTool is freely available at http://research.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/AllerTool/.

  5. Heavy metals in cow's milk and cheese produced in areas irrigated with waste water in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, Numa Pompilio; Calderón-Sánchez, Francisco; Castro de Jesús, Jair; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Tamariz-Flores, José V; Pérez-Sato, Marcos; Soní-Guillermo, Eutiquio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and As levels in raw milk and Oaxaca and ranchero type cheeses, produced in areas irrigated with waste water from Puebla in Mexico. Milk results showed a mean Pb level of 0.03 mg kg -1 , which is above the maximum limit as set by Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission standards. For As a mean value of 0.12 mg kg -1 in milk was obtained. Mean As and Pb levels in milk were below the Mexican standard. Milk whey and ranchero cheese had mean Pb levels of 0.07 and 0.11 mg kg -1 , respectively. As was higher in Oaxaca and ranchero cheese at 0.17 and 0.16 mg kg -1 , respectively. It was concluded that cheeses made from cow's milk from areas irrigated with waste water are contaminated with Pb and As, which may represent a health risk.

  6. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  7. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakabya, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN, free acidity (FA, moisture content (MC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, and water insoluble solids (WIS. Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods. Honey quality was mainly compromised by harvesting immature honey, bad extraction methods and contamination by extraneous materials. Constraints to beekeeping were lack of appropriate equipment (52%, inadequate farmer skills, bad weather and vermin. Honey brands differed (P< 0.05 in DN, most failed the Uganda and Codex Alimentarius standards, and 20% met European Union HMF and DN standards. Correlation was observed between HMF vs. DN (r= 0.94; MC vs. FA (r= 0.56. Supermarket honey (4.65 was more superior (P< 0.05 in DN than stall markets (1.93, and hawkers (2.3. Similarly, WIS levels differed (P< 0.05 between honeys from supermarkets (0.08, stall markets (3.0 and hawkers (3.15. All honeys met MC standards, while DN and WIS were major shortcomings. Farmer training and extension in proper honey harvesting, handling and processing should be strengthened. Quality monitoring at all levels should be emphasized.

  8. Residual determination and risk assessment of buprofezin in plum (Prunus domestica) grown in open-field conditions following the application of three different formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Lee, Young-Jun; Chung, Hyung Suk; Lieu, Truong; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shin, Ho-Chul; Im, Geon-Jae; Hong, Su Myeong; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the residual level and perform a risk assessment on buprofezin formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and suspension concentrate over various treatment schedules in plum (Prunus domestica). The samples were extracted with an AOAC quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe, 'QuEChERS', method after major modifications. As intrinsic interferences were observed in blank plum samples following dispersive-solid phase extraction (consisting of primary secondary amine and C 18 sorbents), amino cartridges were used for solid-phase extraction. Analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography with diode array detection and confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method showed excellent linearity with determination coefficient (R 2  = 1) and satisfactory recoveries (at two spiking levels, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg) between 90.98 and 94.74% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤8%. The limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) was considerably lower than the maximum residue limit (2 mg/kg) set by the Codex Alimentarius. Absolute residue levels for emulsifiable concentrates were highest, perhaps owing to the dilution rate and adjuvant. Notably, all formulation residues were lower than the maximum residue limit, and safety data proved that the fruits are safe for consumers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Higiene alimentaria para la prevención de trastornos digestivos infecciosos y por toxinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manuel Moreno, Dr.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El principal factor que interviene en el origen y prevención de las enfermedades trasmitidas por los alimentos es la higiene alimentaria. Dichas enfermedades son causadas por la ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados con microorganismos patógenos ocasionando una infección o por la ingestión de alimentos contaminados con toxinas. Los principales agentes involucrados son Escherichia Coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria Monocytogenes, Norovirus, virus Hepatitis A, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, y Virus Coxsackie. Toxinas producidas por hongos o por microflora marina y los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes pueden también causar serios problemas de salud. La inocuidad alimentaría ha tomado relevancia debido a una mayor exigencia por consumidores cada día más informados y por las demandas del comercio exterior. Medidas que aseguren una adecuada higiene alimentaría nos permitirá prevenir enfermedades, principalmente digestivas, causadas por variados agentes en los alimentos. Esto se logra por la implementación de las medidas propuestas por la Comisión Internacional conocida como Codex Alimentarius.

  10. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, David

    2014-07-03

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future.

  11. OIE philosophy, policy and procedures for the development of food safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppers, W F G L

    2006-08-01

    Food safety was identified as a high priority area in the 2001-2005 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Strategic Plan. Member Countries of the OIE considered that the organisation should be more active in issues of public health and consumer protection and that this should include more involvement in the area of diseases or pathogens transmissible through food, whether or not animals are affected by such diseases or pathogens. A permanent Working Group on Animal Production Food Safety was established in 2002 to coordinate the OIE's activities in food safety. The Working Group was requested to focus on food safety measures applicable at farm level and to monitor the ongoing cooperation between the OIE and Codex Alimentarius. More emphasis is now placed on the public health aspects of a disease when OIE standards are developed or revised. For example, the revised chapter on bovine tuberculosis in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code includes food safety recommendations for meat and meat products and for milk and milk products. The revised chapter was approved by the OIE International Committee of Member Countries at their 73rd General Session in May 2005. More chapters will follow, beginning with a chapter addressing bovine brucellosis.

  12. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F. [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Strictly from the scientific point of view, no ceiling should be set for food irradiated with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The food irradiation technology itself is safe to such a degree that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration. That was the main conclusion of a week-long meeting on high dose irradiation organized jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The knowledge of what can and does occur chemically in high dose irradiated foods which derives from over 50 years of research tells us that one can go as high as 75 kGy, as has already been done in some countries, and the result is the same food is safe and wholesome and nutritionally adequate. (Author)

  14. The effect of irradiation in the quality of the avocado frozen pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia, M.A.; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Ruiz, Javier; Ruiz, Luisa F.

    2002-01-01

    The quality of frozen avocado pulp irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays at doses of: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 kGy, was studied. These are possible doses for reducing the content of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes by 1-4 log cycles. The study principally consisted of weekly evaluations of damages caused in lipids and chlorophyll pigment over a period of one year. No significant differences were found in either hydrolysis rancidity or in the oxidative rancidity for any of the doses. The concentrations of fatty acids and peroxides were below those established by Codex Alimentarius. This means that the quality of the oil in the frozen avocado pulp remains acceptable. The kinetic model for the oxidative rancidity is of first order and the shelf life of the product is of about 120 weeks. The concentrations of the fatty acids and of malondialdehyde were not high enough to produce off-flavors. It was also determined that the radiation doses did not influence the chemistry of the chlorophyll. The results were confirmed by the panelists, who accepted irradiated frozen pulp at the highest radiation dose

  15. The effect of irradiation in the quality of the avocado frozen pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia, M.A. E-mail: mavald@servidor.unam.mx; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Ruiz, Javier; Ruiz, Luisa F

    2002-03-01

    The quality of frozen avocado pulp irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses of: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 kGy, was studied. These are possible doses for reducing the content of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes by 1-4 log cycles. The study principally consisted of weekly evaluations of damages caused in lipids and chlorophyll pigment over a period of one year. No significant differences were found in either hydrolysis rancidity or in the oxidative rancidity for any of the doses. The concentrations of fatty acids and peroxides were below those established by Codex Alimentarius. This means that the quality of the oil in the frozen avocado pulp remains acceptable. The kinetic model for the oxidative rancidity is of first order and the shelf life of the product is of about 120 weeks. The concentrations of the fatty acids and of malondialdehyde were not high enough to produce off-flavors. It was also determined that the radiation doses did not influence the chemistry of the chlorophyll. The results were confirmed by the panelists, who accepted irradiated frozen pulp at the highest radiation dose.

  16. The effect of irradiation in the quality of the avocado frozen pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Ma. Ángeles; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Ruiz, Javier; Ruiz, Luisa F.

    2002-03-01

    The quality of frozen avocado pulp irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at doses of: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 kGy, was studied. These are possible doses for reducing the content of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes by 1-4 log cycles. The study principally consisted of weekly evaluations of damages caused in lipids and chlorophyll pigment over a period of one year. No significant differences were found in either hydrolysis rancidity or in the oxidative rancidity for any of the doses. The concentrations of fatty acids and peroxides were below those established by Codex Alimentarius. This means that the quality of the oil in the frozen avocado pulp remains acceptable. The kinetic model for the oxidative rancidity is of first order and the shelf life of the product is of about 120 weeks. The concentrations of the fatty acids and of malondialdehyde were not high enough to produce off-flavors. It was also determined that the radiation doses did not influence the chemistry of the chlorophyll. The results were confirmed by the panelists, who accepted irradiated frozen pulp at the highest radiation dose.

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  18. AllergenOnline: A peer-reviewed, curated allergen database to assess novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ferreira, Fatima; Sampson, Hugh A; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Baumert, Joseph L; Bohle, Barbara; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Wise, John; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-05-01

    Increasingly regulators are demanding evaluation of potential allergenicity of foods prior to marketing. Primary risks are the transfer of allergens or potentially cross-reactive proteins into new foods. AllergenOnline was developed in 2005 as a peer-reviewed bioinformatics platform to evaluate risks of new dietary proteins in genetically modified organisms (GMO) and novel foods. The process used to identify suspected allergens and evaluate the evidence of allergenicity was refined between 2010 and 2015. Candidate proteins are identified from the NCBI database using keyword searches, the WHO/IUIS nomenclature database and peer reviewed publications. Criteria to classify proteins as allergens are described. Characteristics of the protein, the source and human subjects, test methods and results are evaluated by our expert panel and archived. Food, inhalant, salivary, venom, and contact allergens are included. Users access allergen sequences through links to the NCBI database and relevant references are listed online. Version 16 includes 1956 sequences from 778 taxonomic-protein groups that are accepted with evidence of allergic serum IgE-binding and/or biological activity. AllergenOnline provides a useful peer-reviewed tool for identifying the primary potential risks of allergy for GMOs and novel foods based on criteria described by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, David

    2014-01-01

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future. PMID:25437242

  20. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  1. Recent advances in radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Commercial application of radiation technology for food processing started in the nineties after it was approved by FAO/IAEA/WHO and Codex Alimentarius Commission in the eighties. Sanitary applications were initially explored commercially with microbial decontamination of spices and dry ingredients as the primary commodities to be processed on a large scale. Subsequently, with the emergence of E.coli O157:H7 as the potential food poisoning risk in ground beef, irradiation of meat was initiated in the late nineties in the USA. Since then irradiation, has become a very useful food safety tool and the technology has been approved for addressing food safety risks in moluscan shellfish and vegetables like lettuce, spinach, and more recently for raw uncooked meat by USFDA. Phytosanitary applications assumed importance after USFDA approved irradiation as a method of phytosanitary treatment and subsequent endorsement of the process by International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) in 2003. These approvals were responsible for development of international trade in agricultural commodities. The first to demonstrate the feasibility of the process were India and Australia, the countries that exported mangoes to New Zealand and USA, respectively. As far as the source of radiation is concerned, the world is slowly moving towards deployment of machine sources, thereby reducing its dependence on radioisotopes for commercial irradiation. (author)

  2. Operational intervention levels (OILs): a tool to overcome differences in intervention levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald; Wirth, Erich

    2008-01-01

    The intervention levels for evacuation, sheltering and iodine blockade still differ in many countries, although international organisation like IAEA, NEA or ICRP aspire to harmonise them on an international level. Even if the dose values of the limits are in agreement, they are not necessarily comparable because the type of dose (projected dose, averted dose), the respected exposure pathways (external dose, inhalation, ingestion) or the integration time might differ significantly. The question is raised, how can harmonisation being achieved? International organisations recommend 'operational intervention levels' (OILs) for promptly assessing the results of environmental monitoring and to decide on protective actions. OILs are measurable values derived from dose limits. Best examples are the derived intervention levels for food and feed in the codex alimentarius or by the EC, which limit the ingestion dose to about 5 mSv/a. This paper discusses the properties and potential use of OILs, identifies and derives useful OILs and addresses their benefit in practise both for early and later countermeasures. Furthermore it is discussed whether OILs might be a useful tool to overcome national differences in intervention levels because an OIL value covers a relative wide range of the projected dose due to the uncertainty of the parameters needed for derivation. (author)

  3. Standard Practice for Irradiation of Fresh and Frozen Red Meat and Poultry to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice outlines procedures for the irradiation of fresh or frozen meat and poultry. Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines meat as “the edible part of any mammal” and poultry as “any domesticated bird, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons” (CAC/MISC 5). Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3). 1.2 This practice covers absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load in fresh and frozen red meat and poultry. Such doses are typically less than 10 kGy. 1.3 This practice addresses irradiation of pre-packaged product for retail sale or for use as an ingredient in other products. It also addresses the in-line irradiation of unpackaged product. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It i...

  4. [Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well

  5. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  6. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  7. Codex Gigas - Ďáblova bible. Tajemství největší knihy světa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Všetečková, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, 25/26 (2007), s. 16 ISSN 1210-5236 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Middle Ages * early 13th century * manuscript * exhibition Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 8, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    being adopted as Guidelines by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (see details in the Past Events section of this issue). The future activities of the Food and Environmental Protection sub-programme will include a coordinated and comprehensive 'farm to fork' approach to food production systems, i.e., strengthening compliance with food and environmental safety standards through good agricultural practices. This will include the enhancement of Member State capabilities to reduce food safety hazards and protect the environment through the application of nuclear and related analytical techniques and the identification, development and adoption of good agricultural practices that reduce the risks to food safety and the environment from chemical, microbiological and radionuclide contamination. These practices aim to limit the introduction of hazards at their source while at the same time emphasizing the application of agrochemicals in amounts and timing appropriate to agronomic, food safety and environmental requirements, including withholding periods. Laboratories and trained staff capable of establishing reliable sampling and analytical regimes for quantifying potential hazards within specific production practices or in products are indispensable for informed decision making and improved food safety and environmental protection. In this regard, the Food and Environmental Protection Section has been assigned seventeen new IAEA technical cooperation projects for the 2005-2006 biennium covering, among other areas, the use of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary purposes and in the implementation of quality assurance and quality control procedures in both pesticide and veterinary drug residue laboratories. The Joint Division also welcomes the strengthening of our current technical inputs to other inter-agency initiatives, including in the adaptation and validation of screening and confirmatory methodologies for veterinary drugs, pesticides and other contaminants; the

  9. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 8, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    being adopted as Guidelines by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (see details in the Past Events section of this issue). The future activities of the Food and Environmental Protection sub-programme will include a coordinated and comprehensive 'farm to fork' approach to food production systems, i.e., strengthening compliance with food and environmental safety standards through good agricultural practices. This will include the enhancement of Member State capabilities to reduce food safety hazards and protect the environment through the application of nuclear and related analytical techniques and the identification, development and adoption of good agricultural practices that reduce the risks to food safety and the environment from chemical, microbiological and radionuclide contamination. These practices aim to limit the introduction of hazards at their source while at the same time emphasizing the application of agrochemicals in amounts and timing appropriate to agronomic, food safety and environmental requirements, including withholding periods. Laboratories and trained staff capable of establishing reliable sampling and analytical regimes for quantifying potential hazards within specific production practices or in products are indispensable for informed decision making and improved food safety and environmental protection. In this regard, the Food and Environmental Protection Section has been assigned seventeen new IAEA technical cooperation projects for the 2005-2006 biennium covering, among other areas, the use of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary purposes and in the implementation of quality assurance and quality control procedures in both pesticide and veterinary drug residue laboratories. The Joint Division also welcomes the strengthening of our current technical inputs to other inter-agency initiatives, including in the adaptation and validation of screening and confirmatory methodologies for veterinary drugs, pesticides and other contaminants; the

  10. [Hygienic substantiation of the permissible levels for tetracycline-group antibiotics in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of justification of the hygienic standard for tetracycline-group antibiotics in the food production established in the Russian Federation at more rigid level, than maximum and admissible levels (MAL) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the analysis of data of literature on negative nature of impact of low concentration of these antibiotics on an organism and the environmental conditions and risk for health has been performed. Inadequacy of the accepted admissible daily dose (ADD) accepted by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) on action on selection of resistant E. coli in intestines, for the wide contingent of consumers in connection with ignoring of obvious factors of uncertainty (gastrointestinal dysbiosis, age and individual variations in the microbiota of people synergy with other antibiotics residues in food and indirect impact on an organism through microflora from the natural habitat (resistance genes, modified causative organisms with altered properties).. By the analysis of information received with the use of modern molecular and genetic methods, the role of Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of tetracyclines as biologically active substances, signaling molecules which, without causing obvious negative consequences in a macroorganism, serve as a major factor of regulation of a transcription in microorganisms and activation of a horizontal gene transfer coding resistance, transferred on conjugative transposons of Tn916-Tn1545 family. Reasonable scientific data on a dominating contribution of minor levels of tetracyclines in globalization in the nature of the most adverse transmissive type of the antibiotic resistance interfaced to formation new bacterial pathotypes, as consequences of irrationally high scales of application in agriculture and strengthened impact on microbic ecosystems of live organisms and objects of habitat are presented. For minimization of this mediated risk for health the need of

  11. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO DE CONTAMINACIÓN POR METAMIDOFOS EN LA MICROCUENCA EL SALTO DEL MUNICIPIO DE EL SANTUARIO, ANTIOQUIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Horacio Ramírez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación, que se desarrolló en la microcuenca El Salto del municipio de El Santuario, se estimó la presencia del Metamidofos, en plantas de repollo (Brassica oleraceae y en el suelo y su riesgo de contaminación en aguas para el consumo humano. En el repollo el nivel de concentración del Metamidofos sobrepasó los límites máximos permisibles establecidos para esta planta por el Codex Alimentarius; en el suelo no se encontraron residuos del producto, pero sí en el agua de escorrentía y en dos sitios del cauce de la quebrada El Salto localizados aguas arriba de la bocatoma del acueducto municipal; no se detectó Metamidofos en la muestra de agua de la bocatoma del acueducto ni en la red de distribución del acueducto municipal. En la estimación cualitativa del riesgo de contaminación se utilizaron como variables de vulnerabilidad y amenaza la precipitación, la escorrentía, el coeficiente de escorrentía, el tiempo de concentración, la erosión, algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo y la pendiente de los terrenos. Se observó que el riesgo se presenta por la alta cantidad de insecticida utilizado y su frecuencia de utilización, que se incrementa según la distribución e intensidad de las lluvias y del potencial de erosión y este, a su vez, por el uso y manejo no adecuado del suelo. En la parcela experimental y en un terreno aledaño sembrado con pasto kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum, se calculó la población por unidad de área de la lombriz de tierra (Lumbricus terrestris. La ausencia de este organismo en la parcela cultivada con repollo (Brassica oleraceae se puede considerar como indicador biológico por la contaminación de este insecticida en el suelo.This investigation was done in El Salto watershed basin located in the municipality of El Santuario. It was examined the presence of Metamidofos in plants of cabbage, in soils, with risk of contamination in waters for the human

  13. Avaliação de risco crônico da ingestão de resíduos de pesticidas na dieta brasileira Chronic dietary risk assessment for pesticide residues in Brazilian food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Dutra Caldas

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o risco crônico da ingestão de pesticidas pela dieta, em compostos registrados no Brasil para uso agrícola até 1999. MÉTODOS: Foi calculada a Ingestão Diária Máxima Teórica (IDMT para cada pesticida, utilizando limites máximos de resíduos estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira e dados de consumo alimentar. A caracterização do risco foi feita comparando-se a IDMT com as doses diárias aceitáveis (IDA de vários países e do Codex Alimentarius. RESULTADOS: A IDTM ultrapassou a IDA (%IDA>100 em pelo menos uma região metropolitana brasileira para 23 pesticidas. Dezesseis compostos com maior %IDA são inseticidas organofosforados, sendo o paration metílico o composto cuja ingestão mais excedeu o parâmetro toxicológico (%IDA N=9.300. O arroz, o feijão, as frutas cítricas e o tomate foram os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a ingestão. Dos compostos que apresentaram maior risco, apenas 6 foram registrados de acordo com o Decreto 98.816/90, que dispõe sobre o uso de pesticidas no País. CONCLUSÕES: Os compostos identificados como sendo de potencial risco de exposição crônica para a população brasileira, e os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a sua ingestão, devem ser priorizados pelos órgãos de saúde em programas de monitoramento de resíduos de pesticidas. Adicionalmente, dados sobre resíduos em alimentos prontos para o consumo, fatores de processamento e dados sobre consumo alimentar devem ser gerados para possibilitar o refinamento do estudo.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a chronic dietary risk assessment of the pesticides registered in Brazil up until 1999. METHODS: The Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI for each pesticide was calculated using the Brazilian maximum residue limits and food consumption data from IBGE, the Brazilian Statistical Institute. The risk characterization was done comparing the TMDI with the acceptable daily intakes (ADI from other countries and from the Codex

  14. Ocorrência de resíduos de ionóforos poliéteres em leite UHT comercializado na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro | Occurrence of polyether ionophore residues in UHT milk marketed in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mararlene Ulberg Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Os ionóforos poliéteres são antibióticos utilizados em bovinos como promotores de crescimento, para aumentar a produção de leite em vacas em lactação e prevenir e tratar a coccidiose. Os ionóforos poliéteres autorizados como aditivos antimicrobianos no Brasil para uso na alimentação de bovinos e vacas leiteiras são a lasalocida e a monensina sódica. Entretanto, poucos são os métodos analíticos para determinação destes resíduos em leite e não há dados de monitoramento disponíveis no Brasil. Essa classe ainda não está incluída nos programas de controle de resíduos em leite implementados pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de seis ionóforos poliéteres em leite UHT empregando um método analítico desenvolvido e validado no Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde. O método foi aplicado em 102 amostras de leite integral UHT comercializadas na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Nas amostras analisadas somente resíduos do antibiótico monensina foram encontrados. Esta substância foi detectada em 14% das amostras, mas as concentrações estimadas foram bem inferiores ao limite máximo de resíduo de 2 µg/kg recomendado pelo Codex Alimentarius e pela Comunidade Europeia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Polyether ionophore antibiotics are used in cattle to promote growth, to increase milk production in lactating cows, and to prevent and treat coccidiosis. In Brazil, lasalocid and monensin are the two polyether ionophores that are allowed as antimicrobial additives in cattle and dairy cow feed. However, there are few methods for determining the residues of these additives in milk, and no monitoring data are available in Brazil. These residues are not yet included in the residue control programs in the milk matrix

  15. Presença de matérias estranhas em erva-doce, Pimpinella anisum L. | Presence of foreign matter in anise, Pimpinella anisum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Machado Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A palavra “chá” é usada popularmente no Brasil como sinônimo de infusão de frutos, folhas, raízes ou ervas como camomila, hortelã, erva-doce, capim-cidreira. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada RDC nº 277/2005 define “chá” como “o produto constituído de uma ou mais partes de espécie(s vegetal(is inteira(s, fragmentada(s ou moída(s, com ou sem fermentação, tostada(s ou não”. O produto deve ser designado como “chá”, seguido do nome comum da espécie vegetal utilizada. O Codex Alimentarius considera crianças e idosos grupos de risco quanto à presença de matérias estranhas em alimentos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade, através da pesquisa de matérias estranhas, de dez marcas de “chás” da espécie vegetal Pimpinella anisum L. oferecidas no mercado varejista do Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizadas as metodologias para alimentos da Association of Official Analytical Chemists de 2010 e para droga vegetal da Farmacopeia Brasileira de 2010. Das onze marcas, seis apresentaram presença de matérias estranhas acima de 2%, conforme estabelecido na Farmacopeia Brasileira. Em todas as amostras foram detectadas a presença de terra e areia indicativas de falhas das Boas Práticas pelas legislações específicas. =============================================== The word “tea” is popularly used in Brazil as a synonym for the infusion of fruits, leaves, roots, or herbs, such as chamomile, mint, fennel, and lemongrass. The Collegiate Board Resolution (RDC No. 277/2005 defines “tea” as a product consisting of one or more parts of plant species, whole, fragmented, or ground, with or without fermentation, and toasted or untoasted. The product must be designated as “tea,” followed by the common name of the plant species used. The Codex Alimentarius defines children and the elderly as risk groups for the presence of foreign matter in food. This study aims to evaluate the quality of tea offered

  16. Copper content in cereals grown in the model condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of cereals in Slovakia but also worldwide is increasing by every year. From 30000 to 50000 tons of mercury circulates thought the biosphere that gets into the atmosphere degassing of the earth's crust and world oceans. Trace element as copper is one of the most efficient antioxidants in the body, often referred to as an element of beauty. It acts as a powerful catalyst for many enzymes and vitamins, through which already small amounts affects many activities in the body (strengthens immunity, reduces levels of histamine. It accumulates in the barley, beans, cucumber, nuts or milk and so on. The aim of our work was the evaluation of transfer of mercury from sludge to edible part of chosen cereals. The objectives were achieved in simulated conditions of growing pot experiment. We used agricultural soil from the location of Výčapy - Opatovce for the realization of the experiment. The sludge, which was added at various doses, was taken from Central Spiš area from locality of Rudňany near the village where minedironore that contains mainly cooper and mercury during last few decades was. We used three types of cereals: barley (Hordeum sativum L. variety PRESTIGE, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety ISJARISSA and oat (Avena sativa L. variety TATRAN. The length of growing season was 90 days. From the obtained results of two years can be concluded that the accumulation of cooper by seed follows barley ˂ oat ˂ wheat. Even though that the barley is characterized by the highest accumulation of cooper in the seeds, the content did not exceed the maximum level specified by The Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic (CA SR. The results shows that the suitable cultivation of the cereals in localities, which are contaminated with heavy metals, especially by cooper, that the high content of cooper in soil do not pose a risk of accumulation of the metal into the cereal grain.

  17. The content of mercury in various types of cereals that were grown in the model conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of cereals in Slovakia but also worldwide is increasing by every year. From 30000 to 50000 tons of mercury circulates throught the biosphere that gets into the atmosphere degassing of the earth's crust and world oceans. Mercury affects CNS and causes its disorders. The high doses of mercury causes a lot of different changes of personality as well as increased agitation, memory lossorinsomnia. It can also affect other organ systems such as the kidney. The exposure level is reflected in the concentration of mercury in blood and urine. The aim of our work was the evaluation of transfer of mercury from sludge to edible part of chosen cereals. The objectives were achieved in simulated conditions of growing pot experiment. We used agricultural soil from the location of Výčapy - Opatovce for the realization of the experiment. The sludge, which was added atvarious doses, was taken from Central Spiš area from locality of Rudňany near the village where minedironore that contains mainly copperand mercury during last few decades was. We used three types of cereals: barley (Hordeum sativum L. variety PRESTIGE, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety ISJARISSA and oat (Avena sativa L. variety TATRAN. The length of growing season was 90 days. From the obtained results of two years can be concluded that the accumulation of mercury by seed follows wheat ˂ barley ˂ oat. Even though that the oat is characterized by the highest accumulation of mercuryin the seeds, the content did not exceed the maximum level sspecified by The Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic. The results shows that the suitable cultivation of the cereals in localities, which are contaminated with heavy metals, especially by mercury, that the high content of mercury in soil do not pose a risk of accumulation of the metal into the cereal grain.

  18. Halogenated pesticide analysis in orange juice by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with "6"3Ni nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manhani, Kelly C.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O.V.; Mendes, Cristiana de A.; Lacerda, João P.A. de; Silva, Jorge L. da; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has been gain space in the market of orange juice in the last years. For the exportation of this product to keep growing, its quality of this product must be ensured by putting in force more strict legislations and custom barriers, in order to improve the well-being and health of the population. In this work were analyzed four orange juices brands produced in the State of São Paulo. It was quantified the acaricide known as Dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol) widely used to combat the Citrusleprosis virus, transmitted by mites to the citrus culture. This pesticide was chosen due to its importance in the production of orange in large scale and their indiscriminate use may pose risks to humans and of environment. The analytical technique applied was gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the "6"3Ni nuclide. This beta (β) radiation source ionizes the carrier gas (N_2), generating an electron current that forms the baseline. The analites pass through the detector and capture electrons, generating the analytical signal that is proportional to the concentration of analite. The sample preparation was done by QuEChERS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) found were 0.005 and 0.025 mg kg"-"1 respectively. The applied methodology was efficient and presented excellent analytical sensitivity for the pesticide Dicofol, being that of four samples analyzed, only in one was found concentration of 0.03 mg kg"-"1, above the LOQ, however below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) for fruits (0.1 mg kg"-"1) established by Codex alimentarius. (author)

  19. Honey characteristics after extraction and half-year storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the fresh honey after extracting and after half-year storage at room temperature. Overall, we analyzed 10 samples of rape (Brassica napus honey coming from district Vranov nad Toplou located in the eastern Slovakia. The analysis consisted of the evaluation of the physico-chemical parameters (water content, free acidity and electrical conductivity and microbiological evaluation (total plate count (TPC, counts of coliform bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, sporulating microorganisms and microscopic fungi. Water content, free acidity and electrical conductivity were measured according to IHC (2009, namely these parameters were detected by refractometer, titration and conductometer, respectively. We used dilution plating method for microbiological analysis. Fresh rape honey contained 18.3 ±1.0% of water. Free acidity of fresh rape honey was 12.7 ±2.0 meq.kg-1 and electrical conductivity was 0.14 mS.cm-1. After half a year of storage, water content and electrical conductivity decreased nonsignificantly and free acidity increased nonsignificantly. Stored honey samples meet the requirements of Decree 41/2012 and 106/2012. From microbiological point of view, fresh rape honey showed relatively high microbial counts. Mean values of TPC, sporulating microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts exceeded 2.00 log cfu/g. All spotted microbial groups decreased in the stored honey comparing with the fresh honey. We found significant (p ˂0.01 differences of TPC, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts comparing the fresh and stored honey samples. Evaluating microbiological parameters, one sample of stored honey did not meet the requirements of Codex Alimentarius SR (2014. TPC exceeded the limit value. Based on the results we can conclude that all samples meet the requirements for good quality honey. Microbial counts in the honey decreased gradually. Probably, various microorganisms have important role in creation of the honey from

  20. Microbiological evaluation of poultry sausages stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of poultry sausages, which were stored at different temperatures (4 °C, 15 °C. Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts and filamentous microscopic fungi were detected in poultry sausages. Microbiological quality was evaluated using the horizontal method for the determination number of microorganisms. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (after opening to 4.35 × 104 CFU.g-1  in sample 1 (7th day of storage. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 3.25 × 103 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (after opening to 3.12 × 106 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 to 3.12 × 106  CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (7th day of storage.  Coliform bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 to 3.15 × 105 CFU.g-1. Coliform bacteria in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 1.54 × 103 CFU.g-1 to 1.40 × 106 CFU.g-1.  Yeasts and microscopic filamentous fungi in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 2.75 × 104 CFU.g-1 to 1.40 × 106 CFU.g-1.  Yeasts and microscopic filamentous fungi in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 1.30 × 104 CFU.g-1 to 1.44 × 106  CFU.g-1. Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic fungi were not in accordance with Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic on 3rd day in samples stored at 15 °C.

  1. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  2. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  3. Halogenated pesticide analysis in orange juice by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with {sup 63}Ni nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhani, Kelly C.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O.V.; Mendes, Cristiana de A.; Lacerda, João P.A. de; Silva, Jorge L. da, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: kmanhani@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CQMA/IPEN-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Química e Meio Ambiente; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo (LAQ- CQuim/IPT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análises Químicas

    2017-11-01

    Brazil has been gain space in the market of orange juice in the last years. For the exportation of this product to keep growing, its quality of this product must be ensured by putting in force more strict legislations and custom barriers, in order to improve the well-being and health of the population. In this work were analyzed four orange juices brands produced in the State of São Paulo. It was quantified the acaricide known as Dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol) widely used to combat the Citrusleprosis virus, transmitted by mites to the citrus culture. This pesticide was chosen due to its importance in the production of orange in large scale and their indiscriminate use may pose risks to humans and of environment. The analytical technique applied was gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the {sup 63}Ni nuclide. This beta (β) radiation source ionizes the carrier gas (N{sub 2}), generating an electron current that forms the baseline. The analites pass through the detector and capture electrons, generating the analytical signal that is proportional to the concentration of analite. The sample preparation was done by QuEChERS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) found were 0.005 and 0.025 mg kg{sup -1} respectively. The applied methodology was efficient and presented excellent analytical sensitivity for the pesticide Dicofol, being that of four samples analyzed, only in one was found concentration of 0.03 mg kg{sup -1}, above the LOQ, however below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) for fruits (0.1 mg kg{sup -1}) established by Codex alimentarius. (author)

  4. A decade of assessment of the natural and artificial radioactivity in feedstuff and food commodities imported and exported by Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecequilo, Brigitte; Pileggi, Patricia; Nisti, Marcelo B.; Maduar, Marcelo F.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Natural and artificial radionuclides in feedstuff with concentration levels surpassing the brazilian (CNEN-NN 3.05, January 2005) and international (IAEA 115 Safety Series, 1996 and Codex Alimentarius, 2006) limits are harmless to the human health and an effective control is needed in order to only allow consumption of products presenting radiation levels below limits. Since 1988, after the Chernobyl accident, the Environmental Radiometric Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares), performs, on a regular basis, analysis of potassium-40, cesium-134 and cesium-137 concentrations in feedstuff and food commodities imported and exported by Brazil. The present work covers mostly a decade of results, from 1996 to 2007, assessed from the measurements of almost 2600 samples. The imported Belgium and the exported ones are originated from 14 Brazilian States and 111 regions. Nearly 90 different kinds of feedstuff and food commodities were measured, including condensed milk, milk powder, soy beans, sugar, raw coffee beans, etc. All samples were analyzed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry and the results, compared with brazilian and international limits, released as a technical report. The radioactivity present in all analyzed products was within the international limits, allowing to conclude that consumption of such goods offers no health risk derived from radiation. Potential relationships between the type and the origin of the products exported and imported by Brazil and the radionuclides concentrations are also approached. Finally, all results will contribute to the establishment of a radiometric database for the radionuclides concentrations in the feedstuff and food commodities produced in Brazil. (author)

  5. Heavy metals concentrations and risk assessment of roselle and jute mallow cultivated with three compost types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abubakari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at the research field of the CSIR–SARI near Nyankpala in the Northern region of Ghana during the major growing seasons of 2014 and 2015. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of three compost types i.e. Accra compost and recycling plant (ACARP compost; decentralised compost (DeCo and composted deep litter chicken manure (CDLCM on heavy metals concentrations in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius L. and the health risk of these vegetables to adults and children. The composts were each applied at the rate of 10 t/ha in a randomized complete block design in four replications. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the leaves of roselle were 0.8 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg whiles in jute mallow, they were 0.7 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively. These concentrations were above the Maximum residue levels (MRLs of 0.2 mg/kg for Cd and 0.3 mg/kg for Pb in the standards of the European Commission and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The low soil pH might have facilitated the bioavailability of the heavy metals resulting in concentrations that could be harmful to consumers of these vegetables. There is, therefore, the need to amend the soil pH of the study area. An upward adjustment of the pH of the composts used can also help in reducing the bioavailability of heavy metals to roselle and jute mallow cultivated in soils with low pH.

  6. Assessment of human health risk associated with the presence of pesticides in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas HAMID

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of pesticides in the environment is highly toxic to environment and human health. Aim of the study was determination, quantification and assessment of associated health risk due to presence of pesticide residues in chicken eggs using high pressure liquid chromatography. HPLC method was successfully employed and validated. From collected samples pesticides were extracted in presence of petroleum ether and acetonitrile. Bifenthrin and Difenoconazole residues were found in all samples with different concentration exceeding maximum residue limits (MRL of Codex Alimentarius Commission. However imidacloprid was not detected in any sample. Concentration of bifenthrin in house egg samples ranged from 0.256206 to 4.112387 mg/kg while in poultry farm samples it varied from 1.5862 to 5.80796 mg/kg. Difenoconazole was found in concentration of 0.02835 mg/kg, 1.7668 mg/kg, 3.7205 mg/kg, 21.8937 mg/kg 21.9835 mg/kg, 19.26407 mg/kg in samples collected from houses while and in poultry farm samples its detected concentration was 10.939 mg/kg, 12.3296 mg/kg, 29.3617 mg/kg, 18.6116 mg/kg, 40.0523 mg/kg and 19.2335 mg/kg. Concentrations of both pesticides Bifenthrin and Difenoconazole exceeded the MRLs (0.05 mg/kg. Health risk index surpassed 1 (the cut off value for Difenoconazole in seven samples while for Bifenthrin values were less than 1, indicating the possibility of potential medium to long term health risk associated with ingestion of contaminated eggs.

  7. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempah, K.C.

    2009-02-01

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  8. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  9. Decrease of Pirimiphos-Methyl and Deltamethrin Residues in Stored Rice with Post-Harvest Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanshan Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged (QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE material was applied to the analysis of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice. Two dustable powder (DP formulations (2% pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin DP; 5% pirimiphos-methyl DP were applied in simulated storehouse trials in the lab. The residues and dissipation of the two pesticides in stored rice were investigated. Slow dissipation of both pesticides was observed in stored rice. The half-lives of pirimiphos-methyl were 23.9–28.9 days, and those of deltamethrin were 23.9–24.8 days. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl from application rates of 4.5–6.75 a.i. mg/kg (active ingredient milligram per kilogram and 10–15 a.i. mg/kg were 1.6–3.8 mg/kg and 3.0–4.5 mg/kg at 60 days Pre-harvest Interval (PHI. Residues of deltamethrin from an application rate of 0.5–0.75 a.i. mg/kg were 0.13–0.14 mg/kg at 60 days PHI. Both pesticides residues were below the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC. Therefore, at the recommended dosages they are safe for use on stored rice.

  10. Influência das condições de cultivo na composição da semente e do óleo de gergelim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemar Antoniassi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas sementes de 14 genótipos de gergelim, oriundos de ensaios realizados em delineamento ao acaso, com cinco repetições, cultivados em Patos, na Paraíba, e em Barbalha, no Ceará, em ambientes de sequeiro e irrigado, respectivamente. As sementes foram avaliadas quanto à composição centesimal e quanto ao teor de aminoácidos. No óleo, foram determinados o perfil em ácidos graxos e esteróis, além de características do padrão de identidade e qualidade. Foram observadas diferenças significativas (p<0,05 entre os locais para o teor de óleo e de proteína, sendo o teor de óleo superior para Barbalha, onde o cultivo foi irrigado. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,05 entre as médias de Patos e de Barbalha para os ácidos graxos, sendo que os teores de ácidos esteárico (C18:0 e oleico (C18:1 foram maiores para Patos, enquanto o de ácido linoleico (C18:2 foi maior para Barbalha. Quanto aos teores de esteróis, campesterol, estigmasterol e delta 5 avenasterol, foram maiores para o óleo das amostras de Barbalha, enquanto o de sitosterol foi maior para amostras de Patos (p<0,05. Algumas diferenças foram observadas quanto a ácidos graxos, esteróis, densidade, índice de refração e padrão de identidade, para o óleo de gergelim, do Codex Alimentarius (2001, reforçando a necessidade de construir-se uma base de dados nacional, que possa subsidiar futuras alterações neste padrão.

  11. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  12. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Antimicrobial Activity of Some Types of Egyptian Bees’ Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboul Magd, D.A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Api therapy (the medicinal use of honey bee products) has recently become the focus of attention as a form of folk and preventive medicine for treating certain conditions and diseases, as well as promoting overall health and well-being (Pyrzynska and Biesaga, 2009). Honeybees are master chemists and chemical engineers. Their success in the animal kingdom is greatly because of their unique chemistry and the application of their different products: honey, pollen, beeswax, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom. The first three products are chemically synthesized by the bees themselves while, the other three are derived from plants and are modified and engineered by the bees for their own use (Taha, 2004). Honey is the most important primary product of bee keeping from both a quantitative and an economic point of view (Adenekan et al., 2010). Honey is defined as the natural sweet substance, produced by the honeybees from the nectar, secretions of living parts or excretions of plant-sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in honey combs to ripen and mature (Codex Alimentarius, 2001). Hippocrates, the great Greek scientist, prescribed a simple diet, favoring honey given as oxymel (vinegar and honey) for pain, hydromel (water and honey) for thirst, and a mixture of honey, water and various medical substances for acute fevers. Also, he utilized honey for baldness, contraception, wound healing, cough and sore throat, eye diseases, topical antisepsis, prevention and treatment of scars (Al-Jabri, 2005). During the biblical era, honey received a religious endorsement by both Islam and Christianity. Thus, the Holy Koran, the heritage of Islamic sciences, has time and again emphasized the medicinal virtue of honey (Sheikh et al., 1995). The last scripture enlisted it as a miraculous food in a separate Surah; ''Al-Nahl (The BEE).

  13. Sauces, spices, and condiments: definitions, potential benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Malavé, Heber Gómez-

    2016-09-01

    Spices and condiments are an important part of human history and nutrition, and have played an important role in the development of most cultures around the world. According to the Codex Alimentarius, the category of salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, and protein products includes substances added to foods to enhance aroma and taste. Spices have been reported to have health benefits as antioxidant, antibiotic, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Health claims about the benefits of condiments for disease prevention or health improvement need to be science based and extensively supported by evidence; data on their preventive or protective potential in humans are currently limited. The condiments market has been growing continuously over the last few years, with the quantity of products sold under the category of sauces, dressings, and condiments during the period 2008-2013 increasing from 31,749,000 to 35,795,000 metric tons. About 50 of the 86 spices produced in the world are grown in India. From 2008 to 2013, the United States was the largest importer of spices, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia. The main buyers of fish sauce are Vietnam and Thailand, with purchases of 333,000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2013, respectively. The sauces and condiments category is dynamic, with large differences in consumption in habits and practices among countries. This paper aims to establish definitions and discuss potential health benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets for sauces, spices, and condiments. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Presencia de plaguicidas organoclorados en forraje para ganado en unidades de producción de leche orgánica en Tecpatán, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María N Murga Juárez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de plaguicidas organoclorados en el ambiente es preocupante por su persistencia, potencial de transporte a larga distancia y grado de toxicidad para la fauna y los seres humanos. En México, Chiapas ocupa el primer lugar en la producción de alimentos orgánicos, y Tecpatán es el principal municipio productor de leche orgánica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de plaguicidas organoclorados en forraje para ganado lechero en unidades de producción de leche orgánica. Se eligieron tres unidades de producción de leche orgánica y se colectaron muestras de forraje y leche en cada unidad. Los plaguicidas se extrajeron y purificaron con base en lo establecido por la USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency y se analizaron por cromatografía de gases con detector de captura de electrones. Los compuestos que rebasaron el límite máximo permisible según el Codex Alimentarius fueron lindano, heptacloro + epóxido de heptacloro y aldrín + dieldrín (37.5 ± 84, 62 ± 125 y 20 ± 50 ng.g-1 base grasa, respectivamente. En las muestras de forraje los valores más altos fueron alfa + beta-HCH, lindano y heptacloro + epóxido de heptacloro (76.3 ± 140, 43 ± 105 ng.g-1 y 40 ± 76 ng.g-1 peso seco. Es probable que la destacada presencia de estos compuestos se deba a su utilización en el control de vectores en campañas de salud o de ectoparásitos del ganado de la región por parte de productores convencionales.

  15. Nutrient composition of premixed and packaged complementary foods for sale in low- and middle-income countries: Lack of standards threatens infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, William A; Nene, Marc D; Bell, Winnie

    2017-10-01

    Premixed flours for infant porridge are increasingly produced and sold in developing countries to complement continued breastfeeding. Such complementary food (CF) products have known efficacy against malnutrition in children from 6 to 24 months of age, but ingredient ratios and production processes may vary. This study provides the first systematic measurement of their actual nutrient composition. We purchased samples of 108 premixed CF products in 22 low- and middle-income countries, and commissioned blind laboratory measurement of each product's macronutrients and micronutrients. We compared measured contents to nutrient claims on their packaging and to CF standards from the Codex Alimentarius, the Super Cereal Plus product used in nutrition assistance programs, and the Lutter and Dewey (2003) recommendations, as well as our own modeled nutrient requirements for a healthy breastfed child. Actual densities are significantly different from nutrient claims for protein (p = .013) and fat (p = .000). Only 15% of samples met two of the three benchmarks for fat, 32% met the most stringent protein standard, while only 22% met them for iron, and 21% for zinc. The median healthy child consuming breast milk plus enough of these solid foods to meet energy needs would experience deficits of zinc at 6 months, iron at 6 and 9 months, and dietary fat from 12 months of age. In summary, premixed CF products can provide adequate nutrient density but usually do not, revealing the need and opportunity for independent monitoring and quality assurance to help grain millers making premixed foods maintain uniform ingredient ratios and production practices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Esther F A; Janssen, Paul J C M; de Wit-Bos, Lianne

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the world including from regions with naturally high arsenic levels. Therefore, specific populations living in Europe could also have a high exposure to inorganic arsenic due to their consumption pattern. Current risk assessment is based on exposure via drinking water. For a good estimation of the risks of arsenic in food, it is important to investigate if the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from food is different from drinking water. The present study further explores the issue of European dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic via rice and seaweed and its associated health risks. The bioavailability of inorganic arsenic was measured in in vitro digestion experiments. The data indicate that the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic is similar for rice and seaweed compared with drinking water. The calculated dietary intake for specific European Union populations varied between 0.44 and 4.51 µg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹. The margins of exposure between the inorganic intake levels and the BMDL0.5 values as derived by JECFA are low. Decreasing the intake of inorganic arsenic via Hijiki seaweed could be achieved by setting legal limits similar to those set for rice by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July 2014.

  18. Nutritional and other implications of irradiating meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Different methods have been developed to extend the shelf-life of meat and its products ranging from the traditional use of salt to canning, freezing and modified-atmosphere packaging. As well as these more conventional approaches to meat preservation, the use of ionizing radiation has also been extensively studied over many years. The irradiation sources which are permitted for use with food are gamma photons from 6o Co or 137 Cs, high-energy electrons generated by machines, maximum energy 10 MeV and X-rays with a maximum energy of 5 MeV (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1984). At doses of about 25-50 kGy, irradiation can be used to achieve sterilization and in the 1960s shelf-stable radiation-sterilized meat products were developed to substitute for canned or frozen military rations. Currently, sterile meals are produced for immunocompromized patients using irradiation. With doses below 10 kGy, the process is effective in enhancing food safety through the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter and extending shelf-life by eliminating the micro-organisms responsible for normal spoilage. Following the report of the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food (1981) which concluded that 'irradiation of food up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy produced no toxicological hazard and introduced no special nutritional or microbiological problems', there has been renewed interest in the use of lower doses of irradiation for the preservation of food. In 1991, the UK government introduced new regulations permitting the irradiation of seven categories of food, including chicken, under strictly controlled conditions (UK Government Regulations, 1990) .Currently, thirty-seven countries have approval for the irradiation treatment of a range of foods or food items and of these countries, twenty-six are using the process on a

  19. Review of various approaches for assessing public health risks in regulatory decision making: choosing the right approach for the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearfield, Kerry L; Hoelzer, Karin; Kause, Janell R

    2014-08-01

    Stakeholders in the public health risk analysis community can possess differing opinions about what is meant by "conduct a risk assessment." In reality, there is no one-size-fits-all risk assessment that can address all public health issues, problems, and regulatory needs. Although several international and national organizations (e.g., Codex Alimentarius Commission, Office International des Epizooties, Food and Agricultural Organization, World Health Organization, National Research Council, and European Food Safety Authority) have addressed this issue, confusion remains. The type and complexity of a risk assessment must reflect the risk management needs to appropriately inform a regulatory or nonregulatory decision, i.e., a risk assessment is ideally "fit for purpose" and directly applicable to risk management issues of concern. Frequently however, there is a lack of understanding by those not completely familiar with risk assessment regarding the specific utility of different approaches for assessing public health risks. This unfamiliarity can unduly hamper the acceptance of risk assessment results by risk managers and may reduce the usefulness of such results for guiding public health policies, practices, and operations. Differences in interpretation of risk assessment terminology further complicate effective communication among risk assessors, risk managers, and stakeholders. This article provides an overview of the types of risk assessments commonly conducted, with examples primarily from the food and agricultural sectors, and a discussion of the utility and limitations of these specific approaches for assessing public health risks. Clarification of the risk management issues and corresponding risk assessment design needs during the formative stages of the risk analysis process is a key step for ensuring that the most appropriate assessment of risk is developed and used to guide risk management decisions.

  20. Arsenic in your food: potential health hazards from arsenic found in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munera-Picazo S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Munera-Picazo,1 Marina Cano-Lamadrid,1 María Concepción Castaño-Iglesias,2 Francisco Burló,1 Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina11Food Quality and Safety Group, Department of Agro-Food Technology, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Orihuela, 2Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Rice is a staple food for over half of the world population, but there is some concern about the occurrence of arsenic (As in this cereal and the possible overexposure to this metalloid. Recently, the Codex Alimentarius Commission established a maximum limit of 200 µg kg–1 for inorganic arsenic (iAs in rice. Because the maximum content of As in water has been reduced to 10 µg L–1, intoxication through rice and rice-based products can be considered an important source of As poisoning. The chronic effects of this iAs exposure can be lung and bladder cancer, skin lesions, or other noncarcinogenic diseases. There is clear evidence of high levels of iAs in rice and rice-based products. Different solutions for the reduction of As intake are proposed at different levels: 1 during the plant-growing process through agronomic practices, 2 pretreatment of rice before its use in the food industry, 3 optimization of the conditions of unit operations during processing, and 4 by cooking.Keywords: arsenic speciation, food safety, dietary exposure, Oryza sativa

  1. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  2. Evaluation des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des miels commercialisés à Cotonou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djossou, JA.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of Physiochemical Characteristic of the Honeys Marketed in Cotonou. Honey is the foodstuff produced by honeybees from the nectar or honeydew. In Benin, it is marketed and sold in pharmacies, supermarkets, small shops in some large cities, village markets and even at home. However, the conditions of harvesting, packaging and storage can influence its qualities. To verify the quality of honeys marketed in Cotonou, 36 samples were purchased in supermarkets and pharmacies. The physicochemical quality and polyphenolic nature of samples were determined. The results show that the pH varied from 3.57 to 5.17 with an acidity of between 21.80 and 62,32meq NaOH/ kg. They have high content of proline (169.27-1699.21 mg / kg and total sugar (81.96-90.06 g / 100 g with an HMF content of 22.51 to 41.96 mg / kg. They contained 9.84 to 19.76% moisture and 0.19 to 0.62% minerals. Considering all physicochemical parameters, almost half (41.67% of the samples presented at least one quality parameter exceeding the permitted limit of the 2001 Codex Alimentarius norm. There is a large variability between samples for total phenolic content (27.88-248.80 mg GAE/100 g and flavonoids (0.30 to 55.17 mg CAT/100 g. A significant correlation was observed between color and total phenolic content. Color and the total flavonoids were correlated too, as were also the polyphenolic compounds.

  3. Use of nuclear and related techniques in studies of agroecological effects resulting from the use of persistent pesticides in Central America. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The use of pesticides for the control of pests of agriculture and vectors of human and animal diseases in the countries of Central America is the highest per capita and one of the most intense in the world. There are reports of acute toxicity and chronic effects among farm workers. There are also reports that pesticide residues in food frequently exceed the Codex Alimentarius Commission's maximum residue levels (MRLs) and shipments of foodstuffs have been rejected by importing countries due to the presence of excessive residues of pesticides. Pesticides are also implicated in the contamination of continental and coastal waters. The indiscriminate use of pesticides would be expected to also aggravate pest problems by adversely affecting populations of beneficial arthropods and causing the development of resistance in pest populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project in 1992 to generate information on residues of pesticides in the environment, their persistence under local conditions and effect on local species of beneficial arthropods in agricultural and adjacent areas in the countries of Central America. Such information could be used in the implementation of legislation to control the distribution and use of pesticides and the development and application of integrated pest management programmes. Scientists from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America participated in this project. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of the project and includes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Panama City, Panama, 20-24 April 1998

  4. Metals and cocoa products: a study on characterization of toxic and essential metals in chocolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) were assessed in 32 commonly consumed cocoa products (chocolates) prepared by different national and multinational companies. Significant differences were observed between the micro element contents of these varieties (P < 0.01). Frequent consumption of chocolates can enhance the intake of toxic metals in children. The concentration of Pb and Cd in cocoa powder is found to be highest 492 and 197 mu g/L followed by cocoa based chocolates 306 and 46.8 mu g/L, sugar based chocolates 209.8 and 40.3 mu g/L whereas it is least in milk based chocolates samples 88.3 and 33 mu g/L respectively. Weekly intake of toxic metals Pb, Cd and Ni was also calculated. Mean concentration of Pb and Cd was found below the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. All essential elements were assessed for their weekly intake with the dietary reference intakes (DRI). Results were validated through the analysis of certified reference materials and determined metals concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Data was interpreted through cluster analysis and pattern recognition as depicted. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Fe were found to be highest in the cocoa-based followed by milk-based and sugar-based chocolates. The daily intake of cocoa-based chocolates must be reduced as lead and cadmium intake can otherwise cross the limits set by Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO 2006). Raw materials should be checked before use for metal contents in order to decrease the concentrations of these metals in final chocolate products. (Orig./A.B.)

  5. Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

    2013-06-15

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Principles for the risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms and their food products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Jaime; Gomes, Ana R; Olaru, Irina

    2013-10-01

    Genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) are involved in the production of a variety of food and feed. The release and consumption of these products can raise questions about health and environmental safety. Therefore, the European Union has different legislative instruments in place in order to ensure the safety of such products. A key requirement is to conduct a scientific risk assessment as a prerequisite for the product to be placed on the market. This risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), through its Scientific Panels. The EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms has published complete and comprehensive guidance for the risk assessment of GMMs and their products for food and/or feed use, in which the strategy and the criteria to conduct the assessment are explained, as well as the scientific data to be provided in applications for regulated products. This Guidance follows the main risk assessment principles developed by various international organisations (Codex Alimentarius, 2003; OECD, 2010). The assessment considers two aspects: the characterisation of the GMM and the possible effects of its modification with respect to safety, and the safety of the product itself. Due to the existing diversity of GMMs and their products, a categorisation is recommended to optimise the assessment and to determine the extent of the required data. The assessment starts with a comprehensive characterisation of the GMM, covering the recipient/parental organism, the donor(s) of the genetic material, the genetic modification, and the final GMM and its phenotype. Evaluation of the composition, potential toxicity and/or allergenicity, nutritional value and environmental impact of the product constitute further cornerstones of the process. The outcome of the assessment is reflected in a scientific opinion which indicates whether the product raises any safety issues. This opinion is taken into account by the different European regulatory

  7. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2015-06-15

    For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Home gardens (n=63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1+F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references. We recommend thorough washing of vegetables

  8. Screening of veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS/MS. Background and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatour, Thierry; Racault, Lucie; Bessaire, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory agencies and government authorities have established maximum residue limits (MRL) in various food matrices of animal origin for supporting governments and food operators in the monitoring of veterinary drug residues in the food chain, and ultimately in the consumer's plate. Today, about 200 veterinary drug residues from several families, mainly with antibiotic, antiparasitic or antiinflammatory activities, are regulated in a variety of food matrices such as milk, meat or egg. This article provides a review of the regulatory framework in milk and muscle including data from Codex Alimentarius, Europe, the U.S.A., Canada and China for about 220 veterinary drugs. The article also provides a comprehensive overview of the challenge for food control, and emphasizes the pivotal role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), either in tandem with quadrupoles (LC-MS/MS) or high resolution MS (LC-HRMS), for ensuring an adequate consumer protection combined with an affordable cost. The capability of a streamlined LC-MS/MS platform for screening 152 veterinary drug residues in a broad range of raw materials and finished products is highlighted in a production line perspective. The rationale for a suite of four methods intended to achieve appropriate performance in terms of scope and sensitivity is presented. Overall, the platform encompasses one stream for the determination of 105 compounds in a run (based on acidic QuEChERS-like), plus two streams for 23 β-lactams (alkaline QuEChERS-like) and 10 tetracyclines (low-temperature partitioning), respectively, and a dedicated stream for 14 aminoglycosides (molecularly-imprinted polymer).

  9. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level.

  10. Colorimetric detection of melamine based on p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-modified AuNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2016-06-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method is developed for colorimetric detection of melamine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid. The addition of melamine induced the aggregation of AuNPs, as evidenced from the morphological characterizations and the color changed from red wine to blue, which could also be monitored by the UV-visible spectrometer and even naked eyes. This process caused a significant increase in the absorbance ratio (A650nm/A520nm) of p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the system exhibited a linear response to melamine in the range of 6.0 × 10-7-1.5 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and the limit of detection can even be 2.3 nM, which was much lower than some other methods and the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8.0 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission) review for melamine in liquid infant formula). More importantly, the developed method presented excellent tolerance to coexisting common metal ions such as Ca2+, Zn2+, whose concentration is 1000 times of melamine, so that it had been applied to the analysis of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder with the recovery of 97.0-101 % and 100-103 %, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is quite a highly effective means to determine melamine in milk products.

  11. Colorimetric detection of melamine based on p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-modified AuNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2016-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method is developed for colorimetric detection of melamine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid. The addition of melamine induced the aggregation of AuNPs, as evidenced from the morphological characterizations and the color changed from red wine to blue, which could also be monitored by the UV–visible spectrometer and even naked eyes. This process caused a significant increase in the absorbance ratio (A_6_5_0_n_m/A_5_2_0_n_m) of p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid–AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the system exhibited a linear response to melamine in the range of 6.0 × 10"−"7–1.5 × 10"−"6 mol L"−"1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and the limit of detection can even be 2.3 nM, which was much lower than some other methods and the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8.0 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission) review for melamine in liquid infant formula). More importantly, the developed method presented excellent tolerance to coexisting common metal ions such as Ca"2"+, Zn"2"+, whose concentration is 1000 times of melamine, so that it had been applied to the analysis of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder with the recovery of 97.0–101 % and 100–103 %, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is quite a highly effective means to determine melamine in milk products.

  12. Opinions on Fresh Produce Food Safety and Quality Standards by Fresh Produce Supply Chain Experts from the Global South and North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Nanyunja, Jessica; Jordaan, Danie; Luning, Pieternel; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types of food safety and quality standards and legislation: Codex Alimentarius standards, European Union legislation, national legislation, and private standards. The results reflect the different circumstances under which the Southern and Northern producers operate in relation to the local organization, regulation, and support of the sector; but they also indicate similar challenges, in particular, the challenge of private standards, which were perceived to demand a higher implementation effort than the other three types of standards. Private standards were also strongly perceived to exclude Southern and Northern small- and medium-scale producers from high-value markets, whereas European Union legislation was perceived to strongly exclude, in particular, small- and medium-scale Southern producers. The results further highlight concerns about costly control measures and third-party certification that are required by downstream buyers but that are mostly paid for by upstream suppliers. Food standards are seen in their dual role as a catalyst for implementation of structured food safety management systems on the one hand and as a nontariff barrier to trade on the other hand. The results of the survey also pointed up the advantages of enforcing food safety and food quality standards in terms of knowledge spillover to noncertified activities, increased revenues, and improved food safety of delivered produce. Survey results highlight the importance of technical assistance and support of producers by governments and producer cooperatives or trade associations in the implementation and certification of food standards, along with increased awareness of and training of individuals in

  13. Food ionizing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, A.; Raffi, J.; Hasselmann, C.

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of food with ionizing radiation is increasingly being recognized as a means of reducing food-borne illnesses and associated medical and other costs. In addition, the process may contribute to food security by preventing post-harvest losses, thereby making more food available to more people, eventually at lower cost. An ever increasing number of countries has approved the irradiation of a long and growing list of different food items, groups of classes, ranging from spices to grains to fruit and vegetables to meats and poultry and seafood. However, perception by consumers has been controversial and concerns have been expressed, particularly related to the safety of irradiated food. Therefore, the toxicological aspects of irradiated food are addressed in this dossier. It should be recognized that food irradiation is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated food processing technology. According to the World Health Organization 'irradiated food produced in accordance with established Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate'. A recent evaluation by a WHO/FAO/IAEA study group (Geneva, Sept. 1997) even came to the conclusion, 'that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration'. Thus, also treatment of food with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will not lead to changes in the composition of the food that, from a toxicological point of view, would have an adverse effect on human health. (author)

  14. A survey of total hydrocyanic acid content in ready-to-eat cassava-based chips obtained in the Australian market in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, David; Jansson, Edward; Mai, My Chi; Azer, Mounir; Day, Peter; Shadbolt, Craig; Stitt, Victoria; Kiermeier, Andreas; Szabo, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely consumed food in the tropics that naturally contains cyanogenic glycosides (cyanogens, mainly composed of linamarin, acetone cyanohydrin, and hydrocyanic acid). If cassava is not adequately processed to reduce the level of cyanogens prior to consumption, these compounds can lead to the formation of hydrocyanic acid in the gut. Exposure to hydrocyanic acid can cause symptoms ranging from vomiting and abdominal pain to coma and death. In 2008, a survey of ready-to-eat (RTE) cassava-based snack foods was undertaken to determine levels of cyanogens measured as total hydrocyanic acid. This survey was undertaken in response to the New South Wales Food Authority being alerted to the detection of elevated levels of cyanogens in an RTE cassava-based snack food. This survey took 374 samples of RTE cassava chips available in the Australian marketplace. Significant variation in the levels of total hydrocyanic acid were observed in the 317 samples testing positive for cyanogens, with levels ranging from 13 to 165 mg of HCN equivalents per kg (mean value, 64.2 mg of HCN eq/kg for positive samples). The results from this survey serve as a timely warning for manufacturers of RTE cassava chips and other cassava-based snack foods to ensure there is tight control over the levels of cyanogens in the cassava ingredient. Evidence from this survey contributed to an amendment to the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, which now prescribes a maximum level for hydrocyanic acid in RTE cassava chips of 10 mg of HCN eq/kg, which aligns with the Codex Alimentarius Commission international standard for edible cassava flour.

  15. Colorimetric detection of melamine based on p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-modified AuNPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying, E-mail: fywu@ncu.edu.cn [Nanchang University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2016-06-15

    A highly selective and sensitive method is developed for colorimetric detection of melamine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid. The addition of melamine induced the aggregation of AuNPs, as evidenced from the morphological characterizations and the color changed from red wine to blue, which could also be monitored by the UV–visible spectrometer and even naked eyes. This process caused a significant increase in the absorbance ratio (A{sub 650nm}/A{sub 520nm}) of p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid–AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the system exhibited a linear response to melamine in the range of 6.0 × 10{sup −7}–1.5 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and the limit of detection can even be 2.3 nM, which was much lower than some other methods and the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8.0 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission) review for melamine in liquid infant formula). More importantly, the developed method presented excellent tolerance to coexisting common metal ions such as Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, whose concentration is 1000 times of melamine, so that it had been applied to the analysis of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder with the recovery of 97.0–101 % and 100–103 %, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is quite a highly effective means to determine melamine in milk products.

  16. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme continues to strengthen our joint efforts with FAO and IAEA to protect human health and improve food safety by providing research, technical support and training, including technical support leading to the development and application of international standards that facilitate agricultural trade. These activities are primarily related to the implementation of traceability systems and analytical techniques to control food contaminants, the use of ionizing radiation to control food bacteria and harmful insect pests, and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture, particularly following the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In this regard, one recent event that we are especially proud of is the successful convening of the IAEA Scientific Forum on Food for the Future - Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications, in September 2012. The Scientific Forum examined challenges related to the improvement of food production, food protection and food safety through the use of nuclear technologies. The 2012 Scientific Forum was organized into three sessions addressing Increasing Food Production, Ensuring Food Protection and Enhancing Food Safety, with the Food Safety session focussing on panel discussions related to food contamination and food irradiation. Additional details on the Scientific Forum are contained in the Past Events section of this Newsletter. In relation to the Japanese nuclear emergency and in follow-up to discussions at the 35th Session of the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (July 2012), we are pleased to report that the IAEA, and particularly the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, is fully involved in the proposed review and potential revision of the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods. As many of you are aware, these activities are part of the key role of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in preparing

  17. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme continues to strengthen our joint efforts with FAO and IAEA to protect human health and improve food safety by providing research, technical support and training, including technical support leading to the development and application of international standards that facilitate agricultural trade. These activities are primarily related to the implementation of traceability systems and analytical techniques to control food contaminants, the use of ionizing radiation to control food bacteria and harmful insect pests, and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture, particularly following the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In this regard, one recent event that we are especially proud of is the successful convening of the IAEA Scientific Forum on Food for the Future - Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications, in September 2012. The Scientific Forum examined challenges related to the improvement of food production, food protection and food safety through the use of nuclear technologies. The 2012 Scientific Forum was organized into three sessions addressing Increasing Food Production, Ensuring Food Protection and Enhancing Food Safety, with the Food Safety session focussing on panel discussions related to food contamination and food irradiation. Additional details on the Scientific Forum are contained in the Past Events section of this Newsletter. In relation to the Japanese nuclear emergency and in follow-up to discussions at the 35th Session of the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (July 2012), we are pleased to report that the IAEA, and particularly the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, is fully involved in the proposed review and potential revision of the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods. As many of you are aware, these activities are part of the key role of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in preparing

  18. Technical Capacity, Policymaking and Food Standards: An Overview of Indian Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur; Kumar, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    The SPS Agreement in the WTO gives legal validity to the CODEX standards. Since the developed countries have been at the forefront of setting the food standards in the CODEX, the developing countries have been increasingly engaged in the CODEX, and also in the WTO, with an objective to increase

  19. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, Roberta [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Hashim, Dana [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Donna, Filippo [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina [Department of Food Chemistry, Metal Laboratory, IZSLER, Brescia (Italy); Beone, Gian Maria [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Università Cattolica, Piacenza (Italy); Lucchini, Roberto G. [Occupational Health, University of Brescia (Italy); Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (United States); Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Background: For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods: Home gardens (n = 63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions: Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1 + F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references

  20. Label-free detection of gliadin food allergen mediated by real-time apta-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alessandro; Polo, Pedro Nadal; Henry, Olivier; Redondo, M Carmen Bermudo; Svobodova, Marketa; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The only effective treatment consists in a lifelong gluten-free diet, requiring the food industry to tightly control the gluten contents of their products. To date, several gluten quantification approaches using antibodies are available and recommended by the legal authorities, such as Codex Alimentarius. However, whilst these antibody-based tests exhibit high sensitivity and specificity, the production of antibodies inherently requires the killing of host animals and is time-consuming and relatively expensive. Aptamers are structured single-stranded nucleic acid ligands that bind with high affinity and specificity to their cognate target, and aiming for a cost-effective viable alternative to the use of antibodies. Herein, we report the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX)-based selection of a DNA aptamer against gliadin from a combinatorial DNA library and its application in a novel detection assay. Taking into account the hydrophobic nature of the gliadin target, a microtitre plate format was exploited for SELEX, where the target was immobilised via hydrophobic interactions, thus exposing aptatopes accessible for interaction with the DNA library. Evolution was followed using surface plasmon resonance, and following eight rounds of SELEX, the enriched DNA pool was cloned, sequenced and a clear consensus motif was identified. An apta-PCR assay was developed where competition for the aptamer takes place between the surface-immobilised gliadin and gliadin in the target sample, akin to an ELISA competitive format where the more target present in the sample, the less aptamer will bind to the immobilised gliadin. Following competition, any aptamer bound to the immobilised gliadin was heat-eluted and quantitatively amplified using real-time PCR, achieving a detection limit of approx. 2 nM (100 ng mL(-1)). The specificity of the selected aptamer was

  1. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R.; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods: Home gardens (n = 63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions: Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1 + F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references

  2. The relationship of heavy metals contents in soils to their content in legume seeds used in famous traditional food in kurdistan region-iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram Sullaiman Ismael

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the level of risk heavy metals contents in Cowpea seeds comparison with heavy metal content in soil was studied. For the experiment three cowpea cultivars (brown, red, white were used. Cowpeas were harvested at full ripeness in Kalak location in Erbil city. The flame AAS (AAS Varian AA Spectr. DUO 240 FS/240Z/UltrAA was used for the determination of heavy metal contents in soil and plant materials. The soil which cultivated Cowpea, characterized neutral to slit alkali, with a typical content of cations K, Mg and P. Beans and the seeds of faba bean, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, traditionly used heavy sweets such as knafa. Ful, which is fava beans cooked with chickpeas (garbanzo beans or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad after boiled. Cowpea grain legumes occupy an important place in human nutrition, especially in the dietary pattern of low income groups of people in developing countries. The level risk heavy metal contents in the soil determined was only Cd content was on the level of limit value given for the soil extract by aqua regia as well as Co content was higher than the limit value given for the relationship between soil and plant. All of determined values were lower than critical value extracted by NH4NO3 only the maximal available soil content of mobile Pb forms was exceeded but cowpea accumulated seeds in amounts the risky elements contents, with the exception of Ni, did not exceed limit for the maximum levels of chosen risk elements in studied legume. The content of the metals studied with the exception of cadmium, not exceed the maximum permissible value in legumes, as defined in the Codex Alimentarius. The aim of this research, to study or determine the content of risky heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cd in the soil and their relationship in selected varieties cowpea seeds cultivar. Faba

  3. Risk elements in selected types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-12-01

    in selected types of vegetables analyzed element was not exceeded the limit values established by Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic. From the results, also can be concluded that higher contents of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb were mostly in samples from home gardeners than in samples came from local market. 

  4. Risk assessment strategies as a tool in the application of the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) and Food Safety Objective (FSO) by risk managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkogka, E; Reij, M W; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2013-10-01

    In the course of the last decade, the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), the Food Safety Objective (FSO) and their associated metrics have been proposed by the World Trade Organization and Codex Alimentarius as a means for competent authorities to ultimately translate governmental public health policy regarding food safety into risk-based targets for the food industry. The industry needs to meet these targets through the effective choice of control measures that are part of its operational food safety management system. The aim of this study was to put the practical application of ALOP and FSO to the test in the case of Salmonella in chicken meat in the Netherlands. Two different risk assessment approaches were applied to derive potential ALOP and FSO values, a 'top-down' approach based on epidemiological data and a 'bottom-up' approach based on food supply chain data. To this end, two stochastic models specific to the Dutch situation were built. Comparisons between 23 countries in Europe were also made using the top-down model. The mean estimated current Level Of Protection values were similar for the two approaches applied, with the bottom-up model yielding 87 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year (95% CI: 0.03, 904) and the top-down model 71 (95% CI: 9.9, 155). The estimated FSO values on the other hand were considerably different with the mean 'top down' FSO being -4.6 log CFU/g (95% CI: -5.4, -4.1) and the mean 'bottom-up' FSO -6.0 log CFU/g (95% CI: -8.1, -2.9) reflecting major differences in the output distributions of this parameter obtained with the two approaches. Significant differences were observed between current LOP values for different EU countries, although it was not clear whether this was due to actual differences in the factors influencing the risk of salmonellosis or due to the quality of the available data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. detection of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk for Syrian market using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of a biotransformation process of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which is produced in food and feed by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. paraciticus. AFM1 has been shown to be excreted in milk following exposure to AFB1 contaminated feed. Since milk is consumed in large quantities by human populations, particularly among infants and young children the occurrence of AFM1 in this product is constitutes and health hazard since it is carcinogenic and has been listed as Class 2B carcinogen. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk samples from the Syrian market was investigated by the competitive ELISA technique. A total of 126 samples consisting of fresh cow milk (74), locally processed pasteurized cow milk (10), sheep milk (23), goat milk (11) and powdered milk and infant formula (8) showed that the incidence of contamination, i.e. above the detection limit of the ELISA assay, was 80%. 18% of the tested samples contained higher than the acceptable level of AFM1 adopted in Syria, which is 200 ng/kg; whereas, 17% and 54% of all tested samples contained AFM1 higher than the acceptable level in the US, (500 ng/kg) and in the European Union (50 ng/kg), respectively. The range of contamination with AFM1 was higher in cow milk samples than in sheep milk and goat milk samples. 30% of the analyzed cow fresh milk samples contained levels of AFM1 exceeding that of the European Communities (Codex Alimentarius) recommended limits (50 ng/l); whereas, 13% of the analyzed sheep milk samples (23) exceeded the latter limit, and only 9% of the analyzed goat milk samples exceeded same limit. Pasteurized milk, which is collected from various locations, showed particularly high level of contamination, with 80% and 50% of tested samples showing levels of contamination higher than the European and US acceptable levels, respectively. Powdered milk and infant formula, which are imported and only dispensed locally, were free of contamination. The above result

  6. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  7. A curated gluten protein sequence database to support development of proteomics methods for determination of gluten in gluten-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromilow, Sophie; Gethings, Lee A; Buckley, Mike; Bromley, Mike; Shewry, Peter R; Langridge, James I; Clare Mills, E N

    2017-06-23

    spectrometry methods in line with Codex Alimentarius Commission requirements for foods designed to meet the needs of gluten intolerant individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cuantificación de plaguicidas residuales en granos de maíz (Zea mays L. aplicando técnicas de evaluación residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de plaguicidas en la producción agrícola ha tomado marcada importancia para muchos sectores de la sociedad. Los productores agropecuarios necesitan realizar un tratamiento fitoterapeútico efectivo y la utilización de estos agroquímicos es una alternativa rentable. Sin embargo, la toxicidad de estas sustancias presenta un riesgo para la salud humana durante su fabricación y empleo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener información de los niveles y frecuencia de los principales residuos de pesticidas presentes en granos de maíz aplicando técnicas de evaluación multiresidual. El muestreo (basado en la Norma ISO 950:1979 fue realizado en cintas de embarque y terminales portuarias del Río Paraná y del sur de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, dado que manejan más del 80 % de las exportaciones del país (Ingeniero White, Rosario/General San Martín/San Lorenzo, Villa Constitución y Quequén. Sobre un total de 192 muestras, 94 presentaron residuos de plaguicidas, siendo el orden de frecuencia de aparición de los mismos: fenitrotión (n = 40 > cipermetrina (n = 31 > pirimifós metil (n = 27 > deltametrina (n = 24 > clorpirifós metil (n = 23 > diclorvós (n = 18 > permetrina (n = 15 > clorpirifós etil (n = 12 > fenvalerato (n = 3 > malatión (n = 2 > endosulfán (n = 0; suma de alfa endosulfán, beta endosulfán y endosulfán sulfato. No se hallaron organoclorados. Considerando la legislación Argentina, solo 4 muestras presentaron niveles superiores a los Límites Máximos de Residuos (LMR, siendo cipermetrina el plaguicida involucrado. Sin embargo, según los LMR del Codex Alimentarius, todas las muestras presentaron niveles permitidos.

  9. Cuantificación de plaguicidas residuales en granos de maíz (Zea mays L. aplicando técnicas de evaluación residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de plaguicidas en la producción agrícola ha tomado marcada importancia para muchos sectores de la sociedad. Los productores agropecuarios necesitan realizar un tratamiento fitoterapeútico efectivo y la utilización de estos agroquímicos es una alternativa rentable. Sin embargo, la toxicidad de estas sustancias presenta un riesgo para la salud humana durante su fabricación y empleo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener información de los niveles y frecuencia de los principales residuos de pesticidas presentes en granos de maíz aplicando técnicas de evaluación multiresidual. El muestreo (basado en la Norma ISO 950:1979 fue realizado en cintas de embarque y terminales portuarias del Río Paraná y del sur de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, dado que manejan más del 80 % de las exportaciones del país (Ingeniero White, Rosario/General San Martín/San Lorenzo, Villa Constitución y Quequén. Sobre un total de 192 muestras, 94 presentaron residuos de plaguicidas, siendo el orden de frecuencia de aparición de los mismos: fenitrotión (n = 40 > cipermetrina (n = 31 > pirimifós metil (n = 27 > deltametrina (n = 24 > clorpirifós metil (n = 23 > diclorvós (n = 18 > permetrina (n = 15 > clorpirifós etil (n = 12 > fenvalerato (n = 3 > malatión (n = 2 > endosulfán (n = 0; suma de alfa endosulfán, beta endosulfán y endosulfán sulfato. No se hallaron organoclorados. Considerando la legislación Argentina, solo 4 muestras presentaron niveles superiores a los Límites Máximos de Residuos (LMR, siendo cipermetrina el plaguicida involucrado. Sin embargo, según los LMR del Codex Alimentarius, todas las muestras presentaron niveles permitidos.

  10. Nutritional and toxicological composition analysis of selected cassava processed products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuda Dewage Supun Charuni Nilangeka Rajapaksha

    2017-01-01

    is the safe level recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Committee of the FAO/WHO. Thus, preparing products such as flour, starch and chips using MU51 variety could be safe for human consumption.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA

  11. The role of veterinary epidemiology and veterinary services in complying with the World Trade Organization SPS agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Thiermann, A; Kellar, J; Rojas, H; Willeberg, P

    2005-02-01

    The agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement) was one of the major products of the GATT's Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others are part of the treaty that established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade (WTO, 1998a). The SPS agreement's main intent is to provide guidelines and provisions to member countries to facilitate trade while taking measures to protect human, animal or plant life or health. The agreement dictates that all sanitary measures must be scientifically based and not more restrictive than required to avoid the risk identified. The agreement recommends the use of international standards from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Codex Alimentarius (CAC) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) as the basis for import requirements. If a country chooses to apply more restrictive measures than those in the international standards, it has to justify its position through a risk analysis, thus avoiding the use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as unjustified barriers to trade. More than ever, veterinary services worldwide are faced with having to fulfill a crucial role in protecting their country's animal health status, provide sound surveillance information on the occurrence of diseases within their territories, and conduct scientifically valid risk analyses to establish justified import requirements. During the past two decades, most countries have experienced resource reduction in their veterinary services. The effect of these policies has been severe, in many cases leading to an inability of veterinary services to conduct their disease prevention and control duties. There is a clear inconsistency between the demands placed on veterinary services and the current level of funding and support they are receiving, particularly in

  12. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based approach for quantification of the pat gene in the T25 Zea mays event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weighardt, Florian; Barbati, Cristina; Paoletti, Claudia; Querci, Maddalena; Kay, Simon; De Beuckeleer, Marc; Van den Eede, Guy

    2004-01-01

    must be performed. Moreover, for some reference genes no sufficient information on copy number in and among genomes of different lines is available, making adequate quantification difficult. Once developed, the method was subsequently validated according to IUPAC and ISO 5725 guidelines. Thirteen laboratories from 8 EU countries participated in the trial. Eleven laboratories provided results complying with the predefined study requirements. Repeatability (RSDr) values ranged from 8.7 to 15.9%, with a mean value of 12%. Reproducibility (RSDR) values ranged from 16.3 to 25.5%, with a mean value of 21%. Following Codex Alimentarius Committee guidelines, both the limits of detection and quantitation were determined to be <0.1%.

  13. Assessment of the risk of foodborne transmission and burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra; Collineau, Lucie; Stephan, Roger; Müller, Andrea; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2017-02-02

    The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1.3% (CI 0.3%; 4.4%). This result was used as input in the risk assessment model, together with data from other published studies. The annual burden of hepatitis E was estimated in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), using data about hepatitis E cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 at two major hospitals located in the canton Ticino. Only the risk of foodborne hepatitis E from products containing pork liver was evaluated, as those containing only pork meat could not be evaluated because of lack of data on HEV load in pork. Assuming that successful oral infection occurs in 1% of servings contaminated with high HEV loads (>10 5 genome copies), and that acute illness develops in 5% of susceptible consumers, the most likely annual number of foodborne hepatitis E cases in Switzerland was estimated to be 1481 (95% CI 552; 4488) if all products containing pork liver were considered. If only high-risk products, such as plain pork liver and liver sausages (e.g. Saucisse au Foie), were considered, the annual number of cases was estimated to be 176 (95% CI 64; 498). We were unable to calculate the total burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland due to lack of data. Yet, for the canton Ticino, it was shown that a significant increase had occurred from 50 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. This change could partly be due to an increased reporting and higher awareness among medical

  14. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  15. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  16. ANALYSIS OF LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL GROUNDS FOR RISK-ORIENTED SURVEILLANCE OVER CONSUMER PRODUCTS: TASKS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on basic legal and sub-legislative documents issued in the EU, the USA, Canada, by the WTO and Codex Alimentarius Commission which provide control of consumer products safety on the basis of assessing risks for consumers' life and health. Risk-oriented surveillance is shown as a system which makes for lower loads on business but still provides systemic control over most hazardous products. The EU legislation fixes the right to perform supranational control over state control systems existing in the EU member states in terms of their relevance and legitimacy. This supranational control is supported by organizational structures and regulatory and methodological documents. National control systems are systematically reviewed and analyzed in order to secure their conformity to supranational regulatory acts, to detect any cases of non-compliance, and to spread the best practices. Risk analysis reviews and results are open and discussable. As a result of products hazards assessment their turnover can be limited, or they can be withdrawn from the market, or additional information on hazards or risks they may cause is to be provided for consumers. Public and constantly operating systems of informing about hazardous goods are well-developed. International experience and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented surveillance over consumer products can be and should be applied in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU countries. The Eurasian Economic Union countries fix orientation at observing consumer goods safety principles in their legislation. There are also legal grounds for and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented approach to products manufactures. But it is necessary to further develop a products classification system as per consumer health risk parameters. And this task requires working out unified approaches to classification of both eatable and non-eatable products. It seems relevant to develop a public analytical database of risk

  17. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  18. Factores que afectan la calidad higiénico-sanitaria de leche cruda comercializada en Calceta-Bolívar-Manabí, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Cedeño Alcívar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar los factores que afectan la calidad higiénico- sanitaria de la leche cruda comercializada en la parroquia Calceta del cantón Bolívar, Ecuador. Se efectuó un diagnóstico mediante fichas de observación en 23 fincas y 30 lugares de ex - pendio. Se evaluó el grado de contaminación microbiana de 30 muestras tomadas en los lu - gares de expendio (15 en el mercado munici - pal y 15 en las tiendas, mediante recuento en placa por siembra de aerobios mesófilos (NTE INEN 1529-5, Staphylococcus aureus (NTE INEN 1529-14, coliformes totales (NTE INEN 1529-7 y Salmonella (NTE INEN 1529-15. Para el procesamiento de los datos, se utilizó estadística descriptiva y análisis de conglomerados, apoyándose con Microsoft Ex - cel 2010 y el software estadístico SPSS v.21. Los resultados encontrados fueron: mal manejo de la leche cruda, inadecuada infraestructura en lugares de producción y de comercialización, al - tos recuentos de UFC/ml en las muestras anali - zadas de leche cruda con un valor de 1.6 x 10 6 UFC/ml —el mismo que supera lo establecido por la NTE INEN 9 (2012— que es de 1.5 x 10 6 UFC/ml. Por otra parte, se diseñó y entre - garon 53 instructivos: 23 de Buenas Prácticas de Ordeño (tomado del Codex Alimentarius y 30 de Buenas Prácticas de Comercialización (establecido por la NTE INEN 2687; por lo que se concluye que la ausencia de higiene tanto en las personas como en los utensilios y la inadecuada operación durante el ordeño, manejo y comercialización, afectan la calidad higiénico-sanitaria de la leche cruda en Calceta- Bolívar-Manabí, Ecuador.

  19. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    .2 mg/kg set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This was surprising given that cadmium in the soil was only 1 mg/kg well below the maximum allowable amount for agricultural soil. While it is possible that more cadmium was accumulated by plants in this study than that which might occur under agricultural field conditions, these results reinforce the need to monitor concentrations of toxic metals in food crops

  20. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. II. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    , as well as on the public health acceptability of a number of irradiated food items. These matters had been reported in WHO Technical Reports Series No.604, Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, published in Geneva, 1977. (3) The Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, through the Codex Alimentarius, had examined food irradiation and developed a proposed General Standard on Irradiated Foods and a proposed Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods at step 5 of the 9-10 step procedure of the Codex. (4) FAO and the IAEA were about to join forces with the Government of the Netherlands in establishing an International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology at Wageningen for the purposes of technological and economic training and research in food irradiation. Sessions of the Symposium dealt with such topics as the control of animal infestation, toxicological studies, public health aspects and economics, and many papers were concerned with chemical changes in irradiated foods and with the control of microbial spoilage. The present Proceedings contain the papers given and the ensuing discussions, including the extensive round-table discussion on a plan of action for the future. The order of publication of the papers does not strictly follow that of presentation at the Symposium where, for technical reasons, it was not always possible to preserve the logical sequence. Viewed against the new developments recorded here, the outlook for the food irradiation community is encouraging, and the tasks ahead appear less formidable. The sponsoring organizations hope that the publication of this material will be a useful contribution towards accelerated progress in the practical application of food processing by irradiation

  1. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    studies, as well as on the public health acceptability of a number of irradiated food items. These matters had been reported in WHO Technical Reports Series No.604, Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, published in Geneva, 1977. (3) The Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, through the Codex Alimentarius, had examined food irradiation and developed a proposed General Standard on Irradiated Foods and a proposed Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods at step 5 of the 9 - 10 step procedure of the Codex. (4) FAO and the IAEA were about to join forces with the Government of the Netherlands in establishing an International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology at Wageningen for the purposes of technological and economic training and research in food irradiation. Sessions o f the Symposium dealt with such topics as the control of animal infestation, toxicological studies, public health aspects and economics, and many papers were concerned with chemical changes in irradiated foods and with the control o f microbial spoilage. The present Proceedings contain the papers given and the ensuing discussions, including the extensive round-table discussion on a plan of action for the future. The order of publication of the papers does not strictly follow that of presentation at the Symposium where, for technical reasons, it was not always possible to preserve the logical sequence. Viewed against the new developments recorded here, the outlook for the food irradiation community is encouraging, and the tasks ahead appear less formidable. The sponsoring organizations hope that the publication of this material will be a useful contribution towards accelerated progress in the practical application of food processing by irradiation

  2. Concentrações de hormônio na carcaça de tilápias-do-nilo e maturação precoce após reversão sexual Hormone concentration in carcass of Nile tilapia submitted to early maturation after sexual reversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Francisco Zanardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 1.500 larvas de tilápia-do-nilo foi distribuído em 15 aquários de 20 L (100 larvas cada um para comparação de dois métodos de masculinização: via oral, com dieta com hormônio (60 mg do 17 α-metiltestosterona.kg-1; e via banho de imersão (6 mg do 17 α-metiltestosterona.L-1, cada um com cinco repetições. As larvas e os juvenis foram amostrados no dia 1 (início do experimento e aos 30 (final do período de alimentação com hormônio, 40, 45, 60 e 90 dias. Uma amostra de 0,5 g de peixe foi coletada em cada repetição para análise da testosterona corporal. Os peixes alimentados com a dieta com hormônio receberam ração experimental por 30 dias e ração comercial até o final do experimento, e banho de imersão receberam ração comercial e foram submetidos a banhos de imersão (6 mg da 17 α-metiltestosterona.L-1, de 36 horas, nos dias 6 e 10 após início do experimento. Nos peixes que receberam a ração sem hormônio (controle, os valores de testosterona corporal se mantiveram praticamente estáveis ao longo do experimento, aumentando moderadamente a partir de 60 dias. As concentrações de testosterona corporal nos peixes que receberam a dieta com hormônio ou o banho de imersão foram mais altas aos 30 dias. Nos peixes submetidos ao banho de imersão, os valores reduziram aos 40 dias e aumentaram novamente até os 60 dias de observação, enquanto naqueles submetidos à dieta com hormônio, as concentrações de testosterona aumentaram gradativamente até 60 dias. A utilização de 17 α-metiltestosterona por via oral ou banho de imersão das larvas estimula a maturação sexual dos peixes a partir dos 45 dias, especialmente naqueles alimentados com ração contendo hormônio. As concentrações desse hormônio na carcaça são inferiores ao preconizado pelo Codex Alimentarius do Brasil como seguras para consumo humano.A total of 1,500 larvae of Nile tilapia was distributed in 15 20-L aquaria (100 larvae in each

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DOS ÍNDICES DE IDENTIDADE E QUALIDADE DO AZEITE DE OLIVA - PROPOSTA PARA ATUALIZAÇÃO DA LEGISLAÇÃO BRASILEIRA IDENTITY AND QUALITY INDEX EVALUATION OF OLIVE OIL - PROPOSED TO BRAZILIAN LAWS ATUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane R.M. PEIXOTO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os principais índices de qualidade e identidade do azeite de oliva e compara-los com a Resolução no 22/77/MS, Codex Alimentarius e União Européia. Foram analisadas vinte amostras divididas em duas épocas, provenientes de dez marcas diferentes. Foram avaliados a rotulagem, acidez, absortividade, iodo, composição em esteróis e em ácidos graxos, teores de ácido elaídico e esqualeno. Das marcas nacionais, somente uma apresentou rotulagem correta; a acidez variou de 0,15 a 0,75% em C18:1; a absortividade a 232 e 270 nm foi compatível para mistura de azeite virgem com refinado ou de virgem com extração refinado; o índice de iodo variou de 85,88-127,46 gI2/100g, com 66,6% das amostras reprovadas. Todas as amostras nacionais apresentaram a composição em esteróis fora dos padrões internacionais. A composição em ácidos graxos mostrou provável adulteração com óleo de soja. Todas as amostras nacionais também apresentaram elevado teor de transoleico (6,6-15,5, indicativo de adulteração com óleos hidrogenados. O teor de esqualeno variou de 14-344 mg/100g. Quanto às importadas, todas apresentaram rotulagem compatível com as normas internacionais; acidez e absortividade indicaram que as amostras eram mistura de azeite virgem com refinado. O índice de iodo variou de 76,43-85,31 gI2/100g, dentro dos padrões. Todas as amostras importadas apresentaram a composição em esteróis e em ácidos graxos compatíveis com os padrões internacionais. Somente uma amostra apresentou teor de transoleico (6,6% acima dos padrões. O teor de esqualeno variou de 183-476 mg/100g. Faz-se necessário a compatibilização da Resolução no 22/77/MS com as normas internacionais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the criteria established by the Resolution 22/77/MS, by the Codex Alimentarius, and by the European Union for the identity and quality of olive oil. Twenty samples from ten different brands collected in

  4. Component of the risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, I.; Campon, G.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation reviews issues like analysis of risk (Codex), management risk, preliminary activities manager, relationship between government and industries, microbiological danger and communication of risk

  5. 78 FR 76561 - Endothall; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... are Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota... scenarios: (1) applying granules by hand for treating garden pools, (2) applying granules by cup for... Alimentarius is a joint [[Page 76566

  6. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Departamento de Física da Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, P-1649-003 Lisboa Codex, Portugal; Centro de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, P-1649-003 Lisboa Codex, Portugal; Instituto Superior de Engenharia ...

  7. FAMILY CONSENT FOR ORGAN OR TISSUE REMOVAL FROM A DECEASED PERSON FOR TRANSPLANTATION PURPOSES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Nedić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Croatia is a country with the system of presumed consent donation of organs and tissues after death, where the consent of the family, according to law, is not one of the conditions for organ or tissue removal for transplantation purposes. However, the consent is a condition required by the Codex of Medical Ethics and Deontology. The author primary proposes harmonization of the Codex with current legislation. Accordingly, this paper primarily analyses the typology of the Codex, ethical issues and ethical and positivist reasons to harmonize the Codex with current legislation. Furthermore, although the author in the first place considers that the Codex should be in line with legislation, he also considers the provision of family consent for organ and tissue removal itself flawed and poorly developed. In this regard, the author considers the comparative legislation and judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, analyses current provisions of the Codex in the part of the removal and transplantation of organs and tissues from deceased persons, states the facts that the Codex should contain so as to make the mechanism of family consent for organ and tissue removal and donation after death more effective. In fact, if the author’s original proposal for harmonization of the Codex with the current legislation is not accepted, a more detailed and precise elaboration of the mentioned current provisions of the Codex will be suggested. This will include exact definition of the family and relatives, exact deadlines and ways of informing the family, but also refining the concept of “ethical“ according to the Codex in part of the organ and tissue donation and removal from the deceased person.

  8. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    proliferation in cells maintaining receptivity. Mathematical models describing quantitative relationships between consumption of small amounts of oestrogens in meat in addition to greater concentrations from endogenous production, chemical stoichiometry at cellular level and human pathology have not been developed. Such an approach will be necessary to establish 'molecular materiality' of the additional hormone intake as a component of relative risk assessment. The other hormones, although generally less well researched, are similarly subject to a range of tests to determine potentially adverse effects. The resulting limited international consensus relates to the application of the 'precautionary principle' and non-acceptance by the European Commission of the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which determined that meat from cattle, hormone-treated according to good practice, was safe for human consumers. The present review considers the hormone issue in the context of current international social methodology and regulation, recent advances in knowledge of biological activity of hormones and current status of science-based evaluation of food safety and risk for human consumers.

  9. Oxidative stability of chicken meat during storage influenced by the feeding of alfalfa meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to determine the effect of the alfalfa meal component in feed mixtures of Ross broiler chickens on oxidative stability of meat. Proportion of alfalfa meal in feed mixtures was 4 and 6%. The results were compared to the control group without alfalfa meal in feed mixtures. At the end of the experiment (day 38, 6 pcs of broiler chickens from each group with an average live body weight over 1 800 g were randomly selected. The samples for chemical analysis consisted of identical proportion of breast and thigh muscle, and about 1 cm2 of skin with subcutaneous fat. Fat from the meat was obtained after the samples drying. A fat was determined by extraction by means of laboratory instrument Det N Gras Selecta P. The oxidative stability of meat on the basis of acid number of fat was determided by chemical analysis. Chicken meat was stored at -18 °C for 12 months and 18 months. The acid number of fat of stored meat for 12 months was 7.38 mg KOH per g in the control group, 7.42 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 11.18 mg KOH per g in the group with proportion 6% alfalfa meal. An acid number of fat of stored meat for 18 months was 5.90 mg KOH per g in the control group, 4.65 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 7.07 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 6% alfalfa meal. Chicken meat is notably sensitive to lipid oxidation because of its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Legislation in Title 5 of Part 3 of the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the Government Regulation No. 286/2003 Coll. in the Annex 4 in Part B provide the requirements for animal fats and meat products. Regulation of the European Parliament and Council (EC No. 853/2004 lays down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. In particular, determination of free fatty acids content of rendered animal fat (tallow, lard, other animal fat. Legislative regulation does

  10. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food--review from European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90-98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the "real" source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in Western European

  11. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    the kidney. The level of endrin ketone was higher than endrin aldehyde in all the tissues analyzed. The mean concentration of endrin ketone was 0.347 μg /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of α-endosulfan was 0.140μg /kg wet weight. Endosulfan sulfate was detected at 0.033 μg /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of gamma-chlordane was 0.020 μg /kg kidney. Methoxychlor was detected at 0.183μg /kg, wet weight in the kidney. The levels of organochlorine pesticides residues detected in all the tissues were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRL), as adopted by the WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission.

  12. Monitoring of elemental composition of honey from selected regions of Ghana using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, R.

    2015-01-01

    the differences in the chemical composition of the honey. The results indicated that the metal contents of the honey were in the order: K > Ca > Na > Mn > Al > Mg > Cu > V > Fe > Pb > Co > Cr, in the selected sampling sites evaluated in the three regions. The values ranged from 0.009 – 0.094 mg/kg for Co; 0.010 – 0.423 mg/kg for Pb; 0.010 – 0.423 mg/kg for Cr; 1.548 – 11.052 mg/kg for Fe; 0.490 – 35.021 mg/kg for V; 4.524 – 288.298 mg/kg for Cu; 75.697 - 681.236 mg/kg for Mg; 60.159 – 1186.369 mg/kg for Al; 145.668 – 3501.004 mg/kg for Mn; 900.214 – 8277.351 mg/kg for Na; 2.393 – 283.690 g/kg for Ca and 112.933 – 1770.770 g/kg for K. With the exception of Cu, the concentrations of the metals were below the permitted limits sets by Ghana Standards Authority, Codex Alimentarius and the Polish Standards. The metal contents of the honey in the various regions considered were similar. There were significant differences in concentrations in most of the samples as monitored from one sampling site to the other. Significant differences in concentrations was also observed as the honey goes through treatment processes. This affirms that the various processes honey goes through prior to reaching the consumer significantly affects its composition. (au)

  13. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  14. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.malisch@cvuafr.bwl.de; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  15. Management of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods in Spain. Establishment of a common framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Montero, M.; Oltra, C.; Sala, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Gallego, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales - UPM-ETSII (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident with radiological consequences affecting the quality of foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and in general, consumer goods, the European Union and its Member States, have developed radiation protection general guidelines to manage such situations. In this context, there are recommendations and standards, at international (Codex Alimentarius -FAO/OMS-, IAEA) and regional levels (EURATOM Directives) based on activity concentrations in different products and maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. These levels are based on certain assumptions about the consumption of contaminated products. However, the application of these guidelines is not easy, as shown after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Several factors converge in this situation. First, is the national regulation of each country, that can decide on the maximum radioactivity levels in food consumed within the country. Other is the misinterpretation of the guidelines that where originally developed for specific conditions. Finally, rejection attitudes of consumers and general public towards foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and goods according to their provenience, must also be taken into account. Aware of this reality, the European Union is funding within its 7. Framework Programme for R and D projects to help optimize European response to radiological emergencies, including those involving contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods. Specifically, this is the overall objective of the PREPARE Project (Innovative Integrative Tools and Platforms to be Prepared for Radiological Emergencies and Post-Accident Response in Europe) within the framework of NERIS Platform (European Platform on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response and Recovery). PREPARE project is intended to develop strategies, guidelines and tools for the management of foodstuffs and consumer goods contaminated with radioactivity, considering not only the Public Administration, as

  16. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 14, No. 1, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental of the University of Costa Rica. The main purpose of the meeting was to allow nuclear authorities and quarantine/ plant-health authorities from participating Regional Asian Member States to review, revise and agree on guidelines for the audit and accreditation of food irradiation facilities that seek to irradiate produce as a phytosanitary measure. In the area of traceability and food contamination control, the Subprogramme contributed to a number of international conferences and regional and national meetings and training events, including the Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture (KSAE) 30th Anniversary International Symposium on Management and Strategy on Sustainable Environment Leading to Food Safety, the 6th International Symposium on Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (Belgium), a decision makers' forum on The Role of the Analytical Laboratory in Food Safety (Panama), the 21st Annual International Conference of the International Environmetrics Society (Venezuela), and The World Mycotoxin Forum, 6th Conference on Mycotoxins, Plant Toxins and Marine Biotoxins (The Netherlands). A manual, prepared and edited in the Subprogramme, on Sampling Procedures to Detect Mycotoxins in Agricultural Commodities was also recently published by Springer. The Subprogramme has also successfully continued its collaboration with the IAEA Environment Laboratory in Monaco under the Coordinated Research Project on Applications of Radiotracer and Radioassay Technologies to Seafood Safety Risk Analysis. In this regard, we presented an information document to the most recent 33rd Session of the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Geneva, Switzerland, 5-9 July 2010) that highlighted the consideration of research data arising from the Project at the 73rd Meeting of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (June 2010) in order to establish international standards for maximum levels of cadmium in seafood (oysters

  17. At the interface of syntax and prosody: Differentiating left dislocated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Biblia Hebraica use the Leningrad Codex as their base text, specifically the ... for three poetic books, namely Psalms, Job and Proverbs (Yeivin 1980: 157-158). ... liturgy (the Haggadah); it is also reflected in the translation of the Latin Vulgate.

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    are slaughtered and dressed for human consumption (Codex, 1993). ... source maintained are provision of an abattoir lairage, slaughter hall, gut and tripe room ... Disinfection facilities, personnel welfare room, veterinary office, and facilities for.

  19. Mechanisms of Laser Induced Reactions in Opaque Heterogeneous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    ST. Av. bonds, both within its own structure and also with Rovisco Pais. 109h Lisboa Codex. Portugal. §Present address: Centro de Quimica Pura e...and L. F. VIEIRA FERREIRA Centro de Quimica Fisica Molecular, Universidade Ttcnica de Lisboa. Complexo 1, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais...and Ana R. Garcia Centro de Quimica Fisica Molecular, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa--Complexo I-IST. Av- Rovisco Pais, 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal

  20. 78 FR 40017 - Ethalfluralin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B. How... system. Additionally, ethalfluralin does not belong to a class of chemicals (e.g., the organotins, heavy... Alimentarius is a joint United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food...

  1. 78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2003-2008, Nationwide Health and Nutrition... birth in the rat, but persist as development continues. Although increased susceptibility was seen in... Alimentarius is a joint United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food...

  2. [Advertising and feeding: influence of graphical advertisements on dietary habits during childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez García, R A; Franco Díez, F J

    2009-01-01

    An optimal nutritional diet, especially during the infancy and adolescence, is an important social objective, to create habits and behaviours that will maintain during the adult life of the present children. The objective of this study is to collect and evaluate the publicity of nutritional products and how this is directed to children, before the approval of the codex of regulation of the publicity of nutritional products as directed to minors, prevention of obesity and health (codex PAOS) and after the start of the codex. SETTING, MATERIALS AND METHODS: To watch and collect data from commercials of nutritional products, such as transmitted by television during the infant programs. The obtained results show a great discrepancy between the diet constituted by the commercials for nutritional products and a diet, normally recommended for children. Besides this, nos changes in the commercials were noticed after the start of the codex. The commercials for nutritional products with a very high caloric value are transmitted to children during the infant programs are not appropriate for an optimal diet. The start of the Codex PAOS did not have much effect in the amount and quality of the commercials of nutritional products, such as directed to the infant public.

  3. Centerband-only-detection-of-exchange (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and phospholipid lateral diffusion: theory, simulation and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Angel; Saleem, Qasim; Macdonald, Peter M

    2015-10-14

    Centerband-only-detection-of-exchange (CODEX) (31)P NMR lateral diffusion measurements were performed on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) assembled into large unilamellar spherical vesicles. Optimization of sample and NMR acquisition conditions provided significant sensitivity enhancements relative to an earlier first report (Q. Saleem, A. Lai, H. Morales, and P. M. Macdonald, Chem. Phys. Lipids, 2012, 165, 721). An analytical description was developed that permitted the extraction of lateral diffusion coefficients from CODEX data, based on a Gaussian-diffusion-on-a-sphere model (A. Ghosh, J. Samuel, and S. Sinha, Europhys. Lett., 2012, 98, 30003-p1) as relevant to CODEX (31)P NMR measurements on a population of spherical unilamellar phospholipid bilayer vesicles displaying a distribution of vesicle radii.

  4. Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory, Seibersdorf: Discrimination of honey of different floral origins by a combination of various chemical parameters; Stable Isotopes Applied to Authenticating Honey; The use of analyte protectants in pesticide residue analytical work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zora Jandrić, Zora; Frew, Russell; Abrahim, Aiman; Maestroni, Britt; Ochoa, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In the previous newsletter, we reported on research into methodology for the classification of honey of various floral and geographical origins using UPLC-QToF MS and MVA.The research on honey authenticity was expanded using multivariate data analysis of data generated by a number of different analytical techniques to discriminate honeys of different floral origins. The feasibility of a multivariate approach, including various chemical parameters and multivariate data analysis, for the discrimination of various honeys originating from one region, was explored. One of the earliest applications of nuclear techniques for food authenticity was the use of carbon isotopes to detect the addition of cheap sugars in honey in the 1970s. The principle is that the cheap sugar (fructose) is derived from corn and has a higher 13 C/ 12 C that the fructose from honey. This difference is due to the different photosynthetic pathways; corn is a C4 plant and that mechanism does not discriminate against the 13 C as much as the C3 pathway used by most honey-producing plants. Consequently the two plant types have quite different carbon isotope ratios. Thus measurements of the carbon isotope ratios can distinguish between the two sources of fructose. However, within each plant population there is natural variability in isotope ratios. This makes detecting the addition of small amounts of corn syrup difficult. The test was further refined by its developers to use 13 C/ 12 C measurements on protein purified from the honey as an internal reference, based on the fact that if the sugar and protein are from the same plant then they should be closely related in isotopic ratio. This refined method was adopted by the Association of Analytical Chemists as an official method (AOAC 998.12) and is part of the Codex Alimentarius standard for testing authenticity of honey. This test is generally reliable. However, some honey, notably New Zealand manuka, has a frequent fail rate. Manuka is a premium

  5. Trace elements determination in Syrian honey using x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.; Ahmad, M.; Saour, G.

    2009-05-01

    detection limits of the method. Significant differences in the elemental contents of honey were obtained as a relationship with the plants visited by bees. The relatively high contents of major elements: K, Ca, and Cl, and trace element: Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Rb were obtained in wild-honey samples, while, the lowest contents of these elements were obtained in citrus-honey samples. Very small contents of Ti, Cr, Ni, and Sr were obtained in citrus-honey samples, while the contents of these elements were significantly increased in thorny-flower- and sesame-honey samples. Taking only two spoons (around 50 g) of Syrian honey, could supply adults with 15.7 %, 3.7 %, 2.4 %, 2.1 %, and 1.4 % of recommended daily dietary allowance values, corresponding to trace elements of Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Zn, respectively. Furthermore, the mean intake of Ni, which may show toxicological problems, were not exceeded the 0.91 % of the maximum level of daily nutrient intake. Results confirmed that, the elements could be intensively concentrated in honey as a result of several sources, including the natural and artificial feeding of bees. The results confirmed also that all elements, except K, are distributed well between the crystallized and liquid phases of existed honey samples. Concentrations of K in the liquid phase were higher than these found in crystallized phase. Different chemical and physical properties of honey samples: sugar content, pH, reflective index, electrical conductivity, impurities, moisture, and ash contents were also determined. The results were agreed with the Syrian Honey Norm (SHN) and data for honeys from different countries, except the impurities content, which was significantly higher than the values recommended by SHN and Codex Alimentarius. This may be due to the presence of wax in collected honey. The results reveal a direct relationship between electrical conductivity and the percentage of ashing content with a correlation coefficient of 0.9247. The 'power

  6. Studies of the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and physicochemical properties of Ghanaian honey from the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo and Greater Accra regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansah Larbi, D.

    2015-01-01

    , Apparent Sucrose and Ash content) of honey. The honey samples were analyzed for the presence of Total Viable Counts, Faecal sp., Clostridium sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Salmonella sp. The Plate Count Method of microbial analyses was used to determine the microbes. For the Total Viable Count, Plate Count Agar was the media used; Eosin Methylene Blue agar for Faecal sp., Perfringens Agar for Clostridium sp., Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar for Salmonella sp., and Baird Parker Agar for Staphylococcus sp. The samples were also analyzed for Reducing Sugar and Apparent Sucrose using Titrimetry. pH was determined with a pH meter and Ash Content was determined by Gravimetry. The pH values obtained for the Honey Comb samples were in the range (3.6 – 3.9), and the pH for the Retail samples were in the range (4.9 – 5.6). Microorganisms were not detected in about 70% of the honey sampled directly from the honey comb and the mean microbial count in the remaining 30% were within the range 30% - 35% whereas all the honey sampled from the retailers were contaminated with microbes. The mean microbial counts in the retailer samples were 148 CFU/g, 183 CFU/g and 271 CFU /g for Ashanti, Brong Ahafo and Greater Accra Regions respectively. These values were significantly higher than the required maximum relative to the MERCOSUR (Mercado Comun del SUR) standard (≤ 100 CFU/g). The low level of microbial detection in the Honey Comb samples (30 – 35 CFU/g) could be due to their relatively low pH levels (3.6 – 3.9) compared to the retailer samples with pH within 4.9 – 5.6. The ash content of all the honey sampled and analyzed were within the required standard with an average of 0.16% in the honey comb samples and average of 0.62% for the retail samples. The apparent sucrose concentration (in percentage) in honey sampled from the retailers were within the range 22% - 33% which is beyond the required maximum as stipulated by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (≤ 10%). From the study, it

  7. Pesticide residue profile and nutrient characteristics of the Densu River Basin in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fianko, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    children between the ages 1 -11years, hazard indices for heptachlor, α-endosulfan and endosulfan were 0.573, 0.880 and 0.576 respectively. Although residue levels of pesticide residues were below the maximum permissible intake of Codex Alimentarius Committee of Food and Agricultural Organization on pesticides residues, there was no zero risk because there were pesticide residues present in fish. The results implicitly revealed that improper land use in the basin has led to poor groundwater and surface water quality. (au)

  8. Libros en los monasterios: producción y consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Linage

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the value of books in monastic life, with an overview of book.s production and consumption from the origins of monasticism to the late Middle Ages. The author focuses on various codex-related issues, surveying the most relevant codices and the monastery scriptoriums where they were produced. The parallelisms between codex production and the different approaches to it are also dealt with, as well as monastic life itself, through an analysis of script and decoration, together with the inflows and relationships among the most singular production centres

  9. Ένας κώδικας με μονόγραμμα των Παλαιολόγων (Conventi Soppressi B.1, Camaldoli 1214

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Εβελίνα Μίνεβα

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the MS Conventi Soppressi B.1, Camaldoli 1214 of the National Central Library of Florence, which contains the Byzantine Life of St. Parasceve of Epibatai (BHG 1420z. It appears to be the second known codex, preserving a monogram of the Palaiologos family (usually manifested in the architecture and the material objects in the decoration of a manuscript, except for the manuscript Vat. gr. 1158, described earlier by H. Belting. Some common features of the Florentine manuscript and the codex Gothoburgensis gr. 4, the other manuscript, which preserves the Byzantine Life of St. Parasceve of Epibatai, are discussed as well.

  10. Relics of a Benedictine Legendary in Scandinavia? Notes on fragments nos. 527-529 from the Royal Library and no. 8302 from the Danish National Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    as originating from the same codex. Codicological and palaeographical analysis places this codex with hagiographical contents (Bede's prosi-metric life of St Cuthbert and Jonas of Bobbio's account of St. Columban) in the years around 1200. Philological analysis links the version of Bede's life of St Cuthbert...... to a continental tradition rather than directly to an English model. Finally, on the basis of the analysis of the fragments themselves and the circumstances connected with their recycling as covers for the royal customs accounts of Malmø in 1628 it is suggested that the Cluniac monastery of All Saints at Lund...

  11. Regulations in the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The material available for this review, as well as the Guidelines for Preparing Regulations for the Control of Food Irradiation Facilities adopted by ICGFI, the international Conference Document on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, the draft European Economic Community Directive and the Codex General Standard and Code of Practice on food irradiation suggest that the following aspects may be subject to regulation: Food irradiation licensing, radiation safety, food hygiene, package labelling, inspection, certification for commercial purposes. The purpose of this review is to provide Member States with the information necessary for and special to the control of food processing by irradiation, so as to enable them to ensure that they have or they can adopt effective regulations governing all aspects of trade in irradiated food. Three countries have introduced in their food laws special provisions to regulate the processing of food by radiation. Twenty-three countries have issued such special regulations under the existing statutory authority of one of the executive branches: Seven countries either by reference or by incorporation in whole or in part in their regulations, gave recognition to the Codex Standard and Code of Practice. The absence of such specific recognition should not be interpreted, however, to mean that those countries have not accepted the Codex recommendations. Many provisions seem to have taken the Codex recommendations as a guide. 16 refs

  12. To Build a Better (Digital) Mousetrap: Testing the Learning Effectiveness of Al Gore's Book "Our Choice" against the iPad App Based on the Book in Order to Suggest Design Improvements for Future Enriched Ebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed methods study tested the learning effectiveness of a codex book against a convergent media resource based on the same content. It also investigated whether users of the two formats reported any differences in their liking of the two formats, or in their tendency to be persuaded to the degree that they altered…

  13. Colour behaviour on mango (Mangifera indica) slices self stabilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... 800, Colinas de la Normal, 44270 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. .... aNumerical values are the F-ratio of the variance explained by a factor compared with the unexplained variance. .... Alimentarios Codex Stan 192-1995 Rev.

  14. 77 FR 49732 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    .../puree (1x) and lemon/lime juice (1x) were used to modify the tolerance values. iii. Cancer. Based on the... the tolerance necessitate a higher value. Additionally, Codex has an established MRL on grape at 3 ppm...; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 75 FR 29908 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    .... The straw numerical value (5 ppm) is matched between the U.S. and Codex. The tolerance definition for... lower (0.07 ppm) than the recommended U.S. group tolerance. The 0.07 ppm value is the current U.S. tolerance value for wheat, but will be replaced by the cereal grain group tolerance. Canada does not...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 257... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propyl gallate. 184.1660 Section 184.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  17. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  18. Critical Control Points in the Processing of Cassava Tuber for Ighu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the critical control points in the processing of cassava tuber into Ighu was carried out. The critical control points were determined according to the Codex guidelines for the application of the HACCP system by conducting hazard analysis. Hazard analysis involved proper examination of each processing step ...

  19. Quantitative methods for differentiation of vegetable and animal proteins in foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elenbaas, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Op verzoek van de nederlandse delegatie van het Codex Committee on vegetable proteins ( CXVP) hebben twee leden van de werkgroep MOVE in samenwerking met het CXVP (Van Gils) een working paper opgesteld over geschikte kwantitatieve methoden voor de differentiatie van plantaardige en dierlijke

  20. Quantitative methods for differentiation of vegetable and animal proteins in foods II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsman, W.J.; Groot, de W.; Elenbaas, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    Op verzoek van de Nederlandse delegatie van het Codex Committee on vegetable proteins (CXVP) is een tweede "working paper" over de differentiatie van plantaardige en dierlijke eiwitten in voedingsmiddelen samengesteld. Deze "working paper" is een vervolg op de eerste van november 1981 over hetzelfde

  1. The limitations of erudition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serrai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Scholarship Erudition is the fact-finding, and it is to be made by the analysis of documentation. The choice of the facts to be analyzed, however, is subjective and could lead to wrong conclusions. A good example is given by the codex Cam. B. Armadio 2.I of the Classense Library in Ravenna. Inside the codex there is a note by Santi Muratori, the librarian of Classense. The note says the book is to throw away. An analysis of the codex reveals that it is a collection of dissertations and commentaries with quotations from the Fathers of the Church, from Plato and Plotinus, and sometimes the poems of Dante. Probably, the book was for aloud reading during meals of the Camaldolese monks and it reveals a remarkable intellectual liveliness of the monastic community. The codex reveals itself as a good tool for a better knowledge of the Camaldolese’s community, despite of the negative rating by Santi Muratori.

  2. CATEGORY OF CIRCUMVENTION OF THE LAW IN RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "circumvention of the law" with respect to Treaty law. The author finds that the direct loan category "circumvention of the law" in Treaty law can be estimated ambiguously. The specified category which is fragmentary reflected in the active Civil codex indicates a regulatory gap

  3. Computational and Experimental Assessment of Jets in Cross Flow (Evaluation Numerique et Experimentale des Jets dans des Courants Transversaux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Italy Escuela Tecnica Superior Prof. Dr Ir J.L. van Ingen de Ingenieros Aeronauticos Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Departamento de Mecanica de...Kind Depart. Engenharia Mecanica Department of Mechanical and Instituto Superior Tecnico Aerospace Engineering 1096 Lisboa Codex - Portugal Carleton

  4. Vocabulario enla lengua Castellana, la del Ynga y Xebera (British Library, Ms. Add. 25,323)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander-Bakkerus, A.

    2013-01-01

    The codex Vocabulario enla Lengua Castellana, la del Inga y Xebera (British Library, shelf mark Ms. Add. 25,323), does not only contain a Spanish-Quechua-Xebero vocabulary, but also a rather elaborate description of certain Xebero sounds. Although the author of the manuscript is unknown, we may

  5. 21 CFR 73.450 - Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin. 73.450 Section 73.450 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.450 Riboflavin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive riboflavin is the riboflavin defined in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 262-263, which is...

  6. 78 FR 13463 - Editorial Corrections to the Export Administration Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... create proper subject/verb agreement. More specifically, the word ``is'' at paragraph (b)(1)(ii) is... Sec. 742.10 of the EAR to create proper subject/verb agreement. More specifically, the word ``is'' at... Juridiques et Contentieuses. Specifically, the rule misidentified ``Paris Cedex 9'' as ``Paris Codex 9...

  7. Noted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunberg, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…

  8. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  9. 78 FR 53039 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... artichoke, globe at 3.0 parts per million (ppm); endive, belgium at 3.0 ppm; and persimmon at 3.0 ppm. The... for a Section 3 Registration of New Uses on Sugarcane, Globe Artichoke, Belgium Endive, Persimmon... Codex MRL has been established for pyraclostrobin in or on globe artichoke at 2.0 ppm. EPA has...

  10. Management and ethical responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most authors believe that ethics is set of moral principles and values which leads a person or a group toward what is good or bad. Ethics sets the standards about what is good, and what is bad in behaving and decision making. Principles are the rules or the laws that create ethical codex.

  11. Augustiniánská knihovna u sv. Tomáše v Praze. I. část: Od založení kláštera do počátku 16. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladká, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, 1/2 (2016), s. 127-146 ISSN 1210-8510 Institutional support: RVO:67985971 Keywords : Augustinian convent of Saint Thomas in Prague * monastic libraries * provenance research * library history * librarian practice in the Order of Saint Augustine * Codex Thomaeus Subject RIV: AB - History

  12. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    . 1997, 11, 493. 22. Food Chemicals Codex III. Acacia (Gum arabic), National Academy of Sciences,. Washington D.C.; 1981, p 7. 23. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 1993, 15, 269. 24. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J.Food Sci.

  13. Characterization of proteic content of gelatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bayle

    1995-03-01

    Otherwise, results obtained in Kjeldahl and Biuret methods are proportional. In fact, the authors suggest a limit proteic concentration expressed in mg BSA/g solid gelatin : 750 mg BSA /g corresponding to the standard decided by the Codex, 14 % nitrogen minimum.

  14. Lactobacillus paralimentarius sp. nov., isolated from sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Okada, H; Mori, H; Benno, Y; Nakase, T

    1999-10-01

    Six strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sourdough were characterized taxonomically. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. Morphological and physiological data indicated that the strains belong to the genus Lactobacillus and they were similar to Lactobacillus alimentarius in phenotypic characteristics. These strains shared the same phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intragroup DNA homology values of over 89.8%, indicating that they comprised a single species. The G + C content of the DNA for the strains was 37.2-38.0 mol%. The 16S rRNA sequence of representative strain TB 1T was determined and aligned with that of other Lactobacillus species. This strain was placed in the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. L. alimentarius was the most closely related species in the phylogenetic tree and this species also showed the highest sequence homology value (96%) with strain TB 1T. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain TB 1T did not belong to L. alimentarius. It is proposed that these strains are placed in the genus Lactobacillus as a new species, Lactobacillus paralimentarius sp. nov. The type strain of L. paralimentarius is TB 1T, which has been deposited in the Japan Collection of Microorganisms (JCM) as strain JCM 10415T.

  15. Up to code: does your company's conduct meet world-class standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Lynn; Deshpandé, Rohit; Margolis, Joshua D; Bettcher, Kim Eric

    2005-12-01

    Codes of conduct have long been a feature of corporate life. Today, they are arguably a legal necessity--at least for public companies with a presence in the United States. But the issue goes beyond U.S. legal and regulatory requirements. Sparked by corruption and excess of various types, dozens of industry, government, investor, and multisector groups worldwide have proposed codes and guidelines to govern corporate behavior. These initiatives reflect an increasingly global debate on the nature of corporate legitimacy. Given the legal, organizational, reputational, and strategic considerations, few companies will want to be without a code. But what should it say? Apart from a handful of essentials spelled out in Sarbanes-Oxley regulations and NYSE rules, authoritative guidance is sorely lacking. In search of some reference points for managers, the authors undertook a systematic analysis of a select group of codes. In this article, they present their findings in the form of a "codex," a reference source on code content. The Global Business Standards Codex contains a set of overarching principles as well as a set of conduct standards for putting those principles into practice. The GBS Codex is not intended to be adopted as is, but is meant to be used as a benchmark by those wishing to create their own world-class code. The provisions of the codex must be customized to a company's specific business and situation; individual companies' codes will include their own distinctive elements as well. What the codex provides is a starting point grounded in ethical fundamentals and aligned with an emerging global consensus on basic standards of corporate behavior.

  16. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-15

    {center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  17. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  18. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  19. Enhancement and character recognition of the erased colophon of a 15th-century Hebrew prayer book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, Derek J.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Knox, Keith T.; Heimbueger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A handwritten codex often included an inscription that listed facts about its publication, such as the names of the scribe and patron, date of publication, the city where the book was copied, etc. These facts obviously provide essential information to a historian studying the provenance of the codex. Unfortunately, this page was sometimes erased after the sale of the book to a new owner, often by scraping off the original ink. The importance of recovering this information would be difficult to overstate. This paper reports on the methods of imaging, image enhancement, and character recognition that were applied to this page in a Hebrew prayer book copied in Florence in the 15th century.

  20. The York Gospels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, Matthew D.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Vnouček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Gospels (York Minster Ms. Add. 1) is one such codex, one of only a small collection of pre-conquest Gospel books to have survived the Reformation. By extending the non-invasive triboelectric (eraser-based) sampling technique eZooMS, to include the analysis of DNA, we report a cost-effective and simple......-to-use biomolecular sampling technique for parchment. We apply this combined methodology to document for the first time a rich palimpsest of biological information contained within the York Gospels, which has accumulated over the 1000-year lifespan of this cherished object that remains an active participant...... in the life of York Minster. These biological data provide insights into the decisions made in the selection of materials, the construction of the codex and the use history of the object....

  1. Augustine's Adoption of the Vulgate Gospels

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, H.A.G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines Augustine's text of the Gospel according to John to trace the process by which he adopted Jerome's revision of the Gospels. An important feature is the distinction between ‘primary citations’ taken from a codex and ‘secondary citations’ likely to have been made from memory, which change affiliation at different rates. Augustine's progress from Old Latin to Vulgate text-types is illustrated by the comparison of selected passages with surviving manuscripts. Textual variants ...

  2. David�s initial Philistine victories according to Josephus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Begg

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bible twice relates, in Samuel 5:17-25/1 Chronicles 14:8-17, David�s initial pair of victories over the Philistines. This essay focuses on a third version of David�s triumphs, i.e. that of Josephus in his Ant 7.70-77, comprising this in detail with its two Biblical parallels (as represented by MT, Codex Vaticanus and the LucianictAntiochene MSS of the LXX, the Targums, and the Vulgate.

  3. Politicization of the Danish administration

    OpenAIRE

    Mosegaard, Jan; Brudlykke, Ditte Lundkær; Sejr, Katharina Vestergaard; Henning, Josefine Niller; Hjulmand, Kevin Sundin; Al-Omari, Noor Adel Othman

    2016-01-01

    Over the previous years there has been several political scandals, where either government officials or cabinet minister commits serious political defects, which has consequences for the Danish administration. The aftermath of the political scandals which lead to that a codex was written in September 2015. Which specifies the seven guidelines, that government officials are expected to act according to. Furthermore, there has been a change in responsibilities between the cabinet minister and t...

  4. Orange-fleshed sweet potato-based infant food is a better source of dietary vitamin A than a maize-legume blend as complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2014-03-01

    White maize, which is widely used for complementary feeding and is seldom fortified at the household level, may be associated with the high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among infants in low-income countries. The nutrient composition of complementary foods based on orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and cream-fleshed sweet potato (CFSP), maize-soybean-groundnut (Weanimix), and a proprietary wheat-based infant cereal (Nestlé Cerelac) were assessed using the Codex Standard (CODEX STAN 074-1981, Rev. 1-2006) specification as a reference. Additionally, the costs of OFSP complementary food, CFSP complementary food, and Weanimix production at the household level were estimated. Phytate and polyphenols, which limit the bioavailability of micronutrients, were assessed. Energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients listed as essential composition in the Codex Standard were determined and expressed as energy or nutrient density. All the formulations met the stipulated energy and nutrient densities as specified in the Codex Standard. The beta-carotene content of OFSP complementary food exceeded the vitamin A specification (60 to 180 microg retinol activity equivalents/100 kcal). All the formulations except Weanimix contained measurable amounts of ascorbic acid (> or = 32.0 mg/100 g). The level of phytate in Weanimix was highest, about twice that of OFSP complementary food. The sweet potato-based foods contained about twice as much total polyphenols as the cereal-based products. The estimated production cost of OFSP complementary food was slightly higher (1.5 times) than that of Weanimix. OFSP complementary food is a good source of beta-carotene and would therefore contribute to the vitamin A requirements of infants. Both OFSP complementary food and Weanimix may inhibit iron absorption because of their high levels of polyphenols and phytate, respectively, compared with those of Nestlé Cerelac.

  5. International Symposium on Polymer Electrolytes (3rd) Held in Annecy, France on June 17-21, 1991. Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    ELECTROLYTES. J. Morgado, L. Alcicer Departamento de Engenharia Quimica , Instituto Superior T&nico P- 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal As previoulsy...Alcicer Departamento de Engenharia Quimica , Instituto Superior Tdcnico P-1096 Lisboa, Portugal (PEO)nZnX 2 films, in the range n=4-40 were prepared by...RARE EARTH SALTS T. M. A. Abrantes and L. Alcdcer Departamento de Engenharia Quimica , Instituto Superior Tcnico P;4096 Lisboa, Portugal L. A. Dias

  6. International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (7th) Held in Lisbon, Portugal on July 11-14, 1994. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-14

    CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT SHEAR-THINNING FLUIDS A. S. Pereira Departamento de Engenharia Quimica , Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto Rua...de S.Tom6. 4200 Porto CODEX. Portugal F. T. Pinho Departamento de Engenharia Mecinica e Gestio Industrial Faculdade de Engenharia , Rua dos Bragas. 4099...turbulence Investiga•:’o Cientifica- INIC. INEGI (lnstituto de Engenharia characteristics of the low molecular weight polymers are Mec~nica e Gestio

  7. International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (2nd) Held in Santa Barbara, California on 12-17 July 1992 (Extended Abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Aplicada. M.Martinez and S.Bruque, Departamento.de Quimica Inorgknica. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de MAlaga, E-29071 Milaga,(SPAIN). Hydrogen...Departamento de QuImica , Universidade de Coimbra, 3049 Coimbra Codex, Portugal Studies of aluminium corrosion in chloride media have been carried out under a...Caixa Postal 68505, CEP: 21945, RJ, Brazil. z-Depto. de Fisico-Qulmica - IQ/UFRJ - RJ, Brazil. 9-Escola de Engenharia - UFRJ - RJ, Brazil. INTRODUCTION

  8. 78 FR 60709 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ..., group 11 at 1.5 ppm; okra at 2.0 ppm; pea, dry seed at 2.5 ppm; strawberry at 1.5 ppm; and vegetable...; pome fruits at 2 mg/kg; and strawberries at 2 mg/kg. The U.S. tolerances for small vine climbing fruit... cranberry (represented by strawberry) at 2.0 ppm, in order to harmonize with the Codex MRL in or on...

  9. Vliv masmédií na politické myšlení a jednání občanů

    OpenAIRE

    Petrová, Dita

    2008-01-01

    This thesis analyses the emergence and history of modern Czech media and characterizes public opinion and political culture in the context of both positive and negative influences of media on voters. It points out the important role of journalists in the world of media and the function of "Ethic Codex of Journalists". An important part of the thesis deals with research on media influence on political thought and citizens' behaviour with a reference to Czech parliamentary elections of2006.

  10. The influence of corporate governance on project governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies the interaction between corporate governance and project management in project governance. It begins with introduction of basics of corporate governance and various principles of corporate governance in chosen countries and organizations. Further it introduces theoretical background of project governance and its connection and to corporate governance. In practical part work analyzes the level of compliancy with Swiss codex of best praxis in chosen company. The results con...

  11. Redditi turchi et potentiarum nobis. New Evidence Concerning on the Crusade against the Ottoman Empire in the Mid Fifteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes López-Mayán

    2017-01-01

    The examination of liturgical codex 56-23 in Toledo Cathedral Library has revealed the existence of an exceptionally rich text, hitherto overlooked by researchers. This document contains an exhaustive assessment of the economic and military capabilities of the Turks and the Christian powers, as well as a description of their strengths and weaknesses in combat. Through the analysis of its contents and its materiality, on the one hand this article associates the circumstances of its origin and ...

  12. ETHICS AND DEONTOLOGY IN PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Krbavčič

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral and ethical principles in production and distribution of medicaments in R Slovenia are based on medieval heritage reflected in Dispensatorium Norinbergense by Valerius Cordus (1545 as proven by the solemn pledge given by Joanes Leykauff, apothecary at Novo mesto (1598 and the Apothecaries ordinance for the Duchy of Creina (given in Ljubljana, 1710. The subsequent evolution of pharmacy demonstrates the continuos care for quality production and distribution of medicament according to ethical and deontological normatives of its time.Codex of pharmaceutical ethics of the Slovenian pharmaceutical society (2000, Codex of apothecaries deontology by the Apothecaries chamber of Slovenia (1994, The deontological codex of medicinal biochemists of Slovenia (1992 are three basic documents for pharmacist’s activities in Slovenia. Detailed instructions on production, distribution, prescribing and expediting to patients are given by the Medicinal products act and Medical devices act already harmonized with the European aquis communautaire.Some ethical dilemmas concerning prescription free medicinals and selfmedication in EC and R Slovenia are presented. Insufficient or nonexistent communication between patients, medical doctors and pharmacists lead to noncompliant or risky medicamentation.

  13. [The popular interpretation of strokes in ancient Galicia: the dragon myth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pías-Peleteiro, Juan M; Blanco, Miguel; Arias, Manuel; Castillo, José

    2011-05-01

    The high prevalence and mortality of stroke has consequently brought about a wide presence of this pathology in the Galician pre-scientific folk medicine. A new interpretation of stroke, linked to the local tradition around the figure of Saint James the Apostle, is presented in this paper: stroke is considered to be the result of the evil influence of a dragon. In the Codex Calixtinus, a xii century manuscript containing various materials around the figure of Saint James, a dragon is also mentioned as an obstacle for the translation of the apostolic body. The third book of Codex Calixtinus containing the narration of the translation of the dead body of James the Greater from Palestine to its likely current location in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, Spain), also holds the major written record of the dragon of the Pico Sacro mountain. The pagan symbol of the dragon has remained in the orally-transmitted Galician folk medicine as a direct cause for neurological diseases such as stroke. For the first time, in our knowledge, the symbol of a dragon as the magical explanation for cerebral vascular disease has been described. Moreover, this mythical explanation, found only in the Galician folk medicine, is strongly linked to the legend of the translation of James the Apostle to Galicia. Such a link supports the originality of the narration in the Codex Calixtinus as opposed to other versions of the apostolic translation which can be found in other manuscripts.

  14. Lactobacillus kimchii sp. nov., a new species from kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J H; Kang, S S; Mheen, T I; Ahn, J S; Lee, H J; Kim, T K; Park, C S; Kho, Y H; Kang, K H; Park, Y H

    2000-09-01

    A bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacterium, which was isolated from the Korean fermented-vegetable food kimchi, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study using phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic and genetic methods. This organism (MT-1077T) has phenotypic properties that are consistent with the description characterizing the genus Lactobacillus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed clearly that strain MT-1077T is a member of the genus Lactobacillus. The closest phylogenetic relatives are Lactobacillus alimentarius KCTC 3593T and Lactobacillus farciminis LMG 9200T, with levels of 16S rDNA similarity of 98.4 and 98.2%, respectively. Levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain MT-1077T and other Lactobacillus species were less than 93.0%. Differences in some phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain MT-1077T should be distinguished from L. alimentarius KCTC 3593T and L. farciminis LMG 9200T. On the basis of the data presented, it is proposed that strain MT-1077T should be placed in the genus Lactobacillus as a new species, Lactobacillus kimchii sp. nov. The type strain of the new species is strain MT-1077T (= KCTC 8903PT = JCM 10707T).

  15. Lactobacillus bobalius sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from Spanish Bobal grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañes-Lázaro, Rosario; Ferrer, Sergi; Rodas, Ana María; Urdiain, Mercedes; Pardo, Isabel

    2008-12-01

    A Lactobacillus strain, designated 203(T), previously isolated from Bobal grape must was characterized phylogenetically, genotypically and phenotypically in order to establish whether it represents a novel species. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain 203(T) was shown to belong to the genus Lactobacillus, falling within the Lactobacillus alimentarius-Lactobacillus farciminis group and being closely related to the type strains of L. alimentarius, Lactobacillus kimchii and Lactobacillus paralimentarius. DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separate status of strain 203(T) at the species level. To establish the similarities and differences between 203(T) and the three aforementioned closest species, the following methods were used: amplified rDNA restriction analysis, analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling, ribotyping, carbohydrate fermentation and physiological tests. Strain 203(T) could be differentiated genetically using RAPD analysis and ribotyping. Phenotypically, it can be distinguished from its closest relatives by its ability to grow at pH 3.3, by gas production from gluconate and by certain carbohydrate fermentations. On the basis of these data, strain 203(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus bobalius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 203(T) (=CECT 7310(T) =DSM 19674(T)).

  16. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  17. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 3, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Significant progress on international standard setting has been made in recent months. Firstly, the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods was accepted for amendment at Step 5 by the 33{sup rd} Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC), The Hague, The Netherlands, 12-16 March 2001, by removing the maximum dose limit of 10 kGy. Secondly, the 3{sup rd} Session of the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the standard setting body of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Rome, Italy, 2-6 April 2001 agreed to develop a new international standard on irradiation as a phytosanitary measure. Finally, the Codex Committees on Pesticide Residues and on Veterinary Drug Residues agreed to accept the Guidelines on Single Laboratory Method Validation for further development as their standards. It is expected that all these developments will lead to international standards in respective fields by 2003. Following a positive development on certification of irradiation as a .sanitary and phytosanitary treatment in Asia and the Pacific through a regional workshop held in Sydney, Australia in December 2000 (see details in this issue), another regional workshop on the same subject will take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the benefit of Latin American countries. A new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation to Ensure Hygienic Quality of Fresh, Pre-Cut Fruits and Vegetables and Other Minimally Processed Food of Plant Origin is now being implemented jointly with the Pan American Health Organization. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of this CRP will be held later this year. Progress made through RCMs on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, on Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants and on Quality Control of Pesticide Products, held during the past six months, is reported in this issue.

  18. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 3, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Significant progress on international standard setting has been made in recent months. Firstly, the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods was accepted for amendment at Step 5 by the 33 rd Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC), The Hague, The Netherlands, 12-16 March 2001, by removing the maximum dose limit of 10 kGy. Secondly, the 3 rd Session of the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the standard setting body of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Rome, Italy, 2-6 April 2001 agreed to develop a new international standard on irradiation as a phytosanitary measure. Finally, the Codex Committees on Pesticide Residues and on Veterinary Drug Residues agreed to accept the Guidelines on Single Laboratory Method Validation for further development as their standards. It is expected that all these developments will lead to international standards in respective fields by 2003. Following a positive development on certification of irradiation as a .sanitary and phytosanitary treatment in Asia and the Pacific through a regional workshop held in Sydney, Australia in December 2000 (see details in this issue), another regional workshop on the same subject will take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the benefit of Latin American countries. A new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation to Ensure Hygienic Quality of Fresh, Pre-Cut Fruits and Vegetables and Other Minimally Processed Food of Plant Origin is now being implemented jointly with the Pan American Health Organization. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of this CRP will be held later this year. Progress made through RCMs on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, on Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants and on Quality Control of Pesticide Products, held during the past six months, is reported in this issue

  19. Un Saltiri de Guillem II per a Monreale? sobre els orígens del Saltiri Anglocatalà de París

    OpenAIRE

    Pagès i Paretas, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The questions that this essay trays to answer are two: at the end af 12th century who could have commissioned this Psalter from the scriptorium of the Christ Church of Canterbury, a codex so luxurios and so influenced by the art of Sicily of Sicily? and why was it left unfinished? It might have been commissioned by King William II of Sicily for his cathedral of Monreale. His non-completion would by explained by his death and because of the events that followed his demise: the imprisoning of h...

  20. Lattice algebra approach to multispectral analysis of ancient documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo-N, Juan C; Urcid, Gonzalo

    2013-02-01

    This paper introduces a lattice algebra procedure that can be used for the multispectral analysis of historical documents and artworks. Assuming the presence of linearly mixed spectral pixels captured in a multispectral scene, the proposed method computes the scaled min- and max-lattice associative memories to determine the purest pixels that best represent the spectra of single pigments. The estimation of fractional proportions of pure spectra at each image pixel is used to build pigment abundance maps that can be used for subsequent restoration of damaged parts. Application examples include multispectral images acquired from the Archimedes Palimpsest and a Mexican pre-Hispanic codex.

  1. Oceans 1999 MTS/IEEE, Riding the Crest into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Universidade do Porto and Instituto de Sistemas e Robötica Rua dos Bragas, 4099 Porto Codex Portugal * Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto Rua de S...the TOC and the PAH-PCB’s. Fig. 7 is a comparison of the corrected Percentage (%) TOC and the Differential Bottom Loss. ü O t- o 01 $ c v...0) 0. 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 ► 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 Portion of Diff. BL for TOC (db) Fig. 7. Percentage

  2. Bibliographie

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    I. LES DIEUX LITTERATURE PRIMAIRE : LES PRINCIPAUX TEXTES ET LEURS TRADUCTIONS FRANÇAISES A) Edda poétique Traduction française : Régis Boyer, L’Edda poétique, Fayard, Paris 1992. Traduction allemande : Edda. Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. Herausgegeben von Gustav Neckel. I. Text. Hans Kuhn, Heidelberg, 1962. Traduction anglaise: The Poetic Edda, éd. U. Dronke, Oxford, 1969. B) Edda de Snorri Traduction française (partielle) : François-Xavier Dillmann, L’Edda. Récits...

  3. Expression of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin in Indian mustard provides resistance against Lipaphis erysimi and the expressed protein is non-allergenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ayan; Ghosh, Prithwi; Das, Sampa

    2018-06-01

    Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays. In the present study, efficacy of CEA in controlling L. erysimi has been established through the development of transgenic B. juncea expressing this novel lectin. Southern hybridization of the transgenic plants confirmed stable integration of cea gene. Expression of CEA in T 0 , T 1 and T 2 transgenic plants was confirmed through western blot analysis. Level of expression of CEA in the T 2 transgenic B. juncea ranged from 0.2 to 0.47% of the total soluble protein. In the in planta insect bioassays, the CEA expressing B. juncea lines exhibited enhanced insect mortality of 70-81.67%, whereas fecundity of L. erysimi was reduced by 49.35-62.11% compared to the control plants. Biosafety assessment of the transgenic B. juncea protein containing CEA was carried out by weight of evidence approach following the recommendations by FAO/WHO (Evaluation of the allergenicity of genetically modified foods: report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, 22-25 Jan, Rome, http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y0820e/y0820e00.HTM , 2001), Codex (Codex principles and guidelines on foods derived from biotechnology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; Codex, Codex principles and guidelines on foods derived from biotechnology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2003) and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research, guidelines for safety assessment of

  4. Atomic power engineering as military and nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    2000-01-01

    The legislative aspects of the nuclear power facilities protection during military actions are discussed. The IAEA position on this question is considered. Absence in the IAEA subject scope of the works on preparation of the treaty on prohibiting the destruction of nuclear power facilities means that the IAEA countries differently understand the necessity for introducing the legislative positions of the international atomic law. However, observation of the unwritten codex of mutual nuclear deterrence gives rise to the hope for the wise solution of the problem on the nuclear power objects protection during the military actions [ru

  5. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  6. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  7. Evaluación mediante la tecnología NIRS de los insumos, su transformación y el chocolate elaborado con cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) de Tabasco.

    OpenAIRE

    Pons Burelo, Clara Inés

    2010-01-01

    En el CODEX STAN 87-1891 se definen las características que contiene los chocolates de mesa y golosina, indicando los parámetros: proteína, humedad, ceniza y grasa y los contenidos máximos y mínimos permitidos. Los métodos convencionales de análisis para determinar estos parámetros son necesarios para el control de calidad y es un prerrequisito para el etiquetado nutrimental del alimento. Una alternativa metodológica de análisis utilizada para obtener no solo lo que contiene la muestra sino d...

  8. The plants in the Florilegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnklit, Folmer; Frederiksen, Signe; Hansen, Hans Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The Gottorfer Codex and The Green Florilegium contain a total of more than 1,500 pictures of plants. In this article the botanists who recently identified the plants in the two albums take a look at the works as seen through the eyes of a botanist. Based on their knowledge of the plants behind...... the pictures the authors shed light on a range of different aspects, e.g. the relationship between figures and real plants and the horticultural background of the plants. They also offer botanical explanations for peculiarities such as double and proliferous flowers....

  9. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed......, and the use of the FAO/WHO Codex Classification system of Foods and Animal Feeds to harmonise the classification. We demonstrate that this approach works well for pesticides and glycoalkaloids, and is an essential step forward in the harmonisation of risk assessment procedures within Europe when addressing...... chemicals analysed in RACs by all national food control systems....

  10. Artists' Books in the 1960s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    2016-01-01

    The “artist’s book”, a distinctive and popular art form which appeared in the 1960s, replaced the white cube with the portable exhibition. Although anticipated by a few pioneers from the early avant-gardes, artists such as Åke Hodell made interesting contributions in the 1960s to the international...... field. The artist’s book, whether mass-produced or created as a limited edition, was a genuine cross-aesthetic artifact and it served as a vehicle for artistic ideas and concepts, sometimes by transgressing the codex of the book or by experimenting with its layout, binding and the fixed sequence...

  11. Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov., isolated from raw fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröckel, L; Schillinger, U; Franz, C M A P; Bantleon, A; Ludwig, W

    2003-03-01

    Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov. (KU-3T) was isolated from raw fermented sausages. The new species was present in high numbers, and frequently dominated the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations of the products. 16S rDNA sequence data revealed that the isolates are closely related to the species Lactobacillus kimchii DSM 13961T, Lactobacillus paralimentarius DSM 13238T, Lactobacillus alimentarius DSM 20249T and Lactobacillus farciminis DSM 20184T. DNA-DNA reassociation data, however, clearly distinguished the new isolates from these species; they showed a low degree of DNA relatedness with the type strains of this group of phylogenetically closely related lactobacilli. These results warrant separate species status for strain KU-3T, for which the name Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KU-3T (=DSM 14857T =NCCB 100034T =ATCC BAA-478T).

  12. Lactobacillus nantensis sp. nov., isolated from French wheat sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Ferchichi, Mounir F; Korakli, Maher; Ivanova, Iskra; Gänzle, Michael G; Vogel, Rudi F; Prévost, Hervé; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2006-03-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of the bacterial flora isolated from traditional French wheat sourdough, using phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic as well as genetic methods, revealed a consistent group of isolates that could not be assigned to any recognized species. These results were confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting analyses. Cells were Gram-positive, homofermentative rods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the representative strain LP33T indicated that these strains belong to the genus Lactobacillus and that they formed a branch distinct from their closest relatives Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paralimentarius and Lactobacillus mindensis. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments with the three phylogenetically closest Lactobacillus species confirmed that LP33T (= DSM 16982T = CIP 108546T = TMW 1.1265T) represents the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus nantensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. Protective effects of different marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and rosemary cream preparations against sodium-lauryl-sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S M; Schliemann-Willers, S; Fischer, T W; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the protective action of cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts in vivo in healthy volunteers with experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Marigold and rosemary extracts in base cream DAC (Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex = German Pharmaceutical Codex) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The effect was evaluated visually and quantified by noninvasive bioengineering methods, namely chromametry and tewametry. When the test products were applied parallel to the induction period of ICD, a statistically significant protective effect of all cream preparations was observed by all methods. This effect, although not statistically significant, was superior to control by undyed marigold und faradiol ester-enriched extracts in chromametry and by dyed and undyed rosemary extracts in tewametry. The sequential treatment (postirritation) once a day for 5 days was without any effect. Thus, a protective effect of some marigold and rosemary extracts against ICD could be shown in the elicitation phase. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junshi

    2004-01-01

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures

  15. The Determination of the Biochemical Properties of Some Monofloral Honey Samples Produced across Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Gül

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 2013 to determine the biochemical properties of 10 different monofloral honey types produced across Turkey. For the study, honey samples were obtained from beekeepers and the identity and relative percentage of dominant pollen types in samples was determined through microscopic analysis. Pollen analysis revealed that honey types chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus and sunflower (Helianthus annuus contained high proportions of each respective pollen type. These proportions reached as high as 86%, while other honey types such as Anason had low Anasom pollen content, occurring at 45% in whole honey samples. Biochemical analysis revealed that the average honey sample quality characteristics were as followings: ash 0.37±0.04, electricity conductivity 0.79±0.07 mS/cm, moisture 19.15±0.09%, pH 3.97±0.02, acidity 29.07±0.39 meq/kg, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, 6.17±0.76 mg/kg, diastase 22.05±0.00, invert sugar 69.72±0.49% and sucrose 2.90±0.30%. These analyses confirmed that honey samples met standards outlined by the Turkish Food Codex Honey Standard, European Union Honey Standard and Codex Standards respectively.

  16. Contribution to the theoretical study of a high power microwave radiation produced by a relativistic electron beam; Contribution a l`etude theorique d`un rayonnement micro-onde de forte puissance a partir d`un faisceau d`electrons relativistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellem, F

    1997-10-21

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of microwave radiation produced by relativistic electron beams. The vircator (virtual cathode oscillator) is a powerful microwave source based on this principle. This device is described but the complexity of the physical processes involved makes computer simulation necessary before proposing a simplified model. The existent M2V code has been useful to simulate the behaviour of a vircator but the representation of some phenomena such as hot points, the interaction of waves with particles lacks reliability. A new code CODEX has been written, it can solve Maxwell equations on a double mesh system by a finite difference method. The electric and magnetic fields are directly computed from the scalar and vectorial potentials. This new code has been satisfactorily tested on 3 configurations: the bursting of an electron beam in vacuum, the evolution of electromagnetic fields in diode and the propagation of waves in a wave tube. CODEX has been able to simulate the behaviour of a vircator, the frequency and power are well predicted and some contributions to the problem of origin of microwave production have been made. It seems that the virtual cathode is not directly involved in the microwave production. (A.C.) 139 refs.

  17. Contribution to the theoretical study of a high power microwave radiation produced by a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellem, F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of microwave radiation produced by relativistic electron beams. The vircator (virtual cathode oscillator) is a powerful microwave source based on this principle. This device is described but the complexity of the physical processes involved makes computer simulation necessary before proposing a simplified model. The existent M2V code has been useful to simulate the behaviour of a vircator but the representation of some phenomena such as hot points, the interaction of waves with particles lacks reliability. A new code CODEX has been written, it can solve Maxwell equations on a double mesh system by a finite difference method. The electric and magnetic fields are directly computed from the scalar and vectorial potentials. This new code has been satisfactorily tested on 3 configurations: the bursting of an electron beam in vacuum, the evolution of electromagnetic fields in diode and the propagation of waves in a wave tube. CODEX has been able to simulate the behaviour of a vircator, the frequency and power are well predicted and some contributions to the problem of origin of microwave production have been made. It seems that the virtual cathode is not directly involved in the microwave production. (A.C.)

  18. Gnosis and mysticism as illustrated by Eugnostos the Blessed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Podemann Sørensen

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The Letter of Eugnostos or Eugnostos the Blessed as the text is usually called, has come down to us in two copies, one in NagHammadi Codex III and another less well preserved in Codex V. The text has aroused considerable interest as a possible sample of so-called pre-christian gnosis. Writing under the programmatic name Eugnostos and the more common Makarios, the author addresses his pupils or adepts to teach them about god. He starts by refuting three propositions about the nature of the world which to him represent the basic shortcomings of contemporary philosophy, or perhaps of philosophy as such: (1 the world is governed by itself, (2 by a providence, or (3 is subject to predestination. His refutation is neither philosophical in the proper sense of that word, nor does it deal with the implications of these propositions in detail: That which is from itself leads an empty life, providence is foolish, and that which is subject to destiny or fate is something that does not attain knowledge. According to Eugnostos, real insight is not reached through philosophy; what matters is to be able to refute the propositions of philosophy and by means of another proposition to gain access to and reveal the god of truth. The attainment of this, he says, means to be immortal amidst the mortals.

  19. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junshi

    2004-05-20

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures.

  20. Concilios y legistación imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fe BAJO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La colaboración instaurada a partir de Constantino entre la Iglesia y el poder político produjo toda una serie de interpretaciones que afectaron no sólo al plano de lo ideológico-religioso sino a las propias estructuras político-sociales del Imperio. Así se procedió a una reorganización del derecho sobre bases nuevas. La creación de la iurisdictio episcopalis, las exenciones fiscales a las propiedades eclesiásticas y a los propios clérigos o el monopolio concedido a la Iglesia de muchas de las antiguas instituciones civiles tales como el patronato ciudadano, dan cuenta de las interrelaciones entre la normativa jurídica imperial inserta en el Codex Theodosianus y las disposiciones conciliares.ABSTRACT: The cooperation between the Church and the Worldly Power started with Constantine resulted in a series of interpretations not only from the ideologicalreligious point of view, but also affecting the socio-political structures of the Empire. Thus, and on a new ground reorganisation of the laws was undertaken. The creation of a iurisdictio episcopalis, financial exemptions for ecclesiastic properties and for the clergy itself, or the monoply granted by the Church to many former civil institutions, such as the board of citizens, account for the interrelations between the imperial jurisdiction as described in the Codex Theodosianus and the Council dispositions.

  1. The Research of Food Preservation by Irradiation and Its Industrialization in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok

    1987-01-01

    Since the late 1960s, radiation effects on the storage of potatoes, strawberry, grapes and rice have been investigated on an experimental basis in Korea, Based on the research results of batch scale storage for sprouting food (potatoes, onions, chestnuts) and white ginseng powder by the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and on the recommendation. Food irradiation is a new process that may provide an alternative to existing food processes. From the extensive research in food irradiation for more than three decades by leading international organizations and advanced countries, the efficacy of a number of applications has been established, including sprout inhibition, disinfestation of insects, sterilization, delay of ripening, and improvement of organoleptic properties in food. Owing to the recommendation on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food by the Joint FAO/IAEA/W/o Expert Committee in 1980 and the adaption of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food by the Codex Allurements Commission in 1983, as of May 1985, thirty-two countries have officially approved 227 food items in 73 food groups as safe for human consumption. Food irradiation processing is increasingly recognized as a viable technology for reducing the overall quantity of spoiled food, reducing energy used in food storage, and reducing reliance on chemicals currently used

  2. Una aproximación analítica a las mallas recíprocas diseñadas por Leonardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is a topic to refer Leonardo when we introduce any branch of the art, science o technique because his manuscripts ever contain news that before him never where explored, nor profited even later. This can be understood because these manuscripts never where published till five centuries later. Observations referred to design of structures are the less known and otherwise the less studied. Really the most important problems about this subject are contained in the Codex I of Madrid, some in the Codex Atlantic, and less in the Codex II of Madrid. Other books do not refer these questions. Leonardo, in his drawings, manifested an obsessive search for solutions to the problem of how to span great distances with short pieces. In his notebooks, we find reiterative diagrams which seem to be searching for variants of frames capable of constituting structures, mainly roofs, floors and bridges, which could cover large distances by using manageable pieces that could easily be supplied. In this paper we analyze with actual computer programs how his proposals could be achieved and we establish some conclusions about it.

    Ya resulta tópico referirse a Leonardo cada vez que tocamos algún tema de arte, ciencia o técnica puesto que en sus escritos siempre podemos encontrar aspectos que nadie estudió antes ni, en muchos casos, nadie explotó después. Esto se explica porque sus manuscritos no fueron publicados hasta cinco siglos después. Sus observaciones respecto al diseño de estructuras son menos conocidas y son también las menos estudiadas. Realmente sus principales aportaciones se contienen en el Códice I de Madrid, y menos en el Códice II de Madrid, algunas otras, más generales, en el Códice Atlántico. Sus otros cuadernos de notas no tratan de estas cuestiones. En sus dibujos, Leonardo manifestó una obsesiva búsqueda de soluciones para cubrir grandes luces con piezas cortas. En sus Cuadernos encontramos diagramas de muchas variantes para

  3. Los romanceamientos castellanos de la Biblia Hebrea compuestos en la Edad Media: manuscritos y traducciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pueyo Mena, F. Javier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of 28 Hebrew lemmas and their translations into Castilian in the eleven medieval codices containing 15th century vernacular renderings of the Hebrew Bible into Old Spanish. The objective is to determine, through quantitative comparison of lexical coherence in the texts contained in each one of these manuscripts, how many translators were involved in the translations now preserved, either mixed or scattered in the various codices. We conclude that there are only six different 15th century translations from the Hebrew still stant: the complete Bible E3, the Pentateuch in E19, the complete Bible made up from the combination of the translations contained in the codices E7 and E5, the whole Bible that we call the Bible of the Marquis of Santillana (which is a combination of parts of the E4 codex and the BNE codex in its entirety, the Arragel Bible and the Former Prophets contained in the Oxford codex.Este trabajo presenta un análisis exhaustivo de 28 lemas hebreos y de sus correspondientes traducciones al castellano en los once códices medievales que contienen romanceamientos cuatrocentistas de la Biblia hebrea. El objetivo es determinar, mediante la comparación cuantitativa de la coherencia léxica de los textos transmitidos en cada uno de estos manuscritos, cuántos traductores participaron en las traducciones que ahora se conservan o bien mezcladas o bien diseminadas en los distintos códices. Se concluye que se preservan solamente seis traducciones diferentes del siglo xv hechas a partir del hebreo: la Biblia completa de E3, el Pentateuco de E19, la Biblia completa que supone la combinación de la traducción contenida en los códices E7 y E5, la Biblia completa que denominamos Biblia del Marqués de Santillana (y que es una combinación de partes del códice E4 y del códice completo de BNE, la Biblia de Arragel y los Profetas Anteriores contenidos en el códice de Oxford.

  4. Fictional Marriage Proposal of Anonymous Astrakhan Khan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The following text is reproduced from a handwritten copy of the letter made by the Italian humanist Gian Vincenzo Pinelli (1535–1601 and contained in one codex of Ambrosiana Library in Milan (R 104 sup., fol. 194r [see the description of the codex in: 3, no. 341. p. 125]. This codex (588 folios contains Italian and Latin texts of the 16th century of extremely diverse content, which does not allow to determe neither the name of the author of the reproduced letter, nor the date of its writing. Nevertheless, a reference to the name of “Luther” in the letter suggests that it must have been written in the 16th century and an indication of the main purpose of the letter – matchmaking to anonymous queen – makes it possible to put forward quite a bold (but, for now, unproven hypothesis that this letter might be addressed to approximates of the Polish Queen Bona Sforza and the widow of King Sigismund I the Old starting with the April 1, 1548. Following this hypothesis, the alleged author of the letter could be the ruler of Astrakhan Yamgurchi or the Crimean khan Sahib Giray. However, this assumption remains only a hypothesis, and the author of this article hopes that future researchers will be able to identify both the author of the letter and its recipients. Be that as it may, this letter is of undoubtedly fictitious character since it does not indicate the name of its author and the date of writing and obviously differs from official form of the Tatar rulers’ letters. Undoubtedly, this letter refers to the literary genre of fictional letters of the rulers, which became extremely popular in Europe since the second half of the 15th century. As an illustration of this genre, the author of this article presents a “letter” of the Turkish sultan to the Tatars and their “response” from the fictional collection of “Letters of the Great Turk” [1, fol. 18r] of Laudivius Hierosolymitanus, which was a relatively widespread in Europe in the

  5. Histoire de l’art et anthropologie, 3. Exégèse textuelle, exégèse visuelle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Russo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available À l’intersection de l’exégèse biblique et de l’étude iconographique des formes et des figures dans les codex d’époque carolingienne, nous aimerions souligner la rencontre, au premier regard, plutôt imprévue, mais nullement improbable, dans le champ de l’analogie, entre les allégories pensées par les théologiens, tels Bède le Vénérable (673 ?-735, Ambroise Autpert († 784, Raban Maur (v. 783-856 et Haymon d’Auxerre (fl. 840-860, autour des livres bibliques de l’Exode (28, 15-21, d’Ézéchiel...

  6. Regulatory aspects of food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    The latest information on the countries in the Asia/Pacific region with approvals for food to be irradiated is provided. Differences in the type of regulations used are contrasted. However, progress has been made towards greater uniformity in regulations based around the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food. Australia and New Zealand instituted, respectively, a moratorium and a ban on food irradiation in 1988. Australia has proposed a new draft Standard for food irradiation and this is the subject of public discussion under the Australia New Zealand Food Authority. The draft Standard is a prohibition with the possibility of exemptions being given on a case-by-case basis. Some details of the draft Standard are provided. (author)

  7. Slow molecular dynamics in the β relaxation of semicrystalline polymers studied by pure exchange 13C solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Iowa State University, Ames, IA

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics in the amorphous regions of semicrystalline polymers exert important influences on mechanical properties, but have been notoriously difficult to characterize. Two new solid-state NMR techniques, PUREX (pure exchange) and CODEX (center band-only detection of exchange) NMR, make it possible to analyze the molecular motions near the glass transition in the amorphous regions of semicrystalline polymers. This is achieved by selectively suppressing the otherwise dominant signals of the static segments in the crystallites. We have applied both NMR techniques to study the slow motions near the glass transition in semicrystalline polymers (β relaxation) and in fully amorphous samples for reference. The studied polymers were isotactic poly(1-butene) (iPB1) (form I), syndiotactic and atactic polypropylenes (sPP, and aPP, respectively), as well as polyisobutylene (PIB). We have analyzed the geometry and time scale of the slow molecular motion for all samples and determined the apparent activation energies. (author)

  8. Content Production for E-Learning in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Auinger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The didactic quality of lear0ning materialscan be improved by enriching learning material with didacticinformation. Such content elements assist selfdirectedlearning processes in virtual learningenvironments effectively. In order to develop didacticallymotivated for flexible use, e.g., at different terminaldevices such as PC or PDA, a structured procedure isrequired. We propose the selection and identification ofdidactically relevant information prior to enrichment ofhighly structured content with didactical information. Itcan be achieved by using the CoDEx method (ContentDidactically Explicit, and a mapping scheme to thelearning-technology standard conform XML contentstructures. Furthermore, aspects for multi-channel contentdelivery in the application field of engineering have to betaken into account. In this paper we refer to the objectivesand results of the EU-funded ELIE project (E-Learning InEngineering to demonstrate the proposed procedure’seffectiveness for content engineering.

  9. Irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. A compilation of technical data for its authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This publication contains a compilation of available scientific and technical data on the irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. The compilation was prepared in response to the requirement of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and associated Code that radiation treatment of food be justified on the basis of a technological need or of a need to improve the hygienic quality of the food. It was also in response to the recommendations of the FAO/IAEA/WHO/ITC-UNCTAD/GATT International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food (Geneva, 1989) concerning the need for regulatory control of radiation processing of food. 448 refs, 6 tabs

  10. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pim, L.R.

    1983-11-01

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  11. Food safety challenges associated with traditional foods of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu CAGRI-MEHMETOGLU

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer food safety concerns are continually increasing in Turkey, with consumer demand for safer foods becoming an important challenge for the industry. Most traditional foods in Turkey are produced under different requirements, and food safety risk management and risk assessment are conducted primarily by the government. Based on risk assessment, safety regulations and standards for traditional foods (e.g. Turkish white cheese, doner, helva have been established. In this paper, safety concerns surrounding the commercialization of traditional Turkish foods and related studies to identify and minimize potential hazards are discussed along with pathogen contamination in raw meat balls and aflatoxin in helva and white cheese. Based on this review, additional national risk analysis experts and related databases are urgently needed. In addition, the manufacturing processes for traditional foods need to be standardized and harmonized with international standards, such as CODEX.

  12. Optical spectroscopy of ancient paper and textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missori, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient paper and textiles represent a striking example of optically inhomogenous materials whose optical responses are strongly governed by scattering effects. In order to recover the absorption coefficient from non-invasive and nondestructive reflectance measurements a specific approach based on Kubelka-Munk two-flux theory must be applied. In this way quantitative chemical information, such as chromophores concentration, can be obtained, as well as quantitative spectra of additional substances such as pigments or dyes. Results on a folio of the Codex on the Flight of Birds by Leonardo da Vinci and a linen cloth dated back to 1653 and called the Shroud of Arquata, a copy of the Shroud of Turin, will be presented.

  13. Fate and distribution of lindane and endosulfan in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah, P.O.; Montford, K.G.; Klake, R.K.; Akpabli, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    A quantitative study is presented on linande and endosulfan residues in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively. Both pesticides were found to dissipate very fast under the tropical Ghanaian conditions. The high rate of dissipation in leaves is attributed to the fact that the leaves were exposed to sunshine and wind leading to increased volatilisation. Endosulfan was found to dissipate faster from the cowpea ecosystem than lindane did in the maize ecosystem. The mean residue levels of lindane in maize grains were 0.02 μg g -1 ; whilst residue levels of endosulfan in cowpea seeds were 0.05 μg g -1 . These levels are lower than the maximum residue limits recognized as acceptable by the Codex Alimentarus Commission. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  14. Food irradiation with emphasis on process control and acceptance in Asia. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The third phase of the Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation RPFI (Phase III) emphasized process control of pilot- and commercial scale irradiation of food according to the principle of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods, and on gaining the acceptance of the process by governments, food industry and consumers. Phase III of the RPFI was funded by UNDP and was in operation from 1989-1993. Fifteen institutions in Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam participated. Proper process control of irradiation with emphasis on dosimetry techniques was emphasized. A number of market testing, transportation trials and consumer acceptance studies was carried out during this period. Refs, figs, tabs.

  15. [The original German scholarly literature of medieval falconry and the history of its scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Martina

    2007-01-01

    German scholarly literature (Fachliteratur) of the middle ages devoted to falconry falls into two main categories: Translations, mostly of latin works, and original treatises. After a short survey of falconry in the past, this article will discuss the original treatises and the history of their analysis since the 19th century. In this context it will deal with the research of the following scholars: Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Anton von Perger, Ernst von Dombrowski, Hermann Werth, Christoph von Biedermann and--most importantly--Kurt Lindner. The appendix contains the editio princeps of the German Münchener Rezeptar I from the codex unicus, München, Universitätsbibliothek, 80 Cod. ms. 354, fol. 31r-33r (dating from the 15th century).

  16. Moving beyond education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    arenas that, today, it is almost impossible to ima- gine universities as being more and otherwise than promoters of higher education for the local job market domains, national and regional policy strategies, and global rankings and benchmarking agendas. The university as a form of being has arguably been...... emptied of an identity beyond sole educational production mechanisms, and few today explore the university’s noninstrumental and “darker” (Bengtsen and Barnett 2017; Bengtsen 2014) levels of being. This paper, as a contrast, aims to explore the being of the univer- sity anew and with a focus...... ancient times to demarcate a certain form of geographical and ontological place, like the Circus Maximus that was determined for specific activities and events, social norms and behavior, and moral codex. Where the term “universitas” originally meant any form of guild or corporation, eventually connected...

  17. Modermælken og dens erstatninger 1867-1980, en fødevarebiografi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang, Caroline; Kleberg Hansen, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the ways in which knowledge about nutrition has been embedded in different types of homemade and commercial breast milk substitutes in Denmark from 1867, when the first commercial product was introduced, to 1980, at which point WHO issued a codex banning the advertisement...... of infant formula. Over this time span, we identify three main breast milk substitutes that were marketed and/or recommended to Danish caretakers: børnemel (children’s flour), homemade milk mixtures, and infant formula. The aim of the article is twofold: first, to explore the historicity of foodstuffs......, their contents and the kinds of knowledge that went into their composition; second, to find a baseline which, across time, allows for a macro nutrition comparison of infant formulas. We argue that the history of breast milk substitutes cannot be written independently from the history of breast milk itself...

  18. Redditi turchi et potentiarum nobis. New Evidence Concerning on the Crusade against the Ottoman Empire in the Mid Fifteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes López-Mayán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The examination of liturgical codex 56-23 in Toledo Cathedral Library has revealed the existence of an exceptionally rich text, hitherto overlooked by researchers. This document contains an exhaustive assessment of the economic and military capabilities of the Turks and the Christian powers, as well as a description of their strengths and weaknesses in combat. Through the analysis of its contents and its materiality, on the one hand this article associates the circumstances of its origin and use with the preparations for the crusading project that Pius II organized against the Ottoman Empire in 1458. On the other it contextualizes and interprets this new evidence as one of the numerous crusading treatises that proliferated in humanist Europe after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

  19. MEDICAL ETHOS IN THE FIELD OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Anczyk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this article was to present the most popular verbal metaphors (service, calling, art used to describe medical ethos in common language and to see what impact they have on everyday clinical practice. Metaphorical ethos of a physician is defined, and then confronted with the reality of organization of medical assistance. We regard the area of interpersonal relations with the patient as a main field of realization of postulates of professional ethics (both metaphorical and those common-use postulates and codified as Codex of Medical Ethics. Also we regard the phenomenon of reification as one of the main impediments on a way of realization of medical ethos in an everyday work of a physician. In the article we conclude that even metaphorically formulated professional ethos has a substantial influence on medical practice and therapy effectiveness, and therefore can’t be underestimated, when we are determining standards of professional responsibility.

  20. Osservazioni sul principio di legalità come idea e come metodo nell’esperienza giuridica della Chiesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Serra

    2012-10-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. – La struttura essenziale del concetto di legalità e la sua realizzazione radicale nel diritto della Chiesa. - 3. L’idea di legalità come “regola che sta prima” nel ius commune e la sua coesistenza con un approccio empirico, essenzialmente giurisprudenziale e dottrinale, di costruzione del diritto. Il principio di legalità come metodo di produzione del diritto nel pensiero giuridico moderno- 4. Il legame storico-concettuale fra il principio di legalità e i Codici moderni - 5. Il Codex iuris canonici del 1917 e il principio di legalità come metodo di costruzione del ius ecclesiae in funzione della certezza del diritto - 6. (segueUlteriori riflessi della prima codificazione canonica sul principio di legalità.:

  1. Irradiation of strawberries. A compilation of technical data for its authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The document contains a compilation of all available scientific and technical data on the irradiation of strawberries. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. The compilation was prepared in response to the requirement of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and associated Code that radiation treatment of food be justified on the basis of a technological need or of a need to improve the hygienic quality of food. It was prepared also in response to the recommendations of the FAO/IAEA/WHO/ITC-UNCTAD/GATT International conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food (Geneva, 1989) concerning the need for regulatory control of radiation processing of food. Refs, 1 tab

  2. Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimba, B.W. Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,

    1996-01-01

    Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

  3. Shelf-life extension of the merluccius merluccius hubbsi's commercialization by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia; Kairiyama, Eulogia; Lescano, Hilda; Kaupert, Norma

    1989-01-01

    The hake (merluccius merluccius hubbsi), caught in the South Atlantic Ocean, was filleted and then irradiated in the semi-industrial irradiation plant of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, with a dose of 3.3 kGy, at the temperature of melting ice. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 0 deg C ± 1 deg C. Irradiated hake kept a good microbiological condition until day 28 after catch, which triplicates the commercialization period of the product. The determination of volatile basic nitrogen showed acceptable values, according to the Argentine Alimentary Codex specifications, for a longer period (47 days after catch) probably due to the selection exerted by ionizing radiations of the flora. Also, exudation was below 5% (v/w) during 52 days. The sonsory quality of the irradiated fillets was generally good along the 39 days of analysis. (Author) [es

  4. The digital spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2019-01-01

    In the words of the Oxford English Dictionary, a book is 'a portable volume consisting of a series of written, printed, or illustrated pages bound together for ease of reading' (‘book, n.’nd). Yet, the world of books isn’t what it used to be. If differences between media are material differences...... analyze books as digital or even 'post-digital' artifacts (Cramer 2014), while preserving the material dimension of the book artifact. In other words: is there is such a thing as a (post-)digital spine, and how can it be described? This article outlines an answer to this question within an inferential...... (Seiter 2015), and books are produced, distributed and read on various digital media and devices, it is no longer possible to understand digital books on the basis of the material and syntactical features of the codex artifact. It then becomes important to discuss how to conceptualize and subsequently...

  5. El libro como forma simbólica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Melot Traducción: Raúl Marcó del Pont

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenMelot analiza las virtudes que distinguen al libro de la pantalla; trata de entender las características simbólicas del libro impreso, sus diferencias con el rollo y el códice, y nos obliga a reflexionar en torno a la larga transformación que han sufrido nuestras creencias no solo frente a estos objetos sino también con respecto al tiempo, elespacio, los cuerpos y la verdad.AbstractMelot analyzes the virtues that distinguish the book from the screen; it tries to understand the symbolic characteristics of the printed book, their differences with the roll and the codex, and he makes us think about the long transformation that our beliefs have undergone, not only in relation with the printed objects but also with respect to time, space, bodies and truth.

  6. Study of criteria for foodstuffs control following a radiological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Min; Park, Sang Hyun; Jeong, Seung Young; Kim, Dong Il [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The foodstuff control standards on APPRE should be applied to emergency situation only, while the Korean Food Stands Codex standards of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) should be applied in normal situation. To reflect the lessons learned form the Fukushima accident, the standards of foodstuff control has been studied by surveying newly recommended systems of radiological protection based on reference level commensurated with exposure situations and international trends. Existing standards for restriction on ingestion of foodstuff is based on simple cost-benefit approach and it is confirmed that the projected doses is contributed excessively on the specific food categories. In future, the standards will be revised considering domestic diet feature, nuclide analysis procedure, international standard and the latest recommendation of radiation protection. Also, modification of provisions and standards for foodstuff control of related departments are needed for well integrated national EPR framework.

  7. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  8. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60 Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  9. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  10. State officials and illicit asset-grabbing: The Roman approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apsitis A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects author’s findings regarding the regulation found in Roman legal sources, which is directed against corruptive activities of persons in public state positions, in particular in relation to unlawful seizure of assets belonging to citizens. Legal mechanisms are examined in relation to cases of force (vis-Latin and fear (metus-Latin application. The Code of Justinian (Codex Iustinianus and The Digest (Digesta contained regulation in relation to interpretation and application of The Julian Law on Extortion (Lex Iulia repetundarum, 59 B.C. in cases of all types of extortion and bribery with the involvement of public office administering persons, including judges and arbitrators, are examined.

  11. Review on applied foods and analyzed methods in identification testing of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Hoo Chul; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Kwan Soo; Jeong, Il Yun; Lee, Ju Woon; Yook, Hong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Identification methods of irradiated foods have been adopted as official test by EU and Codex. PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS methods were registered in Korea food code on 2009 and put in force as control system of verification for labelling of food irradiation. But most generally applicable PSL and TL methods are specified applicable foods according to domestic approved items. Unlike these specifications, foods unpermitted in Korea are included in applicable items of ESR and GC/MS methods. According to recent research data, numerous food groups are possible to effective legal control by identification and these items are demanded to permit regulations for irradiation additionally. Especially, the prohibition of irradiation for meats or seafoods is not harmonized with international standards and interacts as trade friction or industrial restrictions due to unprepared domestic regulation. Hence, extension of domestic legal permission for food irradiation can contrive to related industrial development and also can reduce trade friction and enhance international competitiveness

  12. Old Gutnish in a Danish Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    The Arnamagnæan Collection houses a single manuscript written in Old Gutnish, the medieval language of the Baltic island of Gotland. Copied by a Danish priest on the island in 1587, the manuscript AM 54 4to contains the law code Guta lag, which remained valid legislation on Gotland during the three...... centuries of Danish control.This dissertation is a philological and linguistic investigation of the manuscript which, due to its foreign scribe and young age, has received relatively less attention than the single extant medieval copy of Guta lag in Old Gutnish. The philological component of the study...... compares AM 54 4to with the remaining six manuscript witnesses of Guta lag, both in Old Gutnish and in translation. What was the scribe’s motivation behind copying the text? What can be said about the source of the text in the exemplar manuscript, a now-lost codex copied in 1470? The linguistic component...

  13. The complete Bible of the Marquis of Santillana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Enrique-Arias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bible of the Marquis of Santillana has been partially preserved in two fragments: manuscript BNE MSS/10288, with the Latter Prophets and some Writings, and BNE MSS/9556, with the Gospels and Pauline Epistles. It is assumed that a first volume, now lost, contained the rest of the Bible. By means of detailed textual comparisons and a computational analysis of authorship, we show that the missing parts had been preserved in the codex Escorial I.i.4. Likewise, we offer a reconstruction of the contents of the lost volume along with evidence that the entire Bible was translated from Hebrew and Latin by the Jewish convert to Christianity Martín de Lucena.

  14. Enti della Chiesa e diritto secolare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cavana

    2018-04-01

    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the complex relationship between Catholic Church entities and secular law, which has always had great relevance and impact on the canonical discipline of such institutions. After some preliminary remarks about the juridical status of Church institutions in canon law across the centuries, from the ius vetus to the 1917 Codex and the current Code of Canon Law (1983, the paper compares their current regulation in secular law within the most important legal traditions in the West, emphasizing pros and cons of each legal system. In the second part, it focuses on the impact of some recent trends that emerge from the evolution of both secular and canonical legal systems and concern the regulation of Church institutions and of Church-related institutions. It then draws some conclusive remarks on the need to update their inner structure and administrative rules.

  15. Food irradiation: Some regulatory and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    An Advisory Group by IAEA and FAO on Regulatory and Technological Requirements for Authorization of the Food Irradiation Process was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 5 to 9 November 1984. The task of the Advisory Group was to advise on the scientific and technological considerations affecting the implementation of the food irradiation process, with particular reference to the facilitation of international trade in irradiated foods and to develop guidance on how the various provisions of the Codex General Standard on Irradiated Foods could be incorporated into national legislation in order to facilitate international trade and avoid the occurence of trade barriers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various presentations at this meeting

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of Apis mellifera sp. honey from Southwest of Antioquia in Colombia Caracterización físico-química y microbiológica de la miel de Apis mellifera sp. del Suroeste de Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Velásquez Giraldo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of Apis mellifera honey produced in Southwest of Antioquia, an important coffee region of Colombia, have not been published in recent years. In the present work, seven samples of honey collected in the mentioned region, were physically (refractive index, specific rotation, density, chemically (moisture content, water activity, pH, free acidity, carbohydrates and microbiologically (Clostridium, fungi and yeast analyzed. The results show that the analyzed honeys meet both national (Resolución 1057 of 2010 and International (Codex-Stan 12 of 1981 standards for moisture content, free acidity, sucrose content and microbiological parameters, indicating their good quality. Fructose/glucose ratio, pH and specific rotation values indicate that the samples are blossom honeys.Caracterizaciones de miel de Apis mellifera producida en el Suroeste de Antioquia, una región cafetera de Colombia, no se han publicado recientemente. En el presente trabajo, siete muestras de miel recolectadas en la región mencionada, fueron físicamente (índice de refracción, rotación específica, densidad, químicamente (contenido de humedad, actividad acuosa, pH, acidez libre, carbohidratos, y microbiológicamente (Clostridium, hongos y levaduras analizadas. Los resultados muestran que las mieles analizadas cumplen tanto los estándares nacionales (Resolución 1057 de 2010 como internacionales (Codex-Stan 12 de 1981 para contenido de humedad, acidez libre, contenido de sacarosa y los parámetros microbiológicos, indicando su buena calidad. Los valores de relación fructosa/glucosa, pH y rotación específica indican que las muestras son mieles florales.

  17. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  18. Consideration on risk of drinking water. How was the regulation value in water decided?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami Michio

    2011-01-01

    This is an explanatory lecture record of the title subject, motivated by detection of radioactivity in tap water of Tokyo (I-131, 30 Bq/kg) in March 2011. The author explains the process of the detection in comparison with radioactivity in the vegetables and Fukushima spinach, and refers with temporary regulation values (March to April) of Cs-134, 137, U and Pu/transuranium elements as well as I-131 in drinking water and other foods. Also commented is that even water with satisfactorily less than the standard value cannot be said to be absolutely safe. Japan generally decides the standard value based on World Health Organization (WHO) guideline which assumes no threshold for radiation carcinogenesis. Relationship between low dose exposure in Hiroshima and carcinogenesis is obscure, of which situation is also similar in Chinese Guangdon where natural dose is always higher than other areas of the world. The regulation values above are derived from the index values decided by Nuclear Safety Committee of Japan (NSCJ) and Codex committee founded by FAO and WHO, and used at emergency, not at ordinary. Then explained are concept for calculation of regulation values, actual calculating equations of the value for water according to WHO, Codex and NSCJ, and of index values of I-131 and Cs by NSCJ. Exposure dose by I-131 in water and food in Tokyo is actually estimated in this paper to consider its risk (carcinogenic, 0.3/100 thousands people/year) by comparison with other matters like arsenic exposure (1.3) and traffic accident (deaths, 4.5). Lastly, the author warns with Sedgwick's words that Standards are devices to keep the lazy mind from thinking. (T.T.)

  19. A combination of acid lactase from Aspergillus oryzae and yogurt bacteria improves lactose digestion in lactose maldigesters synergistically: A randomized, controlled, double-blind cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Laue, Christiane; Offick, Birte; Soeth, Edlyn; Repenning, Frauke; Thoß, Angelika; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Lactose digestion can be improved in subjects with impaired or completely absent intestinal lactase activity by administration of lactase preparations and particularly of acid lactase, which is active in the stomach, or by yogurt containing live lactic acid bacteria. It is the question, if lactose digestion can be further enhanced by combining these two approaches. We investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 5-arm crossover study on 24 lactose malabsorbers with variable degrees of lactase deficiency if different lactase preparations and freeze-dried yogurt culture affect gastrointestinal lactose digestion after consuming moderate amounts of lactose (12.5 g) by assessing hydrogen exhalation over 6 h. Furthermore, symptoms of lactose intolerance (excess gas production, abdominal pain, diarrhoea or nausea) were assessed using validated questionnaires. All preparations increased lactose digestion and reduced peak hydrogen exhalation by -27% (yogurt), -29/-33% (3300/9000 FCC(1) ((1) One FCC hydrolyses about 5 or 1.7-2.5 mg lactose in aquous solution or in (artificial) chyme, respectively, according to the FCC-III method of the Committee on Codex Specifications, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council. Food Chemicals Codex, 3rd edition. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1981 It cannot precisely be defined how much lactose can be hydrolysed in vivo by the consumption of a certain number of FCC units.) units acid lactase from Aspergillus oryzae) or -46%, respectively (3300 FCC units lactase plus yogurt culture combined), as compared with placebo (p yogurt cultures and acid lactase increases lactose digestion more than either freeze-dried yogurt cultures or acid lactase alone, and more lactose malabsorbers benefited from this effect. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Un manoscritto smarrito della «Vita nuova»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Festa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo si concentra sul codice di Pesaro della Vita nuova, di cui Donato Pirovano ha recentemente constatato lo smarrimento. Di fronte a tale perdita, non sappiamo se temporanea o permanente, ci siamo posti alcuni interrogativi. Con l’obiettivo di rispondere a questa serie di domande, è stata presa in esame una l’edizione pesarese (1829, esemplata sul codice disperso. Al fine di accertare se l’edizione sia considerabile sostitutiva di P, abbiamo svolto una collazione tra questa e il manoscritto, servendoci dei dati del codice tramandatici da Michele Barbi nella sua edizione della Vita Nuova del 1932. Il risultato a cui siamo giunti, al termine del confronto, ha decretato che l’edizione pesarese non può essere ritenuta una copia perfetta di questo prezioso testimone, perché troppe sono le discordanze tra i due testi, ma è pur vero che, data la sua stretta affinità con il codice, ne rimane una ricca e importante testimonianza.This paper addresses the recent disappearance of the Pesaro codex of the Vita nuova, as lately ascertained by Donato Pirovano. Without knowing if this loss is temporary or permanent, some questions concerning its possible recovery through a copy of the original manuscript need to be asked. The object of his study is to answer these questions through the analysis of a potential descriptus. Only the 1829 Pesaro edition, copied from the missing manuscript, seemed to be eligible for this role. To ascertain whether this edition was asuitable substitute for thr Pesaro codex, I collated it with passages copied directly from the manuscript by Michele Barbi in his 1932 edition of the Vita Nuova. Even though the great number of discordances suggests that the former cannot be considered a copy of the original, its value as testimony still holds true.

  1. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  2. Determination of some chemical and microbiological characteristics of Kaymak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ökten, Sevtap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream, which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow’s milk in Turkey. It is generally consumed with honey at breakfast and some traditional Turkish desserts. The aim of this study was to determine some chemical and microbiological properties of kaymak. The samples were obtained from different dairy plants producing kaymak from cow’s milk and local markets located in Zmir. They were examined for total solids and fat contents, acidity, pH and peroxide values, as well as counts of coliform bacteria, E. coli, yeast and moulds, and Staphylococci. Chemical characteristics of the samples were generally favorable for Turkish Food Codex. However, microbiological properties of some samples were very poor. Careful considerations should be given by the kaymak industry during manufacturing and storage of the product.Kaymak es una clase de crema concentrada, que se fabrica tradicionalmente de la leche del búfalo o de la vaca en Turquía. Se consume generalmente con la miel en el desayuno y en algunos postres turcos tradicionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar algunas características químicas y microbiológicas del kaymak. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de diversas instalaciones lecheras productoras de kaymak de leche de vaca y de mercados locales situados en Zmir. Se analizó el contenido en sólidos totales y grasas, acidez, pH y valores de peróxido, además del conteo de tan bien como cuentas de las bacterias coliformes, E. coli, levadura y mohos, y estafilococos. Las características químicas de las muestras fueron generalmente aceptables para el Turkish Food Codex. Sin embargo, las características microbiológicas de algunas muestras fueron muy malas. La industria del kaymak debe ser extremadamente cuidadosa durante la fabricación y el almacenaje del producto.

  3. Nuove ipotesi sulla produzione e circolazione del manoscritto ambrosiano del «Roman de Troie» (D 55 sup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Orobello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente contributo vengono esposte nuove ipotesi circa la provenienza e la storia antica del manoscritto ambrosiano del Roman de Troie (Milano, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, D 55 sup. formulate dopo un’attenta analisi del codice stesso e di numerose fonti d’archivio. In particolare nuovi spunti vengono offerti dal ritrovamento di un documento autografo di Plombeolo de’ Plombeoli, autore della nota di possesso a c. 196v, e dalla scoperta della firma erasa di Jacopo Plombeoli, finora mai notata, all’interno del manoscritto. Grazie allo studio delle miniature e al confronto di queste con altri apparati decorativi si offre una nuova ipotesi circa il luogo di produzione del manufatto, che andrebbe collocato in area crociata e più precisamente ad Antiochia.In this contribute new hypotheses about the origins and ancient history of the Ambrosian Roman de Troie manuscript (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, D 55 sup. are presented. These were formulated after a very careful analysis of the codex itself and studying several archival evidences. In particular, new insights are offered by the discovery of an autograph document by Plombeolo de Plombeoli, author of the note of ownership a. c. 196, and by the presence of Jacopo Plombeoli scraped off signature inside the document, never noticed before. The accurate study of the miniatures and their comparison with other decorations of the same time and context arise a new hypothesis about the codex place of production. According to it, the origins of the manuscript should be located in the crusader area and more precisely in Antioch. 

  4. Наблюдения върху лексикалната вариативност при библейските цитати в Йоан-Екзарховия превод на De Fide Orthodoxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татяна [Tatiana] Илиева [Ilieva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the theological terminology in the biblical quotations in John the Exarch’s translation of De Fide Orthodoxa The paper presented here aims at comparing the theological terms as used, on the one hand, in the biblical quotations in John the Exarch’s translation of De fide orthodoxa and, on the other, in the Old Bulgarian (Grigirovich Prophetologion, Codex Marianus, Codex Zographiensis, Sinai Psalter, Enina Apostolos as well as in some Middle Bulgarian (Bologna Psalter, Karpinski Apostolos, Ohridski Apostolos Old Russian (Mstislav Gospels, Yurievski Gospels, Pogodinov Psalter, Chudov Psalter, Tolstoev Apostolos, Hristinopol Apostolos and Old Serbia (Shishatovatski Apostolos, Matich Apostolos monuments. Also taken in consideration are the respective parts in certain theological writings associated with the Preslav Literary Centre.   Uwagi o terminologii teologicznej w cytatach z Biblii w przekładzie De Fide Orthodoxa Jana Egzarchy Celem artykułu jest porównanie terminologii teologicznej w cytatach biblijnych w przekładzie De fide othodoxa Jana Egzarchy, w starobułgarskich zabytkach językowych (Lekcjonarz Grigorowizca, Kodeks Mariański, Kodeks Zografski, Psałterz Synajski, Apostoł Eniński, w wybranych zabytkach średniobułgarskich (Psałterz Boloński, Apostoł Karpinski, Apostoł Ohrydzki, staroruskich (Ewangeliarz Mścisława, Ewangeliarz Jurjewski, Psałterz Pogodina, Psałterz Chłudowa, Apostoł Tołstoja, Apostoł Krystynopolski i staroserbskich (Apostoł Sziszatowacki, Apostoł Maticia. Analizie poddano także poszczególne części wybranych pism teologicznych powstałych w presławskiej szkole piśmienniczej.

  5. Food of the gods: cure for humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillinger, T L; Barriga, P; Escárcega, S; Jimenez, M; Salazar Lowe, D; Grivetti, L E

    2000-08-01

    The medicinal use of cacao, or chocolate, both as a primary remedy and as a vehicle to deliver other medicines, originated in the New World and diffused to Europe in the mid 1500s. These practices originated among the Olmec, Maya and Mexica (Aztec). The word cacao is derived from Olmec and the subsequent Mayan languages (kakaw); the chocolate-related term cacahuatl is Nahuatl (Aztec language), derived from Olmec/Mayan etymology. Early colonial era documents included instructions for the medicinal use of cacao. The Badianus Codex (1552) noted the use of cacao flowers to treat fatigue, whereas the Florentine Codex (1590) offered a prescription of cacao beans, maize and the herb tlacoxochitl (Calliandra anomala) to alleviate fever and panting of breath and to treat the faint of heart. Subsequent 16th to early 20th century manuscripts produced in Europe and New Spain revealed >100 medicinal uses for cacao/chocolate. Three consistent roles can be identified: 1) to treat emaciated patients to gain weight; 2) to stimulate nervous systems of apathetic, exhausted or feeble patients; and 3) to improve digestion and elimination where cacao/chocolate countered the effects of stagnant or weak stomachs, stimulated kidneys and improved bowel function. Additional medical complaints treated with chocolate/cacao have included anemia, poor appetite, mental fatigue, poor breast milk production, consumption/tuberculosis, fever, gout, kidney stones, reduced longevity and poor sexual appetite/low virility. Chocolate paste was a medium used to administer drugs and to counter the taste of bitter pharmacological additives. In addition to cacao beans, preparations of cacao bark, oil (cacao butter), leaves and flowers have been used to treat burns, bowel dysfunction, cuts and skin irritations.

  6. A national survey of marine biotoxins in wild-caught abalone in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas; Nimmagadda, Rama; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The first national survey of Australian wild-caught abalone was conducted between September 2012 and December 2013. The aim of the survey was to determine the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), and diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in wild-caught abalone at levels above the current Codex marine biotoxin limits during the 2013 fishing season. Abalone (n = 190) were collected from 68 abalone-fishing blocks for which the combined annual harvest accounts for 80 % of Australian production. Concurrent seawater samples were collected and enumerated for potentially toxic phytoplankton. The foot and viscera tissues of each abalone sample were analyzed separately for PSTs, ASTs, and DSTs. No samples (abalone foot or viscera) contained toxins at levels exceeding the marine biotoxin limits stipulated by Codex. The resulting prevalence estimate suggests that less than 1.6 % of the commercially caught wild abalone population in Australia were contaminated with marine biotoxins at levels above the regulatory limit during the survey period. ASTs were detected at very low (trace) levels in the foot and viscera tissue of four and three abalone samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported detection of domoic acid in Australian abalone. PSTs also were detected at very low levels in 17 samples of abalone foot tissue and 6 samples of abalone viscera. The association between the low levels of ASTs and PSTs detected in abalone and the presence of potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in seawater samples was weak. DSTs were not detected in any abalone despite the detection of very low levels of DST-producing phytoplankton in a small number (9 of 77) of seawater samples. The results of this survey should be useful for public health risk assessments and provide additional evidence that the prevalence of marine biotoxins in Australian wild-caught abalone is very low.

  7. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization; La tecnologia nuclear aplicada a la conservacion y esterilizacion de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Sailendra; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2007-10-01

    Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China consume a variety of indigenous fermented milk products made from cows milk as well as yaks milk. These lesser-known ethnic fermented foods are dahi, mohi, chhurpi, somar, philu and shyow. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g in these Himalayan milk products. A total of 128 isolates of LAB were isolated from 58 samples of ethnic fermented milk products collected from different places of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on phenotypic characterization including API sugar test, the dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Enterococcus faecium. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes and showed high galactosidase, leucine-arylamidase and phosphatase activities. They showed antagonistic properties against selected Gram-negative bacteria. None of the strains produced bacteriocin and biogenic amines under the test conditions used. Most strains of LAB coagulated skim milk with a moderate drop in pH. Some strains of LAB showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting these strains may have useful adhesive potential. This paper is the first report on functional lactic acid bacterial composition in some lesser-known ethnic fermented milk products of the Himalayas.

  11. Molecular analysis of sourdough reveals Lactobacillus mindensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Matthias A; Müller, Martin R A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic fingerprinting to analyse the bacterial flora of an industrial sourdough revealed a coherent group of strains which could not be associated with a valid species. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these strains formed a homogeneous cluster distinct from their closest relatives, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus kimchii. To characterize them further, physiological (sugar fermentation, formation of DL-lactate, hydrolysis of arginine, growth temperature, CO2 production) and chemotaxonomic properties have been determined. The DNA G +C content was 37.5 0.2 mol%. The peptidoglycan was of the lysine-D-iso-asparagine (L-Lys-D-Asp) type. The strains were homofermentative, Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. They were found as a major stable component of a rye flour sourdough fermentation. Physiological, biochemical as well as genotypic data suggested them to be a new species of the genus Lactobacillus. This was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization of genomic DNA, and the name Lactobacillus mindensis is proposed. The type strain of this species is DSM 14500T (=LMG 21508T).

  12. Bacterial population in traditional sourdough evaluated by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; Heilig, H; Restuccia, C; Giudici, P; Caggia, C

    2005-01-01

    To study the microbial communities in artisanal sourdoughs, manufactured by traditional procedure in different areas of Sicily, and to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population by classical and culture-independent approaches. Forty-five LAB isolates were identified both by phenotypic and molecular methods. The restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing gave evidence of a variety of species with the dominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lactobacillus pentosus, in all sourdoughs tested. Culture-independent method, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the V6-V8 regions of the 16S rDNA, was applied for microbial community fingerprint. The DGGE profiles revealed the dominance of L. sanfranciscensis species. In addition, Lactobacillus-specific primers were used to amplify the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rDNA. DGGE profiles flourished the dominance of L. sanfranciscensis and Lactobacillus fermentum in the traditional sourdoughs, and revealed that the closely related species Lactobacillus kimchii and Lactobacillus alimentarius were not discriminated. Lactobacillus-specific PCR-DGGE analysis is a rapid tool for rapid detection of Lactobacillus species in artisanal sourdough. This study reports a characterization of Lactobacillus isolates from artisanal sourdoughs and highlights the value of DGGE approach to detect uncultivable Lactobacillus species.

  13. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    One of the lessons of Chernobyl is that farming is vulnerable to the effects of a nuclear accident hundreds, even thousands, of miles away from the site. Therefore plans are needed for countermeasures that can reduce contamination of agricultural produce, regardless of whether or not a country has its own nuclear programme. The plans need to specify radiation levels for foods and feedstuffs at which intervention is necessary and to include a range of countermeasures to be taken to protect agriculture under a range of possible post-accident situations. The FAO/WHO Codes Alimentarius Commission has developed international standards for radionuclides contamination to be applied to food moving in international trade. The intervention levels are based on a number of conservative assumptions to be confident that there will be essentially no effect over a lifetime of exposure. An important purpose of agricultural countermeasures is to maximize the quantity of food produced which passes intervention criteria. The present report discusses how the Joint FAO/IAEA programme on nuclear techniques in food and agriculture has approached agricultural countermeasures

  14. Determination of heavy metal content of processed fruit products from Tehran's market using ICP- OES: A risk assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabad, Ayub Ebadi; Shariatifar, Nabi; Moazzen, Mojtaba; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Fakhri, Yadolah; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Azari, Ali; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the levels of Cd, Hg, Sn, Al, Pb and As of 72 samples (36 samples for fruits juices and 36 samples for fruits canned) of three different brands including of Peach, Orange, Cherry, and Pineapple (18 samples of each fruits) marketed in Tehran, Iran (2015) were evaluated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Also, Probabilistic risk assessment (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models include target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) model. However, all samples were contaminated with the heavy metals investigated, most of them not surpassed established standards. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb as average in fruit juices were reported as 340.62 (65.17-1039.2), 72.33 (49.76-119.4), 3.76 (1.137-18.36), 2.12 (0.89-3.44), 0.351 and 40.86 (27.87-66.1) μg/kg, respectively. The level of heavy metals measured in different kinds of fruit juices was ranked as Al > Sn > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, and for fruits canned this rank was Pb > Al > Sn > As > Cd > Hg. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in fruits canned were reported as 361.23 (43.15-1121.2), 101.42 (71.45-141.61), 3.92 (1.279-19.50), 2.78 (1.09-5.56), 0.35 and 690.54 (470.56-910.14) μg/kg, respectively. The lead (Pb) concentration in 97.22% (35 out of 36 samples) of fruit juices samples surpassed Codex limit (0.05 mg/kg) and in all samples of FC was lower than the legal limit of Codex limit (1 mg/kg). All of the samples had Tin (Sn) lower than the legal limit of Codex (fruit juices 100 mg/kg and FC 250 mg/kg). The MCS indicated that the rank order of heavy metals in both adults and children based on THQ was Al > Sn > As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The THQ of Al and Sn in the FJ and FC, for both adults, and children, was considerably higher than 1 value. Also, CR of As in both adults and children

  15. Electronic Data Exchange within European Justice: A Good Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Carboni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses one of the most debated and controversial issues regarding the changes which are taking place in the Justice domain: the complexity of developing and implementing ITC systems that ‘actually work’, and doing so with a reasonable budget and in a reasonable time. While the number of studies on National experiences is slowly growing (see for example Fabri & Contini 2001, Fabri 2007, Contini & Lanzara 2009, Reiling 2012, filling an often-mentioned gap in justice sector literature, building on the European project e-CODEX case study, the authors point the attention to a somewhat new and unexplored phenomenon, the concrete attempt to build cross-border electronic data exchange within the European justice field. e-CODEX (e-Justice Communication via Online Data Exchange is the first European Large Scale Pilot in the domain of e-Justice. The project is carried out by 19 partners either being or representing their national ministries of justice of 15 European countries, plus the Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe (CCBE, the Conseil des Notariats de l'Union Européenne (CNUE and the National Research Council of Italy (through two of its institutes - IRSIG-CNR and ITTIG-CNR. To provide a better grasp of the project scale, its overall budget is over 14 M euro and about 14 hundred person-months are committed to it. The project aims at improving cross-border access of citizens and businesses to legal means in Europe, as well as to improve the interoperability between legal authorities of different Member States. With a case based approach, e-CODEX is developing and will be soon implementing an interoperability layer to connect existing National Systems in order to provide cross border e-justice services. The project commitment includes running a live pilot in a ‘production environment’ for a duration of twelve months. The electronic services that have been so far selected are: European Payment Order (EPO, European Small

  16. El proyecto historiográfico del Archetypum Naiarense

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    Alberto MONTANER FRUTOS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La transmission conjointe de la Chronica Naiarensis, de l’Historia Wambae de saint Julien de Tolède, de l’Historia Roderici et de l’Ordo regum Naiarensis est attestée par au moins cinq témoignages (deux directs et trois indirects. Le modèle commun de cette compilation historiographique remonte à un Archetypum Naiarense composé à Santa María la Real de Nájera entre 1190 et 1194. Le projet historiographique implicite dans ce codex en forme de recueil a été celui de présenter une histoire hispanique couvrant l’ensemble du territoire du royaume des Wisigoths, puis des royaumes hispaniques chrétiens, en changeant la perspective néogothique de la tradition historiographique des Asturies et du royaume de León, et en la centrant sur la Castille. En outre, l’Archetypum Naiarense montre une étape intermédiaire entre les compilations encyclopédiques comme la Chronica Albeldense ou le codex de Roda et la compilation de chroniques unitaires telles que celles de Lucas de Tuy et Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada.La transmisión conjunta de la Chronica Naiarensis, la Historia Wambae de San Julián de Toledo, la Historia Roderici y el Ordo regum Naiarensis está atestiguado al menos por cinco testimonios (dos directos y tres indirectos. El modelo común de esta compilación historiográfica remonta a un Archetypum Naiarense compuesto en Santa María la Real de Nájera entre 1190 y 1194. El proyecto historiográfico implícito en este códice repositorio era el trazar una historia hispánica que abarcase todo el territorio del reino visigodo, primero, y de la cristiandad hispánica, después, pero no bajo la perspectiva goticista de la tradición historiográfica asturleonesa, sino desde una más centrada en Castilla. Además, el Archetypum Naiarense establece un estadio intermedio entre los códices misceláneos como el Albeldense o el de Roda y la compilación de crónicas unitarias como la de Lucas de Tuy o Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada.

  17. El Ms. 1513 de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid: primeros pasos en la miniatura gótica hispana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván Freile, Fernando

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript 1513 of the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, also known as Codex of Batres, contains a whole series of historical texts. The volume we ha ve analysed here is a copy from the works of bishop Pelayo from Oviedo -Corpus Pelagianum-, but we are not acquainted with the exact model used in the making of this volume. It is decorated with a wide number of miniatures going from Tree of Consanguinity and the Compass Card, to the ellígies of kings of León, characters from the O Id Testament, kings of the Antiquity. bishops or the Virgin Mary with the Child. These illuminations form one of the lirst examples of gothic miniature -dated in the first thinl of the XIII century- in the Hispanic occidental kingdoms, though we can observe clear evidence of what could be called Romanesque aesthetic.[fr] Le manuscrit 1513 de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, aussi connu comme Codex de Batres, contient toute une série de textes de caractere historique. Le volume analisé est une copie des écrits de l'éveque Pelayo d'Oviedo -Corpus Pelagianum-, mais on ne connait pas le modele exact qui a serví a la réalisation de ce volume. Il est décoré d'un grand nombre d'enluminures, des Tables de Consanguinité et la Rose des Vents jusqu'aux effigies des rois léonais. en passant par des personnages de l'Ancien Testament, des rois de I'Antiquité, des éveques ou la Vierge avec l'Enfant. Ces illuminations constituent un des premiers exemples de l'enluminure gothique -qui datent du premier tiers du XIII siecle- dans les royaumes occidentaux hispaniques. bien qu'on observe de clairs témoignages de ce qu'on pourrait appeler l'estétique romane.

  18. FORMULASI PRODUK SUSU FERMENTASI KERING DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BAKTERI PROBIOTIK Lactobacillus casei DAN Bifidobacterium longum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Hani Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFermented milk is a healthy product that has many benefits especially for human digestive tract. Manufacturing of probiotic fermented milk products as a functional food with a viable long shelf life needs to be developed. The purpose of this study was to formulate a dried fermented milk product using probiotic bacterias. The experimental design study was a complete random design with 4 treatments using different lactic acid bacteria (LAB: A1 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.5%; A2 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25% and Lactobacillus casei: 0.25%; A3 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25%, Lactobacillus bulgaricus: 0.125%, Streptococcus thermophiles: 0.125%; and A4 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25% and Bifidobacterium longum: 0.25%. The highest level of hardness was A2 product and the highest level of tenderness is A1 product. Results of proximate analysis showed that dried fermented milk products had high levels of the protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Microbiological test results showed that the amount of lactic acid bacteria (BAL in dried fermented milk products were eligible based on CODEX: 243 (2003. Statictical analysis using ANOVA in the hedonic quality test showed that the treatments were significantly different (p 0.05 on the attributes of color, aroma, hardness, and flavor except texture.Key words: dried fermented milk, functional food, probiotic, lactic acid bacteria (LABABSTRAKSusu fermentasi merupakan produk kesehatan yang mempunyai banyak manfaat terutama untuk saluran pencernaan manusia. Pembuatan produk susu fermentasi probiotik sebagai makanan fungsional yang mempunyai kelangsungan hidup dan daya simpan yang lama perlu dikembangan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memformulasikan susu fermentasi kering menggunakan bakteri probiotik. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan menggunakan 4 bakteri asam laktat (BAL, (Streptococcus lactis, 0.5%, A2 (Streptococcus lactis; 0.25% dan Lactobacillus casei; 0.25%, A3

  19. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality; Extracción de aceite de nuez y almendra a escala industrial: efecto de parámetros del proceso sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del aceite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, M. L.; Bordón, M.G.; Bodoira, R. M.; Penci, M.C.; Ribotta, P.D.; Maestri, D.M.

    2017-07-01

    Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC), and restriction die (RD) as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY), fine solid content (FC) in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 %) at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5%) was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO) standards for virgin (non-refined) oils. [Spanish] La nuez y almendra son frutos sumamente nutritivos debido a su alto contenido de aceite. Mediante un diseño experimental de tipo factorial 32 se optimizó el proceso de extracción de estos aceites con prensa de tornillo a escala industrial. Las variables de proceso analizadas fueron el contenido de humedad de la semilla (CHS) y el diámetro de reducción (DR). Los modelos ajustados para rendimiento de aceite (RA) indicaron valores máximos predichos similares a los valores experimentales. Las extracciones de aceite de nuez mostraron un RA máximo (84,5 ± 2,3%) a 7,21% CHS, y 10 mm DR. Para almendra, se obtuvo un máximo de RA (71,9 ± 3,5%) con 9,42% de CHS y 12 mm de DR. Los parámetros de calidad química de ambos aceites se encontraban en los rangos establecidos en las normas del Codex (FAO / OMS) para aceites vírgenes (no refinados).

  20. Thermoluminescence response of the poly mineral fraction from hibiscus sabdariffa L foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.; Guzman, S.; Brown, F.; Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M.

    2011-01-01

    Food processed by ionizing irradiation is a safe technology and has been recognized by the FAO/Who Codes Alimentarius Commission. It is an excellent method to prevent food spoilage and food borne diseases by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and slowing down ripening. The widespread use of food irradiation treatments that include spices, dry vegetables, grains and fruits make relevant the developing of methods for identification and analyses of foodstuffs processed by irradiation. The present work focuses on the thermoluminescence property of Mexican Roselle flower previously irradiated for detection purposes. The poly mineral content of irradiated commercial Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was extracted and analyzed by thermoluminescence (Tl). The X-ray diffraction analyses showed that quartz and albite composition for the poly mineral fraction. Different grain sizes; 10, 53, 74 and 149 μm, were selected for the Tl analyses. The Tl glow curves depended on the grain sizes. The glow curves depicted two peaks around 92 and 120 C. The first peak was ascribed to quartz and the broad part of the glow curves (120-250 C) seems to correspond to the albite. Because the complex structure of the Tl glow curves from poly minerals the kinetic parameters were calculated by a fitting process using a deconvolution method based on a non-linear least-squares Levenberg-Ma quart. The values of the activation energy were found to be at 0.79-1.05 eV and 0.79-1.04 for 53 μm and 250 μm, respectively. The Tl properties of the samples were determined including dose response, reproducibly, fading and UV light bleaching. (Author)