WorldWideScience

Sample records for code provide flexibility

  1. Flexibility of the genetic code with respect to DNA structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baisnée, P. F.; Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    Motivation. The primary function of DNA is to carry genetic information through the genetic code. DNA, however, contains a variety of other signals related, for instance, to reading frame, codon bias, pairwise codon bias, splice sites and transcription regulation, nucleosome positioning and DNA...... structure. Here we study the relationship between the genetic code and DNA structure and address two questions. First, to which degree does the degeneracy of the genetic code and the acceptable amino acid substitution patterns allow for the superimposition of DNA structural signals to protein coding...... sequences? Second, is the origin or evolution of the genetic code likely to have been constrained by DNA structure? Results. We develop an index for code flexibility with respect to DNA structure. Using five different di- or tri-nucleotide models of sequence-dependent DNA structure, we show...

  2. Coded-subcarrier-aided chromatic dispersion monitoring scheme for flexible optical OFDM networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Kam-Hon; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2014-08-11

    A simple coded-subcarrier aided scheme is proposed to perform chromatic dispersion monitoring in flexible optical OFDM networks. A pair of coded label subcarriers is added to both edges of the optical OFDM signal spectrum at the edge transmitter node. Upon reception at any intermediate or the receiver node, chromatic dispersion estimation is performed, via simple direct detection, followed by electronic correlation procedures with the designated code sequences. The feasibility and the performance of the proposed scheme have been experimentally characterized. It provides a cost-effective monitoring solution for the optical OFDM signals across intermediate nodes in flexible OFDM networks.

  3. Recognition of spectral amplitude codes by frequency swept coherent detection for flexible optial label switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yongsheng; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Xin, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method of recognizing spectral amplitude code by using optical coherent detection with a frequency swept local light source oscillator. Our proposed method offer a substantial simplification in terms of required components to built optical label processing units with enhanced...... flexibility to accomodate for wavelength tuneability and a large numer of labels. We present a performance analysis, comparison with conventional spectral codes recognition methods, based on computer simulation results. We consider a payload bit rate of 40 Gb/s....

  4. ManiWordle: providing flexible control over Wordle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyle; Lee, Bongshin; Kim, Bohyoung; Seo, Jinwook

    2010-01-01

    Among the multifarious tag-clouding techniques, Wordle stands out to the community by providing an aesthetic layout, eliciting the emergence of the participatory culture and usage of tag-clouding in the artistic creations. In this paper, we introduce ManiWordle, a Wordle-based visualization tool that revamps interactions with the layout by supporting custom manipulations. ManiWordle allows people to manipulate typography, color, and composition not only for the layout as a whole, but also for the individual words, enabling them to have better control over the layout result. We first describe our design rationale along with the interaction techniques for tweaking the layout. We then present the results both from the preliminary usability study and from the comparative study between ManiWordle and Wordle. The results suggest that ManiWordle provides higher user satisfaction and an efficient method of creating the desired "art work," harnessing the power behind the ever-increasing popularity of Wordle.

  5. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  6. The sign rule and beyond: boundary effects, flexibility, and noise correlations in neural population codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Over repeat presentations of the same stimulus, sensory neurons show variable responses. This "noise" is typically correlated between pairs of cells, and a question with rich history in neuroscience is how these noise correlations impact the population's ability to encode the stimulus. Here, we consider a very general setting for population coding, investigating how information varies as a function of noise correlations, with all other aspects of the problem - neural tuning curves, etc. - held fixed. This work yields unifying insights into the role of noise correlations. These are summarized in the form of theorems, and illustrated with numerical examples involving neurons with diverse tuning curves. Our main contributions are as follows. (1 We generalize previous results to prove a sign rule (SR - if noise correlations between pairs of neurons have opposite signs vs. their signal correlations, then coding performance will improve compared to the independent case. This holds for three different metrics of coding performance, and for arbitrary tuning curves and levels of heterogeneity. This generality is true for our other results as well. (2 As also pointed out in the literature, the SR does not provide a necessary condition for good coding. We show that a diverse set of correlation structures can improve coding. Many of these violate the SR, as do experimentally observed correlations. There is structure to this diversity: we prove that the optimal correlation structures must lie on boundaries of the possible set of noise correlations. (3 We provide a novel set of necessary and sufficient conditions, under which the coding performance (in the presence of noise will be as good as it would be if there were no noise present at all.

  7. Flexibility Predicts Curve Progression in Providence Nighttime Bracing of Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis W; Gehrchen, Martin; Dahl, Benny

    2016-11-15

    Retrospective cohort study. To determine treatment outcome with providence brace (PB) and to assess the ability of pretreatment supine lateral bending radiographs (SLBR) in predicting curve progression. Results from treatment with the PB for adolescent idiopathic ccoliosis (AIS) have been inconsistent and further research is needed. The association between flexibility, as determined by pretreatment SLBR, and curve progression has not previously been examined. All patients treated with the PB from 2006 to 2011 who met Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) bracing criteria were included. Flexibility of the curve was determined based on SLBR and radiographic variables were registered at beginning of treatment and at skeletal maturity (SM) or before surgery. An increase in standing Cobb angle by more than 5 degrees was considered progression. Follow-up SRS-22 scores were compared with a control group with minor AIS. Analysis included multiple linear and logistic regression. A total of 63 patients were included. Mean age was 13.3 years (SD: 1.5) and mean standing Cobb angle was 34° (SD: 5°). Radiographic progression was observed in 43% of patients at SM and surgical rate was 27% and 37% at SM and 2-year follow up, respectively. SRS-22 total scores were similar but the mental health score was significantly better in the control group (P = 0.042). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that decreased flexibility adjusted for age, Cobb angle, and menarchal status was significantly associated with curve progression (P flexibility was associated with a decrease in risk of curve progression ≥6° (odds ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval 0.90-0.98; P = 0.013). Progression was seen in 43% of AIS patients treated with the PB. Increase in flexibility was independently associated with a decreased risk of progression. 3.

  8. A flexible postoperative debriefing process can effectively provide formative resident feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Mackenzie R; Watters, Jennifer M; Barton, Jeffrey S; Kamin, Carol; Brown, Sarah N; Deveney, Karen E; Kiraly, Laszlo N

    2015-05-01

    Providing residents with formative operative feedback is one of the ongoing challenges in modern surgical education. This is highlighted by the recent American Board of Surgery requirement for formal operative assessments. A flexible and adaptable procedure feedback process may allow attending surgeons to provide qualitative and quantitative feedback to residents while encouraging surgeons-in-training to critically reflect on their own performance. We designed and implemented a flexible feedback process in which residents initiated a postoperative feedback discussion and completed a Procedure Feedback Form (PFF) with their supervising attending surgeon. Comparisons were made between the quantitative and qualitative assessments of attending and resident surgeons. Free text statements describing strengths and weaknesses were analyzed using grounded theory with constant comparison. We identified 346 assessments of 48 surgery residents performing 38 different cases. There was good inter-rater reliability between resident and attending surgeons' quantitative assessment, Goodman and Kruskal gamma > 0.65. Key themes identified on qualitative analysis included flow, technique, synthesis/decision, outcomes, knowledge, and communication/attitudes. Subthematic analysis demonstrated that our novel debriefing procedure was easily adaptable to a wide variety of clinical settings and grew more individualized for senior learners. This procedure feedback process is easily adaptable to a wide variety of cases and supports resident self-reflection. The process grows in nuance and complexity with the learner and may serve as a guide for a flexible and widely applicable postoperative feedback process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Drupal Environmental Information Management System Provides Standardization, Flexibility and a Platform for Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, C.; Vanderbilt, K.; Reid, D.; Melendez-Colom, E.; San Gil, I.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last five years several Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites have collaboratively developed a standardized yet flexible approach to ecological information management based on the open source Drupal content management system. These LTER sites adopted a common data model for basic metadata necessary to describe data sets, but also used for site management and web presence. Drupal core functionality provides web forms for easy management of information stored in this data model. Custom Drupal extensions were developed to generate XML files conforming to the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) for contribution to the LTER Network Information System (NIS) and other data archives. Each LTER site then took advantage of the flexibility Drupal provides to develop its unique web presence, choosing different themes and adding additional content to the websites. By nature, information presented is highly interlinked which can easily be modeled in Drupal entities and is further supported by a sophisticated tagging system (Fig. 1). Therefore, it is possible to provide the visitor with many different entry points to the site specific information presented. For example, publications and datasets may be grouped for each scientist, for each research project, for each major research theme at the site, making the information presented more accessible for different visitors. Experience gained during the early years was recently used to launch a complete re-write for upgrading to Drupal 7. LTER sites from multiple academic institutions pooled resources in order to partner with professional Drupal developers. Highlights of the new developments are streamlined data entry, improved EML output and integrity, support of IM workflows, a faceted data set search, a highly configurable data exploration tool with intelligent filtering and data download, and, for the mobile age, a responsive web design theme. Seven custom modules and a specific installation profile were developed

  10. Provider performance measures in private and public programs: achieving meaningful alignment with flexibility to innovate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Aparna; Veselovskiy, German; McKown, Lauren

    2013-08-01

    In recent years there has been a significant expansion in the use of provider performance measures for quality improvement, payment, and public reporting. Using data from a survey of health plans, we characterize the use of such performance measures by private payers. We also compare the use of these measures among selected private and public programs. We studied twenty-three health plans with 121 million commercial enrollees--66 percent of the national commercial enrollment. The health plans reported using 546 distinct performance measures. There was much variation in the use of performance measures in both private and public payment and care delivery programs, despite common areas of focus that included cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and preventive services. We conclude that policy makers and stakeholders who seek less variability in the use of performance measures to increase consistency should balance this goal with the need for flexibility to meet the needs of specific populations and promote innovation.

  11. Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array: Providing a Flexible, Efficient Solution to Space Power Systems for Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Len; Fabisinski, Leo; Cunningham, Karen; Justice, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is critical to consumers, spacecraft, military and other applications alike. In the aerospace industry, an increased emphasis on small satellite flights and a move toward CubeSat and NanoSat technologies, the need for systems that could package into a small stowage volume while still being able to power robust space missions has become more critical. As a result, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office identified a need for more efficient, affordable, and smaller space power systems to trade in performing design and feasibility studies. The Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space or on Earth. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to soldiers in the field. By using very thin, ultraflexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume (shown in artist rendering in Figure 1 below). The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the progress to date on the LISA project as well as a look at its potential, with continued development, to revolutionize small spacecraft and portable terrestrial power systems.

  12. The influence of time units on the flexibility of the spatial numerical association of response codes effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; He, Xianyou; Zhao, Xueru; Huang, Jianrui; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shuang; Chen, Qi

    2017-10-17

    The Spatial Numerical/Temporal Association of Response Codes (SNARC/STEARC) effects are considered evidence of the association between number or time and space, respectively. As the SNARC effect was proposed by Dehaene, Bossini, and Giraux in 1993, several studies have suggested that different tasks and cultural factors can affect the flexibility of the SNARC effect. This study explored the influence of time units on the flexibility of the SNARC effect via materials with Arabic numbers, which were suffixed with time units and subjected to magnitude comparison tasks. Experiment 1 replicated the SNARC effect for numbers and the STEARC effect for time units. Experiment 2 explored the flexibility of the SNARC effect when numbers were attached to time units, which either conflicted with the numerical magnitude or in which the time units were the same or different. Experiment 3 explored whether the SNARC effect of numbers was stable when numbers were near the transition of two adjacent time units. The results indicate that the SNARC effect was flexible when the numbers were suffixed with time units: Time units influenced the direction of the SNARC effect in a way which could not be accounted for by the mathematical differences between the time units and numbers. This suggests that the SNARC effect is not obligatory and can be easily adapted or inhibited based on the current context. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  13. S'COOL: Providing Flexibility to Explore Science with NASA in 64 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Arabini, E.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.; Sepulveda, R.

    2004-05-01

    Students' Cloud Observations On-Line, S'COOL is a hands-on project that involves schools of every grade in collaborative research on Earth's climate with NASA scientists to create learning opportunities and to educate inquisitive minds. Students make ground truth observations and record the type, amount, and features of clouds in the sky at the exact time the satellite passes over their location. The observations are used to validate the Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on-board the new generation satellites Terra, Aqua and TRMM. To observe and send the results to NASA, teachers and students go through the following three steps: 1) obtain the satellite overpass schedule, 2) observe the clouds and record the observation on the report form provided, 3) insert the observations in the NASA database. To facilitate communication with the various countries and to help the teachers to prepare introductory lessons on clouds and meteorology, NASA provides educational material and report forms in different languages. To perform step 1 and 3, schools can follow the on-line procedures or interact with the S'COOL team through e-mail, phone or fax. The many languages in which the educational material is translated and the different options that the schools have to interact with a group of NASA scientists provide the S'COOL project with a high flexibility. Thanks to this schools from many countries are now registered and active observers. This paper will focus on the different strategies adopted to involve the schools in countries where teaching techniques differ substantially from the ones adopted in the United States or where the Internet is a tool that just recently has reached the schools.

  14. Flexibility Predicts Curve Progression in Providence Nighttime Bracing of Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin

    2016-01-01

    for adolescent idiopathic ccoliosis (AIS) have been inconsistent and further research is needed. The association between flexibility, as determined by pretreatment SLBR, and curve progression has not previously been examined. METHODS: All patients treated with the PB from 2006 to 2011 who met Scoliosis Research...

  15. 76 FR 2056 - Incorporation of Revised ASTM Standards That Provide Flexibility in the Use of Alternatives to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... action if you use mercury- containing thermometers in laboratories, for field analysis, or for other... Requirements To conduct a fuel analysis for the following pollutant * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Mercury... ASTM Standards That Provide Flexibility in the Use of Alternatives to Mercury-Containing Thermometers...

  16. Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code: a flexible method for solution of the birth-death equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. J.; Olenius, T.; Ortega, I. K.; Loukonen, V.; Paasonen, P.; Kurtén, T.; Kulmala, M.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2012-03-01

    The Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code (ACDC) is presented and explored. This program was created to study the first steps of atmospheric new particle formation by examining the formation of molecular clusters from atmospherically relevant molecules. The program models the cluster kinetics by explicit solution of the birth-death equations, using an efficient computer script for their generation and the MATLAB ode15s routine for their solution. Through the use of evaporation rate coefficients derived from formation free energies calculated by quantum chemical methods for clusters containing dimethylamine or ammonia and sulphuric acid, we have explored the effect of changing various parameters at atmospherically relevant monomer concentrations. We have included in our model clusters with 0-4 base molecules and 0-4 sulfuric acid molecules for which we have commensurable quantum chemical data. The tests demonstrate that large effects can be seen for even small changes in different parameters, due to the non-linearity of the system. In particular, changing the temperature had a significant impact on the steady-state concentrations of all clusters, while the boundary effects (allowing clusters to grow to sizes beyond the largest cluster that the code keeps track of, or forbidding such processes), coagulation sink terms, non-monomer collisions, sticking probabilities and monomer concentrations did not show as large effects under the conditions studied. Removal of coagulation sink terms prevented the system from reaching the steady state when all the initial cluster concentrations were set to the default value of 1 m-3, which is probably an effect caused by studying only relatively small cluster sizes.

  17. Las Palmeras Molecular Dynamics: A flexible and modular molecular dynamics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sergio; Loyola, Claudia; González, Felipe; Peralta, Joaquín

    2010-12-01

    Las Palmeras Molecular Dynamics (LPMD) is a highly modular and extensible molecular dynamics (MD) code using interatomic potential functions. LPMD is able to perform equilibrium MD simulations of bulk crystalline solids, amorphous solids and liquids, as well as non-equilibrium MD (NEMD) simulations such as shock wave propagation, projectile impacts, cluster collisions, shearing, deformation under load, heat conduction, heterogeneous melting, among others, which involve unusual MD features like non-moving atoms and walls, unstoppable atoms with constant-velocity, and external forces like electric fields. LPMD is written in C++ as a compromise between efficiency and clarity of design, and its architecture is based on separate components or plug-ins, implemented as modules which are loaded on demand at runtime. The advantage of this architecture is the ability to completely link together the desired components involved in the simulation in different ways at runtime, using a user-friendly control file language which describes the simulation work-flow. As an added bonus, the plug-in API (Application Programming Interface) makes it possible to use the LPMD components to analyze data coming from other simulation packages, convert between input file formats, apply different transformations to saved MD atomic trajectories, and visualize dynamical processes either in real-time or as a post-processing step. Individual components, such as a new potential function, a new integrator, a new file format, new properties to calculate, new real-time visualizers, and even a new algorithm for handling neighbor lists can be easily coded, compiled and tested within LPMD by virtue of its object-oriented API, without the need to modify the rest of the code. LPMD includes already several pair potential functions such as Lennard-Jones, Morse, Buckingham, MCY and the harmonic potential, as well as embedded-atom model (EAM) functions such as the Sutton-Chen and Gupta potentials. Integrators to

  18. A Highly Flexible, Automated System Providing Reliable Sample Preparation in Element- and Structure-Specific Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Ellen; Fleischer, Heidi; Junginger, Steffen; Liu, Hui; Stoll, Norbert; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Life science areas require specific sample pretreatment to increase the concentration of the analytes and/or to convert the analytes into an appropriate form for the detection and separation systems. Various workstations are commercially available, allowing for automated biological sample pretreatment. Nevertheless, due to the required temperature, pressure, and volume conditions in typical element and structure-specific measurements, automated platforms are not suitable for analytical processes. Thus, the purpose of the presented investigation was the design, realization, and evaluation of an automated system ensuring high-precision sample preparation for a variety of analytical measurements. The developed system has to enable system adaption and high performance flexibility. Furthermore, the system has to be capable of dealing with the wide range of required vessels simultaneously, allowing for less cost and time-consuming process steps. However, the system's functionality has been confirmed in various validation sequences. Using element-specific measurements, the automated system was up to 25% more precise compared to the manual procedure and as precise as the manual procedure using structure-specific measurements. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Using reactive transport codes to provide mechanistic biogeochemistry representations in global land surface models: CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Yuan, F.; Bisht, G.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Kumar, J.; Mills, R. T.; Xu, X.; Andre, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Painter, S. L.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models; our goal is to facilitate testing of alternative models and incorporation of new understanding. A reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN code, coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM), and test at Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. To make the reaction network designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLM compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. To achieve accurate, efficient, and robust numerical solutions, care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60-100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10-3 to 10-9 mol m-3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %; computing time can be doubled for log transformation. Caution needs to be taken in choosing the appropriate scaling factor because a small value caused by a negative update to a small concentration may diminish the update and result in false convergence even with very tight relative

  20. Impact of Reminders on Children's Cognitive Flexibility, Intrinsic Motivation, and Mood Depends on Who Provides the Reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Ong, Jing Y

    2015-01-01

    Reminding children to think about alternatives is a strategy adults often use to promote children's cognitive flexibility, as well as children's engagement in and enjoyment of the task. The current study investigated whether the impacts of reminders on kindergarten children's cognitive flexibility, intrinsic motivation, and mood are moderated by who provides the reminders. Eighty-three healthy 5-year-old kindergarten children were randomly assigned to 2 (Reminder: no reminders vs. Reminders) × 2 (Agent: Tester vs. Partner) conditions. Children's cognitive flexibility was measured via the Block Sorting Task (Garton and Pratt, 2001; Fawcett and Garton, 2005). Children reported their motivation and mood before Block Sorting, after practicing for Block Sorting, and after the actual Block Sorting. Children's intrinsic motivation was measured by evaluating children's choices during a period of free play after Block Sorting. The results revealed that, depending on who provides the reminders, reminding children of alternatives can influence kindergarten children's performance on Block Sorting, children's intrinsic motivation, and children's self-reported mood.

  1. INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT SPECIAL STIPULATIONS OTHER THAN THOSE PROVIDED BY THE LABOUR CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADA HURBEAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The individual employment contract parties can negotiate and provide stipulations that govern their juridical labour relations, other than those stipulated by Labour Code, according with the paraghraph1 article 20 of the bill in discussion. In principle, this legal liberty is the expression of the will’s autonomy of the parties to conclude any legal act. We have to say that these stipulations transform the employment contract of an act imposed, an adhesion act in one governed by the principle of contractual freedom, even if the juridical literature calls these nonessential and optional clauses.In concreto, the employee and employer may agree to any provision not contrary to imperative stipulation of law, public order or morality. Thus, in this study we aimed to analyze those terms often encounter in labour relations: terms of intellectual propriety rights, conscience, stability, risk, delegation of responsibilities, objective, restriction of free time, index clause, without claiming exhaustive treatment of this topic, considering the development and adaptation of labor relations in Romania in the European context and beyond.

  2. How Old is the Genetic Code? Statistical Geometry of tRNA Provides an Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, Manfred; Lindemann, Bjorn F.; Tietze, Manfred; Winkler-Oswatitsch, Ruthild; Dress, Andreas; von Haeseler, Arndt

    1989-05-01

    The age of the molecular organization of life as expressed in the genetic code can be estimated from experimental data. Comparative sequence analysis of transfer RNA by the method of statistical geometry in sequence space suggests that about one-third of the present transfer RNA sequence divergence was present at the urkingdom level about the time when archaebacteria separated from eubacteria. It is concluded that the genetic code is not older than, but almost as old as our planet. While this result may not be unexpected, it was not clear until now that interpretable data exist that permit inferences about such early stages of life as the establishment of the genetic code.

  3. Flexible and Alternative Approaches to Providing School Infrastructure in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Like many other jurisdictions, the western Canadian province of Alberta is seeking cost-effective and creative ways of providing school infrastructure that meets the needs of 21st century learning. Solutions are being found through the use of alternative financing and procurement arrangements and through innovative approaches to creating flexible…

  4. FAC: Flexible Atomic Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming Feng

    2018-02-01

    FAC calculates various atomic radiative and collisional processes, including radiative transition rates, collisional excitation and ionization by electron impact, energy levels, photoionization, and autoionization, and their inverse processes radiative recombination and dielectronic capture. The package also includes a collisional radiative model to construct synthetic spectra for plasmas under different physical conditions.

  5. A fortran code CVTRAN to provide cross-section file for TWODANT by using macroscopic file written by SRAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro

    1999-03-01

    A code CVTRAN provides the macroscopic cross-sections in the format of XSLIB file which is one of Standard interface files for a two-dimensional Sn transport code TWODANT by reading a macroscopic cross section file in the PDS format which is prepared by SRAC execution. While a two-dimensional Sn transport code TWOTRAN published by LANL is installed as a module in the SRAC code system, several functions such as alpha search, concentration search, zone thickness search and various edits are suppressed. Since the TWODANT code was released from LANL, its short running time, stable convergence and plenty of edits have attracted many users. The code CVTRAN makes the TWODANT available to the SRAC user by providing the macroscopic cross-sections on a card-image file XSLIB. The CVTRAN also provides material dependent fission spectra into a card-image format file CVLIB, together with group velocities, group boundary energies and material names. The user can feed them into the TWODANT input, if necessary, by cut-and-paste command. (author)

  6. Compliance Performance: Effects of a Provider Incentive Program and Coding Compliance Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tudela, Joseph A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to study provider and coder related performance, i.e., provider compliance rate and coder productivity/accuracy rates and average dollar difference between coder and auditor, at Brooke Army Medical Center...

  7. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  8. Translation Initiation from Conserved Non-AUG Codons Provides Additional Layers of Regulation and Coding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo P. Ivanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa cpc-1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN4 are homologs specifying transcription activators that drive the transcriptional response to amino acid limitation. The cpc-1 mRNA contains two upstream open reading frames (uORFs in its >700-nucleotide (nt 5′ leader, and its expression is controlled at the level of translation in response to amino acid starvation. We used N. crassa cell extracts and obtained data indicating that cpc-1 uORF1 and uORF2 are functionally analogous to GCN4 uORF1 and uORF4, respectively, in controlling translation. We also found that the 5′ region upstream of the main coding sequence of the cpc-1 mRNA extends for more than 700 nucleotides without any in-frame stop codon. For 100 cpc-1 homologs from Pezizomycotina and from selected Basidiomycota, 5′ conserved extensions of the CPC1 reading frame are also observed. Multiple non-AUG near-cognate codons (NCCs in the CPC1 reading frame upstream of uORF2, some deeply conserved, could potentially initiate translation. At least four NCCs initiated translation in vitro. In vivo data were consistent with initiation at NCCs to produce N-terminally extended N. crassa CPC1 isoforms. The pivotal role played by CPC1, combined with its translational regulation by uORFs and NCC utilization, underscores the emerging significance of noncanonical initiation events in controlling gene expression.

  9. Compliance Performance: Effects of a Provider Incentive Program and Coding Compliance Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tudela, Joseph A

    2004-01-01

    ...) and select attributes and experience/training variables. For BAMC's provider incentive program, analysis reveals statistical significance for record compliance rates with data dated measures, F(underscored)(1,103)= 4.74, p(underscored) = .03...

  10. Directed evolution of a model primordial enzyme provides insights into the development of the genetic code.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel M Müller

    Full Text Available The contemporary proteinogenic repertoire contains 20 amino acids with diverse functional groups and side chain geometries. Primordial proteins, in contrast, were presumably constructed from a subset of these building blocks. Subsequent expansion of the proteinogenic alphabet would have enhanced their capabilities, fostering the metabolic prowess and organismal fitness of early living systems. While the addition of amino acids bearing innovative functional groups directly enhances the chemical repertoire of proteomes, the inclusion of chemically redundant monomers is difficult to rationalize. Here, we studied how a simplified chorismate mutase evolves upon expanding its amino acid alphabet from nine to potentially 20 letters. Continuous evolution provided an enhanced enzyme variant that has only two point mutations, both of which extend the alphabet and jointly improve protein stability by >4 kcal/mol and catalytic activity tenfold. The same, seemingly innocuous substitutions (Ile→Thr, Leu→Val occurred in several independent evolutionary trajectories. The increase in fitness they confer indicates that building blocks with very similar side chain structures are highly beneficial for fine-tuning protein structure and function.

  11. A Flexible Binding Site Architecture Provides New Insights into CcpA Global Regulation in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catabolite control protein A (CcpA is the master regulator in Gram-positive bacteria that mediates carbon catabolite repression (CCR and carbon catabolite activation (CCA, two fundamental regulatory mechanisms that enable competitive advantages in carbon catabolism. It is generally regarded that CcpA exerts its regulatory role by binding to a typical 14- to 16-nucleotide (nt consensus site that is called a catabolite response element (cre within the target regions. However, here we report a previously unknown noncanonical flexible architecture of the CcpA-binding site in solventogenic clostridia, providing new mechanistic insights into catabolite regulation. This novel CcpA-binding site, named crevar, has a unique architecture that consists of two inverted repeats and an intervening spacer, all of which are variable in nucleotide composition and length, except for a 6-bp core palindromic sequence (TGTAAA/TTTACA. It was found that the length of the intervening spacer of crevar can affect CcpA binding affinity, and moreover, the core palindromic sequence of crevar is the key structure for regulation. Such a variable architecture of crevar shows potential importance for CcpA’s diverse and fine regulation. A total of 103 potential crevar sites were discovered in solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum, of which 42 sites were picked out for electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs, and 30 sites were confirmed to be bound by CcpA. These 30 crevar sites are associated with 27 genes involved in many important pathways. Also of significance, the crevar sites are found to be widespread and function in a great number of taxonomically different Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogens, suggesting their global role in Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Comparison study on flexible pavement design using FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and LCN (Load Classification Number) code in Ahmad Yani international airport’s runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, S. E.; Sulistiono, D.; Mawardi, A. F.

    2017-11-01

    FAA code for airport design has been broadly used by Indonesian Ministry of Aviation since decades ago. However, there is not much comprehensive study about its relevance and efficiency towards current situation in Indonesia. Therefore, a further comparison study on flexible pavement design for airport runway using comparable method has become essential. The main focus of this study is to compare which method between FAA and LCN that offer the most efficient and effective way in runway pavement planning. The comparative methods in this study mainly use the variety of variable approach. FAA code for instance, will use the approach on the aircraft’s maximum take-off weight and annual departure. Whilst LCN code use the variable of equivalent single wheel load and tire pressure. Based on the variables mentioned above, a further classification and rated method will be used to determine which code is best implemented. According to the analysis, it is clear that FAA method is the most effective way to plan runway design in Indonesia with consecutively total pavement thickness of 127cm and LCN method total pavement thickness of 70cm. Although, FAA total pavement is thicker that LCN its relevance towards sustainable and pristine condition in the future has become an essential aspect to consider in design and planning.

  13. Valuing Flexibility. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    and observables. This is usually called code semiotics as distinguished from Pattee’s physical semiotics or Favareau’s sign semiotics . Biosystem...tweaked somewhat. To begin with, an initial investment is required to implement a more flexible de- sign , which we refer to as the investment cost...through unfamiliar territory, providing road signs at every turn to direct you in making the best and most informed driving decisions. This is the essence

  14. Antifragility and Tinkering in Biology (and in Business) Flexibility Provides an Efficient Epigenetic Way to Manage Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Antoine; Binder, Philippe M; Noria, Stanislas

    2011-11-29

    The notion of antifragility, an attribute of systems that makes them thrive under variable conditions, has recently been proposed by Nassim Taleb in a business context. This idea requires the ability of such systems to 'tinker', i.e., to creatively respond to changes in their environment. A fairly obvious example of this is natural selection-driven evolution. In this ubiquitous process, an original entity, challenged by an ever-changing environment, creates variants that evolve into novel entities. Analyzing functions that are essential during stationary-state life yield examples of entities that may be antifragile. One such example is proteins with flexible regions that can undergo functional alteration of their side residues or backbone and thus implement the tinkering that leads to antifragility. This in-built property of the cell chassis must be taken into account when considering construction of cell factories driven by engineering principles.

  15. Antifragility and Tinkering in Biology (and in Business Flexibility Provides an Efficient Epigenetic Way to Manage Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe M. Binder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of antifragility, an attribute of systems that makes them thrive under variable conditions, has recently been proposed by Nassim Taleb in a business context. This idea requires the ability of such systems to ‘tinker’, i.e., to creatively respond to changes in their environment. A fairly obvious example of this is natural selection-driven evolution. In this ubiquitous process, an original entity, challenged by an ever-changing environment, creates variants that evolve into novel entities. Analyzing functions that are essential during stationary-state life yield examples of entities that may be antifragile. One such example is proteins with flexible regions that can undergo functional alteration of their side residues or backbone and thus implement the tinkering that leads to antifragility. This in-built property of the cell chassis must be taken into account when considering construction of cell factories driven by engineering principles.

  16. The addition of an air/water button to a flexible bronchoscope (provided with a suction button) for use as a slim operative panendoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oselladore, D; Rossoni, R

    1988-03-01

    Thin-caliber (4.9 and 6.3 mm) flexible bronchoscopes already provided with a suction button have been modified by adding an air/water button for the control of air insufflation and water irrigation; the channel used is the biopsy-suction one. With the aid of this instrument, several pathologies can be studied and treated, under adverse conditions such as esophageal or recto-sigmoidal stenosis, hematuria in polytraumatic patients, residual stones in patients carrying a T-tube, acute respiratory obstructions, etc.

  17. Plant Growth under Natural Light Conditions Provides Highly Flexible Short-Term Acclimation Properties toward High Light Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Tobias; Paul, Suman; Melzer, Michael; Dörmann, Peter; Jahns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Efficient acclimation to different growth light intensities is essential for plant fitness. So far, most studies on light acclimation have been conducted with plants grown under different constant light regimes, but more recent work indicated that acclimation to fluctuating light or field conditions may result in different physiological properties of plants. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was grown under three different constant light intensities (LL: 25 μmol photons m−2 s−1; NL: 100 μmol photons m−2 s−1; HL: 500 μmol photons m−2 s−1) and under natural fluctuating light (NatL) conditions. We performed a thorough characterization of the morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties focusing on photo-protective mechanisms. Our analyses corroborated the known properties of LL, NL, and HL plants. NatL plants, however, were found to combine characteristics of both LL and HL grown plants, leading to efficient and unique light utilization capacities. Strikingly, the high energy dissipation capacity of NatL plants correlated with increased dynamics of thylakoid membrane reorganization upon short-term acclimation to excess light. We conclude that the thylakoid membrane organization and particularly the light-dependent and reversible unstacking of grana membranes likely represent key factors that provide the basis for the high acclimation capacity of NatL grown plants to rapidly changing light intensities. PMID:28515734

  18. Flexible authentication of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjiang; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel authentication method for digital images that achieves fine authenticating granularity (e.g., block-level granularity). Its appealing flexibility lies in the fact that with only one piece of authenticating data (e.g., digital signature or message authentication code) spanning all blocks, each block can be independently authenticated while ignoring the other blocks. In our method, the authenticating data are derived by means of the Chinese Remainder Theorem. To further attest its flexibility, the method provides adjustable confidence by managing the public system parameters. Security issues, advantages, as well as limitations related to the method are addressed. A wide range of potential applications are envisioned to demonstrate its practical significance.

  19. Is intuitive eating the same as flexible dietary control? Their links to each other and well-being could provide an answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Calogero, Rachel M; Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have found that rigid dietary control is connected to higher psychological distress, including disordered and disinhibited eating. Two approaches have been touted by certain scholars and/or health organizations as healthier alternatives: intuitive eating and flexible control-yet these approaches have not been compared in terms of their shared variance with one another and psychological well-being (adjustment and distress). The present study explored these connections among 382 community women and men. Findings revealed that intuitive eating and flexible control are inversely related constructs. Intuitive eating was related to lower rigid control, lower psychological distress, higher psychological adjustment, and lower BMI. In contrast, flexible control was strongly related in a positive direction to rigid control, and was unrelated to distress, adjustment, and BMI. Further, intuitive eating incrementally contributed unique variance to the well-being measures after controlling for both flexible and rigid control. Flexible control was positively associated with psychological adjustment and inversely associated with distress and BMI only when its shared variance with rigid control was extracted. Collectively, these results suggest that intuitive eating is not the same phenomenon as flexible control, and that flexible control demonstrated substantial overlap and entanglement with rigid control, precluding the clarity, validity, and utility of flexible control as a construct. Discussion addresses the implications of this distinction between intuitive eating and flexible control for the promotion of healthy eating attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On Expansion Of The Circle Of Norms Providing Special Types Of Release From Criminal Liability In The Chapter 22 Of The Criminal Code Of The Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid A. Musaev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article author conducts analysis of the circle of the criminal code of the Russian Federation (Charter 22 norms expansion, providing special types of release from criminal liability. Analyzes of the foreign legislation allowed author to draw a conclusion that the majority of the stimulating legal analogs to the Chapter 22 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation are present in the legislation of the CIS countries – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and some other, and also that release from the criminal liability on the tax crimes – is not less widespread stimulating norm in the foreign legislation. Special attention is paid to the questions of the positive post criminal behavior of persons who committed economic crime stimulation. According to the author it appears to be reasonable to include into the alternative condition of the release from criminal liability a sign of the voluntary statement of the crime commission or giving criminal income and also an alternative sign of the "active contribution to the disclosure and/or crime investigation". Author comes to the conclusion that a problem of the expansion of the stimulating norms in the Chapter 22 of the Criminal Codes of the Russian Federation action is interesting and actual in the conditions of criminal legislation in the economic sphere liberalization. In particular, in the foreshortening of the economic amnesty questions author believes that introduction of the stimulating norms of the Chapter 186 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation isn't expected soon.

  1. Rotating electrical machines - Part 5: Degrees of protection provided by the integral design of rotating electrical machines (IP code) - Classification

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Gives definitions for standard degrees of protection provided by enclosures; protection of machines against harmful effects due to the ingress of water; protection of machines against ingress of solid foreign objects; Protection of persons against contact with or approach to live parts and against contact with moving parts. Gives designations for these protective degrees and tests to verify that the machines meet the requirements.

  2. Flexible and re-configurable optical three-input XOR logic gate of phase-modulated signals with multicast functionality for potential application in optical physical-layer network coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Qin, Jun; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, XuYuefeng; Sharif, Gazi Mohammad; Yamaguchi, Shigeru

    2016-02-08

    Optical logic gate, especially exclusive-or (XOR) gate, plays important role in accomplishing photonic computing and various network functionalities in future optical networks. On the other hand, optical multicast is another indispensable functionality to efficiently deliver information in optical networks. In this paper, for the first time, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a flexible optical three-input XOR gate scheme for multiple input phase-modulated signals with a 1-to-2 multicast functionality for each XOR operation using four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in single piece of highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Through FWM in HNLF, all of the possible XOR operations among input signals could be simultaneously realized by sharing a single piece of HNLF. By selecting the obtained XOR components using a followed wavelength selective component, the number of XOR gates and the participant light in XOR operations could be flexibly configured. The re-configurability of the proposed XOR gate and the function integration of the optical logic gate and multicast in single device offer the flexibility in network design and improve the network efficiency. We experimentally demonstrate flexible 3-input XOR gate for four 10-Gbaud binary phase-shift keying signals with a multicast scale of 2. Error-free operations for the obtained XOR results are achieved. Potential application of the integrated XOR and multicast function in network coding is also discussed.

  3. Context adaptive coding of bi-level images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    for the modern paradigm of data compression based on a modelling and a coding stage. One advantage of contexts is their flexibility, e.g. choosing a two-dimensional ("-D) context facilitates efficient image coding. The area of image coding has greatly been influenced by context adaptive coding, applied e.......g. in the lossless JBIG bi-level image coding standard, and in the entropy coding of contemporary lossless and lossy image and video coding standards and schemes. The theoretical work and analysis of universal context based coding has addressed sequences of data and finite memory models as Markov chains and sources...... to 2-D of a finite memory source. Further developments of causal image models, e.g. to approximate MRF, lead to considering hidden states in the context formation. These causal image models provides image coding models and they are here related to context based image coding. The entropy of the image...

  4. THE UNIFICATION OF THE CODE LISTS PROVIDED WITHIN THE DATA MODEL ORIGINATING FROM THE INSPIRE TECHNICAL GUIDELINES AND THE ONES PROVIDED FOR GESUT DATABASES IN THE CONTEXT OF POTENTIAL EXPLOITATION IN THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ZYGMUNIAK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at exposing differences between two data models in case of code lists values provided there. The first of them is an obligatory one for managing Geodesic Register of Utility Networks databases in Poland [9] and the second is the model originating from the Technical Guidelines issued to the INSPIRE Directive. Since the second one mentioned is the basis for managing spatial databases among European parties, correlating these two data models has an effect in easing the way of harmonizing and, in consequence, exchanging spatial data. Therefore, the study presents the possibilities of increasing compatibility between the values of the code lists concerning attributes for objects provid-ed in both models. In practice, it could lead to an increase of the competitiveness of entities managing or processing such databases and to greater involvement in scientific or research projects when it comes to the mining industry. More-over, since utility networks located on mining areas are under particular protection, the ability of making them more fitted to their own needs will make it possible for mining plants to exchange spatial data in a more efficient way.

  5. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  6. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...... incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN...

  7. Is intuitive eating the same as flexible dietary control? Their links to each other and well-being could provide an answer

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy L. Tylka; Calogero, Rachel M.; Danielsdottir, S.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have found that rigid dietary control is connected to higher psychological distress, including disordered and disinhibited eating. Two approaches have been touted by certain scholars and/or health organizations as healthier alternatives: intuitive eating and flexible control—yet these approaches have not been compared in terms of their shared variance with one another and psychological well-being (adjustment and distress). The present study explored these connections among 382 com...

  8. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...... flexibility. We finally discuss implications for management and international business research, within and beyond the domain of global services sourcing....

  9. Genome-wide characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) provides new insight into viral diseases in honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Jung, Je Won; Park, Doori; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Shin, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Chanseok; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-09-04

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that do not encode proteins. Recently, lncRNAs have gained special attention for their roles in various biological process and diseases. In an attempt to identify long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and their possible involvement in honey bee development and diseases, we analyzed RNA-seq datasets generated from Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) and western honey bee (Apis mellifera). We identified 2470 lincRNAs with an average length of 1011 bp from A. cerana and 1514 lincRNAs with an average length of 790 bp in A. mellifera. Comparative analysis revealed that 5 % of the total lincRNAs derived from both species are unique in each species. Our comparative digital gene expression analysis revealed a high degree of tissue-specific expression among the seven major tissues of honey bee, different from mRNA expression patterns. A total of 863 (57 %) and 464 (18 %) lincRNAs showed tissue-dependent expression in A. mellifera and A. cerana, respectively, most preferentially in ovary and fat body tissues. Importantly, we identified 11 lincRNAs that are specifically regulated upon viral infection in honey bees, and 10 of them appear to play roles during infection with various viruses. This study provides the first comprehensive set of lincRNAs for honey bees and opens the door to discover lincRNAs associated with biological and hormone signaling pathways as well as various diseases of honey bee.

  10. Meeting the challenge of providing flexible learning opportunities: Considerations for technology adoption amongst academic staff | Relever le défi de fournir des occasions d’apprentissage flexibles : considérations pour l’adoption de la technologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Mirriahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a subset of findings from a larger study investigating resistance from academic staff to the integration of technology with on-campus foreign language teaching at one North American higher education institution. The study revealed that the factors influencing technology adoption paralleled Davis’ Technology Acceptance Model’s tenets of perceived usefulness and ease of use. Further, this study supports Lai and Savage’s (2013 assertion of a lack of attention to the pedagogical affordances of technology when adoption decisions are made by instructors, thus we highlight the need for higher education leaders to determine strategies promoting awareness of the benefits technology-enabled teaching and learning can bring to advance educationally-rich flexible learning opportunities. Cet article traite d’un sous-ensemble de résultats provenant d’une étude plus vaste ayant enquêté sur la résistance des universitaires envers l’intégration de la technologie à l’enseignement en langue étrangère sur le campus dans un établissement nord-américain d’études supérieures. L’étude a révélé que les facteurs ayant une influence sur l’adoption de la technologie coïncident avec les principes du modèle d’acceptation de la technologie de Davis sur l’utilité perçue et la facilité d’utilisation. De plus, cette étude appuie l’assertion de Lai et Savage (2013 d’un manque d’attention envers les affordances pédagogiques de la technologie lorsque les décisions d’adoption sont prises par les formateurs. Nous soulignons donc le besoin, pour les meneurs de l’éducation supérieure, de déterminer les stratégies qui favorisent la connaissance des avantages de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage que permet la technologie pour faire progresser les occasions d’apprentissage flexibles et riches sur le plan éducatif.

  11. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  12. FIFPC, a fast ion Fokker--Planck code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R.H.; Callen, J.D.; Rome, J.A.; Smith, J.

    1976-07-01

    A computer code is described which solves the Fokker--Planck equation for the velocity space distribution of fast ions injected into a tokamak plasma. The numerical techniques are described and use of the code is outlined. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and is modularized in order to provide greater flexibility to the user. A program listing is provided and the results of sample cases are presented.

  13. Flexible Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  14. Genome-wide characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) provides new insight into viral diseases in honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Jung, Je Won; Park, Doori; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Shin, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Chanseok; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-01-01

    .... In an attempt to identify long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and their possible involvement in honey bee development and diseases, we analyzed RNA-seq datasets generated from Asian honey bee (Apis cerana...

  15. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  16. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng, Bei

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  17. Context-dependent codon partition models provide significant increases in model fit in atpB and rbcL protein-coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baele, Guy; Van de Peer, Yves; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2011-05-27

    Accurate modelling of substitution processes in protein-coding sequences is often hampered by the computational burdens associated with full codon models. Lately, codon partition models have been proposed as a viable alternative, mimicking the substitution behaviour of codon models at a low computational cost. Such codon partition models however impose independent evolution of the different codon positions, which is overly restrictive from a biological point of view. Given that empirical research has provided indications of context-dependent substitution patterns at four-fold degenerate sites, we take those indications into account in this paper. We present so-called context-dependent codon partition models to assess previous empirical claims that the evolution of four-fold degenerate sites is strongly dependent on the composition of its two flanking bases. To this end, we have estimated and compared various existing independent models, codon models, codon partition models and context-dependent codon partition models for the atpB and rbcL genes of the chloroplast genome, which are frequently used in plant systematics. Such context-dependent codon partition models employ a full dependency scheme for four-fold degenerate sites, whilst maintaining the independence assumption for the first and second codon positions. We show that, both in the atpB and rbcL alignments of a collection of land plants, these context-dependent codon partition models significantly improve model fit over existing codon partition models. Using Bayes factors based on thermodynamic integration, we show that in both datasets the same context-dependent codon partition model yields the largest increase in model fit compared to an independent evolutionary model. Context-dependent codon partition models hence perform closer to codon models, which remain the best performing models at a drastically increased computational cost, compared to codon partition models, but remain computationally interesting

  18. Strategies for dealing with the national coding shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Jill

    2010-04-01

    Steps providers should consider to deal with a national coding shortage and implementation of ICD-10 include the following: Concentrate on employee retention (consider retention bonuses; upgrade pay scales; and offer flex-time and flexible work schedules). Begin a training program for ICD-10. Target other healthcare professionals and current employees to transition into coding positions. Collaborate with colleges, high schools, and middle schools to draw prospective students to this career path and your organization.

  19. Coding conventions and principles for a National Land-Change Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-14

    This report establishes specific rules for writing computer source code for use with the National Land-Change Modeling Framework (NLCMF). These specific rules consist of conventions and principles for writing code primarily in the C and C++ programming languages. Collectively, these coding conventions and coding principles create an NLCMF programming style. In addition to detailed naming conventions, this report provides general coding conventions and principles intended to facilitate the development of high-performance software implemented with code that is extensible, flexible, and interoperable. Conventions for developing modular code are explained in general terms and also enabled and demonstrated through the appended templates for C++ base source-code and header files. The NLCMF limited-extern approach to module structure, code inclusion, and cross-module access to data is both explained in the text and then illustrated through the module templates. Advice on the use of global variables is provided.

  20. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    . The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals......Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  1. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  2. Comparative analysis on flexibility requirements of typical Cryogenic Transfer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Mohit; Kumar, Uday; Choukekar, Ketan; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic systems and their applications; primarily in large Fusion devices, utilize multiple cryogen transfer lines of various sizes and complexities to transfer cryogenic fluids from plant to the various user/ applications. These transfer lines are composed of various critical sections i.e. tee section, elbows, flexible components etc. The mechanical sustainability (under failure circumstances) of these transfer lines are primary requirement for safe operation of the system and applications. The transfer lines need to be designed for multiple design constraints conditions like line layout, support locations and space restrictions. The transfer lines are subjected to single load and multiple load combinations, such as operational loads, seismic loads, leak in insulation vacuum loads etc. [1]. The analytical calculations and flexibility analysis using professional software are performed for the typical transfer lines without any flexible component, the results were analysed for functional and mechanical load conditions. The failure modes were identified along the critical sections. The same transfer line was then refurbished with the flexible components and analysed for failure modes. The flexible components provide additional flexibility to the transfer line system and make it safe. The results obtained from the analytical calculations were compared with those obtained from the flexibility analysis software calculations. The optimization of the flexible component’s size and selection was performed and components were selected to meet the design requirements as per code.

  3. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  4. Metabolic flexibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Storlien, Len; Oakes, Nick D; Kelley, David E

    2004-01-01

    ...). Such capacities characterize the healthy state and can be termed 'metabolic flexibility'. However, increasing evidence points to metabolic inflexibility as a key dysfunction of the cluster of disease states encompassed by the term 'metabolic syndrome...

  5. Flexible and polarization-controllable diffusion metasurface with optical transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yaqiang; Wang, Guangming; Liang, Jiangang; Cai, Tong; Guo, Wenlong; Zhang, Qingfeng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel coding metasurface is proposed to realize polarization-controllable diffusion scattering. The anisotropic Jerusalem-cross unit cell is employed as the basic coding element due to its polarization-dependent phase response. The isotropic random coding sequence is firstly designed to obtain diffusion scattering, and the anisotropic random coding sequence is subsequently realized by adding different periodic coding sequences to the original isotropic one along different directions. For demonstration, we designed and fabricated a flexible polarization-controllable diffusion metasurface (PCDM) with both chessboard diffusion and hedge diffusion under different polarizations. The specular scattering reduction performance of the anisotropic metasurface is better than the isotropic one because the scattered energies are redirected away from the specular reflection direction. For potential applications, the flexible PCDM wrapped around a cylinder structure is investigated and tested for polarization-controllable diffusion scattering. The numerical and experimental results coincide well, indicating anisotropic low scatterings with comparable performances. This paper provides an alternative approach for designing high-performance, flexible, low-scattering platforms.

  6. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  7. Cracking the Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    Prescribes an attitude that teachers can take to help students "crack the code" of a dramatic work, combining a flexible teaching strategy, the suspension of beliefs or preconceived notions about the work, focusing on the drams's text, and choosing a reading strategy appropriate to the dramatic work. (RL)

  8. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  9. An international survey of building energy codes and their implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Graham, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Buildings are key to low-carbon development everywhere, and many countries have introduced building energy codes to improve energy efficiency in buildings. Yet, building energy codes can only deliver results when the codes are implemented. For this reason, studies of building energy codes need to consider implementation of building energy codes in a consistent and comprehensive way. This research identifies elements and practices in implementing building energy codes, covering codes in 22 countries that account for 70% of global energy demand from buildings. Access to benefits of building energy codes depends on comprehensive coverage of buildings by type, age, size, and geographic location; an implementation framework that involves a certified agency to inspect construction at critical stages; and independently tested, rated, and labeled building energy materials. Training and supporting tools are another element of successful code implementation, and their role is growing in importance, given the increasing flexibility and complexity of building energy codes. Some countries have also introduced compliance evaluation and compliance checking protocols to improve implementation. This article provides examples of practices that countries have adopted to assist with implementation of building energy codes.

  10. Benchmarking the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Viallet, M.; Baraffe, I.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Constantino, T.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical benchmark study for the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) based on widely applicable two- and three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics problems relevant to stellar interiors. MUSIC is an implicit large eddy simulation code that uses implicit time integration, implemented as a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. A physics based preconditioning technique which can be adjusted to target varying physics is used to improve the performance of the solver. The problems used for this benchmark study include the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the decay of the Taylor-Green vortex. Additionally we show a test of hydrostatic equilibrium, in a stellar environment which is dominated by radiative effects. In this setting the flexibility of the preconditioning technique is demonstrated. This work aims to bridge the gap between the hydrodynamic test problems typically used during development of numerical methods and the complex flows of stellar interiors. A series of multidimensional tests were performed and analysed. Each of these test cases was analysed with a simple, scalar diagnostic, with the aim of enabling direct code comparisons. As the tests performed do not have analytic solutions, we verify MUSIC by comparing it to established codes including ATHENA and the PENCIL code. MUSIC is able to both reproduce behaviour from established and widely-used codes as well as results expected from theoretical predictions. This benchmarking study concludes a series of papers describing the development of the MUSIC code and provides confidence in future applications.

  11. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  12. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Nakanishi

    Full Text Available In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B. In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B, during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  13. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  14. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...

  15. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    of such objects while preserving flexibility. Hence, this paper formally defines the concept of flexibility objects (flex-objects) and provides a novel and efficient solution for aggregating and disaggregating flex-objects. Out of the broad range of possible applications, this paper will focus on smart grid...... the energy domain show that the proposed solutions provide good performance while satisfying the strict requirements....

  16. Code generation: a strategy for neural network simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Dan F M

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate a technique for the design of neural network simulation software, runtime code generation. This technique can be used to give the user complete flexibility in specifying the mathematical model for their simulation in a high level way, along with the speed of code written in a low level language such as C+ +. It can also be used to write code only once but target different hardware platforms, including inexpensive high performance graphics processing units (GPUs). Code generation can be naturally combined with computer algebra systems to provide further simplification and optimisation of the generated code. The technique is quite general and could be applied to any simulation package. We demonstrate it with the 'Brian' simulator ( http://www.briansimulator.org ).

  17. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  18. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0.......This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  19. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-11-05

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibility-the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD.

  20. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eKlanker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Striatal dopamine is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior towards a reward. Less is known about the contribution of dopamine to cognitive flexibility – the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder. Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in dopamine signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal dopamine in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD.

  1. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  2. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  3. Multiresolution coding for video-based service applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavi, Hami

    1995-12-01

    The video coding and distribution approach presented in this paper has two key characteristics that make it ideal for integration of video communication services over common broadband digital networks. The modular multi-resolution nature of the coding scheme provides the necessary flexibility to accommodate future advances in video technology as well as robust distribution over various network environments. This paper will present an efficient and scalable coding scheme for video communications. The scheme is capable of encoding and decoding video signals in a hierarchical, multilayer fashion to provide video at differing quality grades. Subsequently, the utilization of this approach to enable efficient bandwidth sharing and robust distribution of video signals in multipoint communications is presented. Coding and distribution architectures are discussed which include multi-party communications in a multi-window fashion within ATM environments. Furthermore, under the limited capabilities typical of wideband/broadband access networks, this architecture accommodates important video-based service applications such as Interactive Distance Learning.

  4. Exposure calculation code module for reactor core analysis: BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    The code module BURNER for nuclear reactor exposure calculations is presented. The computer requirements are shown, as are the reference data and interface data file requirements, and the programmed equations and procedure of calculation are described. The operating history of a reactor is followed over the period between solutions of the space, energy neutronics problem. The end-of-period nuclide concentrations are determined given the necessary information. A steady state, continuous fueling model is treated in addition to the usual fixed fuel model. The control options provide flexibility to select among an unusually wide variety of programmed procedures. The code also provides user option to make a number of auxiliary calculations and print such information as the local gamma source, cumulative exposure, and a fine scale power density distribution in a selected zone. The code is used locally in a system for computation which contains the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other modules.

  5. Adherence to a flexible extended regimen for oral hormonal contraception provided in a blister packaging compared with an adherence-supporting digital tablet dispenser: historical comparison of data from two clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliesen J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jörg Elliesen, Dietmar Trummer Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany Background: The Clyk™ digital pill dispenser helps ensure correct and consistent administration of a flexible extended regimen of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol (EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg (EE/drospirenoneFlex; YAZ® Flex, guiding users through the intake cycle and 4-day pill break and providing visible and acoustic daily reminders when pill intake is due. A study showed that the audible alarm function of the dispenser could help reduce the number of missed pills, but it lacked an appropriate “non-dispenser” group for a meaningful assessment of the impact of the dispenser on adherence. This study indirectly assessed the overall effect of the digital dispenser on adherence by comparing data from a treatment with standard blister packaging.Materials and methods: One-year adherence data were compared from two similarly designed, Phase III, open-label, randomized trials of EE/drospirenoneFlex. In study 1, women used diary cards to record adherence with EE/drospirenoneFlex dispensed in blister packs (n=640, and in study 2 the dispenser was used with the alarm activated (n=250 or deactivated (n=248 in addition to using diary cards.Results: A mean (±SD of 4.3 (±4.24 missed pills over 1 year were recorded in diary cards among women who dispensed their pills from the blister packages (study 1 compared with 1.0 (±2.4 recorded by the alarm-activated dispenser (study 2. In study 2, a mean of 1.9 (±4.2 missed pills were reported in the diaries over 1 year compared with 4.4 (±9.1 from automatic recording by the dispenser (both arms of study 2, indicating underreporting of missed pills in diary cards vs the digital dispenser. Adjusting for this rate of underreporting, an estimated mean of ten pills were missed over 1 year by women using EE/drospirenoneFlex in blister packs, or ten times more than with the digital dispenser with activated acoustic alarm

  6. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  7. UEP Concepts in Modulation and Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Henkel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available First unequal error protection (UEP proposals date back to the 1960's (Masnick and Wolf; 1967, but now with the introduction of scalable video, UEP develops to a key concept for the transport of multimedia data. The paper presents an overview of some new approaches realizing UEP properties in physical transport, especially multicarrier modulation, or with LDPC and Turbo codes. For multicarrier modulation, UEP bit-loading together with hierarchical modulation is described allowing for an arbitrary number of classes, arbitrary SNR margins between the classes, and arbitrary number of bits per class. In Turbo coding, pruning, as a counterpart of puncturing is presented for flexible bit-rate adaptations, including tables with optimized pruning patterns. Bit- and/or check-irregular LDPC codes may be designed to provide UEP to its code bits. However, irregular degree distributions alone do not ensure UEP, and other necessary properties of the parity-check matrix for providing UEP are also pointed out. Pruning is also the means for constructing variable-rate LDPC codes for UEP, especially controlling the check-node profile.

  8. Cyclone Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Schindelhauer, Christian; Jakoby, Andreas; Köhler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Cyclone codes which are rateless erasure resilient codes. They combine Pair codes with Luby Transform (LT) codes by computing a code symbol from a random set of data symbols using bitwise XOR and cyclic shift operations. The number of data symbols is chosen according to the Robust Soliton distribution. XOR and cyclic shift operations establish a unitary commutative ring if data symbols have a length of $p-1$ bits, for some prime number $p$. We consider the graph given by code sym...

  9. FSD- FLEXIBLE SPACECRAFT DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, J. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control program (FSD) was developed to aid in the simulation of a large class of flexible and rigid spacecraft. FSD is extremely versatile and can be used in attitude dynamics and control analysis as well as in-orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. FSD has been used to analyze the in-orbit attitude performance and antenna deployment of the RAE and IMP class satellites, and the HAWKEYE, SCATHA, EXOS-B, and Dynamics Explorer flight programs. FSD is applicable to inertially-oriented spinning, earth oriented, or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. The spacecraft flexibility is treated in a continuous manner (instead of finite element) by employing a series of shape functions for the flexible elements. Torsion, bending, and three flexible modes can be simulated for every flexible element. FSD can handle up to ten tubular elements in an arbitrary orientation. FSD is appropriate for studies involving the active control of pointed instruments, with options for digital PID (proportional, integral, derivative) error feedback controllers and control actuators such as thrusters and momentum wheels. The input to FSD is in four parts: 1) Orbit Construction FSD calculates a Keplerian orbit with environmental effects such as drag, magnetic torque, solar pressure, thermal effects, and thruster adjustments; or the user can supply a GTDS format orbit tape for a particular satellite/time-span; 2) Control words - for options such as gravity gradient effects, control torques, and integration ranges; 3) Mathematical descriptions of spacecraft, appendages, and control systems- including element geometry, properties, attitudes, libration damping, tip mass inertia, thermal expansion, magnetic tracking, and gimbal simulation options; and 4) Desired state variables to output, i.e., geometries, bending moments, fast Fourier transform plots, gimbal rotation, filter vectors, etc. All FSD input is of free format, namelist construction. FSD

  10. Galois LCD Codes over Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiusheng; Fan, Yun; Liu, Hualu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the complementary dual codes in more general setting (which are called Galois LCD codes) by a uniform method. A necessary and sufficient condition for linear codes to be Galois LCD codes is determined, and constacyclic codes to be Galois LCD codes are characterized. Some illustrative examples which constacyclic codes are Galois LCD MDS codes are provided as well. In particular, we study Hermitian LCD constacyclic codes. Finally, we present a construction of a class of ...

  11. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  12. Flexibility in the HCFC Allowance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rule that established the HCFC allowance system also created an allowance transfer mechanism to provide flexibility. This fact sheet highlights the flexibilities incorporated into the HCFC allowance system.

  13. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  14. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  15. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  16. Computer Code for Interpreting 13C NMR Relaxation Measurements with Specific Models of Molecular Motion: The Rigid Isotropic and Symmetric Top Rotor Models and the Flexible Symmetric Top Rotor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    flexible helical structures such as DNA fragments (Withka et al., 1991). This report reviews the fundamental theory and selected mathematical results...of this section is to outline some fundamental aspects as a framework for discussing the quantitative features of nuclear magnetic relaxation and to...Withka, J.M.; Swaminathan, S.; Bolton, P.H. A Critique of the Interpretation of Nuclear Overhauser Effects of Duplex DNA . In Computational

  17. 40 CFR 158.30 - Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flexibility. 158.30 Section 158.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.30 Flexibility. (a) FIFRA provides EPA flexibility to require...

  18. Adherence to a flexible extended regimen for oral hormonal contraception provided in blister packaging compared with an adherence-supporting digital tablet dispenser: historical comparison of data from two clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliesen, Jörg; Trummer, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The Clyk™ digital pill dispenser helps ensure correct and consistent administration of a flexible extended regimen of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 μg/drospirenone 3 mg (EE/drospirenone ; YAZ(®) Flex Flex), guiding users through the intake cycle and 4-day pill break and providing visible and acoustic daily reminders when pill intake is due. A study showed that the audible alarm function of the dispenser could help reduce the number of missed pills, but it lacked an appropriate "non-dispenser" group for a meaningful assessment of the impact of the dispenser on adherence. This study indirectly assessed the overall effect of the digital dispenser on adherence by comparing data from a treatment with standard blister packaging. One-year adherence data were compared from two similarly designed, Phase III, open-label, randomized trials of EE/drospirenoneFlex. In study 1, women used diary cards to record adherence with EE/drospirenoneFlex dispensed in blister packs (n=640), and in study 2 the dispenser was used with the alarm activated (n=250) or deactivated (n=248) in addition to using diary cards. A mean (±SD) of 4.3 (±4.24) missed pills over 1 year were recorded in diary cards among women who dispensed their pills from the blister packages (study 1) compared with 1.0 (±2.4) recorded by the alarm-activated dispenser (study 2). In study 2, a mean of 1.9 (±4.2) missed pills were reported in the diaries over 1 year compared with 4.4 (±9.1) from automatic recording by the dispenser (both arms of study 2), indicating underreporting of missed pills in diary cards vs the digital dispenser. Adjusting for this rate of underreporting, an estimated mean of ten pills were missed over 1 year by women using EE/drospirenoneFlex in blister packs, or ten times more than with the digital dispenser with activated acoustic alarm. The digital dispenser helps reduce the number of missed pills and increases adherence.

  19. Sharing code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  20. Analog Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CODING, ANALOG SYSTEMS), INFORMATION THEORY, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, WHITE NOISE, PROBABILITY, ERRORS, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SET THEORY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  1. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be fixed to define codes over such domains). New decoding schemes that take advantage of such connections can be devised. These may soon show up in a technique called code division multiple access (CDMA) which is proposed as a basis for digital cellular communication. CDMA provides a facility for many users to ...

  2. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  3. Consumer Central Energy Flexibility in Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility in buildings will play an important role in the smart energy system. Office buildings have more potentials to provide energy flexibility to the grid compared to other types of buildings, due to the existing building management, control systems and large energy consumption....... Consumers in office buildings (building owners/managers and occupants) take a main role for adopting and engaging in building energy flexibility. In this paper provides a systematic review of consumer central energy flexibility in office buildings with the discussion of social, technical and business...... can boost energy flexibility in the office buildings....

  4. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  5. Divergence coding for convolutional codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Zolotarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we propose a new coding/decoding on the divergence principle. A new divergent multithreshold decoder (MTD for convolutional self-orthogonal codes contains two threshold elements. The second threshold element decodes the code with the code distance one greater than for the first threshold element. Errorcorrecting possibility of the new MTD modification have been higher than traditional MTD. Simulation results show that the performance of the divergent schemes allow to approach area of its effective work to channel capacity approximately on 0,5 dB. Note that we include the enough effective Viterbi decoder instead of the first threshold element, the divergence principle can reach more. Index Terms — error-correcting coding, convolutional code, decoder, multithreshold decoder, Viterbi algorithm.

  6. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was

  7. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  8. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  9. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech......; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...

  10. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tills, J. [J. Tills and Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  11. Flexible Automatic Discretization for Finite Differences: Eliminating the Human Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranger, Casper

    2017-04-01

    In the geophysical numerical modelling community, finite differences are (in part due to their small footprint) a popular spatial discretization method for PDEs in the regular-shaped continuum that is the earth. However, they rapidly become prone to programming mistakes when physics increase in complexity. To eliminate opportunities for human error, we have designed an automatic discretization algorithm using Wolfram Mathematica, in which the user supplies symbolic PDEs, the number of spatial dimensions, and a choice of symbolic boundary conditions, and the script transforms this information into matrix- and right-hand-side rules ready for use in a C++ code that will accept them. The symbolic PDEs are further used to automatically develop and perform manufactured solution benchmarks, ensuring at all stages physical fidelity while providing pragmatic targets for numerical accuracy. We find that this procedure greatly accelerates code development and provides a great deal of flexibility in ones choice of physics.

  12. Coding Theory and Projective Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Natalia

    2008-05-01

    The projective space of order n over a finite field F_q is a set of all subspaces of the vector space F_q^{n}. In this work, we consider error-correcting codes in the projective space, focusing mainly on constant dimension codes. We start with the different representations of subspaces in the projective space. These representations involve matrices in reduced row echelon form, associated binary vectors, and Ferrers diagrams. Based on these representations, we provide a new formula for the computation of the distance between any two subspaces in the projective space. We examine lifted maximum rank distance (MRD) codes, which are nearly optimal constant dimension codes. We prove that a lifted MRD code can be represented in such a way that it forms a block design known as a transversal design. The incidence matrix of the transversal design derived from a lifted MRD code can be viewed as a parity-check matrix of a linear code in the Hamming space. We find the properties of these codes which can be viewed also as LDPC codes. We present new bounds and constructions for constant dimension codes. First, we present a multilevel construction for constant dimension codes, which can be viewed as a generalization of a lifted MRD codes construction. This construction is based on a new type of rank-metric codes, called Ferrers diagram rank-metric codes. Then we derive upper bounds on the size of constant dimension codes which contain the lifted MRD code, and provide a construction for two families of codes, that attain these upper bounds. We generalize the well-known concept of a punctured code for a code in the projective space to obtain large codes which are not constant dimension. We present efficient enumerative encoding and decoding techniques for the Grassmannian. Finally we describe a search method for constant dimension lexicodes.

  13. Blockchain technology as a regulatory technology: From code is law to law is code

    OpenAIRE

    De Filippi, Primavera; Hassan, Samer

    2016-01-01

    Code is law” refers to the idea that, with the advent of digital technology, code has progressively established itself as the predominant way to regulate the behavior of Internet users. Yet, while computer code can enforce rules more efficiently than legal code, it also comes with a series of limitations, mostly because it is difficult to transpose the ambiguity and flexibility of legal rules into a formalized language which can be interpreted by a machine. With the advent of blockchain tech...

  14. The multidimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the multidimensional self-adaptive grid code SAGE. A two-dimensional version of this code was described in an earlier report by the authors. The formulation of the multidimensional version is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code and provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simplified input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The new SAGE code can accommodate both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow problems.

  15. Flexible IDL Compilation for Complex Communication Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eide

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed applications are complex by nature, so it is essential that there be effective software development tools to aid in the construction of these programs. Commonplace “middleware” tools, however, often impose a tradeoff between programmer productivity and application performance. For instance, many CORBA IDL compilers generate code that is too slow for high‐performance systems. More importantly, these compilers provide inadequate support for sophisticated patterns of communication. We believe that these problems can be overcome, thus making idl compilers and similar middleware tools useful for a broader range of systems. To this end we have implemented Flick, a flexible and optimizing IDL compiler, and are using it to produce specialized high‐performance code for complex distributed applications. Flick can produce specially “decomposed” stubs that encapsulate different aspects of communication in separate functions, thus providing application programmers with fine‐grain control over all messages. The design of our decomposed stubs was inspired by the requirements of a particular distributed application called Khazana, and in this paper we describe our experience to date in refitting Khazana with Flick‐generated stubs. We believe that the special idl compilation techniques developed for Khazana will be useful in other applications with similar communication requirements.

  16. Elastic-plastic behavior analysis for a flexible FOWT subjected to blade pitch control malfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srinivasamurthy, Sharath; Iijima, Kazuhiro; Fujikubo, Masahiko; Nihei, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Elastic-plastic behavior analysis methodology for a flexible FOWT is developed adopting a coupled simulation code which considers the flexibility of the floater and malfunction of blade pitch control...

  17. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  18. Coding labour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCosker, Anthony; Milne, Esther

    2014-01-01

    ... software. Code encompasses the laws that regulate human affairs and the operation of capital, behavioural mores and accepted ways of acting, but it also defines the building blocks of life as DNA...

  19. Flexible electrowetting and electrowetting on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckl, Andrew J.; You, Han; Kim, Duk-Young

    2011-03-01

    Electrowetting (EW) technology is shown to be quite flexible in operation and able to operate on flexible substrates. Complementary ON/OFF characteristics of EW devices have been obtained through a plasma irradiation and annealing process. This enables the design of EW array operation in a reduced power mode. Examples of EW operation on flexible substrates are discussed. This includes paper, plastic and metal substrates. Prototypes of flexible EW arrays on plastic substrates are demonstrated to switch reversibly by applying a low voltage difference (20 V). The array operation is maintained even when the display is mechanically flexed. These results indicate the promise of flexible EW devices for mobile and other devices, including video rate flexible e-paper.

  20. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  1. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  2. Design of convolutional tornado code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yao; Gao, Hongmin; Tan, Lu

    2017-09-01

    As a linear block code, the traditional tornado (tTN) code is inefficient in burst-erasure environment and its multi-level structure may lead to high encoding/decoding complexity. This paper presents a convolutional tornado (cTN) code which is able to improve the burst-erasure protection capability by applying the convolution property to the tTN code, and reduce computational complexity by abrogating the multi-level structure. The simulation results show that cTN code can provide a better packet loss protection performance with lower computation complexity than tTN code.

  3. Codes That Support Smart Growth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides examples of local zoning codes that support smart growth development, categorized by: unified development code, form-based code, transit-oriented development, design guidelines, street design standards, and zoning overlay.

  4. Oxide Heteroepitaxy for Flexible Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitla, Yugandhar; Chen, Ching; Lee, Hsien-Chang; Do, Thi Hien; Ma, Chun-Hao; Qui, Le Van; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chang, Li; Chiu, Po-Wen; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2016-11-30

    The emerging technological demands for flexible and transparent electronic devices have compelled researchers to look beyond the current silicon-based electronics. However, fabrication of devices on conventional flexible substrates with superior performance are constrained by the trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose an alternative strategy to circumvent this issue via the heteroepitaxial growth of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) on the flexible mica substrate with performance comparable to that of their rigid counterparts. With the examples of ITO and AZO as a case study, a strong emphasis is laid upon the growth of flexible yet epitaxial TCO relying muscovite's superior properties compared to those of conventional flexible substrates and its compatibility with the present fabrication methods. Besides excellent optoelectro-mechanical properties, an additional functionality of high-temperature stability, normally lacking in the current state-of-the-art transparent flexitronics, is provided by these heterostructures. These epitaxial TCO electrodes with good chemical and thermal stabilities as well as mechanical durability can significantly contribute to the field of flexible, light-weight, and portable smart electronics.

  5. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  6. Flexible Imputation of Missing Data

    CERN Document Server

    van Buuren, Stef

    2012-01-01

    Missing data form a problem in every scientific discipline, yet the techniques required to handle them are complicated and often lacking. One of the great ideas in statistical science--multiple imputation--fills gaps in the data with plausible values, the uncertainty of which is coded in the data itself. It also solves other problems, many of which are missing data problems in disguise. Flexible Imputation of Missing Data is supported by many examples using real data taken from the author's vast experience of collaborative research, and presents a practical guide for handling missing data unde

  7. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  8. Development of an integrated thermal-hydraulics capability incorporating RELAP5 and PANTHER neutronics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.; Jones, J.R.

    1997-07-01

    Ensuring that safety analysis needs are met in the future is likely to lead to the development of new codes and the further development of existing codes. It is therefore advantageous to define standards for data interfaces and to develop software interfacing techniques which can readily accommodate changes when they are made. Defining interface standards is beneficial but is necessarily restricted in application if future requirements are not known in detail. Code interfacing methods are of particular relevance with the move towards automatic grid frequency response operation where the integration of plant dynamic, core follow and fault study calculation tools is considered advantageous. This paper describes the background and features of a new code TALINK (Transient Analysis code LINKage program) used to provide a flexible interface to link the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics code with the PANTHER neutron kinetics and the SIBDYM whole plant dynamic modelling codes used by Nuclear Electric. The complete package enables the codes to be executed in parallel and provides an integrated whole plant thermal-hydraulics and neutron kinetics model. In addition the paper discusses the capabilities and pedigree of the component codes used to form the integrated transient analysis package and the details of the calculation of a postulated Sizewell `B` Loss of offsite power fault transient.

  9. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  10. Roadmap for the Future of Commercial Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Building energy codes have significantly increased building efficiency over the last 38 years, since the first national energy code was published in 1975. The most commonly used path in energy codes, the prescriptive path, appears to be reaching a point of diminishing returns. The current focus on prescriptive codes has limitations including significant variation in actual energy performance depending on which prescriptive options are chosen, a lack of flexibility for designers and developers, the inability to handle optimization that is specific to building type and use, the inability to account for project-specific energy costs, and the lack of follow-through or accountability after a certificate of occupancy is granted. It is likely that an approach that considers the building as an integrated system will be necessary to achieve the next real gains in building efficiency. This report provides a high-level review of different formats for commercial building energy codes, including prescriptive, prescriptive packages, capacity constrained, outcome based, and predictive performance approaches. This report also explores a next generation commercial energy code approach that places a greater emphasis on performance-based criteria.

  11. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  12. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  13. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621. Keywords.

  14. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. Very low bit rate video coding standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Qin

    1995-04-01

    Very low bit rate video coding has received considerable attention in academia and industry in terms of both coding algorithms and standards activities. In addition to the earlier ITU-T efforts on H.320 standardization for video conferencing from 64 kbps to 1.544 Mbps in ISDN environment, the ITU-T/SG15 has formed an expert group on low bit coding (LBC) for visual telephone below 64 kbps. The ITU-T/SG15/LBC work consists of two phases: the near-term and long-term. The near-term standard H.32P/N, based on existing compression technologies, mainly addresses the issues related to visual telephony at below 28.8 kbps, the V.34 modem rate used in the existing Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). H.32P/N will be technically frozen in January '95. The long-term standard H.32P/L, relying on fundamentally new compression technologies with much improved performance, will address video telephony in both PSTN and mobile environment. The ISO/SG29/WG11, after its highly visible and successful MPEG 1/2 work, is starting to focus on the next- generation audiovisual multimedia coding standard MPEG 4. With the recent change of direction, MPEG 4 intends to provide an audio visual coding standard allowing for interactivity, high compression, and/or universal accessibility, with high degree of flexibility and extensibility. This paper briefly summarizes these on-going standards activities undertaken by ITU-T/LBC and ISO/MPEG 4 as of December 1994.

  16. The multidimensional Self-Adaptive Grid code, SAGE, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1995-01-01

    This new report on Version 2 of the SAGE code includes all the information in the original publication plus all upgrades and changes to the SAGE code since that time. The two most significant upgrades are the inclusion of a finite-volume option and the ability to adapt and manipulate zonal-matching multiple-grid files. In addition, the original SAGE code has been upgraded to Version 1.1 and includes all options mentioned in this report, with the exception of the multiple grid option and its associated features. Since Version 2 is a larger and more complex code, it is suggested (but not required) that Version 1.1 be used for single-grid applications. This document contains all the information required to run both versions of SAGE. The formulation of the adaption method is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code. The third section provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simple but extensive input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The SAGE code can accommodate two-dimensional and three-dimensional, finite-difference and finite-volume, single grid, and zonal-matching multiple grid flow problems.

  17. Pyramid image codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  18. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  19. Robotic flexible endoscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    In flexible endoscopy a flexible tube with a steerable camera is used to inspect the internal patient tracts and to perform small surgical interventions. In current practice the physician is faced with usability problems. Often assistance is required to manipulate the flexible endoscope and the

  20. CameraCast: flexible access to remote video sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jiantao; Ganev, Ivan; Schwan, Karsten; Widener, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    New applications like remote surveillance and online environmental or traffic monitoring are making it increasingly important to provide flexible and protected access to remote video sensor devices. Current systems use application-level codes like web-based solutions to provide such access. This requires adherence to user-level APIs provided by such services, access to remote video information through given application-specific service and server topologies, and that the data being captured and distributed is manipulated by third party service codes. CameraCast is a simple, easily used system-level solution to remote video access. It provides a logical device API so that an application can identically operate on local vs. remote video sensor devices, using its own service and server topologies. In addition, the application can take advantage of API enhancements to protect remote video information, using a capability-based model for differential data protection that offers fine grain control over the information made available to specific codes or machines, thereby limiting their ability to violate privacy or security constraints. Experimental evaluations of CameraCast show that the performance of accessing remote video information approximates that of accesses to local devices, given sufficient networking resources. High performance is also attained when protection restrictions are enforced, due to an efficient kernel-level realization of differential data protection.

  1. Neptune: An astrophysical smooth particle hydrodynamics code for massively parallel computer architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalski, Stou

    Smooth particle hydrodynamics is an efficient method for modeling the dynamics of fluids. It is commonly used to simulate astrophysical processes such as binary mergers. We present a newly developed GPU accelerated smooth particle hydrodynamics code for astrophysical simulations. The code is named neptune after the Roman god of water. It is written in OpenMP parallelized C++ and OpenCL and includes octree based hydrodynamic and gravitational acceleration. The design relies on object-oriented methodologies in order to provide a flexible and modular framework that can be easily extended and modified by the user. Several pre-built scenarios for simulating collisions of polytropes and black-hole accretion are provided. The code is released under the MIT Open Source license and publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/neptune-sph/.

  2. Innovation,Flexibility, Change-Premises of Organizational Development

    OpenAIRE

    Todorut, Amalia Venera

    2008-01-01

    The features of innovation, flexibility and change mutually influence one another. Provided that change is perceived as a feature leading to innovation, flexibility is the feature that enables it. Innovation cannot exist without change but nonetheless each and every change leads to innovation. Flexibility is a necessary condition but not sufficient for the innovation since it is influenced by change and balanced by flexibility. This fact suggests that the flexible companies lea...

  3. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  4. Local Laplacian Coding From Theoretical Analysis of Local Coding Schemes for Locally Linear Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Junbiao; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Chunjie; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yin, Baocai

    2015-12-01

    Local coordinate coding (LCC) is a framework to approximate a Lipschitz smooth function by combining linear functions into a nonlinear one. For locally linear classification, LCC requires a coding scheme that heavily determines the nonlinear approximation ability, posing two main challenges: 1) the locality making faraway anchors have smaller influences on current data and 2) the flexibility balancing well between the reconstruction of current data and the locality. In this paper, we address the problem from the theoretical analysis of the simplest local coding schemes, i.e., local Gaussian coding and local student coding, and propose local Laplacian coding (LPC) to achieve the locality and the flexibility. We apply LPC into locally linear classifiers to solve diverse classification tasks. The comparable or exceeded performances of state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    added by the decoder is K/ρ+Td. By the last assumption, Td and Te are both ≤ K/ρ, so the total latency added is between 2K/ρ and 4K /ρ. For example...better resolution near the decision point. Reference [12] showed that in decoding a (1024, 512) polar code, using 6-bit LLRs resulted in per- formance

  6. The accurate particle tracer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun

    2017-11-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.

  7. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  8. Flexible Systems Invade the Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are systems that can be programed to alter their procedures to suit varying production requirements. Use of and trends related to these systems in the United States and foreign countries are discussed. A detailed diagram of a hypothetical FMS is provided. (JN)

  9. PNF and Other Flexibility Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…

  10. GNASH: a preequilibrium, statistical nuclear-model code for calculation of cross sections and emission spectra. [In FORTRAN for CDC 7600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1977-11-01

    A new multistep Hauser--Feshbach code that includes corrections for preequilibrium effects is described. The code can calculate up to 60 decay reactions (cross sections and energy spectra) in one computation, and thereby provide considerable flexibility for handling processes with complicated reaction chains. Input parameter setup, problem output, and subroutine descriptions are given along with a sample problem calculation. A brief theoretical description is also included. 8 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Improvements in the Placet tracking code

    CERN Document Server

    Latina, A; Dalena, B; Schulte, D; Snuverink, J

    2012-01-01

    The tracking code PLACET simulates beam transport and orbit corrections in linear accelerators. It incorporates single- and multi-bunch effects, static and dynamic imperfections. It has an interface based on both Tcl/Tk and Octave to provide maximum flexibility and easy programming of complex scenarios. Recently, new functionalities have been added to expand its simulation and tuning capabilities, such as: tools to perform beam-based alignment of non-linear optical systems, higher order imperfections in magnets, better tools for integrated feedback loops. Moreover, self-contained frameworks have been created to ease the simulation of CLIC Drive Beam, CLIC Main Beam, and other existing electron machines such as CTF3 and FACET.

  12. Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-05-18

    The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.

  13. Convolutional-Code-Specific CRC Code Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Chung-Yu; Daneshrad, Babak; Wesel, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) codes check if a codeword is correctly received. This paper presents an algorithm to design CRC codes that are optimized for the code-specific error behavior of a specified feedforward convolutional code. The algorithm utilizes two distinct approaches to computing undetected error probability of a CRC code used with a specific convolutional code. The first approach enumerates the error patterns of the convolutional code and tests if each of them is detectable. Th...

  14. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence the ado...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper.......Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...

  15. Mobile, Flexible, and Adaptable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Thao, Thi Vu

    2011-01-01

    of the female porters demonstrate a particular way of adapting to the migration process. Also, it is emphasised how women's flexible practices are facilitated by women's own village-based networks. It is suggested that ‘in-betweenness’, which stands for the simultaneous and overlapping presence of urban......Industrialisation and urban growth are constitutive aspects of Vietnam's new economy and are important driving forces behind increasing rural-to-urban migration. Growth in informal sector employment is a significant aspect of this development, which has provided for both male and female migrants......, although they generally are engaged in different occupations. Based on a case study among porters at Hanoi's Long Bien Market, this paper examines rural-to-urban migrants' gendered migration practices. Two interrelated aspects of gendered migration practices are in focus: the role of migration networks...

  16. Administrative simplification: adoption of a standard for a unique health plan identifier; addition to the National Provider Identifier requirements; and a change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    This final rule adopts the standard for a national unique health plan identifier (HPID) and establishes requirements for the implementation of the HPID. In addition, it adopts a data element that will serve as an other entity identifier (OEID), or an identifier for entities that are not health plans, health care providers, or individuals, but that need to be identified in standard transactions. This final rule also specifies the circumstances under which an organization covered health care provider must require certain noncovered individual health care providers who are prescribers to obtain and disclose a National Provider Identifier (NPI). Lastly, this final rule changes the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014.

  17. Bilayer Protograph Codes for Half-Duplex Relay Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; VanNguyen, Thuy; Nosratinia, Aria

    2013-01-01

    Direct to Earth return links are limited by the size and power of lander devices. A standard alternative is provided by a two-hops return link: a proximity link (from lander to orbiter relay) and a deep-space link (from orbiter relay to Earth). Although direct to Earth return links are limited by the size and power of lander devices, using an additional link and a proposed coding for relay channels, one can obtain a more reliable signal. Although significant progress has been made in the relay coding problem, existing codes must be painstakingly optimized to match to a single set of channel conditions, many of them do not offer easy encoding, and most of them do not have structured design. A high-performing LDPC (low-density parity-check) code for the relay channel addresses simultaneously two important issues: a code structure that allows low encoding complexity, and a flexible rate-compatible code that allows matching to various channel conditions. Most of the previous high-performance LDPC codes for the relay channel are tightly optimized for a given channel quality, and are not easily adapted without extensive re-optimization for various channel conditions. This code for the relay channel combines structured design and easy encoding with rate compatibility to allow adaptation to the three links involved in the relay channel, and furthermore offers very good performance. The proposed code is constructed by synthesizing a bilayer structure with a pro to graph. In addition to the contribution to relay encoding, an improved family of protograph codes was produced for the point-to-point AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) channel whose high-rate members enjoy thresholds that are within 0.07 dB of capacity. These LDPC relay codes address three important issues in an integrative manner: low encoding complexity, modular structure allowing for easy design, and rate compatibility so that the code can be easily matched to a variety of channel conditions without extensive

  18. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  19. Concatenated codes with convolutional inner codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Zyablov, Viktor

    1988-01-01

    The minimum distance of concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon outer codes and convolutional inner codes is studied. For suitable combinations of parameters the minimum distance can be lower-bounded by the product of the minimum distances of the inner and outer codes. For a randomized ensemble...... of concatenated codes a lower bound of the Gilbert-Varshamov type is proved...

  20. List Decoding of Matrix-Product Codes from nested codes: an application to Quasi-Cyclic codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernando, Fernando; Høholdt, Tom; Ruano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    A list decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes is provided when $C_1,..., C_s$ are nested linear codes and $A$ is a non-singular by columns matrix. We estimate the probability of getting more than one codeword as output when the constituent codes are Reed-Solomon codes. We extend this list...

  1. Robust Medical Test Evaluation Using Flexible Bayesian Semiparametric Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Branscum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Bayesian methods is increasing in modern epidemiology. Although parametric Bayesian analysis has penetrated the population health sciences, flexible nonparametric Bayesian methods have received less attention. A goal in nonparametric Bayesian analysis is to estimate unknown functions (e.g., density or distribution functions rather than scalar parameters (e.g., means or proportions. For instance, ROC curves are obtained from the distribution functions corresponding to continuous biomarker data taken from healthy and diseased populations. Standard parametric approaches to Bayesian analysis involve distributions with a small number of parameters, where the prior specification is relatively straight forward. In the nonparametric Bayesian case, the prior is placed on an infinite dimensional space of all distributions, which requires special methods. A popular approach to nonparametric Bayesian analysis that involves Polya tree prior distributions is described. We provide example code to illustrate how models that contain Polya tree priors can be fit using SAS software. The methods are used to evaluate the covariate-specific accuracy of the biomarker, soluble epidermal growth factor receptor, for discerning lung cancer cases from controls using a flexible ROC regression modeling framework. The application highlights the usefulness of flexible models over a standard parametric method for estimating ROC curves.

  2. Invertible flexible matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Júlia

    2017-06-01

    Matrices with coefficients having uncertainties of type o (.) or O (.), called flexible matrices, are studied from the point of view of nonstandard analysis. The uncertainties of the afore-mentioned kind will be given in the form of the so-called neutrices, for instance the set of all infinitesimals. Since flexible matrices have uncertainties in their coefficients, it is not possible to define the identity matrix in an unique way and so the notion of spectral identity matrix arises. Not all nonsingular flexible matrices can be turned into a spectral identity matrix using Gauss-Jordan elimination method, implying that that not all nonsingular flexible matrices have the inverse matrix. Under certain conditions upon the size of the uncertainties appearing in a nonsingular flexible matrix, a general theorem concerning the boundaries of its minors is presented which guarantees the existence of the inverse matrix of a nonsingular flexible matrix.

  3. Error coding simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-11-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  4. Social performance cues induce behavioral flexibility in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance

  5. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions....... The papers cover the following topics: foundations of flexible querying; recommendation and ranking; technologies for flexible representations and querying; knowledge discovery and information/data retrieval; intuitionistic sets; and generalized net model....

  6. The cosmic code comparison project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitmann, Katrin; Fasel, Patricia; Habib, Salman; Warren, Michael S; Ahrens, James; Ankeny, Lee; O' Shea, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lukic, Zarija; Ricker, Paul M [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Armstrong, Ryan [Department of Computer Science, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Springel, Volker [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, 85741 Garching (Germany); Stadel, Joachim [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Trac, Hy [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: heitmann@lanl.gov

    2008-10-01

    Current and upcoming cosmological observations allow us to probe structures on smaller and smaller scales, entering highly nonlinear regimes. In order to obtain theoretical predictions in these regimes, large cosmological simulations have to be carried out. The promised high accuracy from observations makes the simulation task very demanding: the simulations have to be at least as accurate as the observations. This requirement can only be fulfilled by carrying out an extensive code verification program. The first step of such a program is the comparison of different cosmology codes including gravitational interactions only. In this paper, we extend a recently carried out code comparison project to include five more simulation codes. We restrict our analysis to a small cosmological volume which allows us to investigate properties of halos. For the matter power spectrum and the mass function, the previous results hold, with the codes agreeing at the 10% level over wide dynamic ranges. We extend our analysis to the comparison of halo profiles and investigate the halo count as a function of local density. We introduce and discuss ParaView as a flexible analysis tool for cosmological simulations, the use of which immensely simplifies the code comparison task.

  7. The UPSF code: a metaprogramming-based high-performance automatically parallelized plasma simulation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiatian; Wang, Xiaogang; Jiang, Binhao

    2017-10-01

    UPSF (Universal Plasma Simulation Framework) is a new plasma simulation code designed for maximum flexibility by using edge-cutting techniques supported by C++17 standard. Through use of metaprogramming technique, UPSF provides arbitrary dimensional data structures and methods to support various kinds of plasma simulation models, like, Vlasov, particle in cell (PIC), fluid, Fokker-Planck, and their variants and hybrid methods. Through C++ metaprogramming technique, a single code can be used to arbitrary dimensional systems with no loss of performance. UPSF can also automatically parallelize the distributed data structure and accelerate matrix and tensor operations by BLAS. A three-dimensional particle in cell code is developed based on UPSF. Two test cases, Landau damping and Weibel instability for electrostatic and electromagnetic situation respectively, are presented to show the validation and performance of the UPSF code.

  8. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  9. An Object-Oriented Approach to Writing Computational Electromagnetics Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Martin; Mallasch, Paul G.

    1996-01-01

    Presently, most computer software development in the Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) community employs the structured programming paradigm, particularly using the Fortran language. Other segments of the software community began switching to an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm in recent years to help ease design and development of highly complex codes. This paper examines design of a time-domain numerical analysis CEM code using the OOP paradigm, comparing OOP code and structured programming code in terms of software maintenance, portability, flexibility, and speed.

  10. Providing Virtual Execution Environments: A Twofold Illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Grehant, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Platform virtualization helps solving major grid computing challenges: share resource with flexible, user-controlled and custom execution environments and in the meanwhile, isolate failures and malicious code. Grid resource management tools will evolve to embrace support for virtual resource. We present two open source projects that transparently supply virtual execution environments. Tycoon has been developed at HP Labs to optimise resource usage in creating an economy where users bid to access virtual machines and compete for CPU cycles. SmartDomains provides a peer-to-peer layer that automates virtual machines deployment using a description language and deployment engine from HP Labs. These projects demonstrate both client-server and peer-to-peer approaches to virtual resource management. The first case makes extensive use of virtual machines features for dynamic resource allocation. The second translates virtual machines capabilities into a sophisticated language where resource management components can b...

  11. Spin-Controlled Multiple Pencil Beams and Vortex Beams with Different Polarizations Generated by Pancharatnam-Berry Coding Metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Shuo; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-10-18

    We propose to design coding metasurfaces based on the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase. The proposed PB coding metasurface could control circularly polarized components of incident waves, by encoding geometric phase into the orientation angle of coding particles to generate 1-bit and multibit phase responses. We perform digital convolution operations on scattering patterns of the PB coding metasurface to reach flexible controls of the circularly polarized waves, forming spin-controlled multiple beams with different polarizations in free space, such as pencil beams and vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate the excellent performance of the PB coding metasurface, which opens a pathway to novel types of multibeam generations and provides an effective way to expand the beam coverage for wireless communication applications.

  12. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  13. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    and G. It should be noted that this standard reflects the present state of the art in serial time code formatting and is not intended to constrain...separation for visual resolution. The LSB occurs first except for the fractional seconds subword that follows the day-of-year subword. The BCD TOY code...and P6 to complete the BCD time code word. An index marker occurs between the decimal digits in each subword to provide separation for visual

  14. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  15. On the Feasibility of a Network Coded Mobile Storage Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton; H. P. Fitzek, Frank; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cloud storage services offer relatively good reliability and performance in a cost-effective manner. However, they are typically structured in a centralized and highly controlled fashion. In more dynamic storage scenarios, these centralized approaches are unfeasible and developing...... decentralized storage approaches becomes critical. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of the highly dynamic distributed mobile cloud, which uses free resources on user devices to move storage to the edges of the network. At the core of our approach, lies the use of random linear network coding...... to provide an effective and flexible erasure correcting code. This paper identifies and answers key questions regarding the feasibility of such a system. We show that the mobile cloud has sufficient network resources to adapt to changes in node numbers and also study the redundancy level needed to maintain...

  16. Insect olfactory coding and memory at multiple timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Stopfer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Insects can learn, allowing them great flexibility for locating seasonal food sources and avoiding wily predators. Because insects are relatively simple and accessible to manipulation, they provide good experimental preparations for exploring mechanisms underlying sensory coding and memory. Here we review how the intertwining of memory with computation enables the coding, decoding, and storage of sensory experience at various stages of the insect olfactory system. Individual parts of this system are capable of multiplexing memories at different timescales, and conversely, memory on a given timescale can be distributed across different parts of the circuit. Our sampling of the olfactory system emphasizes the diversity of memories, and the importance of understanding these memories in the context of computations performed by different parts of a sensory system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Code blue: seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Matthew T; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I

    2011-06-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently perceive seizures as life threatening. If an event occurs on the hospital premises, a "code blue" can be called which consumes considerable resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of code blue calls for seizures and seizure mimickers. A retrospective review of a code blue log from 2001 through 2008 identified 50 seizure-like events, representing 5.3% of all codes. Twenty-eight (54%) occurred in inpatients; the other 22 (44%) events involved visitors or employees on the hospital premises. Eighty-six percent of the events were epileptic seizures. Seizure mimickers, particularly psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, were more common in the nonhospitalized group. Only five (17.9%) inpatients had a known diagnosis of epilepsy, compared with 17 (77.3%) of the nonhospitalized patients. This retrospective survey provides insights into how code blues are called on hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients for seizure-like events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Flexibility, Is That All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, Wim M.

    This paper discusses the design of flexible and intelligent library buildings. The first section addresses how flexibility, as one of the requirements of a library building, that has high priority in the planning process. Intelligent libraries are considered in the second section, and functionality is stressed. The third section examines…

  19. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  20. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  1. Flexible Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.

  2. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  3. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  4. Flexible Early Warning Systems with Workflows and Decision Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, F.; Chaves, F.; Zeiner, H.

    2012-04-01

    An essential part of early warning systems and systems for crisis management are decision support systems that facilitate communication and collaboration. Often official policies specify how different organizations collaborate and what information is communicated to whom. For early warning systems it is crucial that information is exchanged dynamically in a timely manner and all participants get exactly the information they need to fulfil their role in the crisis management process. Information technology obviously lends itself to automate parts of the process. We have experienced however that in current operational systems the information logistics processes are hard-coded, even though they are subject to change. In addition, systems are tailored to the policies and requirements of a certain organization and changes can require major software refactoring. We seek to develop a system that can be deployed and adapted to multiple organizations with different dynamic runtime policies. A major requirement for such a system is that changes can be applied locally without affecting larger parts of the system. In addition to the flexibility regarding changes in policies and processes, the system needs to be able to evolve; when new information sources become available, it should be possible to integrate and use these in the decision process. In general, this kind of flexibility comes with a significant increase in complexity. This implies that only IT professionals can maintain a system that can be reconfigured and adapted; end-users are unable to utilise the provided flexibility. In the business world similar problems arise and previous work suggested using business process management systems (BPMS) or workflow management systems (WfMS) to guide and automate early warning processes or crisis management plans. However, the usability and flexibility of current WfMS are limited, because current notations and user interfaces are still not suitable for end-users, and workflows

  5. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  6. Piezoelectric RL shunt damping of flexible structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Resonant RL shunt circuits represent a robust and effective approach to piezoelectric damping, provided that the individual shunt circuit components are calibrated accurately with respect to the dynamic properties of the corresponding flexible structure. The balanced calibration procedure applied...

  7. Flexible public transportation services in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This synthesis research provides an overview of the current use of flexible transportation services in Florida through administration of a survey and subsequent identification and examination of case study locations. The research included a literatur...

  8. LGF: A flexible framework for exposing legacy codes as services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliś, B.; Bubak, M.; Wegiel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Scientific applications, usually written in Fortran or C, need to be adapted to work in modern environments for conducting scientific computations, which are based on web services or components. This work presents a Legacy to Grid framework (LGF) which enables semi-automatic virtualization of legacy

  9. New Families of LDPC Block Codes Formed by Terminating Irregular Protograph-Based LDPC Convolutional Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, David G M; Costello, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of constructing new families of LDPC block code ensembles formed by terminating irregular protograph-based LDPC convolutional codes. Using the accumulate-repeat-by-4-jagged-accumulate (AR4JA) protograph as an example, a density evolution analysis for the binary erasure channel shows that this flexible design technique gives rise to a large selection of LDPC block code ensembles with varying code rates and thresholds close to capacity. Further, by means of an asymptotic weight enumerator analysis, we show that all the ensembles in this family also have minimum distance that grows linearly with block length, i.e., they are asymptotically good.

  10. Flexible Environmental Modeling with Python and Open - GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryet, Alexandre; Atteia, Olivier; Delottier, Hugo; Cousquer, Yohann

    2015-04-01

    Numerical modeling now represents a prominent task of environmental studies. During the last decades, numerous commercial programs have been made available to environmental modelers. These software applications offer user-friendly graphical user interfaces that allow an efficient management of many case studies. However, they suffer from a lack of flexibility and closed-source policies impede source code reviewing and enhancement for original studies. Advanced modeling studies require flexible tools capable of managing thousands of model runs for parameter optimization, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. In addition, there is a growing need for the coupling of various numerical models associating, for instance, groundwater flow modeling to multi-species geochemical reactions. Researchers have produced hundreds of open-source powerful command line programs. However, there is a need for a flexible graphical user interface allowing an efficient processing of geospatial data that comes along any environmental study. Here, we present the advantages of using the free and open-source Qgis platform and the Python scripting language for conducting environmental modeling studies. The interactive graphical user interface is first used for the visualization and pre-processing of input geospatial datasets. Python scripting language is then employed for further input data processing, call to one or several models, and post-processing of model outputs. Model results are eventually sent back to the GIS program, processed and visualized. This approach combines the advantages of interactive graphical interfaces and the flexibility of Python scripting language for data processing and model calls. The numerous python modules available facilitate geospatial data processing and numerical analysis of model outputs. Once input data has been prepared with the graphical user interface, models may be run thousands of times from the command line with sequential or parallel calls. We

  11. Programming Entity Framework Code First

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Take advantage of the Code First data modeling approach in ADO.NET Entity Framework, and learn how to build and configure a model based on existing classes in your business domain. With this concise book, you'll work hands-on with examples to learn how Code First can create an in-memory model and database by default, and how you can exert more control over the model through further configuration. Code First provides an alternative to the database first and model first approaches to the Entity Data Model. Learn the benefits of defining your model with code, whether you're working with an exis

  12. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...

  13. Recommendations for ECG diagnostic coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, R.E.; Caceres, C.A.; Cuddy, T.E.; Meijler, F.L.; Milliken, J.A.; Rautaharju, P.M.; Robles de Medina, E.O.; Willems, J.L.; Wolf, H.K.; Working Group 'Diagnostic Codes'

    1978-01-01

    The Oxford dictionary defines code as "a body of laws so related to each other as to avoid inconsistency and overlapping". It is obvious that natural language with its high degree of ambiguity does not qualify as a code in the sense of this definition. Everyday experiences provide ample evidence

  14. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  15. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  16. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  17. 40 CFR 161.35 - Flexibility of the data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flexibility of the data requirements. 161.35 Section 161.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Flexibility of the data requirements. Several provisions of this part provide EPA flexibility in requiring (or...

  18. Flexible memristive memory array on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjun; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Sung Kyu; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Keon Jae

    2011-12-14

    The demand for flexible electronic systems such as wearable computers, E-paper, and flexible displays has recently increased due to their advantages over present rigid electronic systems. Flexible memory is an essential part of electronic systems for data processing, storage, and communication and thus a key element to realize such flexible electronic systems. Although several emerging memory technologies, including resistive switching memory, have been proposed, the cell-to-cell interference issue has to be overcome for flexible and high performance nonvolatile memory applications. This paper describes the development of NOR type flexible resistive random access memory (RRAM) with a one transistor-one memristor structure (1T-1M). By integration of a high-performance single crystal silicon transistor with a titanium oxide based memristor, random access to memory cells on flexible substrates was achieved without any electrical interference from adjacent cells. The work presented here can provide a new approach to high-performance nonvolatile memory for flexible electronic applications.

  19. ERSN-OpenMC, a Java-based GUI for OpenMC Monte Carlo code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar EL Bakkali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OpenMC is a new Monte Carlo transport particle simulation code focused on solving two types of neutronic problems mainly the k-eigenvalue criticality fission source problems and external fixed fission source problems. OpenMC does not have any Graphical User Interface and the creation of one is provided by our java-based application named ERSN-OpenMC. The main feature of this application is to provide to the users an easy-to-use and flexible graphical interface to build better and faster simulations, with less effort and great reliability. Additionally, this graphical tool was developed with several features, as the ability to automate the building process of OpenMC code and related libraries as well as the users are given the freedom to customize their installation of this Monte Carlo code. A full description of the ERSN-OpenMC application is presented in this paper.

  20. Flexible Plasmonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shir, Daniel; Ballard, Zachary S.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical flexibility and the advent of scalable, low-cost, and high-throughput fabrication techniques have enabled numerous potential applications for plasmonic sensors. Sensitive and sophisticated biochemical measurements can now be performed through the use of flexible plasmonic sensors integrated into existing medical and industrial devices or sample collection units. More robust sensing schemes and practical techniques must be further investigated to fully realize the potentials of flexible plasmonics as a framework for designing low-cost, embedded and integrated sensors for medical, environmental, and industrial applications. PMID:27547023

  1. Impact of Personnel Flexibility on Job Shop Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the lack of the research on the relationship between HR flexibility and scheduling effect, a resource-competency matrix-based method was proposed in order to reveal the quantitative relationship between them. Meanwhile, a job shop scheduling model with HR flexibility was established and the improved genetic algorithm was used to solve the model. A case analysis demonstrated significant impact of HR flexibility on the scheduling effect, which provided valuable guidance for building flexible manufacturing systems.

  2. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  3. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh

    2015-01-01

    A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  4. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  5. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  6. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  7. Flexible sliding seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhorst, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Circular seal both slides and flexes to accomodate relative motion between two sealed members. Originally developed for Space Shuttle orbiter, it contains sliding seal to accommodate engine gimbaling and flexible seal that absorbs forward motion at high thrust of engine heat shield relative to airframe. Other possible applications are in support structures of heavy machinery and vehicle engines. Flexible sliding seal is ring about 7 feet in diameter and can withstand temperatures up to 1,600 F.

  8. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  9. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  10. Golay and other box codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6x4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (63,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  11. FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 160 FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (Web, free access)   FLYCHK provides a capability to generate atomic level populations and charge state distributions for low-Z to mid-Z elements under NLTE conditions.

  12. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...

  13. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  14. Flexibility-enabling Contracts in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    power systems. However, due to presence of high transaction costs, relative to the size of resource, the emerging small resources cannot directly participate in an organised electricity market and/or compete. This paper asks the fundamental question of how should the provision of flexibility, as a multi....... Additionally, along with traditional sources, which already enable flexibility, a number of business models, such as thermostat-based demand response, aggregators and small storage providers, are emerging in electricity markets and expected to constitute important sources of flexibility in future decentralised...

  15. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  16. Prospective coding in event representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    A perceived event such as a visual stimulus in the external world and a to-be-produced event such as an intentional action are subserved by event representations. Event representations do not only contain information about present states but also about past and future states. Here we focus on the role of representing future states in event perception and generation (i.e., prospective coding). Relevant theoretical issues and paradigms are discussed. We suggest that the predictive power of the motor system may be exploited for prospective coding not only in producing but also in perceiving events. Predicting is more advantageous than simply reacting. Perceptual prediction allows us to select appropriate responses ahead of the realization of an (anticipated) event and therefore, it is indispensable to flexibly and timely adapt to new situations and thus, successfully interact with our physical and social environment.

  17. Code Development for Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce Li, Kevin Shing; Hegglin, Stefan Eduard; Iadarola, Giovanni; Oeftiger, Adrian; Passarelli, Andrea; Romano, Annalisa; Rumolo, Giovanni; Schenk, Michael; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will cover approaches and strategies of modeling and implementing collective effects in modern simulation codes. We will review some of the general approaches to numerically model collective beam dynamics in circular accelerators. We will then look into modern ways of implementing collective effects with a focus on plainness, modularity and flexibility, using the example of the PyHEADTAIL framework, and highlight some of the advantages and drawbacks emerging from this method. To ameliorate one of the main drawbacks, namely a potential loss of performance compared to the classical fully compiled codes, several options for speed improvements will be mentioned and discussed. Finally some examples and applications will be shown together with future plans and perspectives.

  18. On the Performance of a Multi-Edge Type LDPC Code for Coded Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronie, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to combine error-correction coding and spectral-efficient modulation for transmission over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. The code employs signal shaping which can provide a so-called shaping gain. The code belongs to the family of sparse graph codes for which

  19. A genetic code alteration is a phenotype diversity generator in the human pathogen Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The discovery of genetic code alterations and expansions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes abolished the hypothesis of a frozen and universal genetic code and exposed unanticipated flexibility in codon and amino acid assignments. It is now clear that codon identity alterations involve sense and non-sense codons and can occur in organisms with complex genomes and proteomes. However, the biological functions, the molecular mechanisms of evolution and the diversity of genetic code alterations remain largely unknown. In various species of the genus Candida, the leucine CUG codon is decoded as serine by a unique serine tRNA that contains a leucine 5'-CAG-3'anticodon (tRNA(CAG(Ser. We are using this codon identity redefinition as a model system to elucidate the evolution of genetic code alterations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have reconstructed the early stages of the Candida genetic code alteration by engineering tRNAs that partially reverted the identity of serine CUG codons back to their standard leucine meaning. Such genetic code manipulation had profound cellular consequences as it exposed important morphological variation, altered gene expression, re-arranged the karyotype, increased cell-cell adhesion and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first experimental evidence for an important role of genetic code alterations as generators of phenotypic diversity of high selective potential and supports the hypothesis that they speed up evolution of new phenotypes.

  20. MetaJC++: A flexible and automatic program transformation technique using meta framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Nadera; Reghu, M.; Chitraprasad, D.; Vinodchandra, S.

    2014-09-01

    Compiler is a tool to translate abstract code containing natural language terms to machine code. Meta compilers are available to compile more than one languages. We have developed a meta framework intends to combine two dissimilar programming languages, namely C++ and Java to provide a flexible object oriented programming platform for the user. Suitable constructs from both the languages have been combined, thereby forming a new and stronger Meta-Language. The framework is developed using the compiler writing tools, Flex and Yacc to design the front end of the compiler. The lexer and parser have been developed to accommodate the complete keyword set and syntax set of both the languages. Two intermediate representations have been used in between the translation of the source program to machine code. Abstract Syntax Tree has been used as a high level intermediate representation that preserves the hierarchical properties of the source program. A new machine-independent stack-based byte-code has also been devised to act as a low level intermediate representation. The byte-code is essentially organised into an output class file that can be used to produce an interpreted output. The results especially in the spheres of providing C++ concepts in Java have given an insight regarding the potential strong features of the resultant meta-language.

  1. Integrated and flexible multichannel interface for electrotactile stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Matija; Belić, Minja; Isaković, Milica; Kojić, Vladimir; Bijelić, Goran; Popović, Igor; Radotić, Milutin; Došen, Strahinja; Marković, Marko; Farina, Dario; Keller, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Objective. The aim of the present work was to develop and test a flexible electrotactile stimulation system to provide real-time feedback to the prosthesis user. The system requirements were to accommodate the capabilities of advanced multi-DOF myoelectric hand prostheses and transmit the feedback variables (proprioception and force) using intuitive coding, with high resolution and after minimal training. Approach. We developed a fully-programmable and integrated electrotactile interface supporting time and space distributed stimulation over custom designed flexible array electrodes. The system implements low-level access to individual stimulation channels as well as a set of high-level mapping functions translating the state of a multi-DoF prosthesis (aperture, grasping force, wrist rotation) into a set of predefined dynamic stimulation profiles. The system was evaluated using discrimination tests employing spatial and frequency coding (10 able-bodied subjects) and dynamic patterns (10 able-bodied and 6 amputee subjects). The outcome measure was the success rate (SR) in discrimination. Main results. The more practical electrode with the common anode configuration performed similarly to the more usual concentric arrangement. The subjects could discriminate six spatial and four frequency levels with SR >90% after a few minutes of training, whereas the performance significantly deteriorated for more levels. The dynamic patterns were intuitive for the subjects, although amputees showed lower SR than able-bodied individuals (86% ± 10% versus 99% ± 3%). Significance. The tests demonstrated that the system was easy to setup and apply. The design and resolution of the multipad electrode was evaluated. Importantly, the novel dynamic patterns, which were successfully tested, can be superimposed to transmit multiple feedback variables intuitively and simultaneously. This is especially relevant for closing the loop in modern multifunction prostheses. Therefore, the proposed

  2. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show...

  3. Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Cui, Li; Feng, Yijun; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Zhu, Bo

    2017-03-06

    Metasurfaces have promised great possibilities in full control of the electromagnetic wavefront by spatially manipulating the phase characteristics across the interface. Here, we report a scheme to realize broadband backward scattering reduction through diffusion-like microwave reflection by utilizing a flexible indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-based ultrathin coding metasurface (less than 0.1 wavelength thick) with high optical transparence. The diffusion-like scattering is caused by the destructive interference of the scattered far-field electromagnetic wave, which is further attributed to the randomly distributed reflection phases on the metasurface composed of pre-designed meta-atoms arranged with a computer-generated pseudorandom coding sequence. Both simulation and measurement on fabricated prototype sample have been carried out to validate its performance, demonstrating a polarization-independent broadband (nearly from 8 GHz to 15 GHz) 10 dB scattering reduction with good oblique performance. The excellent performances can also be preserved to conformal cases when the flexible metasurface is uniformly wrapped around a metallic cylinder. The proposed metasurface may create new opportunities to tailor the exotic microwave scattering features with simultaneously high transmittance in visible frequencies, which could provide crucial benefits in many practical uses, such as window and solar panel applications.

  4. Flexible Learning in an Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edited by Badrul H. Khan and Reviewed by Dr. Adile Aşkım Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Badrul H. Khan, Director of the Educational Technology Leadership graduate cohort program at The George Washington University, and published by Information Science Publishing an imprint of Idea Group Inc.The information age has brought about many ways for educators to help their students learn, creating an atmosphere where the learners desire flexibility in the way they learn. With the increasing use of variety of approaches for learning, students’ preferences are changing from wanting to be taught mostly in lectures or direct training sessions to wanting increased flexibility. Students expect on demand anytime/anywhere high-quality learning environments with good support services. They want increased flexibility.This book uses a flexible learning framework to create meaningful flexible learning environments. This framework consists of eight factors; institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation. This book presents a broad understanding of the emerging field of flexible learning and provides guidance in creating these environments. The book has thirty chapters, encompass various critical issues dealing with one or more categories of the flexible learning framework and offer a variety of points of view on these issues.

  5. A Survey of Linear Network Coding and Network Error Correction Code Constructions and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Sanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding was introduced by Ahlswede et al. in a pioneering work in 2000. This paradigm encompasses coding and retransmission of messages at the intermediate nodes of the network. In contrast with traditional store-and-forward networking, network coding increases the throughput and the robustness of the transmission. Linear network coding is a practical implementation of this new paradigm covered by several research works that include rate characterization, error-protection coding, and construction of codes. Especially determining the coding characteristics has its importance in providing the premise for an efficient transmission. In this paper, we review the recent breakthroughs in linear network coding for acyclic networks with a survey of code constructions literature. Deterministic construction algorithms and randomized procedures are presented for traditional network coding and for network-control network coding.

  6. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  7. Error coding simulations in C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1994-10-01

    When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

  8. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors......, barriers, and benefits), energy management activities and technology adoptions, and the stakeholders’ interaction for the energy flexibility in retail buildings....

  9. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  10. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is propose...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors.......The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  11. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  12. Flexible Quantum Oblivious Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Yang, Rui; Cao, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2017-04-01

    We propose a flexible protocol for one-out-of- nquantum oblivious transfer (QOT) Compared with existing QOT protocols, our protocol is more flexible. We demonstrate that, by adjusting the value of 𝜃 the flexible one-out-of- nQOT is allowable where n can be located theoretically on any value the communicating parties wanted. Meanwhile, it also meets the rigorous security requirements of the oblivious transfer (OT) definition, which ensures Bob can receive on average one of n messages held by Alice, while Alice cannot know which one Bob has received. Finally, we analyze the security of our protocol and show that it is not based on quantum bit commitment and does not violate Lo's no-go theorem so that its security can be achieved.

  13. Flexible Antibacterial Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Jindřich

    2017-05-16

    This article reviews the present state of the art in the field of flexible antibacterial coatings which efficiently kill bacteria on their surfaces. Coatings are formed using a reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of the elemental composition and structure of the coating on its antibacterial and mechanical properties is explained. The properties of Cr-Cu-O, Al-Cu-N, and Zr-Cu-N antibacterial coatings are used as examples and described in detail. The efficiency of killing of bacteria was tested for the Escherichia coli bacterium. The principle of the formation of thick, flexible antibacterial coatings which are resistant to cracking under bending is explained. It is shown that magnetron sputtering enables production of robust, several-micrometer thick, flexible antibacterial coatings for long-term use. The antibacterial coatings produced by magnetron sputtering present huge potential for many applications.

  14. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  15. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  16. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system.......The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  17. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  18. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  19. Codes of Ethics and Teachers' Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Marina; Maxwell, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators--namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic--the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics.…

  20. UEP LT Codes with Intermediate Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a class of rateless codes, called Luby transform (LT) codes with unequal error protection (UEP). We show that while these codes successfully provide UEP, there is a significant price in terms of redundancy in the lower prioritized segments. We propose a modification with a single inter...

  1. Photo-z-SQL: Integrated, flexible photometric redshift computation in a database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R.; Dobos, L.; Budavári, T.; Szalay, A. S.; Csabai, I.

    2017-04-01

    We present a flexible template-based photometric redshift estimation framework, implemented in C#, that can be seamlessly integrated into a SQL database (or DB) server and executed on-demand in SQL. The DB integration eliminates the need to move large photometric datasets outside a database for redshift estimation, and utilizes the computational capabilities of DB hardware. The code is able to perform both maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation, and can handle inputs of variable photometric filter sets and corresponding broad-band magnitudes. It is possible to take into account the full covariance matrix between filters, and filter zero points can be empirically calibrated using measurements with given redshifts. The list of spectral templates and the prior can be specified flexibly, and the expensive synthetic magnitude computations are done via lazy evaluation, coupled with a caching of results. Parallel execution is fully supported. For large upcoming photometric surveys such as the LSST, the ability to perform in-place photo-z calculation would be a significant advantage. Also, the efficient handling of variable filter sets is a necessity for heterogeneous databases, for example the Hubble Source Catalog, and for cross-match services such as SkyQuery. We illustrate the performance of our code on two reference photo-z estimation testing datasets, and provide an analysis of execution time and scalability with respect to different configurations. The code is available for download at https://github.com/beckrob/Photo-z-SQL.

  2. Neural Decoder for Topological Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors.

  3. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  4. Flexible experimental FPGA based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental flexible Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based platform for testing and verifying digital controlled dc-dc converters. The platform supports different types of control strategies, dc-dc converter topologies and switching frequencies. The controller platform...... interface supporting configuration and reading of setup parameters, controller status and the acquisition memory in a simple way. The FPGA based platform, provides an easy way within education or research to use different digital control strategies and different converter topologies controlled by an FPGA...

  5. A Flexible Online Metadata Editing and Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Raul [Arizona State University; Pan, Jerry Yun [ORNL; Gries, Corinna [Arizona State University; Inigo, Gil San [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A metadata editing and management system is being developed employing state of the art XML technologies. A modular and distributed design was chosen for scalability, flexibility, options for customizations, and the possibility to add more functionality at a later stage. The system consists of a desktop design tool or schema walker used to generate code for the actual online editor, a native XML database, and an online user access management application. The design tool is a Java Swing application that reads an XML schema, provides the designer with options to combine input fields into online forms and give the fields user friendly tags. Based on design decisions, the tool generates code for the online metadata editor. The code generated is an implementation of the XForms standard using the Orbeon Framework. The design tool fulfills two requirements: First, data entry forms based on one schema may be customized at design time and second data entry applications may be generated for any valid XML schema without relying on custom information in the schema. However, the customized information generated at design time is saved in a configuration file which may be re-used and changed again in the design tool. Future developments will add functionality to the design tool to integrate help text, tool tips, project specific keyword lists, and thesaurus services. Additional styling of the finished editor is accomplished via cascading style sheets which may be further customized and different look-and-feels may be accumulated through the community process. The customized editor produces XML files in compliance with the original schema, however, data from the current page is saved into a native XML database whenever the user moves to the next screen or pushes the save button independently of validity. Currently the system uses the open source XML database eXist for storage and management, which comes with third party online and desktop management tools. However, access to

  6. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  7. Risks of flexible ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J S

    2018-01-01

    Currently, indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) are expanding, mainly due to technological advancements. Although data from clinical series definitely presents fURS as a safe procedure, serious complications including sepsis and ureteral lesions do occur. These complications seem to b......, ureteral access sheaths, safty guidewires, pain medication, prestenting and pharmacologic modulation of pyeloureteral dynamics are reviewed from a pathophysiological perspective....

  8. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  9. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  10. UNIX code management and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, T.; Kunz, P.F.

    1992-09-01

    We describe a code management and distribution system based on tools freely available for the UNIX systems. At the master site, version control is managed with CVS, which is a layer on top of RCS, and distribution is done via NFS mounted file systems. At remote sites, small modifications to CVS provide for interactive transactions with the CVS system at the master site such that remote developers are true peers in the code development process.

  11. Measures of Potential Flexibility and Practical Flexibility in Equation Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers interested in mathematical proficiency have recently begun to explore the development of strategic flexibility, where flexibility is defined as knowledge of multiple strategies for solving a problem and the ability to implement an innovative strategy for a given problem solving circumstance. However, anecdotal findings from this literature indicate that students do not consistently use an innovative strategy for solving a given problem, even when these same students demonstrate knowledge of innovative strategies. This distinction, sometimes framed in the psychological literature as competence vs. performance—has not been previously studied for flexibility. In order to explore the competence/performance distinction in flexibility, this study developed and validated measures for potential flexibility (e.g., competence, or knowledge of multiple strategies and practical flexibility (e.g., performance, use of innovative strategies for solving equations. The measures were administrated to a sample of 158 Chinese middle school students through a Tri-Phase Flexibility Assessment, in which the students were asked to solve each equation, generate additional strategies, and evaluate own multiple strategies. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of potential and practical flexibility. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for the measures. Additional validity evidence included the significant association with flexibility measured with the previous method. Potential flexibility and practical flexibility were found to be distinct but related. The theoretical and practical implications of the concepts and their measures of potential flexibility and practical flexibility are discussed.

  12. Measures of Potential Flexibility and Practical Flexibility in Equation Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Liu, Ru-De; Star, Jon R.; Wang, Jia; Liu, Ying; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Researchers interested in mathematical proficiency have recently begun to explore the development of strategic flexibility, where flexibility is defined as knowledge of multiple strategies for solving a problem and the ability to implement an innovative strategy for a given problem solving circumstance. However, anecdotal findings from this literature indicate that students do not consistently use an innovative strategy for solving a given problem, even when these same students demonstrate knowledge of innovative strategies. This distinction, sometimes framed in the psychological literature as competence vs. performance—has not been previously studied for flexibility. In order to explore the competence/performance distinction in flexibility, this study developed and validated measures for potential flexibility (e.g., competence, or knowledge of multiple strategies) and practical flexibility (e.g., performance, use of innovative strategies) for solving equations. The measures were administrated to a sample of 158 Chinese middle school students through a Tri-Phase Flexibility Assessment, in which the students were asked to solve each equation, generate additional strategies, and evaluate own multiple strategies. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of potential and practical flexibility. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for the measures. Additional validity evidence included the significant association with flexibility measured with the previous method. Potential flexibility and practical flexibility were found to be distinct but related. The theoretical and practical implications of the concepts and their measures of potential flexibility and practical flexibility are discussed. PMID:28848481

  13. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  14. Framework for Flexible Security in Group Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patrick; Prakash, Atul

    2006-01-01

    The Antigone software system defines a framework for the flexible definition and implementation of security policies in group communication systems. Antigone does not dictate the available security policies, but provides high-level mechanisms for implementing them. A central element of the Antigone architecture is a suite of such mechanisms comprising micro-protocols that provide the basic services needed by secure groups.

  15. Working research codes into fluid dynamics education: a science gateway approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lachlan; Hetherington, James; O'Reilly, Martin; Yong, May; Jersakova, Radka; Grieve, Stuart; Perez-Suarez, David; Klapaukh, Roman; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-11-01

    Research codes are effective for illustrating complex concepts in educational fluid dynamics courses, compared to textbook examples, an interactive three-dimensional visualisation can bring a problem to life! Various barriers, however, prevent the adoption of research codes in teaching: codes are typically created for highly-specific `once-off' calculations and, as such, have no user interface and a steep learning curve. Moreover, a code may require access to high-performance computing resources that are not readily available in the classroom. This project allows academics to rapidly work research codes into their teaching via a minimalist `science gateway' framework. The gateway is a simple, yet flexible, web interface allowing students to construct and run simulations, as well as view and share their output. Behind the scenes, the common operations of job configuration, submission, monitoring and post-processing are customisable at the level of shell scripting. In this talk, we demonstrate the creation of an example teaching gateway connected to the Code BLUE fluid dynamics software. Student simulations can be run via a third-party cloud computing provider or a local high-performance cluster. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  16. Algebraic geometric codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahshahani, M.

    1991-01-01

    The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

  17. Monomial-like codes

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Moro, Edgar; Ozbudak, Ferruh; Szabo, Steve

    2010-01-01

    As a generalization of cyclic codes of length p^s over F_{p^a}, we study n-dimensional cyclic codes of length p^{s_1} X ... X p^{s_n} over F_{p^a} generated by a single "monomial". Namely, we study multi-variable cyclic codes of the form in F_{p^a}[x_1...x_n] / . We call such codes monomial-like codes. We show that these codes arise from the product of certain single variable codes and we determine their minimum Hamming distance. We determine the dual of monomial-like codes yielding a parity check matrix. We also present an alternative way of constructing a parity check matrix using the Hasse derivative. We study the weight hierarchy of certain monomial like codes. We simplify an expression that gives us the weight hierarchy of these codes.

  18. The ZPIC educational code suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, R.; Pardal, M.; Ninhos, P.; Helm, A.; Mori, W. B.; Decyk, V. K.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) codes are used in almost all areas of plasma physics, such as fusion energy research, plasma accelerators, space physics, ion propulsion, and plasma processing, and many other areas. In this work, we present the ZPIC educational code suite, a new initiative to foster training in plasma physics using computer simulations. Leveraging on our expertise and experience from the development and use of the OSIRIS PIC code, we have developed a suite of 1D/2D fully relativistic electromagnetic PIC codes, as well as 1D electrostatic. These codes are self-contained and require only a standard laptop/desktop computer with a C compiler to be run. The output files are written in a new file format called ZDF that can be easily read using the supplied routines in a number of languages, such as Python, and IDL. The code suite also includes a number of example problems that can be used to illustrate several textbook and advanced plasma mechanisms, including instructions for parameter space exploration. We also invite contributions to this repository of test problems that will be made freely available to the community provided the input files comply with the format defined by the ZPIC team. The code suite is freely available and hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/zambzamb/zpic. Work partially supported by PICKSC.

  19. The Flutter Shutter Code Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the flutter shutter is to make uniform motion blur invertible, by a"fluttering" shutter that opens and closes on a sequence of well chosen sub-intervals of the exposure time interval. In other words, the photon flux is modulated according to a well chosen sequence calledflutter shutter code. This article provides a numerical method that computes optimal flutter shutter codes in terms of mean square error (MSE. We assume that the observed objects follow a known (or learned random velocity distribution. In this paper, Gaussian and uniform velocity distributions are considered. Snapshots are also optimized taking the velocity distribution into account. For each velocity distribution, the gain of the optimal flutter shutter code with respectto the optimal snapshot in terms of MSE is computed. This symmetric optimization of theflutter shutter and of the snapshot allows to compare on an equal footing both solutions, i.e. camera designs. Optimal flutter shutter codes are demonstrated to improve substantially the MSE compared to classic (patented or not codes. A numerical method that permits to perform a reverse engineering of any existing (patented or not flutter shutter codes is also describedand an implementation is given. In this case we give the underlying velocity distribution fromwhich a given optimal flutter shutter code comes from. The combination of these two numerical methods furnishes a comprehensive study of the optimization of a flutter shutter that includes a forward and a backward numerical solution.

  20. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  1. Content layer progressive coding of digital maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Ole Riis

    2000-01-01

    A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the WWW. Progressive encoding is achieved by separating the image into content layers based on other predefined information. Information from...... already coded layers are used when coding subsequent layers. This approach is combined with efficient template based context bi-level coding, context collapsing methods for multi-level images and arithmetic coding. Relative pixel patterns are used to collapse contexts. The number of contexts are analyzed....... The new methods outperform existing coding schemes coding digital maps and in addition provide progressive coding. Compared to the state-of-the-art PWC coder, the compressed size is reduced to 60-70% on our layered test images....

  2. Performance of Turbo Code with Different Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Jasim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are one of error correction coding where the errors which may be added into the transmission data through a communication channel can be detected and corrected, these codes provided for long codewords with decoding complexity. Turbo code is one of the concatenated codes connected in serial or in parallel for transmission data with great throughput and achieve near Shannon limit. This paper presents the performance of turbo code with different parameters such as (number of iteration, type of decoding techniques, length of code, rate, generator polynomial and type of channel get the Bit Error Rate (BER for each case, then compare the results to specify the parameters which give the optimum performance of this code. The system is simulated by using MATLAB R2016b program.

  3. Probabilistic Decision Based Block Partitioning for Future Video Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhao

    2017-11-29

    In the latest Joint Video Exploration Team development, the quadtree plus binary tree (QTBT) block partitioning structure has been proposed for future video coding. Compared to the traditional quadtree structure of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, QTBT provides more flexible patterns for splitting the blocks, which results in dramatically increased combinations of block partitions and high computational complexity. In view of this, a confidence interval based early termination (CIET) scheme is proposed for QTBT to identify the unnecessary partition modes in the sense of rate-distortion (RD) optimization. In particular, a RD model is established to predict the RD cost of each partition pattern without the full encoding process. Subsequently, the mode decision problem is casted into a probabilistic framework to select the final partition based on the confidence interval decision strategy. Experimental results show that the proposed CIET algorithm can speed up QTBT block partitioning structure by reducing 54.7% encoding time with only 1.12% increase in terms of bit rate. Moreover, the proposed scheme performs consistently well for the high resolution sequences, of which the video coding efficiency is crucial in real applications.

  4. ANNA: A Convolutional Neural Network Code for Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Brown, Donald; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    We present ANNA, a Python-based convolutional neural network code for the automated analysis of stellar spectra. ANNA provides a flexible framework that allows atmospheric parameters such as temperature and metallicity to be determined with accuracies comparable to those of established but less efficient techniques. ANNA performs its parameterization extremely quickly; typically several thousand spectra can be analyzed in less than a second. Additionally, the code incorporates features which greatly speed up the training process necessary for the neural network to measure spectra accurately, resulting in a tool that can easily be run on a single desktop or laptop computer. Thus, ANNA is useful in an era when spectrographs increasingly have the capability to collect dozens to hundreds of spectra each night. This talk will cover the basic features included in ANNA and demonstrate its performance in two use cases: an open cluster abundance analysis involving several hundred spectra, and a metal-rich field star study. Applicability of the code to large survey datasets will also be discussed.

  5. An object-oriented scripting interface to a legacy electronic structure code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2002-01-01

    The authors have created an object-oriented scripting interface to a mature density functional theory code. The interface gives users a high-level, flexible handle on the code without rewriting the underlying number-crunching code. The authors also discuss design issues and the advantages of homo...

  6. Flexible network wireless transceiver and flexible network telemetry transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-05

    A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.

  7. Flexible Hinges in Bacterial Chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaladevi, Narahari; Bunyak, Filiz; Stalla, David; White, Tommi A; Hazelbauer, Gerald L

    2018-03-01

    Transmembrane bacterial chemoreceptors are extended, rod-shaped homodimers with ligand-binding sites at one end and interaction sites for signaling complex formation and histidine kinase control at the other. There are atomic-resolution structures of chemoreceptor fragments but not of intact, membrane-inserted receptors. Electron tomography of in vivo signaling complex arrays lack distinct densities for chemoreceptor rods away from the well-ordered base plate region, implying structural heterogeneity. We used negative staining, transmission electron microscopy, and image analysis to characterize the molecular shapes of intact homodimers of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar rendered functional by insertion into nanodisc-provided E. coli lipid bilayers. Single-particle analysis plus tomography of particles in a three-dimensional matrix revealed two bend loci in the chemoreceptor cytoplasmic domain, (i) a short, two-strand gap between the membrane-proximal, four-helix-bundle HAMP (histidine kinases, adenylyl cyclases, methyl-accepting chemoreceptors, and phosphatases) domain and the membrane-distal, four-helix coiled coil and (ii) aligned glycines in the extended, four-helix coiled coil, the position of a bend noted in the previous X-ray structure of a receptor fragment. Our images showed HAMP bends from 0° to ∼13° and glycine bends from 0° to ∼20°, suggesting that the loci are flexible hinges. Variable hinge bending explains indistinct densities for receptor rods outside the base plate region in subvolume averages of chemotaxis arrays. Bending at flexible hinges was not correlated with the chemoreceptor signaling state. However, our analyses showed that chemoreceptor bending avoided what would otherwise be steric clashes between neighboring receptors that would block the formation of core signaling complexes and chemoreceptor arrays. IMPORTANCE This work provides new information about the shape of transmembrane bacterial chemoreceptors, crucial

  8. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a century, the phenomenon has not played a role in the development of linguistic typology or modern grammatical theory. The current volume aims to address this gap by offering detailed studies on flexible word classes, investigating their properties and what it means for the grammar of a language to have...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  9. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  10. Flexible electronic eardrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gu; Xuewen Wang; Wen Gu; Yongjin Wu; Tie Li; Ting Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Flexible mechanosensors with a high sensitivity and fast response speed may advance the wearable and implantable applications of healthcare devices,such as real-time heart rate,pulse,and respiration monitoring.In this paper,we introduce a novel flexible electronic eardrum (EE) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes,polyethylene,and polydimethylsiloxane with micro-structured pyramid arrays.The EE device shows a high sensitivity,high signal-to-noise ratio (approximately 55 dB),and fast response time (76.9 μs) in detecting and recording sound within a frequency domain of 20-13,000 Hz.The mechanism for sound detection is investigated and the sensitivity is determined using the micro-structure,thickness,and strain state.We also demonstrated that the device is able to distinguish human voices.This unprecedented performance of the flexible electronic eardrum has implications for many applications such as implantable acoustical bioelectronics and personal voice recognition.

  11. Measuring process flexibility and agility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2010-01-01

    In their attempt to improve their systems and architectures, organizations need to be aware of the types of flexibility and agility and the current level of each type of flexibility and agility. Flexibility is the general ability to react to changes, whilst agility is the speed in responding to

  12. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  13. The Modularized Software Package ASKI - Full Waveform Inversion Based on Waveform Sensitivity Kernels Utilizing External Seismic Wave Propagation Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present the modularized software package ASKI which is a flexible and extendable toolbox for seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as sensitivity or resolution analysis operating on the sensitivity matrix. It utilizes established wave propagation codes for solving the forward problem and offers an alternative to the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have typically been written for solving inverse problems. It is available under the GPL at www.rub.de/aski. The Gauss-Newton FWI method for 3D-heterogeneous elastic earth models is based on waveform sensitivity kernels and can be applied to inverse problems at various spatial scales in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. The kernels are derived in the frequency domain from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters on the particular waveform data values. As an important innovation, we keep two independent spatial descriptions of the earth model - one for solving the forward problem and one representing the inverted model updates. Thereby we account for the independent needs of spatial model resolution of forward and inverse problem, respectively. Due to pre-integration of the kernels over the (in general much coarser) inversion grid, storage requirements for the sensitivity kernels are dramatically reduced.ASKI can be flexibly extended to other forward codes by providing it with specific interface routines that contain knowledge about forward code-specific file formats and auxiliary information provided by the new forward code. In order to sustain flexibility, the ASKI tools must communicate via file output/input, thus large storage capacities need to be accessible in a convenient way. Storing the complete sensitivity matrix to file, however, permits the scientist full manual control over each step in a customized procedure of sensitivity/resolution analysis and full

  14. Source Coding for Wireless Distributed Microphones in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel

    2016-01-01

    the distributed source coding part, we use zero error coding as a suboptimal implementation. We show that significant gains are achievable using the sufficient statistics for joint coding, and small gains can also be obtained by our suboptimal implementation of the distributed source coding scenario......Modern multimedia systems are more and more shifting toward distributed and networked structures. This includes audio systems, where networks of wireless distributed microphones are replacing the traditional microphone arrays. This allows for flexibility of placement and high spatial diversity...... for the transmitting microphone to reduce the rate by using distributed source coding. Within this framework, we apply our coding schemes to Gaussian signals as well as audio measurements and compare the rate-distortion performances for distributed and non-distributed source coding scenarios. We also compare...

  15. Code-Mixing and Code Switchingin The Process of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe a form of code switching and code mixing specific form found in the teaching and learning activities in the classroom as well as determining factors influencing events stand out that form of code switching and code mixing in question.Form of this research is descriptive qualitative case study which took place in Al Mawaddah Boarding School Ponorogo. Based on the analysis and discussion that has been stated in the previous chapter that the form of code mixing and code switching learning activities in Al Mawaddah Boarding School is in between the use of either language Java language, Arabic, English and Indonesian, on the use of insertion of words, phrases, idioms, use of nouns, adjectives, clauses, and sentences. Code mixing deciding factor in the learning process include: Identification of the role, the desire to explain and interpret, sourced from the original language and its variations, is sourced from a foreign language. While deciding factor in the learning process of code, includes: speakers (O1, partners speakers (O2, the presence of a third person (O3, the topic of conversation, evoke a sense of humour, and just prestige. The significance of this study is to allow readers to see the use of language in a multilingual society, especially in AL Mawaddah boarding school about the rules and characteristics variation in the language of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Furthermore, the results of this research will provide input to the ustadz / ustadzah and students in developing oral communication skills and the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies in boarding schools.

  16. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. L.; Vierinen, J.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products, such as wind fields. This type of a radar would also be useful for over-the-horizon radar, ionosondes, and observations of field-aligned-irregularities.

  17. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Budagavi, Madhukar; Sullivan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This book provides developers, engineers, researchers and students with detailed knowledge about the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. HEVC is the successor to the widely successful H.264/AVC video compression standard, and it provides around twice as much compression as H.264/AVC for the same level of quality. The applications for HEVC will not only cover the space of the well-known current uses and capabilities of digital video – they will also include the deployment of new services and the delivery of enhanced video quality, such as ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) and video with higher dynamic range, wider range of representable color, and greater representation precision than what is typically found today. HEVC is the next major generation of video coding design – a flexible, reliable and robust solution that will support the next decade of video applications and ease the burden of video on world-wide network traffic. This book provides a detailed explanation of the various parts ...

  18. Global hydroelastic model for springing and whipping based on a free-surface CFD code (OpenFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Seng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical background and a numerical solution procedure for a time domain hydroelastic code are presented in this paper. The code combines a VOF-based free surface flow solver with a flexible body motion solver where the body linear elastic deformation is described by a modal superposition of dry mode shapes expressed in a local floating frame of reference. These mode shapes can be obtained from any finite element code. The floating frame undergoes a pseudo rigid-body motion which allows for a large rigid body translation and rotation and fully preserves the coupling with the local structural deformation. The formulation relies on the ability of the flow solver to provide the total fluid action on the body including e.g. the viscous forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, slamming forces and the fluid damping. A numerical simulation of a flexible barge is provided and compared to experiments to show that the VOF-based flow solver has this ability and the code has the potential to predict the global hydroelastic responses accurately.

  19. Cracking the Code: Assessing Institutional Compliance with the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Suzanne E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of institutional authorship policies as required by the "Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research" (the "Code") (National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the Australian Research Council (ARC) & Universities Australia (UA) 2007), and assesses them for Code compliance.…

  20. TIPONLINE Code Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coded items are entered in the tiponline data entry program. The codes and their explanations are necessary in order to use the data

  1. Particle-in-Cell Code BEAMPATH for Beam Dynamics Simulations in Linear Accelerators and Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Y.

    2004-10-28

    A code library BEAMPATH for 2 - dimensional and 3 - dimensional space charge dominated beam dynamics study in linear particle accelerators and beam transport lines is developed. The program is used for particle-in-cell simulation of axial-symmetric, quadrupole-symmetric and z-uniform beams in a channel containing RF gaps, radio-frequency quadrupoles, multipole lenses, solenoids and bending magnets. The programming method includes hierarchical program design using program-independent modules and a flexible combination of modules to provide the most effective version of the structure for every specific case of simulation. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented.

  2. Network coded software defined networking: enabling 5G transmission and storage networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  3. Global Analysis of Flexible Risers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Flexible pipes are often a technically attractive alternative to the traditional steel pipe. Often commercial utilisation of oil/gas fields depends on the use of flexible pipes. An example is when floating production vessels are used, where the flexible pipe follows the wave induced motions...... and thus resists the loading from the environment in a more suitable way.A flexible pipe is a composite structure, built up of several layers each having a specific function. Due to the flexibility, the response of the pipe in wave induced motions are governed by a complex hydroelastic set of differential...... equations.An important part in the design of flexible pipes is the end fitting. The purpose of the end fitting is mainly to connect pipe units, but it also combines and terminates the different layers of the flexible pipe. The end fitting system contains a bending stiffener and an end fitting. The bending...

  4. Genetic code for sine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  5. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...... are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......-line learning on data streams; and intelligent information extraction from texts....

  6. Aprendizajes abiertos y flexibles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Palmero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los principales activos que han aportado las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) al campo educativo, principalmente en estos últimos años con la aparición de aplicaciones y herramientas de la denominada Web 2.0, ha sido el gran abanico de posibilidades que se han abierto en el ámbito del aprendizaje formal e informal en entornos abiertos y flexibles. Hoy en día, la necesidad de flexibilizar y adaptar la oferta formativa a la realidad que nos rodea, en donde se est...

  7. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  8. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...

  9. Tuned mass absorber on a flexible structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2014-01-01

    The classic design of a tuned mass absorber is based on a simple two-mass analogy in which the tuned mass is connected to the structural mass with a spring and a viscous damper. In a flexible multi-degree-of-freedom structure the tuned mass absorber is typically introduced to provide damping of a...

  10. Flexible Sensor Network Reprogramming for Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Kuper, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Besides the currently realized applications, Wireless Sensor Networks can be put to use in logistics processes. However, doing so requires a level of flexibility and safety not provided by the current WSN software platforms. This paper discusses a logistics scenario, and presents SensorScheme, a

  11. Management of Gastrointestinal Foreign bodies using Flexible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After informed consent was obtained, light sedation and anesthesia were provided using IV diazepam, and oral xylocaline spray, flexible Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed using standard procedure. Once identified, the FB was removed by FB grasper/forceps. Results: A total of 25 patients, 10 children ...

  12. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  13. Two Perspectives on the Origin of the Standard Genetic Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Supratim; Aggarwal, Neha; Bandhu, Ashutosh Vishwa

    2014-12-01

    The origin of a genetic code made it possible to create ordered sequences of amino acids. In this article we provide two perspectives on code origin by carrying out simulations of code-sequence coevolution in finite populations with the aim of examining how the standard genetic code may have evolved from more primitive code(s) encoding a small number of amino acids. We determine the efficacy of the physico-chemical hypothesis of code origin in the absence and presence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) by allowing a diverse collection of code-sequence sets to compete with each other. We find that in the absence of horizontal gene transfer, natural selection between competing codes distinguished by differences in the degree of physico-chemical optimization is unable to explain the structure of the standard genetic code. However, for certain probabilities of the horizontal transfer events, a universal code emerges having a structure that is consistent with the standard genetic code.

  14. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  15. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  16. Mounting for diodes provides efficient heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Efficient heat sink is provided by soldering diodes to metal support bars which are brazed to a ceramic base. Electrical connections between diodes on adjacent bars are made flexible by metal strips which aid in heat dissipation.

  17. The Procions` code; Le code Procions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, D.; Samba, G.

    1994-12-19

    This paper presents a new code to simulate plasmas generated by inertial confinement. This multi-kinds kinetic code is done with no angular approximation concerning ions and will work in plan and spherical geometry. First, the physical model is presented, using Fokker-Plank. Then, the numerical model is introduced in order to solve the Fokker-Plank operator under the Rosenbluth form. At the end, several numerical tests are proposed. (TEC). 17 refs., 27 figs.

  18. Efficiency of a model human image code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    Hypothetical schemes for neural representation of visual information can be expressed as explicit image codes. Here, a code modeled on the simple cells of the primate striate cortex is explored. The Cortex transform maps a digital image into a set of subimages (layers) that are bandpass in spatial frequency and orientation. The layers are sampled so as to minimize the number of samples and still avoid aliasing. Samples are quantized in a manner that exploits the bandpass contrast-masking properties of human vision. The entropy of the samples is computed to provide a lower bound on the code size. Finally, the image is reconstructed from the code. Psychophysical methods are derived for comparing the original and reconstructed images to evaluate the sufficiency of the code. When each resolution is coded at the threshold for detection artifacts, the image-code size is about 1 bit/pixel.

  19. Content Layer progressive Coding of Digital Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Ole Riis

    2002-01-01

    for calculating the resulting number of contexts are given. The new methods outperform existing schemes coding digital maps and in addition provide progressive coding. Compared to the state-of-the-art PWC coder, the compressed size is reduced to 50-70% on our layered map test images.......A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the World Wide Web. Progressive encoding is achieved by encoding the image in content layers based on color level or other predefined...... information. Information from already coded layers are used when coding subsequent layers. This approach is combined with efficient template based context bilevel coding, context collapsing methods for multilevel images and arithmetic coding. Relative pixel patterns are used to collapse contexts. Expressions...

  20. Evaluation of help model replacement codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, Tad [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hang, Thong [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, Gregory [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the computer codes that are proposed to be used to predict percolation of water through the closure-cap and into the waste containment zone at the Department of Energy closure sites. This work compares the currently used water-balance code (HELP) with newly developed computer codes that use unsaturated flow (Richards’ equation). It provides a literature review of the HELP model and the proposed codes, which result in two recommended codes for further evaluation: HYDRUS-2D3D and VADOSE/W. This further evaluation involved performing actual simulations on a simple model and comparing the results of those simulations to those obtained with the HELP code and the field data. From the results of this work, we conclude that the new codes perform nearly the same, although moving forward, we recommend HYDRUS-2D3D.

  1. Genetic code, hamming distance and stochastic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Matthew X; Petoukhov, Sergei V; Ricci, Paolo E

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we use the Gray code representation of the genetic code C=00, U=10, G=11 and A=01 (C pairs with G, A pairs with U) to generate a sequence of genetic code-based matrices. In connection with these code-based matrices, we use the Hamming distance to generate a sequence of numerical matrices. We then further investigate the properties of the numerical matrices and show that they are doubly stochastic and symmetric. We determine the frequency distributions of the Hamming distances, building blocks of the matrices, decomposition and iterations of matrices. We present an explicit decomposition formula for the genetic code-based matrix in terms of permutation matrices, which provides a hypercube representation of the genetic code. It is also observed that there is a Hamiltonian cycle in a genetic code-based hypercube.

  2. Feature-selective Attention in Frontoparietal Cortex: Multivoxel Codes Adjust to Prioritize Task-relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jade; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Woolgar, Alexandra

    2017-02-01

    Human cognition is characterized by astounding flexibility, enabling us to select appropriate information according to the objectives of our current task. A circuit of frontal and parietal brain regions, often referred to as the frontoparietal attention network or multiple-demand (MD) regions, are believed to play a fundamental role in this flexibility. There is evidence that these regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively process information that is currently relevant for behavior, as proposed by the "adaptive coding hypothesis" [Duncan, J. An adaptive coding model of neural function in prefrontal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 820-829, 2001]. Could this provide a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention, the process by which we preferentially process one feature of a stimulus over another? We used multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data during a perceptually challenging categorization task to investigate whether the representation of visual object features in the MD regions flexibly adjusts according to task relevance. Participants were trained to categorize visually similar novel objects along two orthogonal stimulus dimensions (length/orientation) and performed short alternating blocks in which only one of these dimensions was relevant. We found that multivoxel patterns of activation in the MD regions encoded the task-relevant distinctions more strongly than the task-irrelevant distinctions: The MD regions discriminated between stimuli of different lengths when length was relevant and between the same objects according to orientation when orientation was relevant. The data suggest a flexible neural system that adjusts its representation of visual objects to preferentially encode stimulus features that are currently relevant for behavior, providing a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention.

  3. Flexible bed allocations for hospital wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, René; Koole, Ger; Roubos, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    Flexibility in the usage of clinical beds is considered to be a key element to efficiently organize critical capacity. However, full flexibility can have some major drawbacks as large systems are more difficult to manage, lack effective care delivery due to absence of focus and require multi-skilled medical teams. In this paper, we identify practical guidelines on how beds should be allocated to provide both flexibility and utilize specialization. Specifically, small scale systems can often benefit from full flexibility. Threshold type of control is then effective to prioritize patient types and to cope with patients having diverse lengths of stay. For large scale systems, we assert that a little flexibility is generally sufficient to take advantage of most of the economies of scale. Bed reservation (earmarking) or, equivalently, organizing a shared ward of overflow, then performs well. The theoretical models and guidelines are illustrated with numerical examples. Moreover, we address a key question stemming from practice: how to distribute a fixed number of hospital beds over the different units?

  4. Laser patterning of highly conductive flexible circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Seok Young; Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Kim, Taehun; Chang, Won Seok; Baik, Seunghyun

    2017-04-01

    There has been considerable attention paid to highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) materials as electrodes and interconnectors for future flexible electronic devices. However, the patterning technology still needs to be developed to construct micro-scale electrodes and circuits. Here we developed the selective laser sintering technology where the pattering and curing were accomplished simultaneously without making additional masks. The CFA was composed of micro-scale Ag flakes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and a nitrile-butadiene-rubber matrix. The Teflon-coated polyethylene terephthalate film was used as a flexible substrate. The width of lines (50-500 μm) and circuit patterns were controlled by the programmable scanning of a focused laser beam (power = 50 mW, scanning speed = 1 mm s-1). The laser irradiation removed solvent and induced effective coalescence among fillers providing a conductivity as high as 25 012 S cm-1. The conductivity stability was excellent under the ambient air and humid environments. The normalized resistance change of the pattern was smaller than 1.2 at the bending radius of 5 mm. The cyclability and adhesion of the laser-sintered line pattern on the substrate was excellent. A flexible circuit was fabricated sequentially for operating light emitting diodes during the bending motion, demonstrating excellent feasibility for practical applications in flexible electronics.

  5. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    Un-bonded flexible pipes are used in the offshore oil and gas industry worldwide transporting hydrocarbons from seafloor to floating production vessels topside. Flexible pipes are advantageous over rigid pipelines in dynamic applications and during installation as they are delivered in full length...... on reels. Flexible pipes are constructed in a layer structure in which each layer adds specific properties to the pipe such as; collapse strength, fluid integrity, bursting strength, tensile strength etc. The inner-most layer of a flexible pipe is the carcass; a flexible interlocking stainless steel...... structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...

  6. Anchoring FRP Composite Armor in Flexible Offshore Riser Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei

    Unbonded flexible pipes find extensive use in the offshore oil industry. Although more expensive than rigid pipe, the total cost of flexible pipe installations are often less. This is because flexible pipes are easier to store and deploy, coupled with superior fatigue performance. Among other...... capabilities.The structure of flexible pipes consists of several concentric layers, each with a specific purpose. The most common used flexible pipe is the type III, which contains a central component, made from an interlocking stainless steel structure that provides collapse strength. The central component...... is called the carcass. A permeation polymer barrier is extruded over the carcass, followed by the pressure armor. On top, two counter-wound helical layers form the tensile armor. These carry forces in axial direction, and constitute the main focus of this thesis. In conventional flexible pipes, the tensile...

  7. The SHIELD11 Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W

    2005-02-02

    SHIELD11 is a computer code for performing shielding analyses around a high-energy electron accelerator. It makes use of simple analytic expressions for the production and attenuation of photons and neutrons resulting from electron beams striking thick targets, such as dumps, stoppers, collimators, and other beam devices. The formulae in SHIELD11 are somewhat unpretentious in that they are based on the extrapolation (scaling) of experimental data using rather simple physics ideas. Because these scaling methods have only been tested over a rather limited set of conditions--namely, 1-15 GeV electrons striking 10-20 radiation lengths of iron--a certain amount of care and judgment must be exercised whenever SHIELD11 is used. Nevertheless, for many years these scaling methods have been applied rather successfully to a large variety of problems at SLAC, as well as at other laboratories throughout the world, and the SHIELD11 code has been found to be a fast and convenient tool. In this paper we present, without extensive theoretical justification or experimental verification, the five-component model on which the SHIELD11 code is based. Our intent is to demonstrate how to use the code by means of a few simple examples. References are provided that are considered to be essential for a full understanding of the model. The code itself contains many comments to provide some guidance for the informed user, who may wish to improve on the model.

  8. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  9. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  10. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  12. On Code Parameters and Coding Vector Representation for Practical RLNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2011-01-01

    RLNC provides a theoretically efficient method for coding. The drawbacks associated with it are the complexity of the decoding and the overhead resulting from the encoding vector. Increasing the field size and generation size presents a fundamental trade-off between packet-based throughput...... to higher energy consumption. Therefore, the optimal trade-off is system and topology dependent, as it depends on the cost in energy of performing coding operations versus transmitting data. We show that moderate field sizes are the correct choice when trade-offs are considered. The results show that sparse...

  13. SIMULATE-3 K coupled code applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Christian [Studsvik Scandpower AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Grandi, Gerardo; Judd, Jerry [Studsvik Scandpower Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-15

    This paper describes the coupled code system TRACE/SIMULATE-3 K/VIPRE and the application of this code system to the OECD PWR Main Steam Line Break. A short description is given for the application of the coupled system to analyze DNBR and the flexibility the system creates for the user. This includes the possibility to compare and evaluate the result with the TRACE/SIMULATE-3K (S3K) coupled code, the S3K standalone code (core calculation) as well as performing single-channel calculations with S3K and VIPRE. This is the typical separate-effect-analyses required for advanced calculations in order to develop methodologies to be used for safety analyses in general. The models and methods of the code systems are presented. The outline represents the analysis approach starting with the coupled code system, reactor and core model calculation (TRACE/S3K). This is followed by a more detailed core evaluation (S3K standalone) and finally a very detailed thermal-hydraulic investigation of the hot pin condition (VIPRE).

  14. The amendment of the Labour Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amendment of the Labour Code, No. 365/2011 Coll., effective as from 1st January 2012, brings some of fundamental changes in labour law. The amendment regulates relation between the Labour Code and the Civil Code; and is also formulates principles of labour law relations newly. The basic period by fixed-term contract of employment is extended and also frequency its conclusion is limited. The length of trial period and the amount of redundancy payment are graduated. An earlier legislative regulation which an employee is temporarily assign to work for different employer has been returned. The number of hours by agreement to perform work is increased. The monetary compensation by competitive clause is reduced. The other changes are realised in part of collective labour law. The authoress of article notifies of the most important changes. She compares new changes of the Labour Code and former legal system and she also evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. The main objective of changes ensures labour law relations to be more flexible. And it should motivate creation of new jobs opening by employers. Amended provisions are aimed to reduction expenses of employers under the reform of the public finances. Also changes are expected in the Labour Code in connection with the further new Civil Code.

  15. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  16. A review of flexible lithium-sulfur and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-29

    Flexible energy storage systems are imperative for emerging flexible devices that are revolutionizing our life. Lithium-ion batteries, the current main power sources, are gradually approaching their theoretical limitation in terms of energy density. Therefore, alternative battery chemistries are urgently required for next-generation flexible power sources with high energy densities, low cost, and inherent safety. Flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and analogous flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are of paramount interest owing to their high energy densities endowed by multielectron chemistry. In this review, we summarized the recent progress of flexible Li-S and analogous batteries. A brief introduction to flexible energy storage systems and general Li-S batteries has been provided first. Progress in flexible materials for flexible Li-S batteries are reviewed subsequently, with a detailed classification of flexible sulfur cathodes as those based on carbonaceous (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbonized polymers) and composite (polymers and inorganics) materials and an overview of flexible lithium anodes and flexible solid-state electrolytes. Advancements in other flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are then introduced. In the next part, we emphasize the importance of cell packaging and flexibility evaluation, and two special flexible battery prototypes of foldable and cable-type Li-S batteries are highlighted. In the end, existing challenges and future development of flexible Li-S and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are summarized and prospected.

  17. Flexible Query Answering Systems 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -classical Logics, Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing, Multimedia Information Systems, and Human--Computer Interaction, including reports of interesting applications. We wish to thank the contributors for their excellent papers and the referees, publisher, and sponsors for their effort......, and intuitive access to information for every type of need. This multidisciplinary conference draws on several research areas, including information retrieval, database management, information filtering, knowledge representation, soft computing, management of multimedia information, and human......-computer interaction. The overall theme of the FQAS conferences is innovative query systems aimed at providing easy, flexible, and intuitive access to information. Such systems are intended to facilitate retrieval from information repositories such as databases, libraries, and the World-Wide Web. These repositories...

  18. Flexible Learning and Teaching: Looking Beyond the Binary of Full ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper engages with literature on flexible learning and teaching in order to explore whether it may be possible, within the South African context, to have flexible learning and teaching provide a third way which goes beyond the current practice of full-time/part-time provision. This binary classification of students is a proxy ...

  19. INTERACTIVE TOOL FOR SCHEDULING JOBS IN A FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOMP, J; GUPTA, JND

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative interactive decision making tool for scheduling jobs in a flexible manufacturing environment. While the proposed tool provides computer integrated mechanism for scheduling jobs to the flexible manufacturing systems, it retains the human touch needed to augment

  20. On the role of code comparisons in verification and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents a perspective on the role of code comparison activities in verification and validation. We formally define the act of code comparison as the Code Comparison Principle (CCP) and investigate its application in both verification and validation. One of our primary conclusions is that the use of code comparisons for validation is improper and dangerous. We also conclude that while code comparisons may be argued to provide a beneficial component in code verification activities, there are higher quality code verification tasks that should take precedence. Finally, we provide a process for application of the CCP that we believe is minimal for achieving benefit in verification processes.

  1. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  2. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  3. Sparse Graph Codes for Multilevel Modulation with Signal Shaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronie, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to combine error-correction coding and spectral-efficient modulation for transmission over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. The code employs signal shaping which can provide a so-called shaping gain. The code belongs to the family of sparse graph codes for which

  4. Sparse Graph Codes for multilevel modulation with signal shaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronie, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to combine error-correction coding and spectral-efficient modulation for transmission over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The code employs signal shaping which can provide a so-called shaping gain. The code belongs to the family of sparse graph codes for which

  5. Open-Source Development of the Petascale Reactive Flow and Transport Code PFLOTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, G. E.; Andre, B.; Bisht, G.; Johnson, T.; Karra, S.; Lichtner, P. C.; Mills, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Open-source software development has become increasingly popular in recent years. Open-source encourages collaborative and transparent software development and promotes unlimited free redistribution of source code to the public. Open-source development is good for science as it reveals implementation details that are critical to scientific reproducibility, but generally excluded from journal publications. In addition, research funds that would have been spent on licensing fees can be redirected to code development that benefits more scientists. In 2006, the developers of PFLOTRAN open-sourced their code under the U.S. Department of Energy SciDAC-II program. Since that time, the code has gained popularity among code developers and users from around the world seeking to employ PFLOTRAN to simulate thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and biogeochemical processes in the Earth's surface/subsurface environment. PFLOTRAN is a massively-parallel subsurface reactive multiphase flow and transport simulator designed from the ground up to run efficiently on computing platforms ranging from the laptop to leadership-class supercomputers, all from a single code base. The code employs domain decomposition for parallelism and is founded upon the well-established and open-source parallel PETSc and HDF5 frameworks. PFLOTRAN leverages modern Fortran (i.e. Fortran 2003-2008) in its extensible object-oriented design. The use of this progressive, yet domain-friendly programming language has greatly facilitated collaboration in the code's software development. Over the past year, PFLOTRAN's top-level data structures were refactored as Fortran classes (i.e. extendible derived types) to improve the flexibility of the code, ease the addition of new process models, and enable coupling to external simulators. For instance, PFLOTRAN has been coupled to the parallel electrical resistivity tomography code E4D to enable hydrogeophysical inversion while the same code base can be used as a third

  6. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Kelley, Thomas A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of VHF signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in FORTRAN 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, delta times of arrival (DTOA) study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of DTOAs vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  7. Flexible parallel implicit modelling of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical processes in fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, Mauro; Jacquey, Antoine B.

    2017-09-01

    Theory and numerical implementation describing groundwater flow and the transport of heat and solute mass in fully saturated fractured rocks with elasto-plastic mechanical feedbacks are developed. In our formulation, fractures are considered as being of lower dimension than the hosting deformable porous rock and we consider their hydraulic and mechanical apertures as scaling parameters to ensure continuous exchange of fluid mass and energy within the fracture-solid matrix system. The coupled system of equations is implemented in a new simulator code that makes use of a Galerkin finite-element technique. The code builds on a flexible, object-oriented numerical framework (MOOSE, Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment) which provides an extensive scalable parallel and implicit coupling to solve for the multiphysics problem. The governing equations of groundwater flow, heat and mass transport, and rock deformation are solved in a weak sense (either by classical Newton-Raphson or by free Jacobian inexact Newton-Krylow schemes) on an underlying unstructured mesh. Nonlinear feedbacks among the active processes are enforced by considering evolving fluid and rock properties depending on the thermo-hydro-mechanical state of the system and the local structure, i.e. degree of connectivity, of the fracture system. A suite of applications is presented to illustrate the flexibility and capability of the new simulator to address problems of increasing complexity and occurring at different spatial (from centimetres to tens of kilometres) and temporal scales (from minutes to hundreds of years).

  8. LDPC code optimization techniques to improve the error correction threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Роман Сергійович Новиков

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-empty stopping sets, which are the main reason for achieving a threshold of errors in data transmission channels, are studied. New algorithm of transfer smallest stopping sets and stop distance of any LDPC code is proposed. More functional and flexible technique of splitting-and-filling is proposed. Time for which will be transferred the smallest stopping sets and founded stop distance of any LDPC code is calculated

  9. Mechanical behavior of fabric-reinforced elastomer straight flexible hoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manach P. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model applicable to large strain analysis of composite materials such as flexible hoses. A three-dimensional constitutive law, which uses the concept of convected coordinate frame, is developed for materials presenting non linear elastic and linear orthotropic behaviors in the large deformation field. The proposed model is implemented in a finite element home code and the formulation of both the hyperelastic and the orthotropic constitutive laws is presented. Finally, in order to validate our numerical results, an experimental device is developed to exhibit the mechanical behavior of straight flexible hoses in the case of elementary tests. The model is then compared to these experimental results.

  10. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for homogeneous gas-phase reactions. 2: Code description and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 2 of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 2 describes the code, how to modify it, and its usage, including preparation of the problem data file required to execute LSENS. Code usage is illustrated by several example problems, which further explain preparation of the problem data file and show how to obtain desired accuracy in the computed results. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions. Part 1 (NASA RP-1328) derives the governing equations describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved by lSENS. Part 3 (NASA RP-1330) explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity-analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results.

  11. Blockwise Repeated Burst Error Correcting Linear Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Dass

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lower and an upper bound on the number of parity check digits required for a linear code that corrects a single sub-block containing errors which are in the form of 2-repeated bursts of length b or less. An illustration of such kind of codes has been provided. Further, the codes that correct m-repeated bursts of length b or less have also been studied.

  12. The Nuremberg Code: its history and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kious, B M

    2001-01-01

    The Nuremberg Code is a foundational document in the ethics of medical research and human experimentation; the principle its authors espoused in 1946 have provided the framework for modern codes that address the same issues, and have received little challenge and only slight modification in decades since. By analyzing the Code's tragic genesis and its normative implications, it is possible to understand some of the essence of modern experimental ethics, as well as certain outstanding controversies that still plague medical science.

  13. Protein flexibility as a biosignal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinyi

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic properties of a protein are crucial for all protein functions, and those of signaling proteins are closely related to the biological function of living beings. The protein flexibility signal concept can be used to analyze this relationship. Protein flexibility controls the rate of protein conformational change and influences protein function. The modification of protein flexibility results in a change of protein activity. The logical nature of protein flexibility cannot be explained by applying the principles of protein three-dimensional structure theory or conformation concept. Signaling proteins show high protein flexibility. Many properties of signaling can be traced back to the dynamic natures of signaling protein. The action mechanism of volatile anesthetics and universal cellular reactions are related to flexibility in the change of signaling proteins. We conclude that protein dynamics is an enzyme-enhanced process, called dynamicase.

  14. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  15. CALMAR: A New Versatile Code Library for Adjustment from Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CALMAR, a new library for adjustment has been developed. This code performs simultaneous shape and level adjustment of an initial prior spectrum from measured reactions rates of activation foils. It is written in C++ using the ROOT data analysis framework,with all linear algebra classes. STAYSL code has also been reimplemented in this library. Use of the code is very flexible : stand-alone, inside a C++ code, or driven by scripts. Validation and test cases are under progress. Theses cases will be included in the code package that will be available to the community. Future development are discussed. The code should support the new Generalized Nuclear Data (GND format. This new format has many advantages compared to ENDF.

  16. Integration of Fixed and Flexible Route Public Transportation Systems, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Conventional bus service (with fixed routes and schedules) has lower average cost than flexible bus service (with : demand-responsive routes) at high demand densities. At low demand densities flexible bus service has lower : average costs and provide...

  17. Pydpiper: A Flexible Toolkit for Constructing Novel Registration Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eFriedel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using neuroimaging technologies to elucidate the relationship between genotype and phenotype and brain and behavior will be a key contribution to biomedical research in the twenty-first century. Among the many methods for analyzing neuroimaging data, image registration deserves particular attention due to its wide range of applications. Finding strategies to register together many images and analyze the differences between them can be a challenge, particularly given that different experimental designs require different registration strategies. Moreover, writing software that can handle different types of image registration pipelines in a flexible, reusable and extensible way can be challenging. In response to this challenge, we have created Pydpiper, a neuroimaging registration toolkit written in Python. Pydpiper is an open-source, freely available pipeline framework that provides multiple modules for various image registration applications. Pydpiper offers five key innovations. Specifically: (1 a robust file handling class that allows access to outputs from all stages of registration at any point in the pipeline; (2 the ability of the framework to eliminate duplicate stages; (3 reusable, easy to subclass modules; (4 a development toolkit written for non-developers; (5 four complete applications that run complex image registration pipelines ``out-of-the-box.'' In this paper, we will discuss both the general Pydpiper framework and the various ways in which component modules can be pieced together to easily create new registration pipelines. This will include a discussion of the core principles motivating code development and a comparison of Pydpiper with other available toolkits. We also provide a comprehensive, line-by-line example to orient users with limited programming knowledge and highlight some of the most useful features of Pydpiper. In addition, we will present the four current applications of the code.

  18. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based......Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...

  19. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......-computer interaction. The special track covers some some specific and, typically, newer fields, namely: environmental scanning for strategic early warning; generating linguistic descriptions of data; advances in fuzzy querying and fuzzy databases: theory and applications; fusion and ensemble techniques for on......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...

  20. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers......-computer interaction. The special track covers some some specific and, typically, newer fields, namely: environmental scanning for strategic early warning; generating linguistic descriptions of data; advances in fuzzy querying and fuzzy databases: theory and applications; fusion and ensemble techniques for on...

  1. Distributed processing and temporal codes in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Wolf

    2009-09-01

    The cerebral cortex presents itself as a distributed dynamical system with the characteristics of a small world network. The neuronal correlates of cognitive and executive processes often appear to consist of the coordinated activity of large assemblies of widely distributed neurons. These features require mechanisms for the selective routing of signals across densely interconnected networks, the flexible and context dependent binding of neuronal groups into functionally coherent assemblies and the task and attention dependent integration of subsystems. In order to implement these mechanisms, it is proposed that neuronal responses should convey two orthogonal messages in parallel. They should indicate (1) the presence of the feature to which they are tuned and (2) with which other neurons (specific target cells or members of a coherent assembly) they are communicating. The first message is encoded in the discharge frequency of the neurons (rate code) and it is proposed that the second message is contained in the precise timing relationships between individual spikes of distributed neurons (temporal code). It is further proposed that these precise timing relations are established either by the timing of external events (stimulus locking) or by internal timing mechanisms. The latter are assumed to consist of an oscillatory modulation of neuronal responses in different frequency bands that cover a broad frequency range from 40 Hz (gamma) and ripples. These oscillations limit the communication of cells to short temporal windows whereby the duration of these windows decreases with oscillation frequency. Thus, by varying the phase relationship between oscillating groups, networks of functionally cooperating neurons can be flexibly configurated within hard wired networks. Moreover, by synchronizing the spikes emitted by neuronal populations, the saliency of their responses can be enhanced due to the coincidence sensitivity of receiving neurons in very much the same way as

  2. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P. (ed.)

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  3. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  4. Halftone Coding with JBIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2000-01-01

    The emerging international standard for compression of bilevel images and bi-level documents, JBIG2,provides a mode dedicated for lossy coding of halftones. The encoding procedure involves descreening of the bi-levelimage into gray-scale, encoding of the gray-scale image, and construction...... of a halftone pattern dictionary.The decoder first decodes the gray-scale image. Then for each gray-scale pixel looks up the corresponding halftonepattern in the dictionary and places it in the reconstruction bitmap at the position corresponding to the gray-scale pixel. The coding method is inherently lossy...... and care must be taken to avoid introducing artifacts in the reconstructed image. We describe how to apply this coding method for halftones created by periodic ordered dithering, by clustered dot screening (offset printing), and by techniques which in effect dithers with blue noise, e.g., error diffusion...

  5. Scientific Analysis and Documentation Provided by EPA Regional Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 10 EPA Regional laboratories provide maximum flexibility to support Agency response to natural disasters and emergencies by developing effective approaches for a wide range of analytical challenges.

  6. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    acceptable since it makes possible an overall and local error reduction through grid redistribution. SAGE includes the ability to modify the adaption techniques in boundary regions, which substantially improves the flexibility of the adaptive scheme. The vectorial approach used in the analysis also provides flexibility. The user has complete choice of adaption direction and order of sequential adaptions without concern for the computational data structure. Multiple passes are available with no restraint on stepping directions; for each adaptive pass the user can choose a completely new set of adaptive parameters. This facility, combined with the capability of edge boundary control, enables the code to individually adapt multi-dimensional multiple grids. Zonal grids can be adapted while maintaining continuity along the common boundaries. For patched grids, the multiple-pass capability enables complete adaption. SAGE is written in FORTRAN 77 and is intended to be machine independent; however, it requires a FORTRAN compiler which supports NAMELIST input. It has been successfully implemented on Sun series computers, SGI IRIS's, DEC MicroVAX computers, HP series computers, the Cray YMP, and IBM PC compatibles. Source code is provided, but no sample input and output files are provided. The code reads three datafiles: one that contains the initial grid coordinates (x,y,z), one that contains corresponding flow-field variables, and one that contains the user control parameters. It is assumed that the first two datasets are formatted as defined in the plotting software package PLOT3D. Several machine versions of PLOT3D are available from COSMIC. The amount of main memory is dependent on the size of the matrix. The standard distribution medium for SAGE is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. It is also available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format or on a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE format magnetic tape. SAGE was developed in 1989, first

  7. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  8. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded......We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  9. Overview of Code Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The verified code for the SIFT Executive is not the code that executes on the SIFT system as delivered. The running versions of the SIFT Executive contain optimizations and special code relating to the messy interface to the hardware broadcast interface and to packing of data to conserve space in the store of the BDX930 processors. The running code was in fact developed prior to and without consideration of any mechanical verification. This was regarded as necessary experimentation with the SIFT hardware and special purpose Pascal compiler. The Pascal code sections cover: the selection of a schedule from the global executive broadcast, scheduling, dispatching, three way voting, and error reporting actions of the SIFT Executive. Not included in these sections of Pascal code are: the global executive, five way voting, clock synchronization, interactive consistency, low level broadcasting, and program loading, initialization, and schedule construction.

  10. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    error floors as well as low decoding thresholds. As an example, the illustration shows the protograph (which represents the blueprint for overall construction) of one proposed code family for code rates greater than or equal to 1.2. Any size LDPC code can be obtained by copying the protograph structure N times, then permuting the edges. The illustration also provides Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware performance simulations for this code family. In addition, the illustration provides minimum signal-to-noise ratios (Eb/No) in decibels (decoding thresholds) to achieve zero error rates as the code block size goes to infinity for various code rates. In comparison with the codes mentioned in the preceding article, these codes have slightly higher decoding thresholds.

  11. Phonological coding during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  12. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  13. Advanced hardware design for error correcting codes

    CERN Document Server

    Coussy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This book provides thorough coverage of error correcting techniques. It includes essential basic concepts and the latest advances on key topics in design, implementation, and optimization of hardware/software systems for error correction. The book’s chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in this field. Topics include evolution of error correction techniques, industrial user needs, architectures, and design approaches for the most advanced error correcting codes (Polar Codes, Non-Binary LDPC, Product Codes, etc). This book provides access to recent results, and is suitable for graduate students and researchers of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. • Examines how to optimize the architecture of hardware design for error correcting codes; • Presents error correction codes from theory to optimized architecture for the current and the next generation standards; • Provides coverage of industrial user needs advanced error correcting techniques.

  14. Decoding of Cyclic Codes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    INFORMATION THEORY, *DECODING), (* DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , DECODING), STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, CODING, WHITE NOISE, NUMBER THEORY, CORRECTIONS, BINARY ARITHMETIC, SHIFT REGISTERS, CONTROL SYSTEMS, USSR

  15. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  16. Diameter Perfect Lee Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Horak, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Lee codes have been intensively studied for more than 40 years. Interest in these codes has been triggered by the Golomb-Welch conjecture on the existence of perfect error-correcting Lee codes. In this paper we deal with the existence and enumeration of diameter perfect Lee codes. As main results we determine all q for which there exists a linear diameter-4 perfect Lee code of word length n over Z_{q}, and prove that for each n\\geq3 there are unaccountably many diameter-4 perfect Lee codes of word length n over Z. This is in a strict contrast with perfect error-correcting Lee codes of word length n over Z as there is a unique such code for n=3, and its is conjectured that this is always the case when 2n+1 is a prime. Diameter perfect Lee codes will be constructed by an algebraic construction that is based on a group homomorphism. This will allow us to design an efficient algorithm for their decoding.

  17. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  18. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  19. Construction of Capacity Achieving Lattice Gaussian Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Wael

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new approach to proving results regarding channel coding schemes based on construction-A lattices for the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel that yields new characterizations of the code construction parameters, i.e., the primes and dimensions of the codes, as functions of the block-length. The approach we take introduces an averaging argument that explicitly involves the considered parameters. This averaging argument is applied to a generalized Loeliger ensemble [1] to provide a more practical proof of the existence of AWGN-good lattices, and to characterize suitable parameters for the lattice Gaussian coding scheme proposed by Ling and Belfiore [3].

  20. Coding theory and cryptography the essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hankerson, DC; Leonard, DA; Phelps, KT; Rodger, CA; Wall, JR; Wall, J R

    2000-01-01

    Containing data on number theory, encryption schemes, and cyclic codes, this highly successful textbook, proven by the authors in a popular two-quarter course, presents coding theory, construction, encoding, and decoding of specific code families in an ""easy-to-use"" manner appropriate for students with only a basic background in mathematics offering revised and updated material on the Berlekamp-Massey decoding algorithm and convolutional codes. Introducing the mathematics as it is needed and providing exercises with solutions, this edition includes an extensive section on cryptography, desig

  1. Perceptions of teamwork among code team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara; Frewin, Sarah; Penoyer, Daleen Aragon; Sole, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) teams, known as code teams, provide coordinated and evidenced-based interventions by various disciplines during a CPA. Teamwork behaviors are essential during CPA resuscitation and may have an impact on patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of teamwork during CPA events among code team members and to determine if differences in perception existed between disciplines within the code team. A prospective, descriptive, comparative design using the Code Teamwork Perception Tool online survey was used to assess the perception of teamwork during CPA events by medical residents, critical care nurses, and respiratory therapists. Sixty-six code team members completed the Code Teamwork Perception Tool. Mean teamwork scores were 2.63 on a 5-point scale (0-4). No significant differences were found in mean scores among disciplines. Significant differences among scores were found on 7 items related to code leadership, roles and responsibilities between disciplines, and in those who had participated on a code team for less than 2 years and certified in Advanced Cardiac Life Support for less than 4 years. Teamwork perception among members of the code team was average. Teamwork training for resuscitation with all disciplines on the code team may promote more effective teamwork during actual CPA events. Clinical nurse specialists can aid in resuscitation efforts by actively participating on committees, identifying opportunities for improvement, being content experts, leading the development of team training programs, and conducting research in areas lacking evidence.

  2. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Özütürk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code Blue calls and patient outcomes were investigated. Results: A total of 225 patients (149 male, 76 female were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.1 years. 142 (67.2% Code Blue calls occurred after hours and by emergency unit. The mean time for the Code Blue team to arrive was 1.10 minutes. Spontaneous circulation was provided in 137 patients (60.8%; 88 (39.1% died. The most commonly identified possible causes were of cardiac origin. Conclusion: This study showed that Code Blue implementation with a professional team within an efficient and targeted time increase the survival rate. Therefore, we conclude that the application of Code Blue carried out by a trained team is an essential standard in hospitals. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:204-8

  3. Blue code: Is it a real emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Serkan E; Onur, Ozge; Urgan, Oğuz; Denizbasi, Arzu; Akoglu, Haldun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrests in hospital areas are common, and hospitals have rapid response teams or "blue code teams" to reduce preventable in-hospital deaths. Education about the rapid response team has been provided in all hospitals in Turkey, but true "blue code" activation is rare, and it is abused by medical personnel in practice. This study aimed to determine the cases of wrong blue codes and reasons of misuse. This retrospective study analyzed the blue code reports issued by our hospital between January 1 and June 1 2012. A total of 89 "blue code" activations were recorded in 5 months. A "blue code" was defined as any patient with an unexpected cardiac or respiratory arrest requiring resuscitation and activation of a hospital alert. Adherence to this definition, each physician classified their collected activation forms as either a true or a wrong code. Then, patient data entered a database (Microsoft Excel 2007 software) which was pooled for analysis. The data were analyzed by using frequencies and the Chi-square test on SPSSv16.0. The patients were diagnosed with cardiopulmonary arrest (8), change in mental status (18), presyncope (11), chest pain (12), conversive disorder (18), and worry of the staff for the patient (22). Code activation was done by physicians in 76% of the patients; the most common reason for blue code was concern of staff for the patient. The findings of this study show that more research is needed to establish the overall effectiveness and optimal implementation of blue code teams.

  4. On cyclic codes of composite length and the minimal distance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Maosheng

    2017-01-01

    In an interesting paper Professor Cunsheng Ding provided three constructions of cyclic codes of length being a product of two primes. Numerical data shows that many codes from these constructions are best cyclic codes of the same length and dimension over the same finite field. However, not much is known about these codes. In this paper we explain some of the mysteries of the numerical data by developing a general method on cyclic codes of composite length and on estimating the minimal distan...

  5. On {\\sigma}-LCD codes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlet, Claude; Mesnager, Sihem; Tang, Chunming; Qi, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    Linear complementary pairs (LCP) of codes play an important role in armoring implementations against side-channel attacks and fault injection attacks. One of the most common ways to construct LCP of codes is to use Euclidean linear complementary dual (LCD) codes. In this paper, we first introduce the concept of linear codes with $\\sigma$ complementary dual ($\\sigma$-LCD), which includes known Euclidean LCD codes, Hermitian LCD codes, and Galois LCD codes. As Euclidean LCD codes, $\\sigma$-LCD ...

  6. MHD stability module for the National Transport Code Collaboration Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, A.; Manickam, J.; Jardin, S. C.; McCune, D.; Ludescher, Ch.; Klasky, S.; Randerson, L.

    1999-11-01

    There is a need to provide numerical tools to the fusion community that are robust, portable, easy to use, documented, and reviewed by independent peers. A web site (http://w3.pppl.gov/NTCC) where modules can be freely downloaded has been set up for that purpose [Status of the NTCC Modules Library (D McCune)]. The existence of such a library is in addition motivated by the increasing demand for programs that can be plugged into large packages with minimal effort. In particular, there has been some requests to make MHD stability codes such as the PEST, which are capable of simulating large scale plasma phenomena, available at the NTCC module library. Progress on the work to convert PEST to satisfy the NTCC module standards is presented. The resulting, new PEST interface is a collection of subroutines, which initialize, modify and extract data. Dynamic memory allocation is introduced to minimize memory requirements and allow for multiple runs. Embedded graphics routines are disabled and dependence on native binary files replaced by portable NetCDF files. To illustrate the flexibility of the module approach, numerical results obtained by integrating PEST-3, the mapping code DMAP and the equilibrium JSOLVER modules into a C++ and Java environment with remote database connectivity are presented.

  7. Flexible automated manufacturing for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Bilberg, Arne; Madsen, Erik Skov

    SMEs are in general highly flexible and agile in order to accommodate the customer demands in the paradigm of High Mix-Low Volume manufacturing. The flexibility and agility have mainly been enabled by manual labor, but as we are entering the technology and data driven fourth industrial revolution...

  8. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  9. A mean field theory of coded CDMA systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Toru [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida Hon-machi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yano@thx.appi.keio.ac.jp

    2008-08-15

    We present a mean field theory of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with error-control coding. On the basis of the relation between the free energy and mutual information, we obtain an analytical expression of the maximum spectral efficiency of the coded CDMA system, from which a mean-field description of the coded CDMA system is provided in terms of a bank of scalar Gaussian channels whose variances in general vary at different code symbol positions. Regular low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded CDMA systems are also discussed as an example of the coded CDMA systems.

  10. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities, and they possess an inherent flexibility that allows them to function through molecular interactions within the cell, among cells and even between organisms. Appreciation of the non-static nature of proteins is emerging, but to describe and incorporate...... this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions....... The thermodynamics involved are reviewed, and examples of structure-function studies involving experimentally determined flexibility descriptions are presented. While much remains to be understood about protein flexibility, it is clear that it is encoded within their amino acid sequence and should be viewed...

  11. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  12. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  13. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS APPLIED OF FLEXIBLE METALLIC MEMBRANE COUPLING DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRE Daniel

    2014-07-01

    model is created by computer to provide the validation of the features and the performance of the structure. It is revealed that the study of flexible couplings based on elastic deformations is of great theoretical and practical importance today.

  14. An Intuitive Definition of Demand Flexibility in Direct Load Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    bill and in the cost of being flexible in terms of accepting a wider comfort zone. The other approach is to directly command a power signal to end-user loads provided that the electricity provider company is already aware of the consumer's flexibility degree. We have framed a measure of the flexibility...... in terms of the amount of energy that can be shifted without sacrificing comfort. A specific case study i.e. a residential building equipped with an electric floor heating system is used for demonstration of simulation results. Finally, we proposed a control method to serve both direct and indirect load...

  15. Highly porous ceramic oxide aerogels having improved flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic oxide aerogels incorporating periodically dispersed flexible linkages are provided. The flexible linkages impart greater flexibility than the native aerogels without those linkages, and have been shown to reduce or eliminate the need for supercritical CO.sub.2-mediated drying of the corresponding wet gels. The gels may also be polymer cross-linked via organic polymer chains that are attached to and extend from surface-bound functional groups provided or present over the internal surfaces of a mesoporous ceramic oxide particle network via appropriate chemical reactions.

  16. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  17. Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  18. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 33-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0033-0047 ...

  19. Code Generation = A* + BURS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeyer, Albert; Katoen, Joost P.; Westra, Ymte; Alblas, H.; Gyimóthy, Tibor

    1996-01-01

    A system called BURS that is based on term rewrite systems and a search algorithm A* are combined to produce a code generator that generates optimal code. The theory underlying BURS is re-developed, formalised and explained in this work. The search algorithm uses a cost heuristic that is derived

  20. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  1. Informal control code logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical

  2. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  3. Nuremberg code turns 60

    OpenAIRE

    Thieren, Michel; Mauron, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time.

  4. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 1. Error Correcting Codes The Hamming Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 1 January ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  5. Movement and stretching imagery during flexibility training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Ineke; Roberts, Jenny

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of movement and stretching imagery on increases in flexibility. Thirty volunteers took part in a 4 week flexibility training programme. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) movement imagery, where participants imagined moving the limb they were stretching; (2) stretching imagery, where participants imagined the physiological processes involved in stretching the muscle; and (3) control, where participants did not engage in mental imagery. Active and passive range of motion around the hip was assessed before and after the programme. Participants provided specific ratings of vividness and comfort throughout the programme. Results showed significant increases in flexibility over time, but no differences between the three groups. A significant relationship was found, however, between improved flexibility and vividness ratings in the movement imagery group. Furthermore, both imagery groups scored significantly higher than the control group on levels of comfort, with the movement imagery group also scoring significantly higher than the stretching imagery group. We conclude that the imagery had stronger psychological than physiological effects, but that there is potential for enhancing physiological effects by maximizing imagery vividness, particularly for movement imagery.

  6. Overview of the ArbiTER edge plasma eigenvalue code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baver, Derek; Myra, James; Umansky, Maxim

    2011-10-01

    The Arbitrary Topology Equation Reader, or ArbiTER, is a flexible eigenvalue solver that is currently under development for plasma physics applications. The ArbiTER code builds on the equation parser framework of the existing 2DX code, extending it to include a topology parser. This will give the code the capability to model problems with complicated geometries (such as multiple X-points and scrape-off layers) or model equations with arbitrary numbers of dimensions (e.g. for kinetic analysis). In the equation parser framework, model equations are not included in the program's source code. Instead, an input file contains instructions for building a matrix from profile functions and elementary differential operators. The program then executes these instructions in a sequential manner. These instructions may also be translated into analytic form, thus giving the code transparency as well as flexibility. We will present an overview of how the ArbiTER code is to work, as well as preliminary results from early versions of this code. Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

  7. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4.9 Codes form order domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 4.10 One-point geometric Goppa codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.11 Bibliographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 References...

  8. Quantum Synchronizable Codes From Quadratic Residue Codes and Their Supercodes

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yixuan; Yuan, Jinhong; Fujiwara, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum synchronizable codes are quantum error-correcting codes designed to correct the effects of both quantum noise and block synchronization errors. While it is known that quantum synchronizable codes can be constructed from cyclic codes that satisfy special properties, only a few classes of cyclic codes have been proved to give promising quantum synchronizable codes. In this paper, using quadratic residue codes and their supercodes, we give a simple construction for quantum synchronizable...

  9. A Signal Processing Method to Explore Similarity in Protein Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Vasilache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of protein flexibility is of great importance to structural biology. The ability to detect similarities between proteins and their patterns is vital in discovering new information about unknown protein functions. A Distance Constraint Model (DCM provides a means to generate a variety of flexibility measures based on a given protein structure. Although information about mechanical properties of flexibility is critical for understanding protein function for a given protein, the question of whether certain characteristics are shared across homologous proteins is difficult to assess. For a proper assessment, a quantified measure of similarity is necessary. This paper begins to explore image processing techniques to quantify similarities in signals and images that characterize protein flexibility. The dataset considered here consists of three different families of proteins, with three proteins in each family. The similarities and differences found within flexibility measures across homologous proteins do not align with sequence-based evolutionary methods.

  10. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  11. Flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lodwick, Weldon A

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization. Particularly, it describes the theory of generalized uncertainty in the context of optimization modeling. The book starts with an overview of flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization. It covers uncertainties that are both associated with lack of information and that more general than stochastic theory, where well-defined distributions are assumed. Starting from families of distributions that are enclosed by upper and lower functions, the book presents construction methods for obtaining flexible and generalized uncertainty input data that can be used in a flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization model. It then describes the development of such a model in detail. All in all, the book provides the readers with the necessary background to understand flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization and develop their own optimization model. .

  12. Turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding for transmission over fading channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hanzo, L; Yeap, B

    2002-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the emerging 3G wireless personal communications standards and broadband access network standard proposals, this volume covers a range of coding and transmission aspects for transmission over fading wireless channels. It presents the most important classic channel coding issues and also the exciting advances of the last decade, such as turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding. It endeavours to be the first book with explicit emphasis on channel coding for transmission over wireless channels. Divided into 4 parts: Part 1 - explains the necessary background for novices. It aims to be both an easy reading text book and a deep research monograph. Part 2 - provides detailed coverage of turbo conventional and turbo block coding considering the known decoding algorithms and their performance over Gaussian as well as narrowband and wideband fading channels. Part 3 - comprehensively discusses both space-time block and space-time trellis coding for the first time in literature. Par...

  13. An introduction to QR Codes: linking libraries and mobile patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2011-01-01

    QR codes, or "Quick Response" codes, are two-dimensional barcodes that can be scanned by mobile smartphone cameras. These codes can be used to provide fast access to URLs, telephone numbers, and short passages of text. With the rapid adoption of smartphones, librarians are able to use QR codes to promote services and help library users find materials quickly and independently. This article will explain what QR codes are, discuss how they can be used in the library, and describe issues surrounding their use. A list of resources for generating and scanning QR codes is also provided.

  14. Coding Theory and Applications : 4th International Castle Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Malonek, Paula; Vettori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The topics covered in this book, written by researchers at the forefront of their field, represent some of the most relevant research areas in modern coding theory: codes and combinatorial structures, algebraic geometric codes, group codes, quantum codes, convolutional codes, network coding and cryptography. The book includes a survey paper on the interconnections of coding theory with constrained systems, written by an invited speaker, as well as 37 cutting-edge research communications presented at the 4th International Castle Meeting on Coding Theory and Applications (4ICMCTA), held at the Castle of Palmela in September 2014. The event’s scientific program consisted of four invited talks and 39 regular talks by authors from 24 different countries. This conference provided an ideal opportunity for communicating new results, exchanging ideas, strengthening international cooperation, and introducing young researchers into the coding theory community.

  15. PROTOTYPE WEB-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDALRHMAN MILAD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of a prototype web-based expert knowledge system that can be used to maintain flexible pavement within a tropical region. This prototype system provides the advantages of using existing web-based expert system technology. Currently, deterioration of asphalt pavement layers is one of the biggest problems in Malaysia and requires maintenance to ensure that the roads remain open and able to guarantee the regularity, punctuality, and safety of all transport services. According to this process, the knowledge collection that has acquired and the date concerning to domain expert system of the development web-based system was launched with knowledge representation IF and THEN rules and coded by PHP programming. The web pages that support the user interface are created using a framework consisting of HTML, CSS, and J-Query. The prototype web-based expert system uses the knowledge of a pavement maintenance expert, or a specialist in pavement problem remediation, to emulate a portion of their professional reasoning abilities, which it can then use to assist with the maintenance of existing roads and enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the professional engineers tasked with the assessment of all available remedies. Thus, the system increases the performance level of the engineers in analysing, discerning and customising the information that will assist decision makers throughout the project, so the probability that the right decision and treatment are implemented at the right time is increased.

  16. Improved Barrier Properties in Flexible Plastic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ethylacetate, sulfuric acid, glacial acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hydroxide4. . Impermeability to H20 and 02: Organic materials often... polyacrylate films and 10-30nm thick Al203 films, that collectively were transparent and thin enough to maintain flexibility. 4,9 These alternate...layer 2:1 sandwich is required to balance this charge deficit. The extra charge is provided by a layer of large cations, usually potassium or sodium

  17. Flexible Blades for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Madeline Carlisle; Macphee, David; Harris, Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has shown that windmills with flexible blades are more efficient than those with rigid blades. Flexibility offers passive pitch control, preferable to active pitch control which is costly and requires maintenance. Flexible blades morph such that the blade more closely resembles its design point at part load and over load. The lift-to-drag ratios on individual blades was investigated. A mold was designed and machined from an acrylic slab for the casting of blades with a NACA 0012 cross section. A flexible blade was cast from silicone and a rigid blade was cast from polyurethane. Each of these blades was tested in a wind tunnel, cantilever mounted, spanning the whole test section. The angle of attack was varied by rotating the mount. All tests were performed at the same wind speed. A load cell within the mount measured forces on the blade, from which the lift and drag forces were calculated. The stall point for the flexible blade occurred later than for the rigid blade, which agrees with previous research. Lift-to-drag ratios were larger for the flexible blade at all angles of attack tested. Flexible blades seem to be a viable option for passive pitch control. Future research will include different airfoil cross sections, wind speeds, and blade materials. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  18. The creation, market deployment and performance relevance of market-focused flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischer, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis provides a market-focused representation of the flexibility concept. It portrays flexibility as a promising capability for firms that operate under uncertainty. It gives resource reallocation recommendations and offers a value-driven legitimation for the creation and use of flexibility.

  19. 14 CFR 399.73 - Definition of small business for Regulatory Flexibility Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Flexibility Act. 399.73 Section 399.73 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... Rulemaking Proceedings § 399.73 Definition of small business for Regulatory Flexibility Act. For the purposes... Flexibility Act), a direct air carrier or foreign air carrier is a small business if it provides air...

  20. 76 FR 79141 - List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...] List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Flexibility Act. The list is published to provide the public with notice that these rules are scheduled for...: The Regulatory Flexibility Act (``RFA''), codified at 5 U.S.C. 600-611, requires an agency to review...

  1. Licos, a fuel performance code for innovative fuel elements or experimental devices design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.helfer@cea.fr; Bejaoui, Syriac, E-mail: syriac.bejaoui@cea.fr; Michel, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.michel@cea.fr

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The Licos fuel performance code is introduced. • Advanced features, such as dependency algorithm and kriging are described. • First results on three dimensional modelling of the SFR fuel pin are given. • Application to the DIAMINO design computations is discussed. - Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the Licos fuel performance code which has been developed for several years within the platform pleiades, co-developed by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and its industrial partners Électricité de France (EDF) and AREVA. CEA engineers have been using Licos to back multidimensional thermo-mechanical studies on innovative fuel elements design and experimental device pre-and post-irradiation computations. Studies made with Licos thus encompass a wide range of situations, including most nuclear systems used or studied in France in recent years (PWR, SFR or GFR), normal and off-normal operating conditions, and a large selection of materials (either for fuel, absorber, coolant and cladding). The aim of this paper is to give some insights about some innovative features in the design of Licos (dependency management, kriging, mfront, etc.). We also present two studies that demonstrate the flexibility of this code. The first one shows how Licos can be combined with the Germinal monodimensional fuel performance code to demonstrate the interest of a three dimensional modelling of the fuel relocation phenomenon in the Sodium Fast Reactor fuel pin. The second one describes how Licos was used to model the DIAMINO experiment.

  2. 3D video coding: an overview of present and upcoming standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Philipp; Müller, Karsten; Wiegand, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An overview of existing and upcoming 3D video coding standards is given. Various different 3D video formats are available, each with individual pros and cons. The 3D video formats can be separated into two classes: video-only formats (such as stereo and multiview video) and depth-enhanced formats (such as video plus depth and multiview video plus depth). Since all these formats exist of at least two video sequences and possibly additional depth data, efficient compression is essential for the success of 3D video applications and technologies. For the video-only formats the H.264 family of coding standards already provides efficient and widely established compression algorithms: H.264/AVC simulcast, H.264/AVC stereo SEI message, and H.264/MVC. For the depth-enhanced formats standardized coding algorithms are currently being developed. New and specially adapted coding approaches are necessary, as the depth or disparity information included in these formats has significantly different characteristics than video and is not displayed directly, but used for rendering. Motivated by evolving market needs, MPEG has started an activity to develop a generic 3D video standard within the 3DVC ad-hoc group. Key features of the standard are efficient and flexible compression of depth-enhanced 3D video representations and decoupling of content creation and display requirements.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Spectral Amplitude Codes for OCDMA PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Othman, Maisara; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Zhang, Xu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of three codes; enhanced double weight (EDW), random diagonal (RD) and zero cross correlation (ZCC) for 10 Gb/s x 4 user, 20 km standard SMF transmission link for OCDMA PON. These SAC codes have ideal in-phase cross-correlation properties to reduce...... the MAI effects in OCDMA. The performance has been characterized through received optical power (ROP) sensitivity and dispersion tolerance assessments. The numerical results show that the ZCC code has a slightly better performance compared to the other two codes for the ROP and similar behavior against...... the dispersion tolerence. In the analysis we also consider the character of the code properties and the flexibility as criteria for OCDMA PON network instead of the performance....

  4. Coding, cryptography and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald; Xing, Chaoping

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there are fascinating connections between cod­ ing theory, cryptology, and combinatorics. Therefore it seemed desirable to us to organize a conference that brings together experts from these three areas for a fruitful exchange of ideas. We decided on a venue in the Huang Shan (Yellow Mountain) region, one of the most scenic areas of China, so as to provide the additional inducement of an attractive location. The conference was planned for June 2003 with the official title Workshop on Coding, Cryptography and Combi­ natorics (CCC 2003). Those who are familiar with events in East Asia in the first half of 2003 can guess what happened in the end, namely the conference had to be cancelled in the interest of the health of the participants. The SARS epidemic posed too serious a threat. At the time of the cancellation, the organization of the conference was at an advanced stage: all invited speakers had been selected and all abstracts of contributed talks had been screened by the p...

  5. Extremely flexible nanoscale ultrathin body silicon integrated circuits on plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrjerdi, Davood; Bedell, Stephen W

    2013-01-09

    In recent years, flexible devices based on nanoscale materials and structures have begun to emerge, exploiting semiconductor nanowires, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. This is primarily to circumvent the existing shortcomings of the conventional flexible electronics based on organic and amorphous semiconductors. The aim of this new class of flexible nanoelectronics is to attain high-performance devices with increased packing density. However, highly integrated flexible circuits with nanoscale transistors have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we show nanoscale flexible circuits on 60 Å thick silicon, including functional ring oscillators and memory cells. The 100-stage ring oscillators exhibit the stage delay of ~16 ps at a power supply voltage of 0.9 V, the best reported for any flexible circuits to date. The mechanical flexibility is achieved by employing the controlled spalling technology, enabling the large-area transfer of the ultrathin body silicon devices to a plastic substrate at room temperature. These results provide a simple and cost-effective pathway to enable ultralight flexible nanoelectronics with unprecedented level of system complexity based on mainstream silicon technology.

  6. Myths and realities of rateless coding

    KAUST Repository

    Bonello, Nicholas

    2011-08-01

    Fixed-rate and rateless channel codes are generally treated separately in the related research literature and so, a novice in the field inevitably gets the impression that these channel codes are unrelated. By contrast, in this treatise, we endeavor to further develop a link between the traditional fixed-rate codes and the recently developed rateless codes by delving into their underlying attributes. This joint treatment is beneficial for two principal reasons. First, it facilitates the task of researchers and practitioners, who might be familiar with fixed-rate codes and would like to jump-start their understanding of the recently developed concepts in the rateless reality. Second, it provides grounds for extending the use of the well-understood codedesign tools-originally contrived for fixed-rate codes-to the realm of rateless codes. Indeed, these versatile tools proved to be vital in the design of diverse fixed-rate-coded communications systems, and thus our hope is that they will further elucidate the associated performance ramifications of the rateless coded schemes. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Radiation Hardened Turbo Coded OFDM Modulator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro Inc. proposes to develop an innovative Turbo-Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (TC-OFDM) ASIC device. The proposed device provides data...

  8. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  9. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts...

  10. High performance flexible heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.

  11. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  12. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off-the-shelf ha......Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off...

  13. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  14. Quantum coding theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    1998-12-01

    ContentsI. IntroductionII. General considerations § 1. Quantum communication channel § 2. Entropy bound and channel capacity § 3. Formulation of the quantum coding theorem. Weak conversionIII. Proof of the direct statement of the coding theorem § 1. Channels with pure signal states § 2. Reliability function § 3. Quantum binary channel § 4. Case of arbitrary states with bounded entropyIV. c-q channels with input constraints § 1. Coding theorem § 2. Gauss channel with one degree of freedom § 3. Classical signal on quantum background noise Bibliography

  15. Row Reduction Applied to Decoding of Rank Metric and Subspace Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchinger, Sven; Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Li, Wenhui

    2017-01-01

    We show that decoding of ℓ-Interleaved Gabidulin codes, as well as list-ℓ decoding of Mahdavifar–Vardy (MV) codes can be performed by row reducing skew polynomial matrices. Inspired by row reduction of F[x] matrices, we develop a general and flexible approach of transforming matrices over skew...

  16. The "Wow! signal" of the terrestrial genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    shCherbak, Vladimir I.; Makukov, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    It has been repeatedly proposed to expand the scope for SETI, and one of the suggested alternatives to radio is the biological media. Genomic DNA is already used on Earth to store non-biological information. Though smaller in capacity, but stronger in noise immunity is the genetic code. The code is a flexible mapping between codons and amino acids, and this flexibility allows modifying the code artificially. But once fixed, the code might stay unchanged over cosmological timescales; in fact, it is the most durable construct known. Therefore it represents an exceptionally reliable storage for an intelligent signature, if that conforms to biological and thermodynamic requirements. As the actual scenario for the origin of terrestrial life is far from being settled, the proposal that it might have been seeded intentionally cannot be ruled out. A statistically strong intelligent-like "signal" in the genetic code is then a testable consequence of such scenario. Here we show that the terrestrial code displays a thorough precision-type orderliness matching the criteria to be considered an informational signal. Simple arrangements of the code reveal an ensemble of arithmetical and ideographical patterns of the same symbolic language. Accurate and systematic, these underlying patterns appear as a product of precision logic and nontrivial computing rather than of stochastic processes (the null hypothesis that they are due to chance coupled with presumable evolutionary pathways is rejected with P-value code mapping itself is uniquely deduced from their algebraic representation. The signal displays readily recognizable hallmarks of artificiality, among which are the symbol of zero, the privileged decimal syntax and semantical symmetries. Besides, extraction of the signal involves logically straightforward but abstract operations, making the patterns essentially irreducible to any natural origin. Plausible ways of embedding the signal into the code and possible interpretation of

  17. Standards and infrastructure flexibility : Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spirco, J.; Fomin, V.; Egyedi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a literature review the paper investigates how standards influence flexibility of information technology (IT) infrastructures. Thereby we explore the concept of flexibility, the ways of achieving it and identify the characteristics of standards that influence flexibility. The existing

  18. RRTMGP: A fast and accurate radiation code for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlawer, E. J.; Pincus, R.; Wehe, A.; Delamere, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric radiative processes are key drivers of the Earth's climate and must be accurately represented in global circulations models (GCMs) to allow faithful simulations of the planet's past, present, and future. The radiation code RRTMG is widely utilized by global modeling centers for both climate and weather predictions, but it has become increasingly out-of-date. The code's structure is not well suited for the current generation of computer architectures and its stored absorption coefficients are not consistent with the most recent spectroscopic information. We are developing a new broadband radiation code for the current generation of computational architectures. This code, called RRTMGP, will be a completely restructured and modern version of RRTMG. The new code preserves the strengths of the existing RRTMG parameterization, especially the high accuracy of the k-distribution treatment of absorption by gases, but the entire code is being rewritten to provide highly efficient computation across a range of architectures. Our redesign includes refactoring the code into discrete kernels corresponding to fundamental computational elements (e.g. gas optics), optimizing the code for operating on multiple columns in parallel, simplifying the subroutine interface, revisiting the existing gas optics interpolation scheme to reduce branching, and adding flexibility with respect to run-time choices of streams, need for consideration of scattering, aerosol and cloud optics, etc. The result of the proposed development will be a single, well-supported and well-validated code amenable to optimization across a wide range of platforms. Our main emphasis is on highly-parallel platforms including Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Many-Integrated-Core processors (MICs), which experience shows can accelerate broadband radiation calculations by as much as a factor of fifty. RRTMGP will provide highly efficient and accurate radiative fluxes calculations for coupled global

  19. Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several

  20. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-01-01

    .... With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched...

  1. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  2. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  3. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  4. OCA Code Enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Office of the County Attorney (OCA) processes Code Violation Citations issued by County agencies. The citations can be viewed by issued department, issued date...

  5. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    , in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded......The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  6. Code Carnivals: resuscitating Code Blue training with accelerated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Vicky A; Malone, Peggy; Brim, Carla; Schoonover, Heather; Nordstrom, Cindy; Selzler, Melissa

    2009-12-01

    Nurses in the hospital setting must be knowledgeable about resuscitation procedures and proficient in the delivery of care during an emergency. They must be ready to implement their knowledge and skills at a moment's notice. A common dilemma for many nurses is that cardiopulmonary emergencies (Code Blues) are infrequent occurrences. Therefore, how do nurses remain competent and confident in their implementation of emergency skills while having limited exposure to the equipment and minimal experience in emergency situations? A team of nurse educators at a regional medical center in Washington State applied adult learning theory and accelerated learning techniques to develop and present a series of learning activities to enhance the staff's familiarity with emergency equipment and procedures. The series began with a carnival venue that provided hands-on practice and review of emergency skills and was reinforced with subsequent random unannounced code drills led by both educators and charge nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  8. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  9. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Galgani, Jose E.; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this “metabolic inflexibility” i...

  10. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive...... classifications of parts-of-speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts-of-speech hierarchy....

  11. Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Sibinski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Malgorzata; Sloma, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon n...

  12. Workplace flexibility across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Pieter; Jansen, Paul G W

    2016-01-01

    As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations and workers arelooking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has beenintroduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until theirretirement ages. This paper presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibilityacross the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across differentdisciplines, and postulates a definitio...

  13. Code de conduite

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    irocca

    son point de vue, dans un esprit d'accueil et de respect. NOTRE CODE DE CONDUITE. Le CRDI s'engage à adopter un comportement conforme aux normes d'éthique les plus strictes dans toutes ses activités. Le Code de conduite reflète notre mission, notre philosophie en matière d'emploi et les résultats des discussions ...

  14. Open Coding Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Open coding is a big source of descriptions that must be managed and controlled when doing GT research. The goal of generating a GT is to generate an emergent set of concepts and their properties that fit and work with relevancy to be integrated into a theory. To achieve this goal, the researcher begins his research with open coding, that is coding all his data in every possible way. The consequence of this open coding is a multitude of descriptions for possible concepts that often do not fit in the emerging theory. Thus in this case the researcher ends up with many irrelevant descriptions for concepts that do not apply. To dwell on descriptions for inapplicable concepts ruins the GT theory as it starts. It is hard to stop. Confusion easily sets in. Switching the study to a QDA is a simple rescue. Rigorous focusing on emerging concepts is vital before being lost in open coding descriptions. It is important, no matter how interesting the description may become. Once a core is possible, selective coding can start which will help control against being lost in multiple descriptions.

  15. The Integrated Plasma Simulator: A Flexible Python Framework for Coupled Multiphysics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Samantha S [ORNL; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    High-fidelity coupled multiphysics simulations are an increasingly important aspect of computational science. In many domains, however, there has been very limited experience with simulations of this sort, therefore research in coupled multiphysics often requires computational frameworks with significant flexibility to respond to the changing directions of the physics and mathematics. This paper presents the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS), a framework designed for loosely coupled simulations of fusion plasmas. The IPS provides users with a simple component architecture into which a wide range of existing plasma physics codes can be inserted as components. Simulations can take advantage of multiple levels of parallelism supported in the IPS, and can be controlled by a high-level ``driver'' component, or by other coordination mechanisms, such as an asynchronous event service. We describe the requirements and design of the framework, and how they were implemented in the Python language. We also illustrate the flexibility of the framework by providing examples of different types of simulations that utilize various features of the IPS.

  16. The Energy System of the Future is Smart and Flexible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine; Karnøe, Peter; Holm Jacobsen, Peter

    and policy makers are debating the possible organization of a system based on 100% renewables and the market design providing the best ‘fit’ for this system. Despite controversies, one thing seems clear: the energy system of the future is smart and flexible. But what smart and flexible means – and how...... it is achieved – remains controversial. In the paper, we describe two distinct proposals of electricity/energy systems turned smart and flexible, paying particular attention to the markets designed to assist the reorganization of the systems....

  17. A tactical supply chain planning model with multiple flexibility options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmaeilikia, Masoud; Fahimnia, Behnam; Sarkis, Joeseph

    2016-01-01

    incorporated in sourcing, manufacturing and logistics functions can be used for the analysis of flexibility adjustment in an existing supply chain. This paper develops such a tactical supply chain planning model incorporating a realistic range of flexibility options. A novel solution method is designed...... to solve the developed mixed integer nonlinear programming model. The utility of the proposed model and solution method is evaluated using data from an empirical case study. Analysis of the numerical results in different flexibility adjustment scenarios provides various managerial insights and practical...

  18. Flexible Generation of Pervasive Web Services using OSGi Declarative Services and OWL Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Fernandes, Joao

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing trend to deploy web services in pervasive computing environments. Implementing web services on networked, embedded devices leads to a set of challenges, including productivity of development, efficiency of web services, and handling of variability and dependencies of hardware...... and software platforms. To address these challenges, we developed a web service compiler called Limbo, in which Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies are used to make the Limbo compiler aware of its compilation context such as device hardware and software details, platform dependencies, and resource....../power consumption. The ontologies are used to configure Limbo for generating resource-efficient web service code. The architecture of Limbo follows the Blackboard architectural style and Limbo is implemented using the OSGi Declarative Services component model. The component model provides high flexibility...

  19. Fully inkjet printed flexible resistive memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, B.; Popp, P. B.; Kaiser, M.; Ruediger, A.; Schindler, C.

    2017-04-01

    Resistively switching memory cells (ReRAM) are strong contenders for next-generation non-volatile random access memories. In this paper, we present ReRAM cells on flexible substrates consisting of Ag/spin-on-glass/PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate). The complete cell is fabricated using a standard inkjet printer without additional process steps. Investigations on the spin-on-glass insulating layer showed that low sintering temperatures are sufficient for good switching behavior, providing compatibility with various foils. The cells feature low switching voltages, low write currents, and a high ratio between high and low resistance state of 104. Combined with excellent switching characteristics under bending conditions, these results pave the way for low-power and low-cost memory devices for future applications in flexible electronics.

  20. Utility of QR codes in biological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Funk, Vicki A

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of QR codes for encoding information such as URIs has increased exponentially in step with the technological advances and availability of smartphones, digital tablets, and other electronic devices. We propose using QR codes on specimens in biological collections to facilitate linking vouchers' electronic information with their associated collections. QR codes can efficiently provide such links for connecting collections, photographs, maps, ecosystem notes, citations, and even GenBank sequences. QR codes have numerous advantages over barcodes, including their small size, superior security mechanisms, increased complexity and quantity of information, and low implementation cost. The scope of this paper is to initiate an academic discussion about using QR codes on specimens in biological collections.

  1. Utility of QR codes in biological collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of QR codes for encoding information such as URIs has increased exponentially in step with the technological advances and availability of smartphones, digital tablets, and other electronic devices. We propose using QR codes on specimens in biological collections to facilitate linking vouchers’ electronic information with their associated collections. QR codes can efficiently provide such links for connecting collections, photographs, maps, ecosystem notes, citations, and even GenBank sequences. QR codes have numerous advantages over barcodes, including their small size, superior security mechanisms, increased complexity and quantity of information, and low implementation cost. The scope of this paper is to initiate an academic discussion about using QR codes on specimens in biological collections.

  2. Compiler Driven Code Comments and Refactoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Ladelsky, Razya; Karlsson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Helping programmers write parallel software is an urgent problem given the popularity of multi-core architectures. Engineering compilers which automatically parallelize and vectorize code has turned out to be very challenging. Consequently, compilers are very selective with respect to the coding...... patterns they can optimize. We present an interactive approach and a tool set which leverages ad- vanced compiler analysis and optimizations while retaining programmer control over the source code and its transformation. This allows opti- mization even when programmers refrain from enabling optimizations...... to preserve accurate debug information or to avoid bugs in the compiler. It also allows the source code to carry optimizations from one compiler to another. Secondly, our tool-set provides feedback on why optimizations do not apply to a code fragment and suggests workarounds which can be applied automatically...

  3. Compiler Driven Code Comments and Refactoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Ladelsky, Razya; Karlsson, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Helping programmers write parallel software is an urgent problem given the popularity of multi-core architectures. Engineering compilers which automatically parallelize and vectorize code has turned out to be very challenging and consequently compilers are very selective with respect to the coding...... patterns they can optimize. We present an interactive approach which leverages advanced compiler analysis and optimizations while retaining program- mer control over the source code and its transformation. This allows optimization even when programmers refrain from enabling optimizations to preserve...... accurate debug in- formation or to avoid bugs in the compiler. It also allows the source code to carry optimizations from one compiler to another. Secondly, our tool-set provides feedback on why optimizations do not apply to a code fragment and sug- gests workarounds which can be applied automatically. We...

  4. QR CODES IN EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan DURAK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances brought applications of innovations to education. Conventional education increasingly flourishes with new technologies accompanied by more learner active environments. In this continuum, there are learners preferring self-learning. Traditional learning materials yield attractive, motivating and technologically enhanced learning materials. The QR (Quick Response Codes are one of these innovations. The aim of this study is to redesign a lesson unit supported with QR Codes and to get the learner views about the redesigned material. For this purpose, the redesigned lesson unit was delivered to 15 learners in Balıkesir University in the academic year of 2013-2014. The learners were asked to study the material. The learners who had smart phones and Internet access were chosen for the study. To provide sectional diversity, three groups were created. The group learners were from Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science and Literature and Faculty of Engineering. After the semi-structured interviews were held, the learners were asked about their pre-knowledge about QR Codes, QR Codes’ contribution to learning, difficulties with using QR Codes about and design issues. Descriptive data analysis was used in the study. The findings were interpreted on the basis of Theory of Diffusion of Innovations and Theory of Uses and Gratifications. After the research, the themes found were awareness of QR Code, types of QR Codes and applications, contributions to learning, and proliferation of QR Codes. Generally, the learners participating in the study reported that they were aware of QR Codes; that they could use the QR Codes; and that using QR Codes in education was useful. They also expressed that such features as visual elements, attractiveness and direct routing had positive impact on learning. In addition, they generally mentioned that they did not have any difficulty using QR Codes; that they liked the design; and that the content should

  5. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  6. Indirect control of flexible demand for power system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    This thesis addresses the topic of control of flexible demand to provide support to the operation of the electric power system. We focus on the indirect control approach, a framework that enables demand response by means of a consumption incentive signal. Initially, the concept of flexibility...... Flexhouse, a facility of DTU Elektro for testing demand side management strategies, as experimental site. In the latter case, we develop four applications where flexible demand is required to support power system operations. The applications are: integration of the operation of flexible demand...... and storage in the operation of the future power system, we develop a model predictive control strategy for a smart building with the objective of supplying iii space heating and providing regulating power to the grid according to a dynamic electricity price. We named this application energy replacement...

  7. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  8. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  9. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  10. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  11. Truncation Depth Rule-of-Thumb for Convolutional Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In this innovation, it is shown that a commonly used rule of thumb (that the truncation depth of a convolutional code should be five times the memory length, m, of the code) is accurate only for rate 1/2 codes. In fact, the truncation depth should be 2.5 m/(1 - r), where r is the code rate. The accuracy of this new rule is demonstrated by tabulating the distance properties of a large set of known codes. This new rule was derived by bounding the losses due to truncation as a function of the code rate. With regard to particular codes, a good indicator of the required truncation depth is the path length at which all paths that diverge from a particular path have accumulated the minimum distance of the code. It is shown that the new rule of thumb provides an accurate prediction of this depth for codes of varying rates.

  12. Instituting code blue drills in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Joy A

    2013-04-01

    A code blue in the OR is a low-volume, high-risk event. To be effective during a code blue event, perioperative personnel must be able to properly execute a response plan and perform seldom-used skills and procedures. I developed and implemented a code blue drill educational experience for OR staff members that included a review of code blue policy, how to use a defibrillator, and simulated code blue scenarios. In addition, I worked with educational facilitators to provide an assessment of the personnel who performed the simulated code blue drills to identify key learning opportunities, such as gaps in communication, poor performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ineffective delegation skills, and lack of assertiveness. One month after the educational experience, all team members passed an observed competency for responding to a code blue in a simulation laboratory. These results show the effectiveness of the educational experience as part of the code blue drills program in the hospital's main OR. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Elizabeth; Spetale, Flavio; Krsticevic, Flavia; Angelone, Laura; Bulacio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH) or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming). Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10(-2) per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10(-9) at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10(-6).

  14. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Tapia

    Full Text Available For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming. Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10(-2 per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10(-9 at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10(-6.

  15. Jet printing flexible displays

    OpenAIRE

    Street, R. A.; Wong, W S; Ready, S. E.; Chabinyc, M.L; Arias, A.C.; Limb, S.; Salleo, A; Lujan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Jet printing is an interesting patterning technique for electronic devices because it requires no physical mask, has digital control of ejection, and provides good layer-to-layer registration. It also has the potential to reduce display manufacturing costs and enable roll-to-roll processing. The technique is illustrated with examples of prototype printed displays using amorphous silicon and polymer semiconductors.

  16. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contains high levels of bass sound...

  17. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contain high levels of bass sound...

  18. A Protection Mechanism against Malicious HTML and JavaScript Code in Vulnerable Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukai Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-profile attacks of malicious HTML and JavaScript code have seen a dramatic increase in both awareness and exploitation in recent years. Unfortunately, exiting security mechanisms provide no enough protection. We propose a new protection mechanism named PMHJ based on the support of both web applications and web browsers against malicious HTML and JavaScript code in vulnerable web applications. PMHJ prevents the injection attack of HTML elements with a random attribute value and the node-split attack by an attribute with the hash value of the HTML element. PMHJ ensures the content security in web pages by verifying HTML elements, confining the insecure HTML usages which can be exploited by attackers, and disabling the JavaScript APIs which may incur injection vulnerabilities. PMHJ provides a flexible way to rein the high-risk JavaScript APIs with powerful ability according to the principle of least authority. The PMHJ policy is easy to be deployed into real-world web applications. The test results show that PMHJ has little influence on the run time and code size of web pages.

  19. Convergence Analysis of Turbo Decoding of Serially Concatenated Block Codes and Product Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Amir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric interpretation of turbo decoding has founded a framework, and provided tools for the analysis of parallel-concatenated codes decoding. In this paper, we extend this analytical basis for the decoding of serially concatenated codes, and focus on serially concatenated product codes (SCPC (i.e., product codes with checks on checks. For this case, at least one of the component (i.e., rows/columns decoders should calculate the extrinsic information not only for the information bits, but also for the check bits. We refer to such a component decoder as a serial decoding module (SDM. We extend the framework accordingly, derive the update equations for a general turbo decoder of SCPC, and the expressions for the main analysis tools: the Jacobian and stability matrices. We explore the stability of the SDM. Specifically, for high SNR, we prove that the maximal eigenvalue of the SDM's stability matrix approaches , where is the minimum Hamming distance of the component code. Hence, for practical codes, the SDM is unstable. Further, we analyze the two turbo decoding schemes, proposed by Benedetto and Pyndiah, by deriving the corresponding update equations and by demonstrating the structure of their stability matrices for the repetition code and an SCPC code with information bits. Simulation results for the Hamming and Golay codes are presented, analyzed, and compared to the theoretical results and to simulations of turbo decoding of parallel concatenation of the same codes.

  20. When sparse coding meets ranking: a joint framework for learning sparse codes and ranking scores

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2017-06-28

    Sparse coding, which represents a data point as a sparse reconstruction code with regard to a dictionary, has been a popular data representation method. Meanwhile, in database retrieval problems, learning the ranking scores from data points plays an important role. Up to now, these two problems have always been considered separately, assuming that data coding and ranking are two independent and irrelevant problems. However, is there any internal relationship between sparse coding and ranking score learning? If yes, how to explore and make use of this internal relationship? In this paper, we try to answer these questions by developing the first joint sparse coding and ranking score learning algorithm. To explore the local distribution in the sparse code space, and also to bridge coding and ranking problems, we assume that in the neighborhood of each data point, the ranking scores can be approximated from the corresponding sparse codes by a local linear function. By considering the local approximation error of ranking scores, the reconstruction error and sparsity of sparse coding, and the query information provided by the user, we construct a unified objective function for learning of sparse codes, the dictionary and ranking scores. We further develop an iterative algorithm to solve this optimization problem.

  1. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  2. Three essays on flexible working arrangements and labour market outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    This thesis looks at the effects of flexible working arrangements on workers' labour market outcomes. The particular type of flexible working arrangement analysed in this thesis is called "flexitime". This is an arrangement which gives workers the freedom to choose when to start and end their work. Flexitime provides workers with a new way to cater to their domestic responsibilities and in turn may reduce the costs of participating in the labour market. Therefore, it is closely...

  3. Gravure printing of graphene for large-area flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Lim, Sooman; Zhang, Heng; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-07-09

    Gravure printing of graphene is demonstrated for the rapid production of conductive patterns on flexible substrates. Development of suitable inks and printing parameters enables the fabrication of patterns with a resolution down to 30 μm. A mild annealing step yields conductive lines with high reliability and uniformity, providing an efficient method for the integration of graphene into large-area printed and flexible electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  5. Construction and decoding of matrix-product codes from nested codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernando, Fernando; Lally, Kristine; Ruano, Diego

    2009-01-01

    We consider matrix-product codes [C1 ... Cs] · A, where C1, ..., Cs  are nested linear codes and matrix A has full rank. We compute their minimum distance and provide a decoding algorithm when A is a non-singular by columns matrix. The decoding algorithm decodes up to half of the minimum distance....

  6. Breaking the Code: The Creative Use of QR Codes to Market Extension Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul; Mills, Rebecca; Peterson, GaeLynn; Smith, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The use of smartphones has drastically increased in recent years, heralding an explosion in the use of QR codes. The black and white square barcodes that link the physical and digital world are everywhere. These simple codes can provide many opportunities to connect people in the physical world with many of Extension online resources. The…

  7. Code-excited linear predictive coding of multispectral MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Yao; Cahill, Patrick

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports a multispectral code excited linear predictive coding method for the compression of well-registered multispectral MR images. Different linear prediction models and the adaptation schemes have been compared. The method which uses forward adaptive autoregressive (AR) model has proven to achieve a good compromise between performance, complexity and robustness. This approach is referred to as the MFCELP method. Given a set of multispectral images, the linear predictive coefficients are updated over non-overlapping square macroblocks. Each macro-block is further divided into several micro-blocks and, the best excitation signals for each microblock are determined through an analysis-by-synthesis procedure. To satisfy the high quality requirement for medical images, the error between the original images and the synthesized ones are further specified using a vector quantizer. The MFCELP method has been applied to 26 sets of clinical MR neuro images (20 slices/set, 3 spectral bands/slice, 256 by 256 pixels/image, 12 bits/pixel). It provides a significant improvement over the discrete cosine transform (DCT) based JPEG method, a wavelet transform based embedded zero-tree wavelet (EZW) coding method, as well as the MSARMA method we developed before.

  8. Flexible Graphene Composites for Human Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide allows for better dispersion stability in aqueous and organic solvents. Stabilizers provide dispersion of pristine graphene. Roll coating provide the best coverage of polyurethane sheets. Graphene and GO coated polyurethane used to fabricate flexible laminate composite. Permeation testing indicates that pristine graphene acts as a better gas barrier material. Continuous graphene films are expected to provide even better gas barrier properties.

  9. Twisted Reed-Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde ne Nielsen, Johan

    2017-01-01

    We present a new general construction of MDS codes over a finite field Fq. We describe two explicit subclasses which contain new MDS codes of length at least q/2 for all values of q ≥ 11. Moreover, we show that most of the new codes are not equivalent to a Reed-Solomon code.......We present a new general construction of MDS codes over a finite field Fq. We describe two explicit subclasses which contain new MDS codes of length at least q/2 for all values of q ≥ 11. Moreover, we show that most of the new codes are not equivalent to a Reed-Solomon code....

  10. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  11. Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) - ACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  12. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  13. Follow the Code: Rules or Guidelines for Academic Deans' Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    In the popular movie series "Pirates of the Caribbean," there is a pirate code that influences how pirates behave in unclear situations, with a running joke about whether the code is either a set of rules or guidelines for behavior. Codes of conduct in any social group or organization can have much the same feel; they can provide clarity and…

  14. The maximum number of minimal codewords in long codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alahmadi, A.; Aldred, R.E.L.; dela Cruz, R.

    2013-01-01

    Upper bounds on the maximum number of minimal codewords in a binary code follow from the theory of matroids. Random coding provides lower bounds. In this paper, we compare these bounds with analogous bounds for the cycle code of graphs. This problem (in the graphic case) was considered in 1981...

  15. ARES: automated response function code. Users manual. [HPGAM and LSQVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maung, T.; Reynolds, G.M.

    1981-06-01

    This ARES user's manual provides detailed instructions for a general understanding of the Automated Response Function Code and gives step by step instructions for using the complete code package on a HP-1000 system. This code is designed to calculate response functions of NaI gamma-ray detectors, with cylindrical or rectangular geometries.

  16. Utilization of Flexible Airspace Structure in Flight Efficiency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mihetec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing air traffic demand in the Pan-European airspace there is a need for optimizing the use of the airspace structure (civilian and military in a manner that would satisfy the requirements of civil and military users. In the area of Europe with the highest levels of air traffic (Core area 32% of the volume of airspace above FL 195 is shared by both civil and military users. Until the introduction of the concept of flexible use of airspace, flexible airspace structures were 24 hours per day unavailable for commercial air transport. Flexible use of airspace concept provides a substantial level of dynamic airspace management by the usage of conditional routes. This paper analyses underutilization of resources, flexible airspace structures in the Pan-European airspace, especially in the south-eastern part of the traffic flows (East South Axis, reducing the efficiency of flight operations, as result of delegating the flexible structures to military users. Based on previous analysis, utilization model for flexible use of airspace is developed (scenarios with defined airspace structure. The model is based on the temporal, vertical, and modular airspace sectorisation parameters in order to optimize flight efficiency. The presented model brings significant improvement in flight efficiency (in terms of reduced flight distance for air carriers that planned to fly through the selected flexible airspace structure (LI_RST-49.

  17. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  18. ADAPTION OF NONSTANDARD PIPING COMPONENTS INTO PRESENT DAY SEISMIC CODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. T. Clark; M. J. Russell; R. E. Spears; S. R. Jensen

    2009-07-01

    With spiraling energy demand and flat energy supply, there is a need to extend the life of older nuclear reactors. This sometimes requires that existing systems be evaluated to present day seismic codes. Older reactors built in the 1960s and early 1970s often used fabricated piping components that were code compliant during their initial construction time period, but are outside the standard parameters of present-day piping codes. There are several approaches available to the analyst in evaluating these non-standard components to modern codes. The simplest approach is to use the flexibility factors and stress indices for similar standard components with the assumption that the non-standard component’s flexibility factors and stress indices will be very similar. This approach can require significant engineering judgment. A more rational approach available in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which is the subject of this paper, involves calculation of flexibility factors using finite element analysis of the non-standard component. Such analysis allows modeling of geometric and material nonlinearities. Flexibility factors based on these analyses are sensitive to the load magnitudes used in their calculation, load magnitudes that need to be consistent with those produced by the linear system analyses where the flexibility factors are applied. This can lead to iteration, since the magnitude of the loads produced by the linear system analysis depend on the magnitude of the flexibility factors. After the loading applied to the nonstandard component finite element model has been matched to loads produced by the associated linear system model, the component finite element model can then be used to evaluate the performance of the component under the loads with the nonlinear analysis provisions of the Code, should the load levels lead to calculated stresses in excess of Allowable stresses. This paper details the application of component-level finite

  19. Linking appraisal to behavioral flexibility in animals: implications for stress research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faustino, Ana I; Oliveira, Gonçalo A; Oliveira, Rui F

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we approach behavioral flexibility from a perspective rooted in appraisal theory, aiming to provide a better understanding on how animals adjust their internal state to environmental context...

  20. Radiation Abating Highly Flexible Multifunctional Polyimide Cryogenic and Thermal Insulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of highly flexible thermal insulation materials with multifunctional properties based in polyimide polymers and designed to provide significant...

  1. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  2. Epigenetic codes in cognition and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräff, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2008-09-01

    The epigenetic marking of chromatin provides a ubiquitous means for cells to shape and maintain their identity, and to react to environmental stimuli via specific remodeling. Such an epigenetic code of the core components of chromatin, DNA and histone proteins, can thus be stable but is also highly dynamic. In the nervous system, epigenetic codes are critical for basic cellular processes such as synaptic plasticity, and for complex behaviours such as learning and memory. At the same time, epigenetic marks can be stably transmitted through mitosis and meiosis, and thereby underlie non-genomic transgenerational inheritance of behavioural traits. In this review, we describe recent findings on the role and mechanisms of epigenetic codes in the brain, and discuss their implication in synaptic plasticity, cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. We provide examples of transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic marks that affect simple morphological traits or complex processes such as disease susceptibility, and point to the potential implication of epigenetic codes in medicine and evolution.

  3. QR Code: An Interactive Mobile Advertising Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Sibel Bayrak Meydanoglu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Easy and rapid interaction between consumers and marketers enabled by mobile technology prompted  an increase in the usage of mobile media as an interactive marketing tool in recent years. One of the mobile technologies that can be used in interactive marketing for advertising is QR code (Quick Response Code. Interactive advertising brings back some advantages for the companies that apply it. For example, interaction with consumers provides significant information about consumers' preferences. Marketers can use information obtained from consumers for various marketing activities such as customizing advertisement messages, determining  target audience, improving future products and services. QR codes used in marketing campaigns can provide links to specific websites in which through various tools (e.g. questionnaires, voting information about the needs and wants of customers are collected. The aim of this basic research is to illustrate the contribution of  QR codes to the realization of the advantages gained by interactive advertising.

  4. The use of diagnostic coding in chiropractic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Testern, Cecilie D; Hestb?k, Lise; French, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnostic coding has several potential benefits, including improving the feasibility of data collection for research and clinical audits and providing a common language to improve interdisciplinary collaboration. The primary aim of this study was to determine the views and perspectives of chiropractors about diagnostic coding and explore the use of it in a chiropractic setting. A secondary aim was to compare the diagnostic coding undertaken by chiropractors and an independent code...

  5. The design of relatively machine-independent code generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Two complementary approaches were investigated. In the first approach software design techniques were used to design the structure of a code generator for Halmat. The major result was the development of an intermediate code form known as 7UP. The second approach viewed the problem as one in providing a tool to the code generator programmer. The major result was the development of a non-procedural, problem oriented language known as CGGL (Code Generator Generator Language).

  6. Developing coding skills: technology for a flipped classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ciro; Marques, Fábio; Balula, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Knowing how to code is critical nowadays, and coding skills are treasured in a growing range of diversified areas. This led to the emerging of several learning platforms that allow students with different kind of knowledge to develop their coding skills. These platforms provide active and fun ways to learn how to code, using technology to create controlled, practical learning and teaching experiences both for students and teachers. The whole idea of this...

  7. Feedback equivalence of convolutional codes over finite rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeCastro-García Noemí

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach to convolutional codes from the linear systems point of view provides us with effective tools in order to construct convolutional codes with adequate properties that let us use them in many applications. In this work, we have generalized feedback equivalence between families of convolutional codes and linear systems over certain rings, and we show that every locally Brunovsky linear system may be considered as a representation of a code under feedback convolutional equivalence.

  8. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  9. Code of Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . SZD-SZZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Te Code was approved on December 12, 1992, at the 3rd regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia and revised on April 24, 1997, at the 27th regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia. The Code was updated and harmonized with the Medical Association of Slovenia and approved on October 6, 2016, at the regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia.

  10. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause/receive inter......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause...

  11. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  12. Penal Code, 24 June 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Liechtenstein's 1987 Penal Code relating to sterilization, abortion, polygamy, the protection of women and children, crimes related to marriage, and failure to provide support. The Code holds that sexual sterilization carried out at the patient's request is lawful if the patient is at least 25 years old. Performing or inducing an abortion is punishable with imprisonment unless: 1) the abortion is necessary to prevent serious danger to the life or health of the pregnant woman, 2) the pregnant woman was under 14 years old and not married to the man who impregnated her, or 3) the abortion is performed to save the woman's life. The Code also imposes a prison sentence on anyone abducting a woman who is helpless or unable to resist in order to sexually abuse the woman. Bigamy carries a prison term of up to 3 years, and a prison term of up to 1 year is applied in cases where a person deceives another or compels another into marriage. Removing a minor from the control of those authorized to rear said minor can lead to a prison term of up to 1 year, and abandonment of a minor can lead to a prison term of up to 3 years. Violation of the duty of financial support called for by family law can invoke a prison term of up to 6 months.

  13. Flexible Proteins at the Origin of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A; Shannon, Gareth

    2017-06-05

    Almost all modern proteins possess well-defined, relatively rigid scaffolds that provide structural preorganization for desired functions. Such scaffolds require the sufficient length of a polypeptide chain and extensive evolutionary optimization. How ancestral proteins attained functionality, even though they were most likely markedly smaller than their contemporary descendants, remains a major, unresolved question in the origin of life. On the basis of evidence from experiments and computer simulations, we argue that at least some of the earliest water-soluble and membrane proteins were markedly more flexible than their modern counterparts. As an example, we consider a small, evolved in vitro ligase, based on a novel architecture that may be the archetype of primordial enzymes. The protein does not contain a hydrophobic core or conventional elements of the secondary structure characteristic of modern water-soluble proteins, but instead is built of a flexible, catalytic loop supported by a small hydrophilic core containing zinc atoms. It appears that disorder in the polypeptide chain imparts robustness to mutations in the protein core. Simple ion channels, likely the earliest membrane protein assemblies, could also be quite flexible, but still retain their functionality, again in contrast to their modern descendants. This is demonstrated in the example of antiamoebin, which can serve as a useful model of small peptides forming ancestral ion channels. Common features of the earliest, functional protein architectures discussed here include not only their flexibility, but also a low level of evolutionary optimization and heterogeneity in amino acid composition and, possibly, the type of peptide bonds in the protein backbone.

  14. Joint distributed source-channel coding for 3D videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Veronica; Cancellaro, Michela; Neri, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a distributed joint source-channel 3D video coding system. Our aim is the design of an efficient coding scheme for stereoscopic video communication over noisy channels that preserves the perceived visual quality while guaranteeing a low computational complexity. The drawback in using stereo sequences is the increased amount of data to be transmitted. Several methods are being used in the literature for encoding stereoscopic video. A significantly different approach respect to traditional video coding has been represented by Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which introduces a flexible architecture with the design of low complex video encoders. In this paper we propose a novel method for joint source-channel coding in a distributed approach. We choose turbo code for our application and study the new setting of distributed joint source channel coding of a video. Turbo code allows to send the minimum amount of data while guaranteeing near channel capacity error correcting performance. In this contribution, the mathematical framework will be fully detailed and tradeoff among redundancy and perceived quality and quality of experience will be analyzed with the aid of numerical experiments.

  15. Human behavioral flexibility: a psychogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusalov, V M; Biryukov, S D

    1993-09-01

    Forty-seven two-children families from Moscow were used in a study to assess genetic determination of behavior flexibility, which was measured by eight laboratory tests. Flexibility is regarded as a temperament trait. There was no age- or sex-specific differentiation of human behavioral flexibility. Genetic determination of indices was used as a criterion for construct validization of flexibility tests. Factor analysis produced two principal components of flexibility: "operational flexibility" and "afferent flexibility." The study showed that a considerable part of the phenotypic variability of the flexibility indices included in different factors is under approximately equal genetic control. The flexibility factors differ in their genetic determination. In the inheritance of the first factor the leading role belongs to the additive component, whereas the dominance effects are more prominent in the second factor of flexibility.

  16. High Performance Flexible Thermal Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Arne; Preller, Fabian

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with the design and performance verification of a high performance and flexible carbon fibre thermal link.Project goal was to design a space qualified thermal link combining low mass, flexibility and high thermal conductivity with new approaches regarding selected materials and processes. The idea was to combine the advantages of existing metallic links regarding flexibility and the thermal performance of high conductive carbon pitch fibres. Special focus is laid on the thermal performance improvement of matrix systems by means of nano-scaled carbon materials in order to improve the thermal performance also perpendicular to the direction of the unidirectional fibres.One of the main challenges was to establish a manufacturing process which allows handling the stiff and brittle fibres, applying the matrix and performing the implementation into an interface component using unconventional process steps like thermal bonding of fibres after metallisation.This research was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).

  17. Living in a Flexible Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Simona

    2017-10-01

    How long does a space or an object have to last? If in the past an object or a building manufacturing was designed to last as much as possible, nowadays it is designed to have a life related to the time in which it will be used. Flexibility is what characterizes a space, it’s the ability to be variable and adaptable to changes in the lives of users or in relation to the use which these will make over time. The evolution of the labour market, the difficulty of inserting within it and the need to push more and more frequent move today in the trial of living space models increasingly flexible: people, especially young people, are forced to move on territory outlining a new condition to which the flexible nomadic dwellings offer an adequate response, ensuring high functional performance in confined spaces.

  18. Protein stability, flexibility and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2011-01-01

    for a delineation of the molecular details of their function. Several of these mutations interfered with the binding of a specific ligand with a concomitant effect on the stability of the protein scaffold. It has been ambiguous and not straightforward to recognize if any relationships exist between the stability...... presented is it clear that there are specific sites (flexibility hotspots) in proteins that are important for both binding and stability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Dynamics: Experimental and Computational Approaches.......Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests...

  19. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  20. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises