WorldWideScience

Sample records for code plagiarism detection

  1. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  2. Detecting plagiarism in program code and free text

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelj, Anej

    2014-01-01

    Lately we often hear allegations that a certain work is a plagiarism, hence I decided to describe this area in detail in my diploma thesis. First I define what precisely the term plagiarism means, in which areas it is present, how to limit it, and how to utilize software for its detection. I delve into the utility of software which detects details in source code and text documents. Such software does not determine plagiarism itself, but rather indicates the percentage of text or source code s...

  3. A Comparison of Source Code Plagiarism Detection Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Thomas; Culwin, Fintan

    2004-06-01

    Automated techniques for finding plagiarism in student source code submissions have been in use for over 20 years and there are many available engines and services. This paper reviews the literature on the major modern detection engines, providing a comparison of them based upon the metrics and techniques they deploy. Generally the most common and effective techniques are seen to involve tokenising student submissions then searching pairs of submissions for long common substrings, an example of what is defined to be a paired structural metric. Computing academics are recommended to use one of the two Web-based detection engines, MOSS and JPlag. It is shown that whilst detection is well established there are still places where further research would be useful, particularly where visual support of the investigation process is possible.

  4. Process Model Improvement for Source Code Plagiarism Detection in Student Programming Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermek, Dragutin; Novak, Matija

    2016-01-01

    In programming courses there are various ways in which students attempt to cheat. The most commonly used method is copying source code from other students and making minimal changes in it, like renaming variable names. Several tools like Sherlock, JPlag and Moss have been devised to detect source code plagiarism. However, for larger student…

  5. Source Code Plagiarism Detection Method Using Protégé Built Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion SMEUREANU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software plagiarism is a growing and serious problem that affects computer science universities in particular and the quality of education in general. More and more students tend to copy their thesis’s software from older theses or internet databases. Checking source codes manually, to detect if they are similar or the same, is a laborious and time consuming job, maybe even impossible due to existence of large digital repositories. Ontology is a way of describing a document’s semantic, so it can be easily used for source code files too. OWL Web Ontology Language could find its applicability in describing both vocabulary and taxonomy of a programming language source code. SPARQL is a query language based on SQL that extracts saved or deducted information from ontologies. Our paper proposes a source code plagiarism detection method, based on ontologies created using Protégé editor, which can be applied in scanning students' theses' software source code.

  6. Process Model Improvement for Source Code Plagiarism Detection in Student Programming Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin KERMEK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In programming courses there are various ways in which students attempt to cheat. The most commonly used method is copying source code from other students and making minimal changes in it, like renaming variable names. Several tools like Sherlock, JPlag and Moss have been devised to detect source code plagiarism. However, for larger student assignments and projects that involve a lot of source code files these tools are not so effective. Also, issues may occur when source code is given to students in class so they can copy it. In such cases these tools do not provide satisfying results and reports. In this study, we present an improved process model for plagiarism detection when multiple student files exist and allowed source code is present. In the research in this paper we use the Sherlock detection tool, although the presented process model can be combined with any plagiarism detection engine. The proposed model is tested on assignments in three courses in two subsequent academic years.

  7. WASTK: A Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel Method for Source Code Plagiarism Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a source code plagiarism detection method, named WASTK (Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel, for computer science education. Different from other plagiarism detection methods, WASTK takes some aspects other than the similarity between programs into account. WASTK firstly transfers the source code of a program to an abstract syntax tree and then gets the similarity by calculating the tree kernel of two abstract syntax trees. To avoid misjudgment caused by trivial code snippets or frameworks given by instructors, an idea similar to TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency in the field of information retrieval is applied. Each node in an abstract syntax tree is assigned a weight by TF-IDF. WASTK is evaluated on different datasets and, as a result, performs much better than other popular methods like Sim and JPlag.

  8. Source Code Plagiarism Detection Method Using Protégé Built Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ion SMEUREANU; Bogdan IANCU

    2013-01-01

    Software plagiarism is a growing and serious problem that affects computer science universities in particular and the quality of education in general. More and more students tend to copy their thesis’s software from older theses or internet databases. Checking source codes manually, to detect if they are similar or the same, is a laborious and time consuming job, maybe even impossible due to existence of large digital repositories. Ontology is a way of describing a document’s semantic, so it ...

  9. Survey of Text Plagiarism Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaraa Abuobieda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are going to review and list the advantages and limitations of the significant effective techniques employed or developed in text plagiarism detection.  It was found that many of the proposed methods for plagiarism detection have a weakness and lacking for detecting some types of plagiarized text. This paper discussed several important issues in plagiarism detection such as; plagiarism detection Tasks, plagiarism detection process and some of the current plagiarism detection techniques.

  10. Discovering Clusters of Plagiarism in Students’ Source Codes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Moussiades

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism in students’ source codes constitutes an important drawback for the educational process. In addition, plagiarism detection in source codes is time consuming and tiresome task. Therefore, many approaches for plagiarism detection have been proposed. Most of the aforementioned approaches receive as input a set of source files and calculate a similarity between each pair of the input set. However, the tutor often needs to detect the clusters of plagiarism, i.e. clusters of students’ as...

  11. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  12. Discovering Clusters of Plagiarism in Students’ Source Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moussiades

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism in students’ source codes constitutes an important drawback for the educational process. In addition, plagiarism detection in source codes is time consuming and tiresome task. Therefore, many approaches for plagiarism detection have been proposed. Most of the aforementioned approaches receive as input a set of source files and calculate a similarity between each pair of the input set. However, the tutor often needs to detect the clusters of plagiarism, i.e. clusters of students’ assignments such as all assignments in a cluster derive from a common original. In this paper, we propose a novel plagiarism detection algorithm that receives as input a set of source codes and calculates the clusters of plagiarism. Experimental results show the efficiency of our approach and encourage us to further research.

  13. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  14. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  15. Social Network Aided Plagiarism Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of different kinds of electronic devices and the volume of content on the Web have increased the amount of plagiarism, which is considered an unethical act. If we want to be efficient in the detection and prevention of these acts, we have to improve today's methods of discovering plagiarism. The paper presents a research study where…

  16. Social Network Aided Plagiarism Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of different kinds of electronic devices and the volume of content on the Web have increased the amount of plagiarism, which is considered an unethical act. If we want to be efficient in the detection and prevention of these acts, we have to improve today's methods of discovering plagiarism. The paper presents a research study where…

  17. Plagiarism Detection by Online Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra

    2017-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism represents one of the burning issues of the modern scientific world. Detection of plagiarism is a problem that the Editorial Board encounters in their daily work. Software solutions represent a good solution for the detection of plagiarism. The problem of plagiarism will become most discussed topic of the modern scientific world, especially due to the development of standard measures, which rank the work of one author. Investment in education, education of young research personnel about the importance of scientific research, with paying particular attention on ethical behavior, becomes an imperative of academic staff. Editors have to invest additional effort in the development of the base of reviewers team as well as in their proper guidance, because after all, despite the software solutions, they are the best weapon to fight plagiarism. Peer review process should be a key of successful operation of each journal.

  18. AST-based code plagiarism detection method%一种基于AST的代码抄袭检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 刘东升; 李彦臣; 钟美

    2011-01-01

    Because the current research about code plagiarism detection mostly based on program source code similarity, lac-king of grammatical analysis to code, ignoring the syntax and semantics of the program, can not effectively detect plagiarism to the slight modification of the structure. This paper presented a code plagiarism detection based on the AST. It pre-formated code, analysis lexical and syntax and obtained the corresponding AST. Then it traversed AST to generate code sequences, cal-culated the similarity of the code sequence and got the code plagiarism detection report. Experimental results show that the ap- ' proach can verify the C code plagiarism effectively, and it has some versatility and scalability on the C++ , Java and other pla-giarism detection program code.%针对目前代码抄袭检测方面的研究大多是基于程序源码层面进行相似度比较,不需要对代码进行语法分析,由于忽略程序语法语义,对稍加结构修改的抄袭行为无法有效检测的现状,提出一种基于AST的代码抄袭检测方法.先将代码进行格式化预处理,再进行词法分析、语法分析,得到对应的AST;然后遍历AST生成代码序列,对代码序列进行相似度计算,从而得到代码的抄袭检测报告.实验结果表明,该方法能够有效检测出C程序代码的抄袭行为,并对C++、Java等多种程序代码的抄袭检测具有一定的通用性和可扩展性.

  19. Students versus Plagiarism: How is Online Plagiarism Detection Service Perceived?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Affan Ramadhana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communication technology plays a considerable role for students in writing their theses. The positive side, it will help the students to find countless number of academic sources ranging from journal articles to complete theses written by other scholars. On the other hand, it will also create a chance for the students to commit plagiarism easier. Unoriginal writing and plagiarism in this digital era can be detected in the digital way by using plagiarism detection software. This paper elaborates how students understand the concept of plagiarism, how they avoid plagiarism, and how they perceive online plagiarism detection service. The data was taken from interviews to MA students during their period of thesis writing. This paper concludes several important outlines to be learning guidelines for the students in improving their academic writing.

  20. 基于XML的C代码抄袭检测算法%Plagiarism detection algorithm based on XML for C code.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟美; 张丽萍; 刘东升

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly studies a plagiarism detection algorithm based on XML for C code. It generates a XML text from C source code, extracts the structure information of XML text lines, calculates the XML text lines similarity and obtains the similarity of two programs. Plagiarism detection algorithm is implemented to classification test, specific categories are described as follows:the means of 12 kinds' plagiarism,complex semantics and complex data structures. Test results verify the effectiveness of plagiarism detection algorithm.%主要研究一种基于XML文本的C代码抄袭检测算法.将C程序源代码转化为XML文本,提取XML文本各行标记的属性,计算XML文本行的相似值,得到程序对的相似度.并对抄袭检测算法实行分类测试:按十二种抄袭手段分类;按复杂语义和复杂数据结构分类.测试结果对比验证了抄袭检测算法的有效性.

  1. Citation-based plagiarism detection detecting disguised and cross-language plagiarism using citation pattern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gipp, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a problem with far-reaching consequences for the sciences. However, even today's best software-based systems can only reliably identify copy & paste plagiarism. Disguised plagiarism forms, including paraphrased text, cross-language plagiarism, as well as structural and idea plagiarism often remain undetected. This weakness of current systems results in a large percentage of scientific plagiarism going undetected. Bela Gipp provides an overview of the state-of-the art in plagiarism detection and an analysis of why these approaches fail to detect disguised plagiarism forms. The aut

  2. Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-09-01

    The theft of someone's words or thoughts--plagiarism--has long been a concern in medical literature. The phenomenon applies to unreferenced published or unpublished data that belong to someone else, including applications for grants and a publication submitted in a different language. Other acts of plagiarism are paraphrasing without crediting the source, using "blanket" references, "second-generation" references, and duplicate or repetitive publication of one's own previously published work. Does incorporating a peer reviewer's ideas constitute plagiarism? The requirement of many journals for a short list of references is problematic, as is confusion about what constitutes common knowledge. What criteria should be used for detecting plagiarism? To make an accusation of plagiarism is serious and perilous. Motivations for plagiarism are considered, and 2 striking historical examples of plagiarism are summarized. We believe that with insight into its causes and effects, plagiarism can be eliminated.

  3. Plagiarism Detection Based on SCAM Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzelmi, Daniele; Carlone, Domenico; Rizzello, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex problem and considered one of the biggest in publishing of scientific, engineering and other types of documents. Plagiarism has also increased with the widespread use of the Internet as large amount of digital data is available. Plagiarism is not just direct copy but also...... paraphrasing, rewording, adapting parts, missing references or wrong citations. This makes the problem more difficult to handle adequately. Plagiarism detection techniques are applied by making a distinction between natural and programming languages. Our proposed detection process is based on natural language...... document. Our plagiarism detection system, like many Information Retrieval systems, is evaluated with metrics of precision and recall....

  4. 基于N-gram的VB源代码抄袭检测方法%A VB Source Code Plagiarism Detection Method Based on N-gram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斐; 唐雁; 补嘉

    2012-01-01

    为了有效地抑制VB程序代码抄袭现象,提出一个基于N-gram的VB源代码抄袭检测方法,利用N-gram来表示VB代码文件,以提高检测准确率。同时采用基于Fork-Join框架的并行计算技术来提高算法效率。通过与MOSS系统的对比实验,证明基于N-gram的VB源代码抄袭检测方法检测准确率高于MOSS系统,并具有处理大规模数据的能力。%With the rapid development text, the text plagiarism becomes more of information networks and the widespread use of electronic serious. In order to effectively curb the plagiarism phenome- gram to represent the VB source code files to improve the detection accuracy, and using the parallel computing technology based on Fork-Join to improve the efficiency of the algorithm. The experiment results showed our code plagiarism detection method achieves higher accuracy than the MOSS system, and has the ability to handle large-scale data.

  5. Web Based Cross Language Plagiarism Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2009-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross language and cultural border by providing different types of translation tools, cross language plagiarism, also known as translation plagiarism are bound to arise. Especially among the academic works, such issue will definitely affect the student's works including the quality of their assignments and paper works. In this paper, we propose a new approach in detecting cross language plagiarism. Our web based cross language plagiarism detection system is specially tuned to detect translation plagiarism by implementing different techniques and tools to assist the detection process. Google Translate API is used as our translation tool and Google Search API, which is used in our information retrieval process. Our system is also integrated with the fingerprint matching technique, which is a widely used plagiarism detection technique. In general, our proposed system is started by translating the input documents from Malay to English, followed by removal of stop words and stemming words, ...

  6. Plagiarism Detection Based on SCAM Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzelmi, Daniele; Carlone, Domenico; Rizzello, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex problem and considered one of the biggest in publishing of scientific, engineering and other types of documents. Plagiarism has also increased with the widespread use of the Internet as large amount of digital data is available. Plagiarism is not just direct copy but also...... paraphrasing, rewording, adapting parts, missing references or wrong citations. This makes the problem more difficult to handle adequately. Plagiarism detection techniques are applied by making a distinction between natural and programming languages. Our proposed detection process is based on natural language...

  7. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. ...

  8. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  9. Automatic Student Plagiarism Detection: Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgovoy, Maxim; Kakkonen, Tuomo; Cosma, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    The availability and use of computers in teaching has seen an increase in the rate of plagiarism among students because of the wide availability of electronic texts online. While computer tools that have appeared in recent years are capable of detecting simple forms of plagiarism, such as copy-paste, a number of recent research studies devoted to…

  10. Automatic Student Plagiarism Detection: Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgovoy, Maxim; Kakkonen, Tuomo; Cosma, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    The availability and use of computers in teaching has seen an increase in the rate of plagiarism among students because of the wide availability of electronic texts online. While computer tools that have appeared in recent years are capable of detecting simple forms of plagiarism, such as copy-paste, a number of recent research studies devoted to…

  11. Detection of Plagiarism in Arabic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Bachir Menai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many language-sensitive tools for detecting plagiarism in natural language documents have been developed, particularly for English. Language-independent tools exist as well, but are considered restrictive as they usually do not take into account specific language features. Detecting plagiarism in Arabic documents is particularly a challenging task because of the complex linguistic structure of Arabic. In this paper, we present a plagiarism detection tool for comparison of Arabic documents to identify potential similarities. The tool is based on a new comparison algorithm that uses heuristics to compare suspect documents at different hierarchical levels to avoid unnecessary comparisons. We evaluate its performance in terms of precision and recall on a large data set of Arabic documents, and show its capability in identifying direct and sophisticated copying, such as sentence reordering and synonym substitution. We also demonstrate its advantages over other plagiarism detection tools, including Turnitin, the well-known language-independent tool.

  12. Research into Plagiarism Cases and Plagiarism Detection Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kashkur, M; Paršutins, S; Borisovs, A

    2010-01-01

    In the age of information technology intellectual property becomes especially valuable. This is one of the causes why the cases of the plagiarism appear more frequently in all vital sectors. Due to that, there is a growing need for different instruments for the protection and verification of copyright for finding plagiarism. Before checking the document for plagiarism, reviewing algorithms and approaches for searching plagiarism, you must know and understand what constitutes the plagiarism. T...

  13. The System Kato: Detecting Cases of Plagiarism for Answer-Set Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Oetsch, Johannes; Schwengerer, Martin; Tompits, Hans; 10.1017/S1471068410000402

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism detection is a growing need among educational institutions and solutions for different purposes exist. An important field in this direction is detecting cases of source-code plagiarism. In this paper, we present the tool Kato for supporting the detection of this kind of plagiarism in the area of answer-set programming (ASP). Currently, the tool is implemented for DLV programs but it is designed to handle other logic-programming dialects as well. We review the basic features of Kato, introduce its theoretical underpinnings, and discuss an application of Kato for plagiarism detection in the context of courses on logic programming at the Vienna University of Technology.

  14. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  15. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  16. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

  17. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Millhouse, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem among scientific publications. There are various definitions of plagiarism, and the major categories include unintentional (unsuitable paraphrasing or improper citations) and intentional. Intentional plagiarism includes mosaic plagiarism, plagiarism of ideas, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. There are many Web sites and software packages that claim to detect plagiarism effectively. A violation of plagiarism laws can lead to serious consequences including author banning, loss of professional reputation, termination of a position, and even legal action.

  18. Shape-Based Plagiarism Detection for Flowchart Figures in Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senosy Arrish

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection is well known phenomenon in the academic arena. Copying other people is considered as serious offence that needs to be checked. There are many plagiarism detection systems such as turn-it-in that has been developed to provide this checks. Most, if not all, discard the figures and charts before checking for plagiarism. Discarding the figures and charts results in look holes that people can take advantage. That means people can plagiarized figures and charts easily without the current plagiarism systems detecting it. There are very few papers which talks about flowcharts plagiarism detection. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system that will detect plagiarism in figures and charts. This paper presents a method for detecting flow chart figure plagiarism based on shape-based image processing and multimedia retrieval. The method managed to retrieve flowcharts with ranked similarity according to different matching sets.

  19. The Cat-and-Mouse Game of Plagiarism Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how colleges, frustrated by students who use the Internet to plagiarize, are going online to enable professors to fight back. Explains that plagiarism-detection software, available for several years, is increasing in use. (EV)

  20. Evaluation of the SHAPD2 Algorithm Efficiency in Plagiarism Detection Task Using PAN Plagiarism Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Ceglarek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of the ongoing novel research in the area of natural language processing focusing on plagiarism detection, semantic networks and semantic compression. The results demon strate that the seman tic compression is a valuable addition to the existing methods used in plagiary detection. The application of the seman tic compression boosts the efficiency of Sentence Hashing Algorithm for Plagiarism Detection2 (SHAPD2 and authors ’implementation of the w-shingling algorithm. Experiments were performed on Clough & Stephenson corpusas well as an available PAN – PC - 10plagiarism corpus used to evaluate plagiarism detection methods, so the results can be compared with other research teams.

  1. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  2. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  3. Plagiarism Detection Using Graph-Based Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, Ahmed Hamza; Binwahlan, Mohammed Salem

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism of material from the Internet is a widespread and growing problem. Several methods used to detect the plagiarism and similarity between the source document and suspected documents such as fingerprint based on character or n-gram. In this paper, we discussed a new method to detect the plagiarism based on graph representation; however, Preprocessing for each document is required such as breaking down the document into its constituent sentences. Segmentation of each sentence into separated terms and stop word removal. We build the graph by grouping each sentence terms in one node, the resulted nodes are connected to each other based on order of sentence within the document, all nodes in graph are also connected to top level node "Topic Signature". Topic signature node is formed by extracting the concepts of each sentence terms and grouping them in such node. The main advantage of the proposed method is the topic signature which is main entry for the graph is used as quick guide to the relevant nodes. ...

  4. Plagiarism Detection: Keeping Check on Misuse of Intellectual Property

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Iti; Joshi, Nisheeth

    2012-01-01

    Today, Plagiarism has become a menace. Every journal editor or conference organizers has to deal with this problem. Simply Copying or rephrasing of text without giving due credit to the original author has become more common. This is considered to be an Intellectual Property Theft. We are developing a Plagiarism Detection Tool which would deal with this problem. In this paper we discuss the common tools available to detect plagiarism and their short comings and the advantages of our tool over...

  5. An Improved Algorithm based on Abstract Syntax Tree for Source Code Plagiarism Detection%一种改进的基于抽象语法树的软件源代码比对算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠; 韩丽芳; 夏坤峰; 曲通

    2014-01-01

    在软件同源性检测方法中,基于抽象语法树的比对方法能够有效地检测出基于代码全文拷贝、修改变量名、调整代码顺序等的抄袭手段,被广泛用于抄袭检测工具中。但基于抽象语法树的比对方法对于修改变量类型和添加无意义变量的抄袭手段束手无策。针对这种情况,提出了一种基于抽象语法树的改进思想,该思想通过剪去语法树中影响判断的叶子节点的手段来还原检测原文抄袭,能够达到有效检测修改变量类型和添加无意义变量等抄袭的目的。%Among the source code plagiarism detection algorithms used in software engineering, the algorithm based on abstract syntax tree (AST) can effectively detect those plagiarized cases of copying with no modiifcation, modifying variable names and changing the source code sequence, but the algorithm can not detect the cases of modifying the variable type, adding no useful variables and so on. In this paper, we propose an improved algorithm based on abstract syntax tree, which is implemented by cutting out the syntax tree leaf nodes that may affect the judgment. This improved algorithm can positively detect the plagiarism cases described in the previous.

  6. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  7. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  8. PLAGIARISM DETECTION PROBLEMS AND ANALYSIS SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR ITS SOLVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study is aimed at: 1 the definition of plagiarism in texts on formal and natural languages, building a taxonomy of plagiarism; 2 identify major problems of plagiarism detection when using automated tools to solve them; 3 Analysis and systematization of information obtained during the review, testing and analysis of existing detection systems. Methodology. To identify the requirements of the software to detect plagiarism apply methods of analysis of normative documentation (legislative base and competitive tools. To check the requirements of the testing methods used and GUI interfaces review. Findings. The paper considers the concept of plagiarism issues of proliferation and classification. A review of existing systems to identify plagiarism: desktop applications, and online resources. Highlighting their functional characteristics, determine the format of the input and output data and constraints on them, customization features and access. Drill down system requirements is made. Originality. The authors proposed schemes complement the existing hierarchical taxonomy of plagiarism. Analysis of existing systems is done in terms of functionality and possibilities for use of large amounts of data. Practical value. The practical significance is determined by the breadth of the problem of plagiarism in various fields. In Ukraine, develops the legal framework for the fight against plagiarism, which requires the active solution development tasks, improvement and delivery of relevant software (PO. This work contributes to the solution of these problems. Review of existing programs, Anti-plagiarism, as well as study and research experience in the field and update the concept of plagiarism, the strategy allows it to identify more fully articulate to the functional performance requirements, the input and output of the developed software, as well as to identify the features of such software. The article focuses on the features of solving the

  9. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  10. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  11. Plagiarism Detection using ROUGE and WordNet

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chien-Ying; Ke, Hao-Ren

    2010-01-01

    With the arrival of digital era and Internet, the lack of information control provides an incentive for people to freely use any content available to them. Plagiarism occurs when users fail to credit the original owner for the content referred to, and such behavior leads to violation of intellectual property. Two main approaches to plagiarism detection are fingerprinting and term occurrence; however, one common weakness shared by both approaches, especially fingerprinting, is the incapability to detect modified text plagiarism. This study proposes adoption of ROUGE and WordNet to plagiarism detection. The former includes ngram co-occurrence statistics, skip-bigram, and longest common subsequence (LCS), while the latter acts as a thesaurus and provides semantic information. N-gram co-occurrence statistics can detect verbatim copy and certain sentence modification, skip-bigram and LCS are immune from text modification such as simple addition or deletion of words, and WordNet may handle the problem of word subst...

  12. A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches for Reducing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-An; Wilhelm, William J.; Neureuther, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and…

  13. A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches for Reducing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-An; Wilhelm, William J.; Neureuther, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and…

  14. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  15. Deterring digital plagiarism, how effective is the digital detection process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Chaudhuri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic dishonesty or plagiarism is a growing problem in today's digital world. Use of plagiarism detection tools can assist faculty to combat this form of academic dishonesty. In this article, a special emphasis is given to text-matching software called SafeAssignmentTM. The advantages and disadvantages of using automated text matching software's are discussed and analyzed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of using automated text matching software's are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  16. Plagiarism Detection Using Artificial Intelligence Technique In Multiple Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausumi Sahu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism relates to the act of taking information or ideas of someone else and demand it as your own. Basically it reproduce the existing information in modified format. In every field of education it becomes a serious issue. Various techniques and tools are derived these days to detect plagiarism. Various types of plagiarism are there like text matching copy paste grammar based method etc.This paper proposes a new method implemented in a program where we utilise a text set to identify the copied part by comparing with some existing multiple files. Here we put the concept of a machine learning language i.e k-NN. It helps us to identify whether a paper is plagiarized or not.

  17. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers, however, there is at least one fee-based service (CrossRef) and one free service (etblast.org) which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided. PMID:21194644

  18. 基于多种技术的混合式程序代码抄袭检测方法%Hybrid plagiarism detection method in program code based on multiple techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超

    2016-01-01

    Based on analyzing characteristics and drawbacks of the existing plagiarism detection system in program code, a hybrid plagiarism detection method combining text analysis, structure metrics and attribute counting is proposed. Firstly, the document fingerprinting technology and Winnowing algorithm are used to compute text similarity. Secondly, the program code is translated to a Dynamic Control Structure tree(DCS), and Winnowing algorithm is applied to estimate the DCS tree similarity which is structural similarity also. Then each variable information in code is collected and counted. The variable similarity algorithm is applied to analyze variable information node and get variable similarity. Finally, the text similarity, structural similarity and variable similarity are assigned a weight to compute the total code similarity. The experi-mental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect all kinds of plagiarism. To the different threshold values, the accuracy and the recall ratio of test results are higher than JPLAG system. Especially for the simple structure in program code, the average accuracy of testing results of the method and JPLAG system are 82.5%and 69.5%respectively. Conse-quently it shows that the proposed method is more effective.%在分析现有程序代码抄袭检测系统的特点及局限性的基础上,提出一种综合文本分析、结构度量和属性计数技术的混合式程序抄袭检测方法。应用文档指纹技术和Winnowing算法计算程序的文本相似度;将程序代码表示成动态控制结构树(Dynamic Control Structure tree,DCS),运用Winnowing算法计算DCS树相似度,从而得到结构相似度;收集并统计程序中的每个变量信息,应用变量相似度算法分析变量信息节点获取变量相似度;分别赋予文本相似度、结构相似度和变量相似度一个权值,计算得到总体的代码相似度。实验结果表明,所提出的方法能够有效

  19. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  20. Sentence-Based Natural Language Plagiarism Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel R.; Joy, Mike S.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing levels of access to higher education in the United Kingdom, larger class sizes make it unrealistic for tutors to be expected to identify instances of peer-to-peer plagiarism by eye and so automated solutions to the problem are required. This document details a novel algorithm for comparison of suspect documents at a sentence…

  1. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  2. An Empirical Research Study of the Efficacy of Two Plagiarism-Detection Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob D.; Page, Elaine Fetyko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a study of the two most popular plagiarism-detection software platforms available on today's market--Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html) and SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com/). After a brief discussion of plagiarism's relevance to librarians, the authors examine plagiarism-detection methodology and…

  3. An Empirical Research Study of the Efficacy of Two Plagiarism-Detection Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob D.; Page, Elaine Fetyko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a study of the two most popular plagiarism-detection software platforms available on today's market--Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html) and SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com/). After a brief discussion of plagiarism's relevance to librarians, the authors examine plagiarism-detection methodology and…

  4. Protecting Students' Intellectual Property in the Web Plagiarism Detection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Sergey; Dyagilev, Vadim; Tskhay, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMS) play a central role in communications in online and distance education. In the digital era, with all the information now accessible at students' fingertips, plagiarism detection services (PDS) have become a must-have part of LMS. Such integration provides a seamless experience for users, allowing PDS to check…

  5. Hermetic and Web Plagiarism Detection Systems for Student Essays--An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Mozgovoy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism has become a serious problem in education, and several plagiarism detection systems have been developed for dealing with this problem. This study provides an empirical evaluation of eight plagiarism detection systems for student essays. We present a categorical hierarchy of the most common types of plagiarism that are encountered in…

  6. Hermetic and Web Plagiarism Detection Systems for Student Essays--An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Mozgovoy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism has become a serious problem in education, and several plagiarism detection systems have been developed for dealing with this problem. This study provides an empirical evaluation of eight plagiarism detection systems for student essays. We present a categorical hierarchy of the most common types of plagiarism that are encountered in…

  7. Insider Threat Control: Using Plagiarism Detection Algorithms to Prevent Data Exfiltration in Near Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Insider Threat Control: Using Plagiarism Detection Algorithms to Prevent Data Exfiltration in Near Real Time Todd Lewellen George J. Silowash...algorithms used in plagiarism detection software—to search the index for bodies of text similar to the text found in the outgoing web request. If the...2. REPORT DATE October 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Insider Threat Control: Using Plagiarism Detection

  8. An analysis of student privacy rights in the use of plagiarism detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Plagiarism detection services are a powerful tool to help encourage academic integrity. Adoption of these services has proven to be controversial due to ethical concerns about students' rights. Central to these concerns is the fact that most such systems make permanent archives of student work to be re-used in plagiarism detection. This computerization and automation of plagiarism detection is changing the relationships of trust and responsibility between students, educators, educational institutions, and private corporations. Educators must respect student privacy rights when implementing such systems. Student work is personal information, not the property of the educator or institution. The student has the right to be fully informed about how plagiarism detection works, and the fact that their work will be permanently archived as a result. Furthermore, plagiarism detection should not be used if the permanent archiving of a student's work may expose him or her to future harm.

  9. Plagiarism by Adult Learners Online: A case study in detection and remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Jocoy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and combating plagiarism from Web-based sources is a concern for administrators and instructors involved in online distance education. In this paper, we quantify copy-and-paste plagiarism among adult learners in an online geography course offered through Penn State’s World Campus Geographic Information Systems (GIS certificate program. We also evaluate the effectiveness of an “expectation management” strategy intended to discourage adult learners from unintentional violations. We found that while manual methods detected plagiarism in only about 3 percent of assignments, Turnitin.com revealed a 13 percent plagiarism rate among the same assignments. Our attempts to increase awareness and manage expectations decreased infractions measurably, but not significantly. In contrast, Turnitin.com substantially improved our ability to detect infractions. We conclude that raising awareness and managing expectations about plagiarism may be worthwhile, but is no substitute for systematic detection and vigilant enforcement, even among adult learners.

  10. Using an Electronic Text-Matching Tool (Turnitin) to Detect Plagiarism in a New Zealand University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Robert; Rudzki, Romuald

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with reporting the experience and findings of staff using a commercially-available text-matching tool (Turnitin) to detect plagiarism in a university setting in New Zealand. The use of actual instances of plagiarism revealed through Turnitin in a teaching department is a departure from the more usual self-reporting…

  11. Designing a Portlet for Plagiarism Detections Within a Campus Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinan A.W. Fiaidhi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In an educational context, we are faced with similar challenges. How do we keep the adminis tration, faculty, staff and students well informed about institutional policies and procedures? How do we ensure the student body receives accurate and up-to-date information to help them achieve their educational and career goals? How to check for plagiarism cases? In addition, we hope to build learning communities-communities of students, instructors, administration, faculty and staff all collaborating and constructing strong relationships that provide the foundation for students to achieve their goals with greater success. We also want to promote information sharing so users can build on their experiences at the institution. Plus, we want to provide seamless integration with legacy and other applications in some easy, modifiable and reusable way. One solution to these goals is to provide a support tool for such learning through a learning portal. This portal should provide all users (e.g. students, instructors with valuable information required. However, building and modifying learning portal is no small task, especially when you consider the shrinking budgets and limited resources in today's economy. Java portlet presents a new solution in which new functionality can be plugged to existing portals. This study shed some light on an ongoing research to develop a plagiarism detection portlet for java student assignments.

  12. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  13. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  14. Student Plagiarism and the Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Bradley H.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to better inform community college administrators and faculty regarding possible factors that contribute to higher levels of student plagiarism and to suggest appropriate preventative or responsive interventions. The specific purpose of the study was to investigate a set of faculty related factors that may be associated with…

  15. Plagiarism in the Context of Education and Evolving Detection Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Seksenbayev, Bakhytzhan; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Kitas, George D

    2017-08-01

    Plagiarism may take place in any scientific journals despite currently employed anti-plagiarism tools. The absence of widely acceptable definitions of research misconduct and reliance solely on similarity checks do not allow journal editors to prevent most complex cases of recycling of scientific information and wasteful, or 'predatory,' publishing. This article analyses Scopus-based publication activity and evidence on poor writing, lack of related training, emerging anti-plagiarism strategies, and new forms of massive wasting of resources by publishing largely recycled items, which evade the 'red flags' of similarity checks. In some non-Anglophone countries 'copy-and-paste' writing still plagues pre- and postgraduate education. Poor research management, absence of courses on publication ethics, and limited access to quality sources confound plagiarism as a cross-cultural and multidisciplinary phenomenon. Over the past decade, the advent of anti-plagiarism software checks has helped uncover elementary forms of textual recycling across journals. But such a tool alone proves inefficient for preventing complex forms of plagiarism. Recent mass retractions of plagiarized articles by reputable open-access journals point to critical deficiencies of current anti-plagiarism software that do not recognize manipulative paraphrasing and editing. Manipulative editing also finds its way to predatory journals, ignoring the adherence to publication ethics and accommodating nonsense plagiarized items. The evolving preventive strategies are increasingly relying on intelligent (semantic) digital technologies, comprehensively evaluating texts, keywords, graphics, and reference lists. It is the right time to enforce adherence to global editorial guidance and implement a comprehensive anti-plagiarism strategy by helping all stakeholders of scholarly communication. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  16. Plagiarism in the Context of Education and Evolving Detection Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Seksenbayev, Bakhytzhan

    2017-01-01

    Plagiarism may take place in any scientific journals despite currently employed anti-plagiarism tools. The absence of widely acceptable definitions of research misconduct and reliance solely on similarity checks do not allow journal editors to prevent most complex cases of recycling of scientific information and wasteful, or ‘predatory,’ publishing. This article analyses Scopus-based publication activity and evidence on poor writing, lack of related training, emerging anti-plagiarism strategies, and new forms of massive wasting of resources by publishing largely recycled items, which evade the ‘red flags’ of similarity checks. In some non-Anglophone countries ‘copy-and-paste’ writing still plagues pre- and postgraduate education. Poor research management, absence of courses on publication ethics, and limited access to quality sources confound plagiarism as a cross-cultural and multidisciplinary phenomenon. Over the past decade, the advent of anti-plagiarism software checks has helped uncover elementary forms of textual recycling across journals. But such a tool alone proves inefficient for preventing complex forms of plagiarism. Recent mass retractions of plagiarized articles by reputable open-access journals point to critical deficiencies of current anti-plagiarism software that do not recognize manipulative paraphrasing and editing. Manipulative editing also finds its way to predatory journals, ignoring the adherence to publication ethics and accommodating nonsense plagiarized items. The evolving preventive strategies are increasingly relying on intelligent (semantic) digital technologies, comprehensively evaluating texts, keywords, graphics, and reference lists. It is the right time to enforce adherence to global editorial guidance and implement a comprehensive anti-plagiarism strategy by helping all stakeholders of scholarly communication. PMID:28665055

  17. Plagiarism in computer science courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.K. [Francis Marion Univ., Florence, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Plagiarism of computer programs has long been a problem in higher education. Ease of electronic copying, vague understanding by students as to what constitutes plagiarism, increasing acceptance of plagiarism by students, lack of enforcement by instructors and school administrators, and a whole host of other factors contribute to plagiarism. The first step in curbing plagiarism is prevention, the second (and much less preferable) is detection. History files and software metrics can be used as a tool to aid in detecting possible plagiarism. This paper gives advice concerning how to deal with plagiarism and with using software monitors to detect plagiarism.

  18. Preventing And Detecting Plagiarism In The Written Work Of College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Whitney Gibson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism abounds on American college campuses.  This paper first examines reasons that college students cheat, using both the perspective of student respondents and the observations of the faculty authors.  Next, the paper examines the two strategies which can be taken to combat student plagiarism: prevention and detection.  Specific strategies are offered for each approach. 

  19. Plagiarism by Adult Learners Online: A case study in detection and remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jocoy

    2006-01-01

    Detecting and combating plagiarism from Web-based sources is a concern for administrators and instructors involved in online distance education. In this paper, we quantify copy-and-paste plagiarism among adult learners in an online geography course offered through Penn State’s World Campus Geographic Information Systems (GIS) certificate program. We also evaluate the effectiveness of an “expectation management” strategy intended to discourage adult learners from unintentional violations. We f...

  20. Fostering academic competence or putting students under general suspicion? Voluntary plagiarism check of academic papers by means of a web-based plagiarism detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Eleonora Kohl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing number of cases of plagiarism and the ease of use of online published texts, universities are faced with a considerable challenge to prevent and take action against plagiarism in academic student papers. In reaction to plagiarism, web-based plagiarism detection systems (PDSs are increasingly used to check submitted papers - this checking entails various problems, for example the percentage of plagiarism found is only an indication of the actual extent of plagiarism and not all types of plagiarism can be identified. To cope with this problematic situation the voluntary plagiarism check (VPC, an alternative preventive university didactic concept, was developed at the University of Education, Freiburg (Germany. It focused on the development of individual skills. Students were able to submit their academic papers (e.g. an undergraduate paper, final thesis anonymously. These were then tested with the PDS Ephorus. Following interpretation and summary of the findings by the project team - plagiarism as well as referencing mistakes - we advised the students on a suitable approach to academic writing based on their own typical mistakes. The VPC was conducted as a three-semester research project and was later evaluated. About 500 academic papers were tested. In 90% of the undergraduates' work incorrect and/or missing citations were found. This high percentage decreased among students in later semesters. Instances of plagiarism were detected in about 40% of the papers when the texts of advanced students (≥6th semester were tested. At the same time the length of the plagiarised texts decreased. Around half of the students stated that it was acceptable to copy single sentences or short passages from other sources without citation; they did not consider plagiarising on a limited scale as cheating. A similar number of students admitted to having doubts about whether they could write a good paper without plagiarising. Almost all

  1. Student's Plagiarisms in Higher Learning Institutions in the Era of Improved Internet Access: Case Study of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anney, Vicent Naano; Mosha, Mary Atanas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' plagiarism practices in Tanzania higher learning institutions by involving two universities-one public and one private university as a case study. The universities involved have honour code and policies for plagiarism detection however they do not employ software for checking students' plagiarism. The study…

  2. Plagiarism in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism sometimes creates legal and ethical problems for students and faculty. It can have serious consequences. Fortunately, there are ways to stop plagiarism. There are many tools available to detect plagiarism, e.g. using software for detecting submitted articles. Also, there are many ways to punish a plagiarist, e.g. banning plagiarists…

  3. The Experience of Detecting a Case of Plagiarism in Hepatitis Monthly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Goodarzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work (1. The National Library of Medicine (NLM defines a duplicate publication as one that 'substantially duplicates another article without acknowledgement' (2. Scientific misconduct may take place simply out of reasons of reputation - academic scientists are under pressure to produce publications in peer-reviewed journals. Alternatively, there may be commercial or political motivations where the financial or political success of a project depends on publishing evidence of efficacy (1, 3. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier, simply by copying and pasting text from one web page to another (1, 2. The ease with which electronic text can be reproduced from online sources has lured a number of reporters into acts of plagiarism: Journalists have been caught "copying-and-pasting" articles and text from a number of websites (1, 4, 5. Although detecting the cases of plagiarism is very complex and challenging, we have to consider plagiarism as the first part of the manuscript review process (6. In Iran, we have neither an online tool for detecting suspicious and doubtful articles, nor a national database for including cases of plagiarism. So what can we do?We introduce a case of plagiarism in Hepatitis Monthly and present some valuable ways to tackle this complicated problem since we believe that prevention of duplicate publication can be achieved through increasing editors' awareness and reviewers' knowledge.

  4. Personalized Assessment as a Means to Mitigate Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Sathiamoorthy

    2017-01-01

    Although every educational institution has a code of academic honesty, they still encounter incidents of plagiarism. These are difficult and time-consuming to detect and deal with. This paper explores the use of personalized assessments with the goal of reducing incidents of plagiarism, proposing a personalized assessment software framework…

  5. Turnitoff: Identifying and Fixing a Hole in Current Plagiarism Detection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, James

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, "plagiarism detection software" has become popular in universities and colleges, in an attempt to stem the tide of plagiarised student coursework. Such software attempts to detect any copied material and identify its source. The most popular such software is Turnitin, a commercial system used by thousands of institutions…

  6. Turnitoff: Identifying and Fixing a Hole in Current Plagiarism Detection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, James

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, "plagiarism detection software" has become popular in universities and colleges, in an attempt to stem the tide of plagiarised student coursework. Such software attempts to detect any copied material and identify its source. The most popular such software is Turnitin, a commercial system used by thousands of institutions…

  7. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  8. 基于AST的代码抄袭检测方法研究%AST-based plagiarism detection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘呈龙; 贾胜颖; 张丽萍; 刘东升

    2012-01-01

    To detect plagiarism on programming course, a AST-based plagiarism detection method is proposed Firstly, the code is parsed by syntax analysis tool to generate the corresponding abstract syntax tree (AST). Biology sequence matching algo rithms are used to calculate the similarity of the program. The similar part of the code is found, and then the AST feature is ex tracted in this part. A vector space model is generated, and then "copy cluster" is found by clustered the feature. Experiments show that this method has a good effect on the detection of plagiarism and can find the "copy cluster" accurate.%为了检测程序设计类课程中出现的作业抄袭行为,提出了基于抽象语法树的抄袭检测方法.运用语法分析工具对代码进行语法分析生成抽象语法树(AST),通过计算生物学中序列匹配的算法进行程序相似度的计算.提取程序相似部分的AST特征,生成空间向量,聚类分析找出“抄袭团伙”.实验结果表明,该方法对抄袭行为具有较好的检测效果,并能比较准确地找到“抄袭团伙”.

  9. Turnitin[R]: The Student Perspective on Using Plagiarism Detection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in plagiarism detection systems, such as the web-based Turnitin system. However, no study has so far tried to look at how students react towards those systems being used. This exploratory study examines the attitudes of students on a postgraduate module after using Turnitin as their standard way of…

  10. Turnitin[R]: The Student Perspective on Using Plagiarism Detection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in plagiarism detection systems, such as the web-based Turnitin system. However, no study has so far tried to look at how students react towards those systems being used. This exploratory study examines the attitudes of students on a postgraduate module after using Turnitin as their standard way of…

  11. Student and Staff Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Plagiarism Detection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Doug; Yeoh, Sue

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine student and staff perceptions of the effectiveness of plagiarism detection software. A mixed methods approach was undertaken, using a research model adapted from the literature. Eight hours of interviews were conducted with six students and six teaching staff from Curtin Business School at Curtin…

  12. The problem of plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa S; Steneck, Nicholas H

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a form of research misconduct and a serious violation of the norms of science. It is the misrepresentation of another's ideas or words as one's own, without proper acknowledgement of the original source. Certain aspects of plagiarism make it less straightforward than this definition suggests. Over the past 30 years, the U.S. Federal Government has developed and refined its policies on misconduct, and Federal agencies, as well as research institutions, have established approaches to responding to allegations and instances of plagiarism. At present, efforts to avert plagiarism focus on plagiarism-detection software and instructional strategies.

  13. How to Act When Research Misconduct Is Not Detected by Software but Revealed by the Author of the Plagiarized Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydik, Olga D; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2016-10-01

    The detection of plagiarism in scholarly articles is a complex process. It requires not just quantitative analysis with the similarity recording by anti-plagiarism software but also assessment of the readers' opinion, pointing to the theft of ideas, methodologies, and graphics. In this article we describe a blatant case of plagiarism by Chinese authors, who copied a Russian article from a non-indexed and not widely visible Russian journal, and published their own report in English in an open-access journal indexed by Scopus and Web of Science and archived in PubMed Central. The details of copying in the translated English article were presented by the Russian author to the chief editor of the index journal, consultants from Scopus, anti-plagiarism experts, and the administrator of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The correspondents from Scopus and COPE pointed to the decisive role of the editors' of the English journal who may consider further actions if plagiarism is confirmed. After all, the chief editor of the English journal retracted the article on grounds of plagiarism and published a retraction note, although no details of the complexity of the case were reported. The case points to the need for combining anti-plagiarism efforts and actively seeking opinion of non-native English-speaking authors and readers who may spot intellectual theft which is not always detected by software.

  14. AST-Based Multi-Language Plagiarism Detection Method%基于AST的多语言代码抄袭检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 刘呈龙; 刘东升

    2012-01-01

    To detect plagiarism on programming course, AST-based plagiarism detection method is proposed. First, parsing the code generated the corresponding Abstract Syntax Tree (AST). Biology-sequence matching algorithms are used to calculate the similarity of the program. Find the similar part of the code,and then extract the AST feature in this part. Generated vector space model,and then find "copy cluster" by clustered the feature. Experiments show that this method has a good effect on the detection of plagiarism and can find the "copy cluster" accurate.%为了检测程序设计类课程中出现的作业抄袭行为,提出一种基于抽象语法树的抄袭检测方法.该方法根据多种语言的文法文件,用语法分析工具生成对应的抽象语法树(AST),利用计算生物学中序列匹配算法进行程序相似度计算,提取程序相似部分的AST特征,生成空间向量,通过聚类分析找出“抄袭团伙”.实验结果表明,该方法对抄袭行为具有较好的检测效果,能准确地找出“抄袭团伙”.

  15. Plagiarism – A Noble Misconduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-07-01

    eloquence of the text.8 But, there is a dilemma in scientific writing where the essence of the work is the originality of the scientific content no matter how it is presented.9 Unlike any other author, the author of a scientific paper are ought to follow certain well-established scientific methodology and always be careful not to be affected by his or her intuition or biases that might jeopardize the judgment of a researcher.9,10 For a scientific paper, the author has to take sufficient time to read and understand thoroughly the main source of the article, and then he can organize into his own ideas or thoughts. Before submitting their ideas or manuscript to the journal office, the author should rewrite the article in his own words without seeing from the original source and if in any doubt, should take help of the guide/instructor.4,11,12 Researchers and authors of scholarly papers have to follow ethical codes of Good Scientific Practice (GSP,13 primarily based of the principles of honesty and integrity.11 In the modern-day collaborative and multidisciplinary research, honesty of each and every author is becoming a pillar of trustworthy science.14 Scientists absorb new information, design new studies and publish their experimental results in various related biomedical journals. Because of the ease of using various search engines for researching resources on the internet, large numbers of published papers that contain an enormous amount of study materials can be quickly obtained. As such, plagiarism or duplicate publication may occur either consciously or unconsciously when the authors are preparing their manuscript.15 In fact availability of internet facilities and free online journals are the main sources of today's plagiarism among the students, faculty and researchers of any profession.6,16-19 Unfortunately, digitalization made copy-paste plagiarism and inappropriate re-use of sources from the websites, online journals, and other electronic media widespread.14 According

  16. Cross-Language Plagiarism Detection System Using Latent Semantic Analysis and Learning Vector Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Putri Ratna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computerized cross-language plagiarism detection has recently become essential. With the scarcity of scientific publications in Bahasa Indonesia, many Indonesian authors frequently consult publications in English in order to boost the quantity of scientific publications in Bahasa Indonesia (which is currently rising. Due to the syntax disparity between Bahasa Indonesia and English, most of the existing methods for automated cross-language plagiarism detection do not provide satisfactory results. This paper analyses the probability of developing Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA for a computerized cross-language plagiarism detector for two languages with different syntax. To improve performance, various alterations in LSA are suggested. By using a linear vector quantization (LVQ classifier in the LSA and taking into account the Frobenius norm, output has reached up to 65.98% in accuracy. The results of the experiments showed that the best accuracy achieved is 87% with a document size of 6 words, and the document definition size must be kept below 10 words in order to maintain high accuracy. Additionally, based on experimental results, this paper suggests utilizing the frequency occurrence method as opposed to the binary method for the term–document matrix construction.

  17. Plagiarism: understanding and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Paul

    2007-08-01

    An epidemic of plagiarism is sweeping the world. A study carried out in the US suggested that 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once (Ashworth et al 1997). Alternative evidence from an American education and software company, Plagiarism.org, reported that 36% of undergraduates plagiarise written material and that 90% of students believe that cheaters are never caught or disciplined (Plagiarism.org 2005). Closer to home, research carried out in the UK by Clare (1996) suggested that 50% of students copy work and invent data. More recently the Plagiarism Advisory Service, based at Northumbria University, reported that 25% of students plagiarise, while lecturers only detect plagiarism 3% of the time (Plagiarism Advisory Service 2006).

  18. Analyzing and reducing plagiarism at university

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is one of the less desirable practises in the academic context. This paper presents an experience of massive plagiarism detection at university and the steps taken to prevent its subsequent occurrence. Plagiarism was detected in the first assessment phase of a research project practise. As a result, students were required to arrange ethical group discussions with the professor to prevent plagiarism in the future. A substantial reduction in the rate of plagiarism was observed from t...

  19. Changing Attitudes in Learning and Assessment: Cast-Off "Plagiarism Detection" and Cast-On Self-Service Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Esyin; Ding, Seong Lin; Rowell, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Considering the change of attitudes of plagiarism detection to assessment for learning, it is necessary to explore the effect of the paradigm shift for Turnitin, from "plagiarism detection" to self-service learning aid. Two research questions are explored in the present study: (1) How Turnitin augments self-service skills of students and…

  20. Changing Attitudes in Learning and Assessment: Cast-Off "Plagiarism Detection" and Cast-On Self-Service Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Esyin; Ding, Seong Lin; Rowell, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Considering the change of attitudes of plagiarism detection to assessment for learning, it is necessary to explore the effect of the paradigm shift for Turnitin, from "plagiarism detection" to self-service learning aid. Two research questions are explored in the present study: (1) How Turnitin augments self-service skills of students and…

  1. A Model for Determining Student Plagiarism: Electronic Detection and Academic Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretag, Tracey; Mahmud, Saadia

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insights based on the authors' own practice as university instructors, researchers and arbitrators of student plagiarism. Recognising the difficulty in defining plagiarism while still acknowledging the practical importance of doing so, the authors find the common element between the various types of plagiarism to be the lack of…

  2. The Case of the Pilfered Paper: Implications of Online Writing Assistance and Web-Based Plagiarism Detection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Phoebe; Vaughn, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    While there is nothing new about academic dishonesty, how it is committed, prevented, and detected has been dramatically transformed by the advent of online technologies. This article briefly describes the concurrent emergence of online writing assistance services and Web-based plagiarism detection tools and examines the implications of both for…

  3. Mathematical formula plagiarism detection algorithm based on binary tree%一种基于二叉树的数学公式抄袭检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉平; 唐亚伟; 伦淑娴; 王秀坤

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种基于二叉树的LaTeX格式数学公式抄袭检测算法。在待检测文档中提取数学公式,根据数学公式的LaTeX格式生成其二叉树表示,对树形结构作归一化处理得到结构码;在公式检测库中查找文件名为该结构码的数据表,若该数据表存在,则在数据表中查找与二叉树根结点公式元素和变量名归一化的先序遍历序列都相同的记录;根据查找结果确定数学公式是否为抄袭。实验结果表明,该算法准确地实现了数学公式的抄袭检测,是一种较实用的算法。%A mathematical formula plagiarism detection algorithm based on binary tree is proposed. Firstly, the paper gets the mathematical formula from the detected document, generates the binary tree of the mathematical formula by its LaTeX form, normalizes the binary tree structure to get the structure code, and then searches the table that named the structure code. If the tale exists, then indexing the record that equals to the formula element of root node and the normalizing variable names pre-order traversing formula element sequence of the binary tree. The indexing resuls confirms if the mathematical formula belong to plagiarism. The experimental results show that the algorithm realize the accurately plagiarism-detection of mathematical formula, so it is a more practical algorithm.

  4. A Review on Anti-Plagiarism Approach Using Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Sudhir D. Salunkhe

    2013-01-01

    Now a days Plagiarism becomes serious problem, especially in academics and education and detecting plagiarism is a challenging task, particularly text plagiarism in student’s documents. Students or any other author makes plagiarism of original document and puts it as own document without giving credit to original author. To detect such dishonesty in document writing an anti-plagiarism system is proposed. In which reinforcement learning is can be used to get fast response of plagiarism in susp...

  5. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    accused authors (all of them), the authors whose work may have been plagiarized, and the copyright holder of the original material. The correspondence will include the alleged plagiarizing language and a copy of the original and suspected work. If all parties agree that plagiarism (whether intentional or unintentional) has occurred, a written letter of apology should be sent promptly by the offending author(s) to the Editor/Publisher and to the authors and copyright holder whose work has been plagiarized. If the offending work has been published, a notice of plagiarism, citing both the plagiarized and the offending articles, will be published in the next available issue of PMB. The plagiarizing authors shall agree that all dissemination of the offending article shall be accompanied by the notice of plagiarism. In the most serious cases of plagiarism, a retraction (erratum) will be published (in accordance with the STM guidelines on 'Preservation of the objective record of science', retraction is favoured over removal in virtually all cases), and further sanctions applied. If the offending work hasn't yet been published (i.e. it is detected by the referees), sanctions will still be applied. If the accused authors deny that plagiarism has occurred, the Editor and Publisher must explore the accusation further. The investigation will also involve the Journals Director and the Chief Scientific Adviser of IOP Publishing (who publish PMB on behalf of IPEM) and also the General Secretary of IPEM. All parties to the allegation will be encouraged to submit corroborating evidence, and the accused authors granted an opportunity (at no expense to the journal) to testify in person to defend themselves against the allegation. The investigation should be concluded as quickly as possible (particularly if the article in question has already been published online or in print). If the investigation of the allegation of plagiarism concludes in support of the allegation, then the process for

  6. Plagiarism Detection: A Comparison of Teaching Assistants and a Software Tool in Identifying Cheating in a Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Eva; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Spinath, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Essays that are assigned as homework in large classes are prone to cheating via unauthorized collaboration. In this study, we compared the ability of a software tool based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and student teaching assistants to detect plagiarism in a large group of students. To do so, we took two approaches: the first approach was…

  7. Local Plagiarisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism and collusion are significant issues for most lecturers whatever their discipline, and to universities and the higher education sector. Universities respond to these issues by developing institutional definitions of plagiarism, which are intended to apply to all instances of plagiarism and collusion. This article first suggests that…

  8. Local Plagiarisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism and collusion are significant issues for most lecturers whatever their discipline, and to universities and the higher education sector. Universities respond to these issues by developing institutional definitions of plagiarism, which are intended to apply to all instances of plagiarism and collusion. This article first suggests that…

  9. A Note on Academic Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, David

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that academic plagiarism is not addressed as vigorously as needed because the university code of professional conduct is not fully evolved and does not consider plagiarism as malpractice. In treating the problem, it is suggested that one place to start is teaching proper use of citation and annotation. (MSE)

  10. Detecting and (not) dealing with plagiarism in an engineering paper: beyond CrossCheck-a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-xin; Huo, Zhao-lin; Zhang, Yue-hong

    2014-06-01

    In papers in areas such as engineering and the physical sciences, figures, tables and formulae are the basic elements to communicate the authors' core ideas, workings and results. As a computational text-matching tool, CrossCheck cannot work on these non-textual elements to detect plagiarism. Consequently, when comparing engineering or physical sciences papers, CrossCheck may return a low similarity index even when plagiarism has in fact taken place. A case of demonstrated plagiarism involving engineering papers with a low similarity index is discussed, and editor's experiences and suggestions are given on how to tackle this problem. The case shows a lack of understanding of plagiarism by some authors or editors, and illustrates the difficulty of getting some editors and publishers to take appropriate action. Consequently, authors, journal editors, and reviewers, as well as research institutions all are duty-bound not only to recognize the differences between ethical and unethical behavior in order to protect a healthy research environment, and also to maintain consistent ethical publishing standards.

  11. Plagiarism in solutions of programming tasks in distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Barteczko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Source code plagiarism in students solutions of programming tasks is a serious problem, especially important in distance learning. Naturally, it should be prevented, but publicly available code plagiarism detection tools are not fully adjusted to this purpose. This paper proposes the specific approach to detecting code duplicates. This approach is based on adapting of detection process to characteristics of programming tasks and comprise of freshly developed detecting tools, which could be configured and tuned to fit individual features of the programming task. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of an automatic elimination of duplicate codes from the set of all solutions. As a minimum, this requires the rejection of false-positive duplicates, even for simple, schematic tasks. The case in the use of tools is presented in this context. The discussion is illustrated by applying of proposed tools to duplicates detection in the set of actual, real-life, codes written in Java programming language.

  12. 基于SVM的抄袭检测方法研究%Research on plagiarism detection method based on SVMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素红; 宁慧; 杨松; 徐丽

    2015-01-01

    For plagiarism detection, this paper proposes a plagiarism detection method based on information retrieval and support vector machines ( SVMs) , and its corresponding subtasks are candidate document retrieval and plagia-rism analysis based on SVMs. First, the information retrieval is used to search source document corresponding to suspicious documents from the reference document set to compose the candidate document set. Then, for document pairs, features are extracted and expressed into vector which using to train classifier of the support vector machine. At last, feature vectors drawn from test corpus are put into the classifi-er for classification, so as to predict whether suspicious passages are plagiarized or non-plagiarized. Experiment re-sults show that the proposed research method can effectively detect whether the document is plagiarized, and the re-sult is satisfactory. The precision and recall are raised to a certain extent.%针对抄袭检测,本研究提出了基于信息检索和支持向量机( SVM)的检测方法,其对应的子任务就是备选文档检索和基于SVM的详细比对. 首先,用信息检索系统从参考文档集中检索出与可疑文档对应的源文档,组成备选文档集.然后,对于可疑文档和备选文档组成的文本对进行特征提取,将得到的特征值写成向量的形式,用这些特征向量训练支持向量机分类器. 最后,将从测试集中提取的特征向量投入到分类器中进行分类,从而预测可疑文档是否包含抄袭. 实验表明,提出的研究方法能对文档进行有效的抄袭检测,并取得了较好的效果,精确率和召回率有了相应的提升.

  13. Plagiarism, Cheating and Research Integrity: Case Studies from a Masters Program in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Andres M; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Konda, Kelika A; Mezones-Holguin, Edward; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, German F; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos; Maguiña, Jorge L; Segura, Eddy R; Quispe, Antonio M; Smith, Edward S; Bayer, Angela M; Lescano, Andres G

    2017-08-01

    Plagiarism is a serious, yet widespread type of research misconduct, and is often neglected in developing countries. Despite its far-reaching implications, plagiarism is poorly acknowledged and discussed in the academic setting, and insufficient evidence exists in Latin America and developing countries to inform the development of preventive strategies. In this context, we present a longitudinal case study of seven instances of plagiarism and cheating arising in four consecutive classes (2011-2014) of an Epidemiology Masters program in Lima, Peru, and describes the implementation and outcomes of a multifaceted, "zero-tolerance" policy aimed at introducing research integrity. Two cases involved cheating in graded assignments, and five cases correspond to plagiarism in the thesis protocol. Cases revealed poor awareness of high tolerance to plagiarism, poor academic performance, and widespread writing deficiencies, compensated with patchwriting and copy-pasting. Depending on the events' severity, penalties included course failure (6/7) and separation from the program (3/7). Students at fault did not engage in further plagiarism. Between 2011 and 2013, the Masters program sequentially introduced a preventive policy consisting of: (i) intensified research integrity and scientific writing education, (ii) a stepwise, cumulative writing process; (iii) honor codes; (iv) active search for plagiarism in all academic products; and (v) a "zero-tolerance" policy in response to documented cases. No cases were detected in 2014. In conclusion, plagiarism seems to be widespread in resource-limited settings and a greater response with educational and zero-tolerance components is needed to prevent it.

  14. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T

    2010-01-01

    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces. PMID:21487489

  15. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T

    2010-12-01

    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces.

  16. Plagiarism Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  17. Plagiarism Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  18. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  19. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs.

  20. Prevalence of plagiarism among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Frković, Vedran; Turk, Tamara; Azman, Josip; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2005-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of plagiarism among medical students in writing essays. During two academic years, 198 second year medical students attending Medical Informatics course wrote an essay on one of four offered articles. Two of the source articles were available in an electronic form and two in printed form. Two (one electronic and one paper article) were considered less complex and the other two more complex. The essays were examined using plagiarism detection software "WCopyfind," which counted the number of matching phrases with six or more words. Plagiarism rate, expressed as the percentage of the plagiarized text, was calculated as a ratio of the absolute number of matching words and the total number of words in the essay. Only 17 (9%) of students did not plagiarize at all and 68 (34%) plagiarized less than 10% of the text. The average plagiarism rate (% of plagiarized text) was 19% (5-95% percentile=0-88). Students who were strictly warned not to plagiarize had a higher total word count in their essays than students who were not warned (P=0.002) but there was no difference between them in the rate of plagiarism. Students with higher grades in Medical Informatics exam plagiarized less than those with lower grades (P=0.015). Gender, subject source, and complexity had no influence on the plagiarism rate. Plagiarism in writing essays is common among medical students. An explicit warning is not enough to deter students from plagiarism. Detection software can be used to trace and evaluate the rate of plagiarism in written student assays.

  1. Detecting and Preventing Plagiarism in a Foreign Language E-Learning Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Orthaber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is becoming an increasingly common if not an essential strategy in academic institutions and the Faculty of Logistics of the University of Maribor, Slovenia is no exception. However, this new teaching mode also brings about new forms of academic misconduct, which is the main topic of this paper. The first proposed methodological approach was to take into account students’ general experience, motivation and satisfaction with e-learning from previously undertaken studies. Then students’ submitted assignments from the 8-week foreign language course English in Logistics were analyzed with the objective of finding whether the perception of intellectual property rights of those students who had been warned has changed and what the reasons for plagiarism might have been: did plagiarism attempts somewhat diminish, or did students deliberately continue to copy from the internet? What reasons for plagiarizing other than stress resulting from potential problems of integrating contemporary technology into the learning process may there be?

  2. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.” Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.” Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders. PMID:25789254

  3. Plagiarism: An egregious form of misconduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Juyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another′s publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as "fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results." Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person′s ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being "theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another′s work." Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders.

  4. Plagiarism: an egregious form of misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as "fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results." Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being "theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work." Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders.

  5. Source-Code Plagiarism in Universities: A Comparative Study of Student Perspectives in China and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyang; Joy, Mike; Cosma, Georgina; Boyatt, Russell; Sinclair, Jane; Yau, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There has been much research and discussion relating to variations in plagiaristic activity observed in students from different demographic backgrounds. Differences in behaviour have been noted in many studies, although the underlying reasons are still a matter of debate. Existing work focuses mainly on textual plagiarism, and most often derives…

  6. An Institutional Code of Ethics--A Response to Attitude of Israeli Teachers' Education College Students towards Academic Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold,, Roni; Baratz, Lea

    2011-01-01

    Academic plagiarism becomes very easy due to new opportunities provided by the Internet era (Scrinber, 2003; Underwood & Sazabo, 2003; Ross, 2005). We believe that academic dishonesty is a major issue, because it strikes at the heart of the academic and social values: honesty, trust and integrity. When dealing with education students, the…

  7. Source-Code Plagiarism in Universities: A Comparative Study of Student Perspectives in China and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyang; Joy, Mike; Cosma, Georgina; Boyatt, Russell; Sinclair, Jane; Yau, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There has been much research and discussion relating to variations in plagiaristic activity observed in students from different demographic backgrounds. Differences in behaviour have been noted in many studies, although the underlying reasons are still a matter of debate. Existing work focuses mainly on textual plagiarism, and most often derives…

  8. Design and Implementation of Software Plagiarism Detection Tool based on Structural Alignment%基于结构比对的软件同源综合检测工具的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠; 伟平

    2014-01-01

    文章对基于文本、Token和抽象语法树的同源性检测技术进行探讨,详细介绍了关于抽象语法树的同源性检测技术。同时,在对实际应用大量研究的基础上,文章着重介绍了源代码同源性检测系统的架构设计,以及引擎比对、比对结果分析和比对结果输出等主要功能模块,并对开发的系统进行了系统测试和分析,验证了算法的可行性。%This paper discusses the software plagiarism detection technologies which are based on text, token and abstract syntax tree, and especially discusses the technology based on abstract syntax tree (AST) in detail. At the same time, according to the study of software plagiarism detection applications, this paper mainly introduces the architecture of software source code homologous detection system and some kinds of key functional modules. For a demonstration of the feasibility on the proposed algorithm, this paper makes a deep analysis and evaluation of the source code homologous detection system.

  9. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism.

  10. University Student Online Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  11. University Student Online Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  12. Similarity Detection of Python Program Code%Python程序代码相似度检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明洪; 张太红; 王正敏

    2014-01-01

    Code plagiarism is usually a kind of cheating in program language courses. When teaching programming, it is very important to detect program code plagiarism and verify programming creativity of students. Combined with attribute counting and structural property measuring techniques of code similarity detection, proposes a code similarity detection method applied to Python program. Such method can calculate similarities between students' Python program course work efficiently.%代码剽窃是程序语言课程中经常出现的一种作弊行为,严重破坏正常的教学秩序。检测剽窃的程序代码、验证学生程序作业的原创性在程序语言教学中就尤为重要。结合程序代码相似度检测技术中的属性计数技术和结构度量技术,提出一种适用于Python程序的相似度检测方法,该方法能够有效地计算出学生Python程序作业之间的相似度。

  13. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tshepo Batane

    2010-01-01

      This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students...

  14. Case study - Implementing a plagiarism detection service: ways of working with staff and students

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The session will outline how Turnitin was introduced to the University of Kent in 2006 and then implemented over the following academic year, including recent follow-up developments. The University Guidelines on Using Turnitin will be discussed, along with the use of specific Academic Integrity resources to support the use of Turnitin. There will be information about how staff are using Turnitin; how it has been received by students; the impact on reported instances of plagiarism (in specific...

  15. Case study - Implementing a plagiarism detection service: ways of working with staff and students

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The session will outline how Turnitin was introduced to the University of Kent in 2006 and then implemented over the following academic year, including recent follow-up developments. The University Guidelines on Using Turnitin will be discussed, along with the use of specific Academic Integrity resources to support the use of Turnitin. There will be information about how staff are using Turnitin; how it has been received by students; the impact on reported instances of plagiarism (in specific...

  16. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  17. Rethinking Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Chynette

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism, presenting someone's words or other creative products as one's own, is a mandatory discussion and writing assignment in many undergraduate business communication courses. Class discussions about this topic tend to be lively, ranging from questions about simply omitting identified sources to different standards of ethical behaviors…

  18. "Turnitin Said It Wasn't Happy": Can the Regulatory Discourse of Plagiarism Detection Operate as a Change Artefact for Writing Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penketh, Claire; Beaumont, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper centres on the tensions between the introduction of plagiarism detection software (Turnitin) for student and tutor use at undergraduate level and the aim to promote a developmental approach to writing for assessment at a UK university. Aims to promote developmental models for writing often aim to counteract the effects of the structural…

  19. "Turnitin Said It Wasn't Happy": Can the Regulatory Discourse of Plagiarism Detection Operate as a Change Artefact for Writing Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penketh, Claire; Beaumont, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper centres on the tensions between the introduction of plagiarism detection software (Turnitin) for student and tutor use at undergraduate level and the aim to promote a developmental approach to writing for assessment at a UK university. Aims to promote developmental models for writing often aim to counteract the effects of the structural…

  20. Recursos informáticos para detectar el plagio académico / Computer resources for academic plagiarism detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrían Cabedo Nebot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En el ámbito académico es posible que, en determinadas circunstancias y por diferente finalidad, se requiera la elaboración de un informe descriptivo sobre un caso de plagio o de atribución de autoría. Esta tarea debe realizarla un lingüista perfectamente formado y que, en el momento de redactar su análisis, posea una metodología compacta y sistemática. Este artículo, en tal sentido, esboza un protocolo de actuación, mediante el uso de algunas herramientas informáticas que facilitan la detección del plagio en el marco académico.Summary: In an academic environment it is possible that, under certain circumstances and for different purposes, some kind of descriptive report on a case of plagiarism or attribution will be required. This task must be performed by a fully trained linguist and, at the time of writing his analysis, this one should apply a compact and a systematic methodology. This article, in this sense, outlines an action protocol, using some tools that facilitate the detection of plagiarism in an academic framework.

  1. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  2. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  3. The Battle Against Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satendra Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature is plagued by duplicate publications. The fight against plagiarism is about to take a crucial turn with the advent of a plethora of plagiarism detection software programmes. The one which is making biggest waves is the Virginia Innovation laboratory’s ‘Déjà vu’. This duplicate citation database devised by Garner utilizes eTBLAST, a text similarity-based search engine. Nature has published reports in the last few years where many duplicate citations have been detected, deposited in Déjà vu databases and editors have started retracting articles. The dual combination of freely available eTBLAST tool and Déjà vu database act as an ethical ombudsman and can very well be a deterrent against unethical practices.

  4. Towards Bounded Infeasible Code Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Jürgen; Schäf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A first step towards more reliable software is to execute each statement and each control-flow path in a method once. In this paper, we present a formal method to automatically compute test cases for this purpose based on the idea of a bounded infeasible code detection. The method first unwinds all loops in a program finitely often and then encodes all feasible executions of the loop-free programs in a logical formula. Helper variables are introduced such that a theorem prover can reconstruct the control-flow path of a feasible execution from a satisfying valuation of this formula. Based on this formula, we present one algorithm that computes a feasible path cover and one algorithm that computes a feasible statement cover. We show that the algorithms are complete for loop-free programs and that they can be implemented efficiently. We further provide a sound algorithm to compute procedure summaries which makes the method scalable to larger programs.

  5. Biochemia Medica has started using the CrossCheck plagiarism detection software powered by iThenticate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak-Smolcić, Vesna; Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2013, Biodhemia Medica has joined CrossRef, which enabled us to implement CrossCheck plagiarism detection service. Therefore, all manuscript submitted to Biodchemia Medica are now first assigned to Research integrity editor (RIE), before sending the manuscript for peer-review. RIE submits the text to CrossCheck analysis and is responsible for reviewing the results of the text similarity analysis. Based on the CrossCheck analysis results, RIE subsequently provides a recommendation to the Editor-in-chief (EIC) on whether the manuscript should be forwarded to peer-review, corrected for suspected parts prior to peer-review or immediately rejected. Final decision on the manuscript is, however, with the EIC. We hope that our new policy and manuscript processing algorithm will help us to further increase the overall quality of our Journal.

  6. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools.

  7. Plagiarism, Cheating and Research Integrity: Case Studies from a Masters Program in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Andres M.; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Konda, Kelika A.; Mezones-Holguin, Edward; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, German F.; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Segura, Eddy R.; Quispe, Antonio M.; Smith, Edward S.; Bayer, Angela M.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2017-01-01

    Plagiarism is a serious, yet widespread type of research misconduct, and is often neglected in developing countries. Despite its far-reaching implications, plagiarism is poorly acknowledged and discussed in the academic setting, and insufficient evidence exists in Latin America and developing countries to inform the development of preventive strategies. In this context, we present a longitudinal case study of seven instances of plagiarism and cheating arising in four consecutive classes (2011–2014) of an Epidemiology Masters program in Lima, Peru, and describes the implementation and outcomes of a multifaceted, “zero-tolerance” policy aimed at introducing research integrity. Two cases involved cheating in graded assignments, and five cases correspond to plagiarism in the thesis protocol. Cases revealed poor awareness of high tolerance to plagiarism, poor academic performance, and widespread writing deficiencies, compensated with patchwriting and copy-pasting. Depending on the events’ severity, penalties included course failure (6/7) and separation from the program (3/7). Students at fault did not engage in further plagiarism. Between 2011 and 2013, the Masters program sequentially introduced a preventive policy consisting of: (i) intensified research integrity and scientific writing education, (ii) a stepwise, cumulative writing process; (iii) honor codes; (iv) active search for plagiarism in all academic products; and (v) a “zero-tolerance” policy in response to documented cases. No cases were detected in 2014. In conclusion, plagiarism seems to be widespread in resource-limited settings and a greater response with educational and zero-tolerance components is needed to prevent it. PMID:27848191

  8. Plagiarism in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Plagiarism is a major problem for research. There are, however, divergent views on how to define plagiarism and on what makes plagiarism reprehensible. In this paper we explicate the concept of "plagiarism" and discuss plagiarism normatively in relation to research. We suggest that plagiarism should be understood as "someone using someone else's intellectual product (such as texts, ideas, or results), thereby implying that it is their own" and argue that this is an adequate and fruitful definition. We discuss a number of circumstances that make plagiarism more or less grave and the plagiariser more or less blameworthy. As a result of our normative analysis, we suggest that what makes plagiarism reprehensible as such is that it distorts scientific credit. In addition, intentional plagiarism involves dishonesty. There are, furthermore, a number of potentially negative consequences of plagiarism.

  9. Patchwork plagiarism – a jigsaw of stolen puzzle pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolčić, Vesna Šupak; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism remains at the top in terms of interest to the scientific community. In its many vicious forms, patchwork plagiarism is characterized by numerous unresolved issues and often passes “below the radar” of editors and reviewers. The problem of detecting the complexity of misconduct has been partially resolved by plagiarism detection software. However, interpretation of relevant reports is not always obvious or easy. This article deals with plagiarism in general and patchwork plagiarism in particular, as well as related problems that editors must deal with to maintain the integrity of scientific journals. PMID:23457762

  10. Patchwork plagiarism--a jigsaw of stolen puzzle pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak Smolcić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism remains at the top in terms of interest to the scientific community. In its many vicious forms, patchwork plagiarism is characterized by numerous unresolved issues and often passes "below the radar" of editors and reviewers. The problem of detecting the complexity of misconduct has been partially resolved by plagiarism detection software. However, interpretation of relevant reports is not always obvious or easy. This article deals with plagiarism in general and patchwork plagiarism in particular, as well as related problems that editors must deal with to maintain the integrity of scientific journals.

  11. 基于局部词频指纹的论文抄袭检测算法%Plagiarism-detection Algorithm for Scientific Papers Based on Local Word-frequency Fingerprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉平; 冷强奎; 王秀坤; 王春立

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm for plagiarism-detection of scientific papers based on local word-frequency fingerprint is presented. Sentence is regarded as the basic component elements of a document, and extracting efficient keywords, sorting and reconstructing them. According to the code and word-frequency, the fingerprints are get to compute text similarity degree. The identification experiments on SOGOU-T database are done with the algorithm. Experimental results show that it partly overcomes the shortage of existing plagiarism-detection of scientific papers, and it has better performance on identification precision and identification speed.%提出一种基于局部词频指纹的论文抄袭检测算法.将句子看成文档的基本构成元素,对其进行有效关键词提取排序重构,根据编码和词频联合方式获取句子指纹,以此计算文本间相似度.在新闻网页精简集SOGOU-T上的实验结果表明,该算法在一定程度上克服了现有论文抄袭检测算法检测精度低的缺点,具有较快的检测速度.

  12. Is there an effective approach to deterring students from plagiarizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Azman, Josip; Frkovic, Vedran; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plagiarism detection software and penalty for plagiarizing in detecting and deterring plagiarism among medical students. The study was a continuation of previously published research in which second-year medical students from 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 school years were required to write an essay based on one of the four scientific articles offered by the instructor. Students from 2004/2005 (N = 92) included in present study were given the same task. Topics of two of the four articles were considered less complex, and two were more complex. One less and one more complex articles were available only as hardcopies, whereas the other two were available in electronic format. The students from 2001/2002 (N = 111) were only told to write an original essay, whereas the students from 2002/2003 (N = 87) were additionally warned against plagiarism, explained what plagiarism was, and how to avoid it. The students from 2004/2005 were warned that their essays would be examined by plagiarism detection software and that those who had plagiarized would be penalized. Students from 2004/2005 plagiarized significantly less of their essays than students from the previous two groups (2% vs. 17% vs. 21%, respectively, P students more frequently choose articles with more complex subjects (P plagiarism. Use of plagiarism detection software in evaluation of essays and consequent penalties had effectively deterred students from plagiarizing.

  13. Analyzing and reducing plagiarism at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López Puga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is one of the less desirable practises in the academic context. This paper presents an experience of massive plagiarism detection at university and the steps taken to prevent its subsequent occurrence. Plagiarism was detected in the first assessment phase of a research project practise. As a result, students were required to arrange ethical group discussions with the professor to prevent plagiarism in the future. A substantial reduction in the rate of plagiarism was observed from the first practical assessment to the second one, t(16=2.5, p=.02, d=0.83, 1-?=.63, unilateral contrast. Additionally, a survey was developed to analyse students’ opinions and attitudes about plagiarism. A sample of 64 students (15 boys and 49 girls with an average age of 22.69 (SD=2.8 filled in an electronic questionnaire. More than a half of the sample (56.92% admitted that they had plagiarised before but most of the students (83.08% agreed they would not like someone else plagiarising their reports. A preliminary short scale to measure attitude towards plagiarism in undergraduate students at university is provided. Finally, a set of recommendations are given based on this experience to prevent and to reduce the level of plagiarism in the university contex.

  14. Orthogonal transformations for change detection, Matlab code

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    Matlab code to do multivariate alteration detection (MAD) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) on image data.

  15. Why Do Students Plagiarize? Efl Undergraduates’ Views on the Reasons Behind Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doró Katalin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheating and plagiarism spread like pandemics in many educational contexts and are difficulty to detect, fight and also to understand. The purpose of this exploratory study is to investigate what first-year students of English at a large Hungarian university believe to be the main reasons for plagiarism. Twenty-five students were asked to express their views in a free opinion essay. Perceived reasons were categorized into twelve main groups based on the literature and the reasons for plagiarism provided by faculty members at the same university. The most often mentioned reasons included saving time and effort and unintentional plagiarism.

  16. Buffer Overflow Detection on Binary Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan-fei; LI Hui; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Most solutions for detecting buffer overflow are based on source code. But the requirement for source code is not always practical especially for business software. A new approach was presented to detect statically the potential buffer overflow vulnerabilities in the binary code of software. The binary code was translated into assembly code without the lose of the information of string operation functions. The feature code abstract graph was constructed to generate more accurate constraint statements, and analyze the assembly code using the method of integer range constraint. After getting the elementary report on suspicious code where buffer overflows possibly happen, the control flow sensitive analysis using program dependence graph was done to decrease the rate of false positive. A prototype was implemented which demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the new approach.

  17. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  18. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  19. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  20. Orthogonal transformations for change detection, Matlab code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Matlab code to do multivariate alteration detection (MAD) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) on image data.......Matlab code to do multivariate alteration detection (MAD) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) on image data....

  1. The confounding factors leading to plagiarism in academic writing and some suggested remedies: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Guraya, Shaista Salman

    2017-05-01

    There is a staggering upsurge in the incidence of plagiarism of scientific literature. Literature shows divergent views about the factors that make plagiarism reprehensible. This review explores the causes and remedies for the perennial academic problem of plagiarism. Data sources were searched for full text English language articles published from 2000 to 2015. Data selection was done using medical subject headline (MeSH) terms plagiarism, unethical writing, academic theft, retraction, medical field, and plagiarism detection software. Data extraction was undertaken by selecting titles from retrieved references and data synthesis identified key factors leading to plagiarism such as unawareness of research ethics, poor writing skills and pressure or publish mantra. Plagiarism can be managed by a balance among its prevention, detection by plagiarism detection software, and institutional sanctions against proven plagiarists. Educating researchers about ethical principles of academic writing and institutional support in training writers about academic integrity and ethical publications can curtail plagiarism.

  2. The academic plagiarism and its punishments - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. S. Berlinck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is an increase in the occurrence of plagiarism in varied types of academic texts. Therefore, in agreement with the Brazilian Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES policies, Brazilian higher education institutions should establish guidelines for the detection and inhibition of academic plagiarism. However, the notion of plagiarism is extremely complex, since the ability of textual construction acquired during education is also developed using others' words. Thus, it is necessary to better know the concept of plagiarism and its implications, as well as the consequences of plagiarism and the punishments that may result from it. Consequently, rules and policies to be established will be better founded in order to address the problem of plagiarism in academic texts in a comprehensive and consistent way, not only to inhibit plagiarism but also to promote education on how is possible to create texts in an original fashion.

  3. Plagiarism (Coming to Terms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Darsie

    1996-01-01

    Explores the origins of the word "plagiarism" and concepts of authorship. Examines a number of current issues concerning plagiarism, for instance, how the term complicates teacher-student relationships and peer cooperation in writing. (TB)

  4. The plagiarism project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Nancy R; Sorensen, Karen; Habousha, Racheline G; Minuti, Aurelia; Schwartz, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism has been a problem plaguing academia for centuries. The Internet has made it easier than ever to copy material from one electronic document and paste it into another. Many cases are unintentional, as writers are unaware of the rules regarding plagiarism. This paper provides an overview of plagiarism and describes a project in which librarians partnered with the assistant dean of a graduate science program to educate students about the perils of plagiarism and encourage ethical writing practices.

  5. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  6. Design of online thesis plagiarism detection system%在线论文复制检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇壮丽

    2011-01-01

    搜索引擎既是网络信息检索的入口,同时也是一个在线庞大的信息库.提出一个在线论文复制检测算法,通过固定长度的滑动窗口对待检测文件进行切分,利用搜索引擎的精确检索功能,用定量的方法检测论文与网络信息的相似度.实验证明,该算法实用且可行.%Search engine is the entrance for information retrieval.lt is also a big information warehouse.This paper proposes an algorithm to detect plagiarism quantitatively based on natural language segment width fixed-width sliding window and precise retrieval function of search engine.The experiments suggest that this algorithm is practical and feasible.

  7. SODB:a novel method for software plagiarism detection based on stack operation dynamic birthmark%基于栈行为动态胎记的软件抄袭检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范铭; 刘均; 郑庆华; 田振洲; 庄尔悦; 刘烃

    2014-01-01

    Software plagiarism detection is one of the key techniques for the protection of software intellectual property. In this paper,a new kind of dynamic birthmark SODB (stack operation dynamic birthmark)was proposed,which utili-zes the characteristics of push and pop operation of call stack during program execution,to uniquely identify the pro-gram.Plagiarism detection was realized by evaluating the similarity of their SODBs among different programs providing the same inputs.In the experiments,35 versions of 14 different softwares taken from the Source Forge were selected, based on which 87 samples were generated totally by processing with different compilers and optimization levels and se-mantic-preserving code obfuscation techniques.The quality of our SODB was evaluated with these 87 experimental ob-jects,and the results show that our method can accurately recognize plagiarism between copies and distinguish between independently implemented programs with only about 6.7%misjudgement rate and 7%false negative rate at the absence of software source code.%软件抄袭检测是软件知识产权保护的关键技术之一。提出了一种新的软件胎记---栈行为动态胎记(stack operation dynamic birthmark,SODB),根据软件在执行过程中函数调用栈的入栈和出栈行为,生成栈深度变化序列标识软件;通过计算不同软件在相同输入条件下栈行为动态胎记的相似性,评估软件功能和执行过程的相似度,判断软件是否存在抄袭。实验中对14种35个版本的开源软件,利用不同编译器、编译条件和混淆工具进行处理,共生成了87个实验样本。试验结果表明本方法可以在缺少源代码情况下,准确识别出存在抄袭的软件,误判率和漏判率仅为6.7%和7%。

  8. Code Syntax-Comparison Algorithm Based on Type-Redefinition-Preprocessing and Rehash Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojiang Cui

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The code comparison technology plays an important role in the fields of software security protection and plagiarism detection. Nowadays, there are mainly FIVE approaches of plagiarism detection, file-attribute-based, text-based, token-based, syntax-based and semantic-based. The prior three approaches have their own limitations, while the technique based on syntax has its shortage of detection ability and low efficiency that all of these approaches cannot meet the requirements on large-scale software plagiarism detection. Based on our prior research, we propose an algorithm on type redefinition plagiarism detection, which could detect the level of simple type redefinition, repeating pattern redefinition, and the redefinition of type with pointer. Besides, this paper also proposes a code syntax-comparison algorithm based on rehash classification, which enhances the node storage structure of the syntax tree, and greatly improves the efficiency.

  9. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Spiroski

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  10. A Review on Anti-Plagiarism Approach Using Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sudhir D. Salunkhe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a days Plagiarism becomes serious problem, especially in academics and education and detecting plagiarism is a challenging task, particularly text plagiarism in student’s documents. Students or any other author makes plagiarism of original document and puts it as own document without giving credit to original author. To detect such dishonesty in document writing an anti-plagiarism system is proposed. In which reinforcement learning is can be used to get fast response of plagiarism in suspected document. The suspected document is compared with local as well as global database over the web. And then the final result will be calculated in terms of percentage for the suspected document

  11. Pattern of Plagiarism in Novice Students' Generated Programs: An Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Marzieh; Mahmoudabadi, Elham; Khodadadi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows that in computer programming courses plagiarism is a widespread problem. With the growing number of students in such courses, manual plagiarism detection is impractical. This requires instructors to use one of the many available plagiarism detection tools. Prior to choosing one of such tools, a metric that assures the…

  12. Is It Cheating or Learning the Craft of Writing? Using Turnitin to Help Students Avoid Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Matheson, Lynne; Starr, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy…

  13. Is It Cheating or Learning the Craft of Writing? Using Turnitin to Help Students Avoid Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Matheson, Lynne; Starr, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy…

  14. Pattern of Plagiarism in Novice Students' Generated Programs: An Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Marzieh; Mahmoudabadi, Elham; Khodadadi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows that in computer programming courses plagiarism is a widespread problem. With the growing number of students in such courses, manual plagiarism detection is impractical. This requires instructors to use one of the many available plagiarism detection tools. Prior to choosing one of such tools, a metric that assures the…

  15. Software Plagiarism Detection:A Survey%软件抄袭检测研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振洲; 刘烃; 郑庆华; 佟菲菲; 吴定豪; 朱森存; 陈恺

    2016-01-01

    With the burst of free and open source software projects, software plagiarism has become a serious threat to the healthy development of the software ecosystem. Researchers, educators, open source developers, and software company managers are paying more and more attention to the problem. Software plagiarism detection is critical to the protection of software intellectual property. This paper provides a review of the state-of-the-art software plagiarism detection techniques. First, the significance and threat models of plagiarism detection are presented, followed by the description and comparison of existing techniques on plagiarism detection. We classify the existing methods into three major categories, including source-code plagiarism detection, software watermark based plagiarism detection and software birthmark based plagiarism detection, according to the scenarios they are designed for and applicable to as well as different principles adopted. Finally, through analyzing the limitations of the existing plagiarism detection techniques, the emerging challenges and practical requirements, we discuss several possible future research directions.%随着开源软件项目的蓬勃发展,软件抄袭俨然已成为软件生态环境健康发展的威胁之一,其得到越来越多的研究人员、教育人员、开源社区及软件企业的关注,软件抄袭检测对于软件知识产权保护具有重要意义。本文对软件抄袭检测的研究现状和进展进行综述。首先介绍软件抄袭检测的意义和威胁模型;然后,根据应用场景和技术手段,从源代码抄袭检测、无源码场景下基于软件水印和基于软件胎记的抄袭检测三个方面,对现有软件抄袭检测技术进行阐述和比较;最后,通过分析软件抄袭检测研究存在的问题及其面临的挑战和实际需求,对未来研究方向进行了展望。

  16. Student's plagiarism--a challenge for paramedic educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Piotr; Bandurski, Tomasz; Swietlik, Dariusz; Tomczak, Hanna; Wengler, Lubomira

    2006-01-01

    Student's plagiarism is a growing problem not only in the writing of controlling essays, but above all in the writing in BSc./MSc. diploma theses, which sometimes can be simply bought from ghost-writers. This is a major challenge for medical educators, particularly in paramedic professions. The aim of this paper is to overview the frequency of plagiarism among students, the factors influencing plagiarism, the ways of detecting it and potential countermeasures.

  17. The academic plagiarism and its punishments - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Berlinck,Roberto G. S.

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is an increase in the occurrence of plagiarism in varied types of academic texts. Therefore, in agreement with the Brazilian Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) policies, Brazilian higher education institutions should establish guidelines for the detection and inhibition of academic plagiarism. However, the notion of plagiarism is extremely complex, since the ability of textual construction acquired during education is also developed using others'...

  18. AuDeNTES: Automatic Detection of teNtative Plagiarism According to a rEference Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Leonardo; Micucci, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In academic courses, students frequently take advantage of someone else's work to improve their own evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior seriously threatens the integrity of the academic system, and teachers invest substantial effort in preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students take examinations requiring the production of…

  19. AuDeNTES: Automatic Detection of teNtative Plagiarism According to a rEference Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Leonardo; Micucci, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In academic courses, students frequently take advantage of someone else's work to improve their own evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior seriously threatens the integrity of the academic system, and teachers invest substantial effort in preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students take examinations requiring the production of…

  20. Decreasing Plagiarism: What Works and What Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Anne M.; Walker, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested the predictions of a game theory model of plagiarism, using a test population of student papers submitted to an online plagiarism detection program, over five semesters in a non-majors biology course with multiple sections and high enrollment. Consistent with the model, as the probability of detection and the penalty if caught…

  1. Decreasing Plagiarism: What Works and What Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Anne M.; Walker, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested the predictions of a game theory model of plagiarism, using a test population of student papers submitted to an online plagiarism detection program, over five semesters in a non-majors biology course with multiple sections and high enrollment. Consistent with the model, as the probability of detection and the penalty if caught…

  2. Technology and Plagiarism in the University: Brief Report of a Trial in Detecting Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Rob; Johnson, Diane; Bimber, Bruce; Almeroth, Kevin; Michaels, George

    2004-01-01

    College students exploit information technology to cheat on papers and assignments, but for the most part university faculty employ few technological techniques to detect cheating. This paper reports on a trial of software for the detection of cheating in a large undergraduate survey class. The paper discusses the decision to adopt electronic…

  3. Plagiarism: Words and ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...

  4. Stealing or Sharing? Cross-Cultural Issues of Plagiarism in an Open-Source Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitch, Russell

    2016-01-01

    More professors and institutions want to move from a detect-and-punish to an educate-and-prevent model for dealing with plagiarism. Understanding the causes of plagiarism, especially among international students, can aid in efforts to educate students and prevent plagiarism. Research points to a confluence of causal factors, such as time pressure,…

  5. Plagiarism, Cultural Diversity and Metaphor--Implications for Academic Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Betty

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex, culturally loaded concept which causes much anxiety for both academics and students. Exactly what constitutes plagiarism is dependent on a number of contextual factors. Despite the difficulties associated with defining and detecting plagiarism, it is said to be on the increase, and students from "other cultures"…

  6. Originality Detection Software in a Graduate Policy Course: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreuth Zeman, Laura; Steen, Julie A.; Metz Zeman, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the use of Turnitin originality detection software in a graduate social work course. Qualitative analysis of student responses revealed positive and negative spent completing assignments, and the tone of the class. Quantitative analysis of students' originality scores indicated a short-term…

  7. Originality Detection Software in a Graduate Policy Course: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreuth Zeman, Laura; Steen, Julie A.; Metz Zeman, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the use of Turnitin originality detection software in a graduate social work course. Qualitative analysis of student responses revealed positive and negative spent completing assignments, and the tone of the class. Quantitative analysis of students' originality scores indicated a short-term…

  8. Detecting overlapping coding sequences in virus genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Chris M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting new coding sequences (CDSs in viral genomes can be difficult for several reasons. The typically compact genomes often contain a number of overlapping coding and non-coding functional elements, which can result in unusual patterns of codon usage; conservation between related sequences can be difficult to interpret – especially within overlapping genes; and viruses often employ non-canonical translational mechanisms – e.g. frameshifting, stop codon read-through, leaky-scanning and internal ribosome entry sites – which can conceal potentially coding open reading frames (ORFs. Results In a previous paper we introduced a new statistic – MLOGD (Maximum Likelihood Overlapping Gene Detector – for detecting and analysing overlapping CDSs. Here we present (a an improved MLOGD statistic, (b a greatly extended suite of software using MLOGD, (c a database of results for 640 virus sequence alignments, and (d a web-interface to the software and database. Tests show that, from an alignment with just 20 mutations, MLOGD can discriminate non-overlapping CDSs from non-coding ORFs with a typical accuracy of up to 98%, and can detect CDSs overlapping known CDSs with a typical accuracy of 90%. In addition, the software produces a variety of statistics and graphics, useful for analysing an input multiple sequence alignment. Conclusion MLOGD is an easy-to-use tool for virus genome annotation, detecting new CDSs – in particular overlapping or short CDSs – and for analysing overlapping CDSs following frameshift sites. The software, web-server, database and supplementary material are available at http://guinevere.otago.ac.nz/mlogd.html.

  9. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  10. Plagiarism and Cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Permuth, Steve

    Plagiarism and cheating can be defined as academic dishonesty and represent policy concerns among all levels of education. Such cases involve academic versus disciplinary decisions and the need to determine the student's understanding of the definition of plagiarism or cheating. This paper analyzes six legal issues raised in court cases and…

  11. The Plagiarism Polyconundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany, Reine D.

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism hinders student success because it shortcuts genuine writing practice and incurs penalties when discovered. Although students are aware of its potential consequences, plagiarism continues. This article reflects on the polyconundrum of empathizing with the many hindrances to student writing while deploying strategies to reduce plagiarism…

  12. A Strategy to Reduce Plagiarism in an Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Ronald W.; du Pre, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated how effective an online academic integrity module was at reducing the occurrence of plagiarism in a written assignment for a university course. In a preintervention comparison group, plagiarism was detected in 25.8% of papers submitted, compared with only 6.5% in the group that completed the academic integrity module. The…

  13. The Anatomy of a Plagiarism Initiative: One Library's Campus Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madray, Amrita

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism in media and print continues to be a major issue for professors, librarians, and students. Through initiatives and outreach from the B. Davis Memorial Library at the C. W. Post Campus of Long Island University, plagiarism Web sites have been created and workshops and programs continually provided for faculty and students to detect,…

  14. Academic dishonesty and misconduct: Curbing plagiarism in the Muslim world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the theft of someone’s ideas or language, and is a form of cheating which is morally and ethically unacceptable. This study analyses the nature of plagiarism from an Islamic perspective and its prevalence in institutions of higher learning in the Muslim world, especially among faculty members. It also examines the ways in which universities attempt to minimise or marginalise plagiarism. This study is warranted by the fact that there is relatively very little research on the issue of plagiarism at universities in the Muslim world and that existing research seldom addresses the issue of academics engaged in such unethical practices. Based upon existing surveys, interviews, and documentary sources, the study found that in earlier periods, standards were not inevitably lower than those that exist today and that the scope for condemning plagiarists has always existed. It also found that despite Islam’s loathing, the incidence of plagiarism has grown significantly among Muslim students and faculty members in the Muslim world. The response to plagiarism varies from country to country. Some Muslim countries tolerate plagiarism, while others are taking steps to curb it. Institutions in Malaysia approach the problem of plagiarism as a matter of morality and crime that emphasise the need to develop writing and researching skills. They resort to honour codes, emphasise law and enforcement, and teach ways to write and cite. However, the success of these methods needs to be further probed.

  15. Prevalence of plagiarism in recent submissions to the Croatian Medical Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baždarić, Ksenija; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Brumini, Gordana; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2012-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of plagiarism in manuscripts submitted for publication in the Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ). All manuscripts submitted in 2009-2010 were analyzed using plagiarism detection software: eTBLAST, CrossCheck, and WCopyfind. Plagiarism was suspected in manuscripts with more than 10% of the text derived from other sources. These manuscripts were checked against the Déjà vu database and manually verified by investigators. Of 754 submitted manuscripts, 105 (14%) were identified by the software as suspicious of plagiarism. Manual verification confirmed that 85 (11%) manuscripts were plagiarized: 63 (8%) were true plagiarism and 22 (3%) were self-plagiarism. Plagiarized manuscripts were mostly submitted from China (21%), Croatia (14%), and Turkey (19%). There was no significant difference in the text similarity rate between plagiarized and self-plagiarized manuscripts (25% [95% CI 22-27%] vs. 28% [95% CI 20-33%]; U = 645.50; P = 0.634). Differences in text similarity rate were found between various sections of self-plagiarized manuscripts (H = 12.65, P = 0.013). The plagiarism rate in the Materials and Methods (61% (95% CI 41-68%) was higher than in the Results (23% [95% CI 17-36%], U = 33.50; P = 0.009) or Discussion (25.5 [95% CI 15-35%]; U = 57.50; P Plagiarism detection software combined with manual verification may be used to detect plagiarized manuscripts and prevent their publication. The prevalence of plagiarized manuscripts submitted to the CMJ, a journal dedicated to promoting research integrity, was 11% in the 2-year period 2009-2010.

  16. Undergraduates’ Misconceptions Concerning Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Çakmak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In their education lives undergraduate students’ one of the most encountered difficulty is to provide citations for their research projects and term papers. This difficulty drives students to two kinds of plagiarism: intentional or unintentional plagiarism. In this context, plagiarism is a no ethical  scientific behaviour we encounter most frequently among undergraduate students. When plagiarism is investigated in national and international literature, which is considered as an important problem regarding scientific communication and ethics principles, it is seen that research focused on intentional plagiarism. In this context the present study aimed to focus on university students’ unintentional plagiarism, a nonethical academic behaviour, based on their misconceptions. Adding it is aimed to attract the attention of the researchers in librarianship and information sciences to the problem, increase their awareness and to encourage them to make in-depth research. Thus the present study includes issues of conceptions; learning concepts; misconceptions; plagiarism; misconceptions of university students regarding plagiarism and the reasoning; defining and preventing misconceptions; the roles of librarianships and teachers in correcting the misconceptions regarding plagiarism. Present study followed a comprehensive review utilizing descriptive approaches to reveal the situation. At the end of the study a short summary evaluating the situation depending on the literature analysed is also added. Adding ideas and suggestions in how to reveal probable misconceptions and how to prevent or decrease their formation are also presented.

  17. Plagiarism: words and ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-09-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' label should not be used for deeds which are very different in nature and importance.

  18. Plagiarism in South African management journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism by academics has been relatively unexplored thus far. However, there has been a growing awareness of this problem in recent years. We submitted 371 published academic articles appearing in 19 South African management journals in 2011 through the plagiarism detection software program Turnitin. High and excessive levels of plagiarism were detected. The cost to government of subsidising unoriginal work in these journals was calculated to approximate ZAR7 million for the period under review. As academics are expected to role model ethical behaviour to students, such a finding is disturbing and has implications for the reputations of the institutions to which the authors are affiliated as well as that of the journals that publish articles that contain plagiarised material.

  19. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board.

  20. 基于句子相似度的论文抄袭检测模型研究%Study on model for plagiarism-detection of scientific papers based on sentence similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷强奎; 秦玉平; 王春立

    2011-01-01

    提出一种基于句子相似度的论文抄袭检测模型.利用局部词频指纹算法对大规模文档进行快速检测,找出疑似抄袭文档.根据最长有序公共子序列算法计算句子间的相似度,并标注抄袭细节,给出抄袭依据.在标准中文数据集SOGOU-T上进行的实验表明,该模型具有较强的局部信息挖掘能力,在一定程度上克服了现有的论文抄袭检测算法精度不高的缺点.%A new model for plagiarism-identification of scientific papers based on sentence similarity is presented.Large-scale texts are quickly detected with Local Word-Frequency Fingerprint(LWFF) to find suspected plagiarism ones.Sentence similarity is computed according to the Longest Sorted Common Subsequence (LSCS) between source texts and destination texts. The algorithm can mark plagiarism details,and show evidence.The identification experiments on the SOGOU-T database are done with this model.The results show it has higher information mining capacity,and partly overcomes the shortage of lower precision on existing plagiarism-identification of scientific papers.

  1. Plagiarism Among Faculty Applicants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2012-01-01

    ....5 Re-education and re-emphasizing the importance of "no plagiarism" in academic work, as well as establishing standards for all present academic faculty members, including senior and administrative...

  2. A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

  3. How College Freshmen View Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    Classifies students' responses to a plagiarism questionnaire into six categories. Concludes that students take plagiarism seriously and that their reasons are based most often on fairness, individual responsibility, and ownership. (JAD)

  4. Incremental Code Clone Detection and Elimination for Erlang Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huiqing; Thompson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A well-known bad code smell in refactoring and software maintenance is the existence of code clones, which are code fragments that are identical or similar to one another. This paper describes an approach to incrementally detecting 'similar' code based on the notion of least-general common abstraction, or anti-unification, as well as a framework for user-controlled incremental elimination of code clones within the context of Erlang programs. The clone detection algorithm proposed in this pape...

  5. There Was a Crooked Man(uscript): A Not-so-Serious Look at the Serious Subject of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kevin T.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism by political scientists has not received much attention. The incidence of plagiarism, however, may be greater than one would think. In this article, I offer a humorous look at what happened when a manuscript of mine was plagiarized. Based on my experience, I offer some suggestions on how scholars might detect and prevent…

  6. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Turnitin.Com as a Tool for Reducing Plagiarism in Graduate Student Term Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Russell K.; Thornton, Barry; Adams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a continual problem in academia. Plagiarism-detection tools like Turnitin have been used for nearly ten years to help university faculty and administration combat this form of cheating (turnitin.com). This paper evaluates the difference in plagiarism levels in graduate-student term papers when students are not provided access to…

  7. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Turnitin.Com as a Tool for Reducing Plagiarism in Graduate Student Term Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Russell K.; Thornton, Barry; Adams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a continual problem in academia. Plagiarism-detection tools like Turnitin have been used for nearly ten years to help university faculty and administration combat this form of cheating (turnitin.com). This paper evaluates the difference in plagiarism levels in graduate-student term papers when students are not provided access to…

  8. There Was a Crooked Man(uscript): A Not-so-Serious Look at the Serious Subject of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kevin T.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism by political scientists has not received much attention. The incidence of plagiarism, however, may be greater than one would think. In this article, I offer a humorous look at what happened when a manuscript of mine was plagiarized. Based on my experience, I offer some suggestions on how scholars might detect and prevent…

  9. Beyond the Accusation of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Brooks, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the complexity of the notion of plagiarism from sociocultural and psychological perspectives. Plagiarism is a dynamic and multi-layered phenomenon [Russikoff, K., Fucaloro, L., Salkauskiene, D., 2003. "Plagiarism as a cross-cultural phenomenon." "The CAL Poly Pomona Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies" 16, 109-120.…

  10. Beyond the Accusation of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Brooks, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the complexity of the notion of plagiarism from sociocultural and psychological perspectives. Plagiarism is a dynamic and multi-layered phenomenon [Russikoff, K., Fucaloro, L., Salkauskiene, D., 2003. "Plagiarism as a cross-cultural phenomenon." "The CAL Poly Pomona Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies" 16, 109-120.…

  11. Plagiarism: A silent epidemic in scientific writing - Reasons, recognition and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Jyotindu

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is one of the most serious forms of scientific misconduct prevalent today and is an important reason for significant proportion of rejection of manuscripts and retraction of published articles. It is time for the medical fraternity to unanimously adopt a 'zero tolerance' policy towards this menace. While responsibility for ensuring a plagiarism-free manuscript primarily lies with the authors, editors cannot absolve themselves of their accountability. The only way to write a plagiarism-free manuscript for an author is to write an article in his/her own words, literally and figuratively. This article discusses various types of plagiarism, reasons for increasingly reported instances of plagiarism, pros and cons of use of plagiarism detection tools for detecting plagiarism and role of authors and editors in preventing/avoiding plagiarism in a submitted manuscript. Regular usage of professional plagiarism detection tools for similarity checks with critical interpretation by the editorial team at the pre-review stage will certainly help in reducing the menace of plagiarism in submitted manuscripts.

  12. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  13. Web Plagiarism: Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Voiskounsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire measuring web plagiarism (or academic cheating, worked out by Underwood and Szabo (2003 has been adapted and applied to the population of undergraduate science students in Russia. The students at four technical universities are questioned (N=292. The study shows the students perform webplagiarizing, i.e. take materials from the Internet and hand these materials in as their own assignments. Russian students are reportedly competent in the use of the Internet; they report to have rather few moral barriers towards plagiarizing; they believe most of their mates do the same; they are not sure their tutors are able and willing to recognize cheating; finally, they are competent enough in English and are hypothetically able to plagiarize in two languages.

  14. What is Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2012-01-01

    Manuscripts submitted to The Astrophysical Journal are required to contain "novel and significant" material and to be free of plagiarism. There is a surprising amount of confusion regarding the definition of plagiarism and what constitutes prior publication. I will discuss the definitions used by the ApJ and the procedures we follow to to support this rule. Individual members of the community frequently show a very different understanding of these standards and are surprised at the conflict. Time allowing, I will briefly discuss some of the other common ethical problems that arise during the preparation and publication of articles.

  15. Research of Ch-En Cross-Lingual Plagiarism Detection Based on Translation Features%基于译文特征的中英文跨语种抄袭识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁松翔; 刘功申

    2012-01-01

    Research on anti plagiarism detection of scientific papers in single language has acquired rele- vance and a number of practical systems have been developed. However, the relevant study and achieve- ment are relatively few in cross-lingual anti-plagiarism. Targeting at scientific papers, this paper discussed the implementation of Chinese-English cross-lingual plagiarism detection. The paper locates a set of trans- lation features by digging internal laws of Chinese translation. Through these features, papers which are suspected of plagiarism can be identified by the decision tree algorithm. In open test, its recalling rate achieves 88.68% and the precision rate 79.17%.%针对科技类学术论文的跨语种反抄袭识别问题,以中英跨语种抄袭的识别为目标展开了研究,用于探讨进行跨语种抄袭识别的方法.通过挖掘中文译文的内在规律找到了一组可以表明译文风格的译文特征,并通过这些译文特征和决策树算法识别出存在抄袭嫌疑的科技论文.试验系统开放测试的准确率和召回率分别到达了88.68%和79.17%.

  16. Uncovering highly obfuscated plagiarism cases using fuzzy semantic-based similarity model

    OpenAIRE

    Salha M. Alzahrani; Naomie Salim; Vasile Palade

    2015-01-01

    Highly obfuscated plagiarism cases contain unseen and obfuscated texts, which pose difficulties when using existing plagiarism detection methods. A fuzzy semantic-based similarity model for uncovering obfuscated plagiarism is presented and compared with five state-of-the-art baselines. Semantic relatedness between words is studied based on the part-of-speech (POS) tags and WordNet-based similarity measures. Fuzzy-based rules are introduced to assess the semantic distance between source and su...

  17. Plagiarism and scientific writing: a personal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Irulandy

    2012-11-01

    There have been a number of papers that have addressed the issue of plagiarism. Nevertheless, the charges of plagiarism usually merit little attention with experts, because it is still not clear what sort of copying actually constitutes plagiarism. Another problem that eludes consensus is whether plagiarism was committed with or without intention. This paper discusses certain issues relating to plagiarism and differentiates between intentional and unintentional forms of plagiarism.

  18. The Ethics of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Peggy

    Within the academy the commonly held definition of plagiarism--using another's words, ideas, or stylistic individuality without attribution--is widespread, appearing on most English course syllabi. Judicial guidelines are followed: neither stealing nor ignorance of the law is to be sanctioned. Furthermore, penalties for students can be severe: a…

  19. Student plagiarism and professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    With the ever-increasing availability and accessibility of the Internet, students are able to access a multitude of resources in support of their studies. However, this has also led to an increase in their ability to cheat through plagiarising text and claiming it as their own. Increased pressures of balancing work and study have contributed to this rise. Not only confined to the student population, some academics are also guilty of engaging in this practice providing a less than favourable role model for their students. Of increasing concern is the links of this practice to professionalism or indeed in this case unprofessionalism. Both pre- and post-registration nursing students who plagiarise risk bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There are a number of methods that may be used to detect plagiarism but often the penalties are menial and inconsistently applied. Overall it is essential that academic institutions foster a culture of honesty and integrity amongst its academic community. A culture that clearly emphasises that plagiarism in any form is unacceptable.

  20. Plagiarism Curricula May Reduce Need for Punitive Plagiarism Education

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective – To describe the development and implementation of two courses designed to help university students avoid plagiarism. Design – Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Setting – A university in the United Kingdom. Subjects – An unknown number of university students who took a Plagiarism Awareness Program (PAP) course between 2008 and 2011, and approximately 3,000 university students enrolled in a Plagiarism Avoidance for New Students (PANS) course delivered via a virt...

  1. Undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Greg; Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine

    2009-10-01

    To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty.

  2. Undergraduate and Postgraduate Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism and Academic Honesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. Methods A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Results Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty. PMID:19885074

  3. An Eclipse Plugin to Support Code Smells Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pessoa, Tiago; Monteiro, Miguel Pessoa; Bryton, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Eradication of code smells is often pointed out as a way to improve readability, extensibility and design in existing software. However, code smell detection in large systems remains time consuming and error-prone, partly due to the inherent subjectivity of the detection processes presently available. In view of mitigating the subjectivity problem, this paper presents a tool that automates a technique for the detection and assessment of code smells in Java source code, developed as an Eclipse plug-in. The technique is based upon a Binary Logistic Regression model and calibrated by expert's knowledge. A short overview of the technique is provided and the tool is described.

  4. Combating plagiarism: a shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Sujit D

    2010-01-01

    Scientific progress depends on the free dissemination of original thinking and research. With the evidence base formed by publication, investigators develop and implement additional studies, and policy makers propose new laws and regulations. The ramifications of this evidence can affect millions of lives and reallocate considerable resources for programmes or research. As such, it is incumbent on investigators to conduct rigorous research, which precludes engaging in scientific misconduct such as falsification, fabrication and plagiarism. This article addresses the causes and consequences of plagiarism and the processes by which plagiarism is discovered. It concludes by considering the responsibilities of members of the research community in preventing and addressing plagiarism.

  5. Plagiarism: a case study of quality improvement in a taught postgraduate programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Tom; Taylor, Beck; Hothersall, Ellie; Pérez-Martín, Leticia

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a common issue in education. Software can detect plagiarism but little is known about prevention. To identify ways to reduce the incidence of plagiarism in a postgraduate programme. From 2006, all student assignments were monitored using plagiarism detection software (Turn It In) to produce percentage text matches for each assignment. In 2007, students were advised software was being used, and that plagiarism would result in penalties. In 2008, students attending a key module took part in an additional interactive seminar on plagiarism. A separate cohort of students did not attend the seminar, allowing comparison between attendees and non-attendees. Between 2006 and 2007, mean percentage text match values were consistent with a stable process, indicating advice and warnings were ineffective. Control chart analysis revealed that between 2007 and 2008, mean percentage text match changes showed a reduced text match in all nine modules, where students attended the interactive seminar, but none where students did not. This indicated that the interactive seminar had an effect. In 2008, there were no occurrences of plagiarism. Improvements were maintained in 2009. Advice and warnings against plagiarism were ineffective but a subsequent interactive seminar was effective at reducing plagiarism.

  6. Plagiarism Curricula May Reduce Need for Punitive Plagiarism Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin E. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To describe the development and implementation of two courses designed to help university students avoid plagiarism. Design – Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Setting – A university in the United Kingdom. Subjects – An unknown number of university students who took a Plagiarism Awareness Program (PAP course between 2008 and 2011, and approximately 3,000 university students enrolled in a Plagiarism Avoidance for New Students (PANS course delivered via a virtual learning environment (VLE between October and December 2012. The authors attempted to collect rates of continued plagiarism among students who had taken plagiarism education courses. The authors also surveyed 702 university students about plagiarism in 2011. Methods – Data collected from PAP participants informed revision of the authors’ approach to plagiarism education and led to development of the second course, PANS. At the end of the course, students completed a test of their knowledge about plagiarism. Authors compared scores from students who took a course supervised by a librarian to the scores from students who took the course independently. Main Results – Students reported that many aspects of citation and attribution are challenging (p. 149. The authors discovered that 93% of students who completed the PANS course facilitated by a librarian in-person passed the final exam with a grade of 70% or higher, while 85% of students who took the same course independently, without a librarian instructor, in an online VLE scored 70% or higher (p. 155. The authors report that referrals of students who plagiarized declined significantly (p-value < 0.001 since the implementation of a plagiarism avoidance curriculum. Conclusion – As reported by the authors, first-year university students require more extensive education about plagiarism avoidance. A university plagiarism avoidance program instructed by librarians reduces the total number of students caught

  7. From Tavarod to Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gavad Mortezaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract “Plagiarism” has been one of the important subjects in the field of literary criticism and argued in the press and meetings from past till now. Today, there isn't any day and month that will go by without seeing a case in this field being presented or claimed in books, journals or newspapers. However, thanks to the expanse of operation and wide scope of the Judiciary, mentioned claims are studied in Judicial courts as well (you can just search “Plagiarism” in Google search engine, and then you will encounter with hundred different pages on this subject. In countries that they have copyright rule, this subject is taken into account seriously and if someone adapts a subject or extracts some text from another one's, without mentioning its reference, he will be punished firmly in accordance with rules and regulations. Despite the importance of this subject in literary criticism, unfortunately it is not considered as it deserves in our country. Regardless of definition and categorization of Plagiarism by rhetoricians, there is disagreement for making decision whether a Plagiarism is happened or it is some other cases such as Tavarod (occurrence of one thought in two persons' minds or Intertextuality. Considering the fact that contents and concepts are common between people in every inches of our planet, it is so hard to determine and prove that someone is innovator and creator of concept or content and if someone else uses the same content, he is copying the original creator. We know that sometimes the same word or phrase comes to the minds of two persons accidentally, so accusing somebody of plagiary should be done with care and comprehensive study and it should be provable. In other words, definition of Plagiarism boundaries based on rate of uniformity and similarity of terms and concepts of two works is very hard and the border between plagiarism and Tavarod is very narrow and skeptical. Â

  8. Detecting Code Smells in Spreadsheet Formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Spreadsheets are used extensively in business processes around the world and just like software, spreadsheets are changed throughout their lifetime causing maintainability issues. This paper adapts known code smells to spreadsheet formulas. To that end we present a list of metrics by which we can de

  9. The algorithm of malicious code detection based on data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubo; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Xiabi

    2017-08-01

    Traditional technology of malicious code detection has low accuracy and it has insufficient detection capability for new variants. In terms of malicious code detection technology which is based on the data mining, its indicators are not accurate enough, and its classification detection efficiency is relatively low. This paper proposed the information gain ratio indicator based on the N-gram to choose signature, this indicator can accurately reflect the detection weight of the signature, and helped by C4.5 decision tree to elevate the algorithm of classification detection.

  10. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  11. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  12. From Tavarod to Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gavad Mortezaei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract “Plagiarism” has been one of the important subjects in the field of literary criticism and argued in the press and meetings from past till now. Today, there isn't any day and month that will go by without seeing a case in this field being presented or claimed in books, journals or newspapers. However, thanks to the expanse of operation and wide scope of the Judiciary, mentioned claims are studied in Judicial courts as well (you can just search “Plagiarism” in Google search engine, and then you will encounter with hundred different pages on this subject. In countries that they have copyright rule, this subject is taken into account seriously and if someone adapts a subject or extracts some text from another one's, without mentioning its reference, he will be punished firmly in accordance with rules and regulations. Despite the importance of this subject in literary criticism, unfortunately it is not considered as it deserves in our country. Regardless of definition and categorization of Plagiarism by rhetoricians, there is disagreement for making decision whether a Plagiarism is happened or it is some other cases such as Tavarod (occurrence of one thought in two persons' minds or Intertextuality. Considering the fact that contents and concepts are common between people in every inches of our planet, it is so hard to determine and prove that someone is innovator and creator of concept or content and if someone else uses the same content, he is copying the original creator. We know that sometimes the same word or phrase comes to the minds of two persons accidentally, so accusing somebody of plagiary should be done with care and comprehensive study and it should be provable. In other words, definition of Plagiarism boundaries based on rate of uniformity and similarity of terms and concepts of two works is very hard and the border between plagiarism and Tavarod is very narrow and skeptical.

  13. [High frequency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a Peruvian public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C; Quezada-Osoria, C Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students.

  14. Investigating Some Main Causes and Reasons of Writing Plagiarism in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zarfsaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring the causes and reasons of the EFL learners’ plagiarism. To this end, 150 females and males TEFL students from State and Azad universities in Iran, participated the study. A questionnaire developed by Rezanejad and Rezaeibased (2013 and a semi-structured interview which were piloted on a similar sample before administering were used as the instruments of the study. To triangulate the findings, for the qualitative part of the study, a semi-structured interview including 16 questions was run with 10 learners to collect the quantitative data at the end of the study. Based on the findings of this study, it was revealed that most of the students were aware of the concept of plagiarism and had the same definition of it. Moreover, their professors used the Internet and search engines to detect plagiarism and warned them about plagiarism continuously.  The students claimed inadequate information about how not to plagiarize and less command over English language to be the main reason of plagiarism. They heard of it from their university professors, then in workshops or seminars on plagiarism, and finally from their high school teachers. Moreover, they got familiar with the concept of plagiarism through university professors, friends or family members, newspapers and magazines, Internet, TV, and radio. The implications are discussed in terms of raising learners' awareness about plagiarism in EFL contexts.

  15. Can Paraphrasing Practice Help Students Define Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is the new dirty word on campus, and college instructors are increasingly interested in teaching students how to prevent committing plagiarism. In this study, college students wrote definitions of plagiarism before and after 6 weeks of practice paraphrasing and citing original sources. Students' definitions of plagiarism were evaluated…

  16. Can Paraphrasing Practice Help Students Define Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is the new dirty word on campus, and college instructors are increasingly interested in teaching students how to prevent committing plagiarism. In this study, college students wrote definitions of plagiarism before and after 6 weeks of practice paraphrasing and citing original sources. Students' definitions of plagiarism were evaluated…

  17. The Illusory Dichotomy of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhmcke, Anita; Booth, Tracey; Wangmann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has been characterised as a "major problem" for universities. While tensions between students and universities are inevitable, the problem with the existing system of plagiarism management and prevention is that it operates to problematise the relationship between the university and the student, rather than address the core…

  18. Undergraduate Plagiarism: A Pedagogical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism is a pervasive and increasing problem at all levels of study in tertiary institutions. This study attempted explicitly and implicitly to address issues of plagiarism within the broad context of an academic writing framework in tutorials in a first-year module at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Despite these…

  19. University Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an intriguing topic with many avenues for exploration. Students' perceptions of plagiarism certainly differ from their professors' and it is valuable to attempt to listen in some small measure to what those perceptions are. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of some of the ways first- and second-year university…

  20. The Illusory Dichotomy of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhmcke, Anita; Booth, Tracey; Wangmann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has been characterised as a "major problem" for universities. While tensions between students and universities are inevitable, the problem with the existing system of plagiarism management and prevention is that it operates to problematise the relationship between the university and the student, rather than address the core…

  1. Exploring Student Self-Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halupa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Student self-plagiarism is a confusing issue for both faculty and students alike. This problem is compounded because both groups perceive the concept very differently. Recent literature regarding these perceptions is reviewed and some brief preliminary results of an exploratory multi-university study of student perceptions of self-plagiarism are…

  2. The Scarlet "P": Plagiarism, Panopticism, and the Rhetoric of Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article is a rhetorical analysis of the anxious and outraged discourse employed in response to the "rising tide" of cheating and plagiarism. This discourse invites actions that are antithetical to the goals of education and the roles of educators, as exemplified by the proliferation of plagiarism-detection technologies. (Contains 15 notes.)

  3. Single Sourcing, Boilerplates, and Re-Purposing: Plagiarism and Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louch, Michelle O'Brien

    2016-01-01

    In academia, plagiarism adheres to the traditional definition: utilizing another person's words or ideas without proper credit. Students are taught to cite everything, while instructors are given tools to detect plagiarism. This ultimately creates an atmosphere of paranoia, where students fear accusation and teachers are convinced that plagiarism…

  4. Plagiarism: Problem, Behaviour and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kiran Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has been troubling academic world since long.With the invention of electronic resources like internet inrecent times, it has become easier and more accessible forstudents than ever before. Practice of plagiarism bystudents has resulted negative consequences in theacademic field, and university teachers are now facingproblems that are more challenging. This has led to theproduction and submission of assignments and researchworks that are not properly referenced and cited or, worsestill, are those that are being submitted which are partly orcompletely written by someone else. This paper examinesthe issue of plagiarism by nursing students and academicsin Indian universities and highlights how electronicdevelopments such as the internet and word processinghave made it easier. It describes the plagiarism & its types.Moreover, we have proposed a model to analyze plagiarismbehavior and we also discussed some techniques, throughwhich, one can reduce plagiarism.

  5. An Algorithm for Chinese Plagiarism Detection Based on Left Align Word Frequency Vector Space Model%基于左归词频向量空间模型的中文文本抄袭检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松山; 唐雁

    2015-01-01

    提出一种基于左归词频向量空间模型的抄袭检测算法 .通过左归处理将抄袭文本的指代还原 ,借助同义词链对所有同义词统一左对齐于同义词链首词 ,然后以直接统计词频构造文本词频特征 ,抛弃词频统计抄袭检测算法中以TF-IDF多步计算相对词频的处理 ,最后以词频特征构造向量空间模型 ,用余弦相似计算文本相似度 .实验表明 ,算法在各种抄袭类型的数据集上综合性能更优、稳定性更好、效率更高 .%In this paper ,an algorithm for plagiarism detection based on left align word frequency vector space model is proposed .First ,left align treatment is made to recover the reference in the copied text . Next ,all synonyms are unified with the synonym chain by left-justifying them with the first word at their synonym chain .Then ,a text word frequency features are constructed directly with statistical method ,a-bandoning the multi-step process of TF-IDF to calculate the relative word frequency in other word frequen-cy plagiarism detection algorithms .Finally ,a vector space model is constructed ,using the word frequency features ,and the text similarity is calculated using the cosine similarity .Experimental results show that this algorithm on various types of plagiarism data sets has better overall performance ,better stability and greater efficiency .

  6. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Baryah, Neha; Mukhra, Richa

    2016-11-28

    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.

  7. An editorial on plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Keilman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In January this year, we were confronted with a case of plagiarism. One paper that had been submitted last year by a certain person turned out to be written by three other persons. It was presented by the three true authors at a conference in 2010, where they distributed copies of their paper. One of the reviewers of the paper informed us about that fact. We asked the three authors for a copy, which turned out to be identical with the submission, except for a few minor details. When confronted with these facts, the person who had submitted the paper was unable to give us a satisfactory explanation. This is a case of serious scientific misconduct. The editors and the publisher of Demographic Research cannot and will not accept any form of plagiarism. Nor will we accept any other form of misconduct in science, including fabrication, falsification, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research. With Long et al. ("Responding to possible plagiarism", Science 6 March 2009, we are of the opinion that the responsibility for research integrity ultimately lies in the hands of the scientific community: educators, students, authors, and those who provide peer reviews. Journal editors must take appropriate action and verify the originality of suspected manuscripts. The Office of Research Integrity provides useful guidelines (http://ori.dhhs.gov/. We have decided that any future submission to Demographic Research that lists the plagiarist as an author or co-author will be rejected automatically.

  8. Plagiarism in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ariel Forrester

    2007-06-01

    The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.

  9. Did Edwin Hubble plagiarize?

    CERN Document Server

    Shaviv, Giora

    2011-01-01

    Recently Block published an astro-ph [arXiv:1106.3928 (2011)] insinuating that Hubble censored a prior publication of his famous and seminal discovery of the expansion of the universe. This issue was investigated by us in detail as part of the book: The Quest for Chemical Element Genesis and What the Chemical Elements Tell about the Universe (Accepted for publication, Springer Pub. Heidelberg, 2011.) Since the book is due in few months, we extract here the relevant parts. Our summary: We exonerate Hubble from the charge that he censored or ignored or plagiarized Lemaitre's earlier theoretical discovery.

  10. Plagiarism: More than Meets the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Hussin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the euphemism for ‘academic theft’, ‘academic dishonesty’ and ‘academic misconduct in academia’; and is the taboo word among academics in academia. This paper discusses the issue of plagiarism in terms of what constitutes plagiarism, who are normally ‘the practitioners’ of plagiarism, be it un-intentionally or otherwise, factors contributing to the practise of plagiarism, effects and implications of plagiarism on the ‘practitioners’, and offers suggestions on how to reduce (if not eliminate any involvement in plagiarism. Knowledge and awareness about plagiarism would help academics and aspiring scholars to steer away from this act, as plagiarism would have dire and long term repercussions on their career, reputation and those who come to be associated with them.

  11. Plagiarism: More than Meets the Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Hussin; Maimunah Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is the euphemism for ‘academic theft’, ‘academic dishonesty’ and ‘academic misconduct in academia’; and is the taboo word among academics in academia. This paper discusses the issue of plagiarism in terms of what constitutes plagiarism, who are normally ‘the practitioners’ of plagiarism, be it un-intentionally or otherwise, factors contributing to the practise of plagiarism, effects and implications of plagiarism on the ‘practitioners’, and offers suggestions on how to reduce (if n...

  12. Detecting Code-Switching in a Multilingual Alpine Heritage Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Martin; Clematide, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes experiments in detecting and annotating code-switching in a large multilingual diachronic corpus of Swiss Alpine texts. The texts are in English, French, German, Italian, Romansh and Swiss German. Because of the multilingual authors (mountaineers, scientists) and the assumed multilingual readers, the texts contain numerous code-switching elements. When building and annotating the corpus, we faced issues of language identification on the sentence and sub-sentential level. ...

  13. Organic Text Authors Charge Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the recent controversy involving two organic chemistry textbooks. The charge of plagiarism and the court litigations are the object of interest in the chemical community since many prominant scientists are planned as witnesses. (SA)

  14. Plagiarism: The Worm of Reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolich, Augustus M.

    1983-01-01

    Points out problems and complications of dealing with plagiarism. Argues that while teaching students to write, teachers should also try to encourage them to commit themselves to intellectual inquiry and originality. (JL)

  15. Detection of Polyphase Codes Radar Signals in Low SNR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runlan Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel effective detection method is proposed for electronic intelligence (ELINT systems detecting polyphase codes radar signal in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR scenario. The core idea of the proposed method is first to calculate the time-frequency distribution of polyphase codes radar signals via Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD; then the modified Hough transform (HT is employed to cumulate all the energy of WVD’s ridges effectively to achieve signal detection. Compared with the generalised Wigner Hough transform (GWHT method, the proposed method has a superior performance in low SNR and is not sensitive to the code type. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed method.

  16. Plagiarism in residency application essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Scott; Gelfand, Brian J; Hurwitz, Shelley; Berkowitz, Lori; Ashley, Stanley W; Nadel, Eric S; Katz, Joel T

    2010-07-20

    Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. Retrospective cohort study. 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. No external funding.

  17. On the economics of plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, A.; Judge, G.; Rickman, N

    2007-01-01

    Cheating and plagiarism can involve the transgression of intellectual property rights across many areas of life. When a direct financial benefit from such practices is identifiable, the opportunity to seek legal redress is available via civil court action. When it is undertaken by a public official it may constitute malfeasance. Yet in the case of breaches of university regulations (from the growing number of student cheating and plagiarism incidents) subsequent legal intervention may be char...

  18. Is it cheating or learning the craft of writing? Using Turnitin to help students avoid plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Matheson, Lynne; Starr, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy and the use of Turnitin. The study found that staff and students largely understood the university’s policy and Turnitin’s place within it, and were v...

  19. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person,Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (1) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows that SPA can detect porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points.

  20. Reasons for Plagiarism in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šprajc Polona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The survey was performed to determine the reasons that lead students to possibly commit plagiarism during their studies. By doing so, we wanted to determine the main reason for the appearance of plagiarism and how, within this main reasons, various indicators of plagiarism are judged and, finally, how demographic data and student motivation for study are associated with the reasons for plagiarism.

  1. Automatic Detection and Decoding of Photogrammetric Coded Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Wijenayake, Udaya; Choi, Sung-In; Park, Soon-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Close-range Photogrammetry is widely used in many industries because of the cost effectiveness and efficiency of the technique. In this research, we introduce an automated coded target detection method which can be used to enhance the efficiency of the Photogrammetry.

  2. Plagiarism: Moving from Punitive to Proactive Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Guglielmin, Melanie; Otoo, Benedict Kojo

    2017-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be an issue in postsecondary contexts. This paper discusses how educators can take a proactive stance to prevent plagiarism and cultivate students' sense of honour and academic integrity, rather than focusing on punitive consequences after plagiarism has already occurred. Strategies include assessment design, formative…

  3. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evering, Lea Calvert; Moorman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue in need of reexamination. A common misconception is there is consensus on what constitute plagiarism, and general agreement that engaging in plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty is a major breech of ethics. There seems to be little concern for differentiating degrees of seriousness; the intentional…

  4. Student Online Plagiarism: How Do We Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    The perception that Internet plagiarism by university students is on the rise has alarmed college teachers, leading to the adoption of electronic plagiarism checkers, among other responses. Although some recent studies suggest that estimates of online plagiarism may be exaggerated, cause for concern remains. This article reviews quantitative…

  5. Sexuality, Textuality: The Cultural Work of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    2000-01-01

    Considers how plagiarism continues to elude definition because teachers cannot possibly formulate and act on a definition of plagiarism that articulates both its textual and sexual work. Discusses linking sexual property to textual transgression and rejecting metaphors in relationship to rejecting plagiarism. Suggests educators stop using the term…

  6. Editors, Teachers Disagree about Definition of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Jerry; Duncan, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of plagiarism policies in journalism schools and newsrooms. Concludes that instructors felt educating students about plagiarism was one of the most important services journalism schools offer, but editors felt that plagiarism standards must be set in the real world of the newsroom. (HTH)

  7. Shameless! Reconceiving the Problem of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Argues that a moralistic approach to plagiarism is not likely to make the problem disappear. New thinking about plagiarism and pedagogy must take its complexity into account, since plagiarism is not always the result of a willful desire to deceive, but may reflect a misunderstanding of the nature of work in the discipline. (SLD)

  8. Plagiarism: Quite a Rather Bad Little Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skom, Edith

    1986-01-01

    Perspectives on plagiarism are offered by a university writing teacher, who also gives examples from students' papers. A number of plagiarists genuinely do not understand that they are plagiarizing; they do not understand the basics of footnoting or when it is required. While identifying a piece of writing as plagiarism may be easy, finding the…

  9. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  10. Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students' estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  11. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evering, Lea Calvert; Moorman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue in need of reexamination. A common misconception is there is consensus on what constitute plagiarism, and general agreement that engaging in plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty is a major breech of ethics. There seems to be little concern for differentiating degrees of seriousness; the intentional…

  12. Runtime Detection of C-Style Errors in UPC Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkelbauer, P; Liao, C; Panas, T; Quinlan, D

    2011-09-29

    Unified Parallel C (UPC) extends the C programming language (ISO C 99) with explicit parallel programming support for the partitioned global address space (PGAS), which provides a global memory space with localized partitions to each thread. Like its ancestor C, UPC is a low-level language that emphasizes code efficiency over safety. The absence of dynamic (and static) safety checks allows programmer oversights and software flaws that can be hard to spot. In this paper, we present an extension of a dynamic analysis tool, ROSE-Code Instrumentation and Runtime Monitor (ROSECIRM), for UPC to help programmers find C-style errors involving the global address space. Built on top of the ROSE source-to-source compiler infrastructure, the tool instruments source files with code that monitors operations and keeps track of changes to the system state. The resulting code is linked to a runtime monitor that observes the program execution and finds software defects. We describe the extensions to ROSE-CIRM that were necessary to support UPC. We discuss complications that arise from parallel code and our solutions. We test ROSE-CIRM against a runtime error detection test suite, and present performance results obtained from running error-free codes. ROSE-CIRM is released as part of the ROSE compiler under a BSD-style open source license.

  13. Modern Method for Detecting Web Phishing Using Visual Cryptography (VC and Quick Response Code (QR code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Ashvini Kute

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is an attempt by an individual or a group to thieve personal confidential information such as passwords, credit card information etc from unsuspecting victims for identity theft, financial gain and other fraudulent activities. Here an image based (QR codes authentication using Visual Cryptography (VC is used. The use of Visual cryptography is explored to convert the QR code into two shares and both these shares can then be transmitted separately. One Time Passwords (OTP is passwords which are valid only for a session to validate the user within a specified amount of time. In this paper we are presenting a new authentication scheme for secure OTP distribution in phishing website detection through VC and QR codes.

  14. Modern Method for Detecting Web Phishing Using Visual Cryptography (VC and Quick Response Code (QR code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Ashvini Kute

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is an attempt by an individual or a group to thieve personal confidential information such as passwords, credit card information etc from unsuspecting victims for identity theft, financial gain and other fraudulent activities. Here an image based (QR codes authentication using Visual Cryptography (VC is used. The use of Visual cryptography is explored to convert the QR code into two shares and both these shares can then be transmitted separately. One Time Passwords (OTP is passwords which are valid only for a session to validate the user within a specified amount of time. In this paper we are presenting a new authentication scheme for secure OTP distribution in phishing website detection through VC and QR codes.

  15. The Ethics and Politics of Policing Plagiarism: A Qualitative Study of Faculty Views on Student Plagiarism and Turnitin®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Samuel; Childers, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the usage of plagiarism detection software such as Turnitin® has increased dramatically among university instructors. At the same time, academic criticism of this software's employment has also increased. We interviewed 23 faculty members from various departments at a medium-sized, public university in the southeastern US to determine…

  16. The Ethics and Politics of Policing Plagiarism: A Qualitative Study of Faculty Views on Student Plagiarism and Turnitin®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Samuel; Childers, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the usage of plagiarism detection software such as Turnitin® has increased dramatically among university instructors. At the same time, academic criticism of this software's employment has also increased. We interviewed 23 faculty members from various departments at a medium-sized, public university in the southeastern US to determine…

  17. Plagiarism in law and medicine: challenges for scholarship, academia, publishers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The phenomenon of plagiarism has evolved as a major problem in many fields with the increasing accessibility of material on the internet. It poses dilemmas for those involved in secondary and tertiary education, as well as for book publishers and those who edit journals. This editorial reviews important recent decisions in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia by courts and regulatory bodies in respect of doctors and lawyers who have engaged in plagiarism in various ways both while undergraduates and in the course of their professional careers. It reflects on the phenomenon of plagiarism, the challenges involved in its detection and the steps that can be taken to reduce its incidence.

  18. 基于二元语篇信息序列的译文抄袭鉴定方法研究%A Study on Translation Plagiarism Detection Methods based on Discourse Information Bigrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波

    2015-01-01

    In the existing literature of translation plagiarism detection,little research has been done to deal with the change of syn-tactic order.On this account,the researcher employs Discourse Information Theory,conducts discriminant function analysis and finds that the distribution of information unit bigrams exhibits a fairly good homogeneity in the true translator 's texts but an obvi-ous heterogeneity in the plagiarizer's texts.In addition to this,the effectiveness of information element bigrams is proved again in detecting synonym substitution.At last,as idiolect is lack of solid theoretical foundation,the advantages of treating discourse infor-mation bigrams as idiolect are also discussed in this article.%由于现有研究中缺乏针对改变句法顺序这一译文抄袭策略的鉴定方法,因此,本文运用语篇信息理论,利用判别分析,论证了二元信息单位序列在真正译者译文中分布一致性较好,而在抄袭者译文中的分布则差异较大.此外,本文还通过构造二元信息成分序列,再次验证了其用于鉴别同义词替换这种抄袭策略的有效性.最后,针对个人言语特征理论依据不足的问题,本文以语篇信息为视角,讨论了二元语篇信息序列作为个人言语特征的优势所在.

  19. Minimizing Cyber-Plagiarism through Turnitin: Faculty’s & Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holi Ibrahim Holi Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to investigate and evaluate students’ and faculty’s experiences and understanding to the strengths and limitations of anti-plagiarism software, specifically, Turnitin and how it could be used to promote academic integrity among engineering students. 50 engineering students and 20 professors were surveyed and interviewed. The paper argues that although Turnitin is widely used these days to tackle and minimize plagiarism practices, however cyber-plagiarism is increasing and the software might be inadequate in fighting such practice. The paper also questions the effectiveness and limitations of the software in relation to current practices. The findings revealed that most of the respondents perceive Turnitin positively; limitations of the software are not many and they believed that the software is effective in detecting and minimizing plagiarism incidents among their students’ papers. The study puts forward some recommendations which might help practitioners in minimizing plagiarism practices.Key Words: Cyber-plagiarism, Turnitin, anti-plagiarism software, digital cheating, academic integrity

  20. On Detecting Pollution Attacks in Inter-Session Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Anh

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with pollution attacks in inter-session network coding is challenging due to the fact that sources, in addition to intermediate nodes, can be malicious. In this work, we precisely define corrupted packets in inter-session pollution based on the commitment of the source packets. We then propose three detection schemes: one hash-based and two MAC-based schemes: InterMacCPK and SpaceMacPM. InterMacCPK is the first multi-source homomorphic MAC scheme that supports multiple keys. Both MAC schemes can replace traditional MACs, e.g., HMAC, in networks that employ inter-session coding. All three schemes provide in-network detection, are collusion-resistant, and have very low online bandwidth and computation overhead.

  1. Implementnig Data Mining for Detection of Malware from Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh Kumar Babubhai Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss various data mining techniques that we have successfully applied for cyber security. This research investigates the use of data mining methods for malware (malicious programs detection and proposed a framework as an alternative to the traditional signature detection methods. These applications include malicious code detection by mining binary executables by anomaly detection, and data stream mining. A serious security threat today is malicious executables, especially new, unseen malicious executables often arriving as email attachments. These new malicious executables are created at the rate of thousands every year and pose a serious security threat. Our research is closely related to information retrieval and classification techniques and borrows a number of ideas from the field. Current anti-virus systems attempt to detect these new malicious programs with heuristics generated by hand. This approach is costly and oftentimes ineffective. We present a data-mining framework that detects new, previously unseen malicious executables accurately and automatically. The data -mining framework automatically found patterns in our data set and used these patterns to detect a se t of new malicious binaries. Comparing our detection methods with a traditional signature based method; this method is more than doubles the current detection rates for new malicious executables.

  2. Using anti-plagiarism software to promote academic honesty in the context of peer reviewed assignments

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    peer-reviewed A variety of free and commercial software applications designed to detect plagiarism from Internet sources has appeared in recent years. However, their effectiveness and impact on student behaviour has been assumed rather than confirmed. The study presented here explores the responses and perceptions of a group of first year students at an Irish university after their first contact with anti-plagiarism software in the context of peer-reviewed assignments. The results indicate...

  3. Authors, editors, and the signs, symptoms and causes of plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Shashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism and inadequate citing appear to have reached epidemic proportions in research publication. This article discusses how plagiarism is defined and suggests some possible causes for the increase in the plagiarism disease. Most editors do not have much tolerance for text re-use with inadequate citation regardless of reasons why words are copied from other sources without correct attribution. However, there is now some awareness that re-use of words in research articles to improve the writing or "the English" (which has become a common practice should be distinguished from intentional deceit for the purpose of stealing other authors′ ideas (which appears to remain a very rare practice. Although it has become almost as easy for editors to detect duplicate text as it is for authors to re-use text from other sources, editors often fail to consider the reasons why researchers resort to this strategy, and tend to consider any text duplication as a symptom of serious misconduct. As a result, some authors may be stigmatized unfairly by being labeled as plagiarists. The article concludes with practical advice for researchers on how to improve their writing and citing skills and thus avoid accusations of plagiarism.

  4. Roles for Coincidence Detection in Coding Amplitude-Modulated Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many sensory neurons encode temporal information by detecting coincident arrivals of synaptic inputs. In the mammalian auditory brainstem, binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO are known to act as coincidence detectors, whereas in the lateral superior olive (LSO roles of coincidence detection have remained unclear. LSO neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs driven by ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic stimuli, respectively, and vary their output spike rates according to interaural level differences. In addition, LSO neurons are also sensitive to binaural phase differences of low-frequency tones and envelopes of amplitude-modulated (AM sounds. Previous physiological recordings in vivo found considerable variations in monaural AM-tuning across neurons. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed temporal tuning properties of LSO and their sources of variability, we used a simple coincidence counting model and examined how specific parameters of coincidence detection affect monaural and binaural AM coding. Spike rates and phase-locking of evoked excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory inputs had only minor effects on LSO output to monaural AM inputs. In contrast, the coincidence threshold of the model neuron affected both the overall spike rates and the half-peak positions of the AM-tuning curve, whereas the width of the coincidence window merely influenced the output spike rates. The duration of the refractory period affected only the low-frequency portion of the monaural AM-tuning curve. Unlike monaural AM coding, temporal factors, such as the coincidence window and the effective duration of inhibition, played a major role in determining the trough positions of simulated binaural phase-response curves. In addition, empirically-observed level-dependence of binaural phase-coding was reproduced in the framework of our minimalistic coincidence counting model. These modeling results suggest that coincidence

  5. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  6. Plagiarism: What's the Big Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brittney; Stith, Danica; Tesdell, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    In academic culture, plagiarism is considered to be a form of cheating and therefore unethical. Understandably, instructors try to eliminate this kind of unethical behavior from their courses. But what if they designed their assignments and exams in such a way that students would find no reason to cheat? The authors think that it is possible, at…

  7. Plagiarism: What's the Big Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brittney; Stith, Danica; Tesdell, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    In academic culture, plagiarism is considered to be a form of cheating and therefore unethical. Understandably, instructors try to eliminate this kind of unethical behavior from their courses. But what if they designed their assignments and exams in such a way that students would find no reason to cheat? The authors think that it is possible, at…

  8. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  9. CrossCheck plagiarism screening : Experience of the Journal of Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Katsumi

    Due to technological advances in the past two decades, researchers now have unprecedented access to a tremendous amount of useful information. However, because of the extreme pressure to publish, this abundance of information can sometimes tempt researchers to commit scientific misconduct. A serious form of such misconduct is plagiarism. Editors are always concerned about the possibility of publishing plagiarized manuscripts. The plagiarism detection tool CrossCheck allows editors to scan and analyze manuscripts effectively. The Journal of Epidemiology took part in a trial of CrossCheck, and this article discusses the concerns journal editors might have regarding the use of CrossCheck and its analysis. In addition, potential problems identified by CrossCheck, including self-plagiarism, are introduced.

  10. Penguins and Plagiarism: Stemming the Tide of Plagiarism in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism is on the rise on high school and college campuses. There are many reasons why students tend to plagiarize. One of these is that many students are interested in the shortest possible route through a course. Some students also fear that their writing ability is inadequate. If student plagiarism and lack of academic integrity are…

  11. Penguins and Plagiarism: Stemming the Tide of Plagiarism in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism is on the rise on high school and college campuses. There are many reasons why students tend to plagiarize. One of these is that many students are interested in the shortest possible route through a course. Some students also fear that their writing ability is inadequate. If student plagiarism and lack of academic integrity are…

  12. An In-depth Study of Sparse Codes on Abnormality Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2016-01-01

    are carried out from various angles to better understand the applicability of sparse codes, including computation time, reconstruction error, sparsity, detection accuracy, and their performance combining various detection methods. The experiment results show that combining OMP codes with maximum coordinate...

  13. Uncovering highly obfuscated plagiarism cases using fuzzy semantic-based similarity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salha M. Alzahrani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly obfuscated plagiarism cases contain unseen and obfuscated texts, which pose difficulties when using existing plagiarism detection methods. A fuzzy semantic-based similarity model for uncovering obfuscated plagiarism is presented and compared with five state-of-the-art baselines. Semantic relatedness between words is studied based on the part-of-speech (POS tags and WordNet-based similarity measures. Fuzzy-based rules are introduced to assess the semantic distance between source and suspicious texts of short lengths, which implement the semantic relatedness between words as a membership function to a fuzzy set. In order to minimize the number of false positives and false negatives, a learning method that combines a permission threshold and a variation threshold is used to decide true plagiarism cases. The proposed model and the baselines are evaluated on 99,033 ground-truth annotated cases extracted from different datasets, including 11,621 (11.7% handmade paraphrases, 54,815 (55.4% artificial plagiarism cases, and 32,578 (32.9% plagiarism-free cases. We conduct extensive experimental verifications, including the study of the effects of different segmentations schemes and parameter settings. Results are assessed using precision, recall, F-measure and granularity on stratified 10-fold cross-validation data. The statistical analysis using paired t-tests shows that the proposed approach is statistically significant in comparison with the baselines, which demonstrates the competence of fuzzy semantic-based model to detect plagiarism cases beyond the literal plagiarism. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical test shows the effectiveness of different segmentation schemes used with the proposed approach.

  14. Plagiarism In English Language Theses In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Raskova Octaberlina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that plagiarism in Indonesia exists due to some reasons. The reasons range from the requirements on the part of the students to adhere to uniformity in terms of thesis format to failure on the part of the government to effectively enforce a regulation dealing with plagiarism. Anecdotal observations as a student in one Indonesian university will give color to the discussion throughout this article. A recommendation to subdue plagiarism in Indonesia will conclude the article.

  15. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  16. Plagiarism challenges at Ukrainian science and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Svyrydenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the types and severity of plagiarism violations at the modern educational and scientific spheres using the philosophic methodological approaches. The author analyzes Ukrainian context as well as global one and tries to formulate "order of the day" of plagiarism challenges. The plagiarism phenomenon is intuitively comprehensible for academicians but in reality it has a very complex nature and a lot of manifestation. Using approaches of ethics, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of science and education author formulates the series of recommendation for overcoming of plagiarism challenges at Ukrainian science and education.

  17. Is it cheating – or learning the craft of writing? Using Turnitin to help students avoid plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Matheson, Lynne; Starr, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy and the use of Turnitin. The study found that staff and students largely understood the university’s policy and Turnitin’s place within it, and were v...

  18. Is it cheating or learning the craft of writing? Using Turnitin to help\\ud students avoid plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Matheson, L.; Starr, S

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy and the use of Turnitin. The study found that staff and students largely understood the university’s policy and Turnitin’s place within it, and were v...

  19. Measuring students' perceptions of plagiarism: modification and Rasch validation of a plagiarism attitude scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J; Ehrich, John F; Walton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a significant area of concern in higher education, given university students' high self-reported rates of plagiarism. However, research remains inconsistent in prevalence estimates and suggested precursors of plagiarism. This may be a function of the unclear psychometric properties of the measurement tools adopted. To investigate this, we modified an existing plagiarism scale (to broaden its scope), established its psychometric properties using traditional (EFA, Cronbach's alpha) and modern (Rasch analysis) survey evaluation approaches, and examined results of well-functioning items. Results indicated that traditional and modern psychometric approaches differed in their recommendations. Further, responses indicated that although most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of plagiarism, these attitudes were neither unanimous nor consistent across the range of issues assessed. This study thus provides rigorous psychometric testing of a plagiarism attitude scale and baseline data from which to begin a discussion of contextual, personal, and external factors that influence students' plagiarism attitudes.

  20. Plagiarism in nursing education: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joan; Everett, Bronwyn; Ramjan, Lucie M; Callins, Renee; Glew, Paul; Salamonson, Yenna

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence and antecedents of plagiarism within nursing education and approaches to prevention and management. There has been growing media attention highlighting the prevalence of plagiarism in universities, including the academic integrity of undergraduate nursing students. A breach of academic integrity among nursing students also raises further concern with the potential transfer of this dishonest behaviour to the clinical setting. Integrative review. A systematic search of five electronic databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source, and ERIC was undertaken. Only primary studies related to plagiarism and nursing students (undergraduate or postgraduate) studying at a tertiary education institution or nursing faculty were included. Both qualitative and quantitative study designs were included. Twenty studies were included in this review with six key themes identified: (1) prevalence; (2) knowledge, understanding and attitudes; (3) types of plagiarism; (4) antecedents to plagiarism; (5) interventions to reduce or prevent plagiarism; and (6) the relationship between academic honesty and professional integrity. Plagiarism is common among university nursing students, with a difference in perception of this behaviour between students and academics. The review also highlighted the importance of distinguishing between inadvertent and deliberate plagiarism, with differing strategies suggested to address this behaviour. Nevertheless, interventions to reduce plagiarism have not been shown to be effective. The current punitive approach to plagiarism within nursing faculties has not reduced its occurrence. There is a need to promote awareness, knowledge and provide students with the appropriate referencing skills, to reduce the significant amount of inadvertent plagiarism. The importance of promoting honesty and academic integrity in nursing education is highlighted. Cheating within the academic setting has been

  1. [Is there protection against copying? Thoughts about plagiarism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-13

    There are at least two reasons why more and more cases of suspected plagiarism are perceived in the scientific literature. On one hand, the ever increasing pressure for publication makes it easier for authors, reviewers and editors to infringe or overlook this serious ethical misdemeanor; on the other hand, with the development of text analysis software, detecting text similarities has become a simple task. The judgement of actual cases, however, requires well-grounded professional knowledge and prudent human decisions.

  2. Experiences of experts about the instances of plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmod; Ojaghi, Rezvan; Sohrabi, Mozafar Cheshmeh; Papi, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is defined as intentional deceiving or lack of honesty, which deprives others from both material and spiritual possessions. Ethics is considered as one of the most important aspects of evaluating the quality of higher education. Moreover, scientific ethics should be reflected from university values, as a specialized institution, rather than being a reflection of the others cares. Therefore, the main aim of the present study is explore of expert experiences about plagiarism in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. This study employed qualitative method with using in-deep interview. The research participants consisted of 21, who tend to this work. Semi structure interview were conducted and recorded. The method of analyzing data was 'thematic analysis'. The data were transcribed and saved on computer after each interview. Themes and sub-themes were extracted. Finally, relevant sub-themes were arranged in a category and suggested were presented. Analyzing data showed 600 primary codes, 40 sub-themes and 6 themes. The main themes included repeated works, non-normative adoption, non-normative adaptation, shares distribution, forging, and profit-seeking, each of which consisted of one or several subgroups. The findings of this study show that since, there are numerous ways of cheating, the universities' research committees must create institutions in order to educate the individuals how to avoid plagiarism. In addition, providing information about different types of scientific violations, as well as their following punishments might lead to the decrease of such misbehaviors.

  3. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework…

  4. An ELT's Solution to Combat Plagiarism: "Birth" of CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabieh, Christine

    One English-as-a Second-Language professor fought plagiarism using computer assisted language learning (CALL). She succeeded in getting half of her class to write documented research papers free of plagiarism. Although all of the students claimed to know how to avoid plagiarizing, 35 percent presented the work with minor traces of plagiarism. The…

  5. Judging Plagiarism: A Problem of Morality and Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Julianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of plagiarism as an issue of morality. Outrage about student plagiarism in universities positions it as dishonesty and a transgression of standards. Despite this, there has been little work analysing the implications of positioning plagiarism as a moral matter in the making of judgments about plagiarism and…

  6. Plagiarism: Presenting Someone Else's Creation as One's Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Explains that "plagiarism" does not have a commonly agreed-upon definition. Claims that plagiarism is not a legal term. Describes plagiarism as a term for an academic crime, for which each institution has its own definition. Notes that copyright law (a crime with a specific legal definition) is a cousin of plagiarism. (PA)

  7. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework…

  8. Methodology for fast detection of false sharing in threaded scientific codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, I-Hsin; Cong, Guojing; Murata, Hiroki; Negishi, Yasushi; Wen, Hui-Fang

    2014-11-25

    A profiling tool identifies a code region with a false sharing potential. A static analysis tool classifies variables and arrays in the identified code region. A mapping detection library correlates memory access instructions in the identified code region with variables and arrays in the identified code region while a processor is running the identified code region. The mapping detection library identifies one or more instructions at risk, in the identified code region, which are subject to an analysis by a false sharing detection library. A false sharing detection library performs a run-time analysis of the one or more instructions at risk while the processor is re-running the identified code region. The false sharing detection library determines, based on the performed run-time analysis, whether two different portions of the cache memory line are accessed by the generated binary code.

  9. Viewpoint of Undergraduate Engineering Students on Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoytova, Diana; Namango, Saul Sitati

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, plagiarism has been a global concern, especially so, in institutions of higher learning. Furthermore, over the past decades, cases of student plagiarism, in higher education, have increased, substantially. This issue cannot be taken, without due consideration, and it is crucial for educators, and universities, at large, to find the…

  10. Exploring Staff Perceptions of Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Abbi; Clegg, Sue; Macdonald, Ranald

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of qualitative data from a research project looking at staff perceptions of plagiarism at a post-1992 university. Twenty-six members of staff from departments and academic schools from across the university took part in open and semi-structured interviews. Analysis shows that variable definitions of plagiarism exist;…

  11. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  12. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  13. False feathers a perspective on academic plagiarism

    CERN Document Server

    Weber-Wulff, Debora

    2014-01-01

    With plagiarism a growing problem on university campuses, this book explains a range of strategies to identify instances of the offence. Written by an activist in the VroniPlag Wiki group, it shows how members find and document plagiarism in dissertations.

  14. Decreasing Plagiarism Using Critical Thinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ann W.

    A practicum project emphasizing critical thinking skills was undertaken in an eighth grade history class to make students aware of the nature and seriousness of plagiarism. The 10-week unit was preceded by a reading comprehension test and an essay assignment on a major Civil War battle. Plagiarized portions of the essays were highlighted and the…

  15. Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    1995-01-01

    Suggests a plagiarism policy that would respect present concerns and discipline but would allow for an enlarged range of definitions of and motivations for plagiarism. Brings to bear contemporary theoretical approaches that take issue with authoring as an autonomous, individual, original act. (TB)

  16. Exploring Staff Perceptions of Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Abbi; Clegg, Sue; Macdonald, Ranald

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of qualitative data from a research project looking at staff perceptions of plagiarism at a post-1992 university. Twenty-six members of staff from departments and academic schools from across the university took part in open and semi-structured interviews. Analysis shows that variable definitions of plagiarism exist;…

  17. Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    1995-01-01

    Suggests a plagiarism policy that would respect present concerns and discipline but would allow for an enlarged range of definitions of and motivations for plagiarism. Brings to bear contemporary theoretical approaches that take issue with authoring as an autonomous, individual, original act. (TB)

  18. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  19. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  20. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  1. How do master level students in Computer Science perceive plagiarism?

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Anders; Thota, Neena

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a serious problem in computer science.This paper reports the analyses of data about plagiarism that wasgathered from master level students in computing. We haveidentified how students perceive plagiarism, how they choose torespond when faced by a scenario involving plagiarism, and whatdrives them to take a particular stance or adopt an action. Thedata-driven analyses show complex understanding of plagiarismand a range of motives that could lead students to plagiarize. Wehave fou...

  2. JOURNAL CLUB: Plagiarism in Manuscripts Submitted to the AJR: Development of an Optimal Screening Algorithm and Management Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donna B

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of plagiarism in a sample of manuscripts submitted to the AJR using CrossCheck, develop an algorithm to identify significant plagiarism, and formulate management pathways. A sample of 110 of 1610 (6.8%) manuscripts submitted to AJR in 2014 in the categories of Original Research or Review were analyzed using CrossCheck and manual assessment. The overall similarity index (OSI), highest similarity score from a single source, whether duplication was from single or multiple origins, journal section, and presence or absence of referencing the source were recorded. The criteria outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors were the reference standard for identifying manuscripts containing plagiarism. Statistical analysis was used to develop a screening algorithm to maximize sensitivity and specificity for the detection of plagiarism. Criteria for defining the severity of plagiarism and management pathways based on the severity of the plagiarism were determined. Twelve manuscripts (10.9%) contained plagiarism. Nine had an OSI excluding quotations and references of less than 20%. In seven, the highest similarity score from a single source was less than 10%. The highest similarity score from a single source was the work of the same author or authors in nine. Common sections for duplication were the Materials and Methods, Discussion, and abstract. Referencing the original source was lacking in 11. Plagiarism was undetected at submission in five of these 12 articles; two had been accepted for publication. The most effective screening algorithm was to average the OSI including quotations and references and the highest similarity score from a single source and to submit manuscripts with an average value of more than 12% for further review. The current methods for detecting plagiarism are suboptimal. A new screening algorithm is proposed.

  3. Evaluation and Testing of the ADVANTG Code on SNM Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; Hayes, John W.

    2013-09-24

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with evaluating the effectiveness of ORNL’s new hybrid transport code, ADVANTG, on scenarios of interest to our NA-22 sponsor, specifically of detection of diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). PNNL staff have determined that acquisition and installation of ADVANTG was relatively straightforward for a code in its phase of development, but probably not yet sufficient for mass distribution to the general user. PNNL staff also determined that with little effort, ADVANTG generated weight windows that typically worked for the problems and generated results consistent with MCNP. With slightly greater effort of choosing a finer mesh around detectors or sample reaction tally regions, the figure of merit (FOM) could be further improved in most cases. This does take some limited knowledge of deterministic transport methods. The FOM could also be increased by limiting the energy range for a tally to the energy region of greatest interest. It was then found that an MCNP run with the full energy range for the tally showed improved statistics in the region used for the ADVANTG run. The specific case of interest chosen by the sponsor is the CIPN project from Las Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is an active interrogation, non-destructive assay (NDA) technique to quantify the fissile content in a spent fuel assembly and is also sensitive to cases of material diversion. Unfortunately, weight windows for the CIPN problem cannot currently be properly generated with ADVANTG due to inadequate accommodations for source definition. ADVANTG requires that a fixed neutron source be defined within the problem and cannot account for neutron multiplication. As such, it is rendered useless in active interrogation scenarios. It is also interesting to note that this is a difficult problem to solve and that the automated weight windows generator in MCNP actually slowed down the problem. Therefore, PNNL had determined

  4. A dual-sided coded-aperture radiation detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, R. D.; Hood, W. E.; Polichar, R. M.; Cardone, F. H.; Chavez, L. G.; Grubbs, S. G.; Huntley, B. P.; Kuharski, R. A.; Shyffer, R. T.; Fabris, L.; Ziock, K. P.; Labov, S. E.; Nelson, K.

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a large-area, mobile, coded-aperture radiation imaging system for localizing compact radioactive sources in three dimensions while rejecting distributed background. The 3D Stand-Off Radiation Detection System (SORDS-3D) has been tested at speeds up to 95 km/h and has detected and located sources in the millicurie range at distances of over 100 m. Radiation data are imaged to a geospatially mapped world grid with a nominal 1.25- to 2.5-m pixel pitch at distances out to 120 m on either side of the platform. Source elevation is also extracted. Imaged radiation alarms are superimposed on a side-facing video log that can be played back for direct localization of sources in buildings in urban environments. The system utilizes a 37-element array of 5×5×50 cm 3 cesium-iodide (sodium) detectors. Scintillation light is collected by a pair of photomultiplier tubes placed at either end of each detector, with the detectors achieving an energy resolution of 6.15% FWHM (662 keV) and a position resolution along their length of 5 cm FWHM. The imaging system generates a dual-sided two-dimensional image allowing users to efficiently survey a large area. Imaged radiation data and raw spectra are forwarded to the RadioNuclide Analysis Kit (RNAK), developed by our collaborators, for isotope ID. An intuitive real-time display aids users in performing searches. Detector calibration is dynamically maintained by monitoring the potassium-40 peak and digitally adjusting individual detector gains. We have recently realized improvements, both in isotope identification and in distinguishing compact sources from background, through the installation of optimal-filter reconstruction kernels.

  5. The plagiarism euphemism parade continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its founding in 2010 the American blog “Retraction Watch” collects reasons (and excuses for academic misconduct appearing during the peer review and editing process of submitted publications to international scientific journals. For this short contribution both founding fathers of the blog present us with an euphemism parade on plagiarism. Many of the rather grotesque paraphrases for simple copy&paste were provided by the authors of the retracted publications themselves. A serious question remains – why don't we all just call a spade a spade?

  6. Social influences on unconscious plagiarism and anti-plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Timothy J; Lange, Nicholas; Dennis, Ian; Longmore, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    People are more likely to unconsciously plagiarise ideas from a same-sex partner than a different-sex partner, and more likely to unconsciously plagiarise if recalling alone rather than in the presence of their partner [Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., & Calvini, G. (1999). Contexts of cryptomnesia: May the source be with you. Social Cognition, 17, 273-297. doi: 10.1521/soco.1999.17.3.273 ]. Two sets of experiments explore these phenomena, using extensions of the standard unconscious plagiarism paradigm. In Experiment 1A participants worked together in same- or different-sex dyads before trying to recall their own ideas or their partner's ideas. More source errors were evident for same-sex dyads (Experiment 1A), but this effect was absent when participants recalled from both sources simultaneously (Experiment 1B). In Experiment 2A, participants recalled ideas from a single source either alone or in the presence of the partner, using an extended-recall task. Partner presence did not affect the availability of ideas, but did reduce the propensity to report them as task compliant, relative to a partner-present condition. Simultaneous recall from both sources removed this social effect (Experiment 2B). Thus social influences on unconscious plagiarism are apparent, but are influenced by the salience of the alternate source at retrieval.

  7. Activity Surveillance and Hawthorne Effect to Prevent Programming Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Sufian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Preventive action is required rather than curing the problem so that programming students get the right message from the beginning. Approach: To address this problem, a surveillance system was proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach was applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e., Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior was exploited as prevention on plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and Backup file to save the program writing record. Results: The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presented a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: Compilation, execution and modification. The report was presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. Conclusion: By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control. This system provides an effective prevention method in tackling plagiarism.

  8. Research on Electronic Homework Plagiarism Detection Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set Cluster Analysis%基于直觉模糊聚类的电子作业抄袭检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 鱼先锋

    2014-01-01

    The word is processed for electronic homework to generate semantic unit sequences .The sequence ’ s longest common subsequence is calculated by dynamic programming method .A new concept: vacancy degree of longest common subsequence is introduced .Building a similarity degree model based on an intuitionistic fuzzy number which is inducted by longest common sub -sequence ’ s length and vacancy degree , the model is natural and reasonable .Based on intuitionistic fuzzy transitive closure clus-tering analysis algorithm , the electronic homewors are clustered .By discussing the electronic homework plagiarism detection based on intuitionistic fuzzy set cluster analysis algorithm ’ s complexity , and then gives an application example of the algorithm , the results show that the algorithm is reasonable and efficient .%对电子作业做分词处理,生成语义单元序列;用动态规划法计算序列最长公共子序列,引入序列空位度概念。将最长公共子序列长度和空位度诱导出的直觉模糊数作为作业相似度模型,自然、合理。基于直觉模糊传递闭包方法对电子作业进行聚类分析。讨论基于直觉模糊聚类的电子作业抄袭检测算法的复杂度,并给出该算法的一个应用实例,结果显示该算法合理、高效。

  9. Coding of nonsense vs the detection of patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restle, F

    1973-12-01

    Two theories are contrasted: coding information into arbitrary characters vs extracting patterns from a flux of stimulation. It is argued that coding is the process people use to memorize nonsense and, for that reason, is a poor model for the applied psychology of learning. The contrasting idea, that Ss perceive patterns and extract information. can be used to improve education by leading teachers to organize their material. It is also argued that most demonstrations of coding can be interpreted as examples of pattern perception.

  10. Principles of error detection and error correction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, M.

    1971-01-01

    Report is reviewed which considers theoretical basis of groups, rings, fields, and vector spaces, and their relationship to algebraic coding theory. Report serves as summary for engineers and scientists involved in data handling and processing systems.

  11. Plagiarism: the Internet makes it easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Roger

    This article examines the issue of plagiarism by nursing students and academics in British universities and highlights how electronic developments such as the Internet and word processing have made it easier. It describes how some websites support plagiarism and how, for a price, a qualification up to and including higher degree level may be gained without the recipient of the award having to do any coursework.

  12. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals.

  13. Bar Coding Platforms for Nucleic Acid and Protein Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Uwe R.

    A variety of novel bar coding systems has been developed as multiplex testing platforms for applications in biological, chemical, and biomedical diagnostics. Instead of identifying a target through capture at a specific locus on an array, target analytes are captured by a bar coded tag, which then uniquely identifies the target, akin to putting a UPC bar code on a product. This requires an appropriate surface functionalization to ensure that the correct target is captured with high efficiency. Moreover the tag, or bar code, has to be readable with minimal error and at high speed, typically by flow analysis. For quantitative assays the target may be labeled separately, or the tag may also serve as the label. A great variety of materials and physicochemical principles has been exploited to generate this plethora of novel bar coding platforms. Their advantages compared to microarray-based assay platforms include in-solution binding kinetics, flexibility in assay design, compatibility with microplate-based assay automation, high sample throughput, and with some assay formats, increased sensitivity.

  14. None-Native University Students’ Perception of Plagiarism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ummul Khair Ahmad; Kobra Mansourizadeh; Grace Koh Ming Ai

    2012-01-01

    .... This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of postgraduate students in a Malaysian university were asked to categorize ten cases of plagiarism instances...

  15. Awareness and Incidence of Plagiarism among Undergraduates in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and Incidence of Plagiarism among Undergraduates in a Nigerian Private ... A significant positive relationship was found between levels awareness and ... that academic institutions should discourage unintentional plagiarism by ...

  16. Plagiarism: A plaque to research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gowri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The virus of scientific dishonesty has spread across the globe and in all age groups, students as well as faculties. Copying text, figures, tables from other published material without giving due credit are rampant. This kind of act will not only defame the individual, but also puts forth a question mark on the integrity of practitioners in general. The concept of plagiarism is by no means simple or an unambiguous one, yet unless we are clear on this, we cannot begin to make any kind of progress on the practical measures that need to be taken to reduce it. In what follows, we will attempt to explore the confusions and contradictions in the way the term is currently used, and an attempt is made to relocate its meaning such that at least some information and knowledge can be imbibed.

  17. None-Native University Students’ Perception of Plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue especially among non-native students and it has received a lot of attention from researchers and scholars of academic writing. Some scholars attribute this problem to cultural perceptions and different attitudes toward texts. This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of postgraduate students in a Malaysian university were asked to categorize ten cases of plagiarism instances. They were also asked to identify plagiar...

  18. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    OpenAIRE

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms ...

  19. CIDT: Detection of Malicious Code Injection Attacks on Web Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atul S Choudhary; M L Dhore

    2012-01-01

    ... of operations that are performed at their end. Network security exists on all the different layers of an OSI model, Application-level web security comes at the application layer and it refers to vulnerabilities inherent in the code of a web...

  20. Technology Enhanced Learning and Plagiarism in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship students' ethical views on plagiarism, their self reported engagement in plagiarism and their participation in an online plagiarism prevention tutorial. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a questionnaire administered to 434 undergraduate university…

  1. The Issue of (Software) Plagiarism: A Student View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuda, D.; Navrat, P.; Kovacova, B.; Humay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism is discussed in the context of university education in disciplines related to computing. The focus is therefore mainly on software plagiarism. First, however, a case is made for the claim that the most important reason that plagiarism cannot be tolerated lies in the essence of the concept of a university as it is rooted in…

  2. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  3. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…

  4. The Crime of Plagiarism: A Critique of Literary Property Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    Understanding the history of plagiarism may put scholars in a position to define plagiarism more precisely and to decide plagiarism disputes involving students and scholars more fairly. The origins of literary property are found in ritual and religious drama. In classical Greece and Rome, literary property began to hold some value for the author.…

  5. Technology Enhanced Learning and Plagiarism in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship students' ethical views on plagiarism, their self reported engagement in plagiarism and their participation in an online plagiarism prevention tutorial. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a questionnaire administered to 434 undergraduate university…

  6. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  7. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  8. Failure To Teach: Due Process and Law School Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClercq, Terri

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 177 law schools which identified widespread institutional indifference to plagiarism and large disparities in law schools' definitions of and punishments for plagiarism. Finds law schools have failed to teach students the rudiments of proper attribution and offers a definition of plagiarism, suggested disciplinary sanctions,…

  9. Perceptions about Plagiarism between Faculty and Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Serene

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…

  10. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  11. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  12. Perceptions about Plagiarism between Faculty and Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Serene

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…

  13. The Issue of (Software) Plagiarism: A Student View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuda, D.; Navrat, P.; Kovacova, B.; Humay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism is discussed in the context of university education in disciplines related to computing. The focus is therefore mainly on software plagiarism. First, however, a case is made for the claim that the most important reason that plagiarism cannot be tolerated lies in the essence of the concept of a university as it is rooted in…

  14. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  15. Using Anti-Plagiarism Software to Promote Academic Honesty in the Context of Peer Reviewed Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwith, Ann; Risquez, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    A variety of free and commercial software applications designed to detect plagiarism from Internet sources has appeared in recent years. However, their effectiveness and impact on student behaviour has been assumed rather than confirmed. The study presented here explores the responses and perceptions of a group of first year students at an Irish…

  16. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  17. Using Anti-Plagiarism Software to Promote Academic Honesty in the Context of Peer Reviewed Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwith, Ann; Risquez, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    A variety of free and commercial software applications designed to detect plagiarism from Internet sources has appeared in recent years. However, their effectiveness and impact on student behaviour has been assumed rather than confirmed. The study presented here explores the responses and perceptions of a group of first year students at an Irish…

  18. QR Code Image Correction based on Corner Detection and Convex Hull Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suran Kong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the angular deviation produced when shooting a QR code image by a camera would cause geometric distortion of the QR code image, the traditional algorithm of QR code image correction would produce distortion. Therefore this paper puts forward the algorithm which combines corner detection with convex hull algorithm. Firstly, binaryzation of the collected QR code image with uneven light is obtained by the methods of local threshold and mathematical morphology. Next, the outline of the QR code and the dots on it are found and the distorted image is recovered by perspective collineation, according to the algorithm raised by this paper. Finally, experimental verification is made that the algorithm raised by this paper can correctly find the four apexes of QR code and achieves good effects of geometric correction. It will also significantly increase the recognition rate of seriously distorted QR code images

  19. An Approach for Detecting Inconsistencies between Behavioral Models of the Software Architecture and the Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2012-07-16

    In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.

  20. Attitude to plagiarism in different European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is an important and frequently discussed issue, which may have severe financial impacts for higher education institutions across Europe. However, there are different attitudes to this topic in different countries. Whereas ECTS aims to provide an objective measurement of student effort allowing students to spend part of their studies at different institutions and even different countries, the penalties for plagiarism and other types of cheating may be different. Even the definition of plagiarism may be understood differently in particular European countries. One of the aims of the project IPPHEAE is to identify these differences and try to find common solutions for related problems.The aim of the paper is to present results of research focused on attitudes to plagiarism in Great Britain, Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and Bulgaria. A questionnaire survey was conducted in these countries among students and teachers. The results are interesting and inspiring and show huge differences in attitude to plagiarism between western and post-communist countries, surprisingly including the Czech Republic in the group of western countries.

  1. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-plagiarism certification be an academic mandate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshminarayana, S.

    Letter to the Editor Anti-PlagiarismCertificationbean AcademicMandate Sir, Plagiarism in scientific writing is inviting bigger issues than just contemplating unethical behavior of the individual (Gretchen, 2008). Altogether in the past, Science Journal has... plagiarism is not a disciplinary offence.This argues to stem plagiarism at a greater scale (Martin, 2007).With the advent of technology, the scope for pla- giarism become higher and a successful anti-plagiarism system is yet to be concocted. We analyzed 4...

  3. Plagiarism: A Shared Responsibility of All, Current Situation, and Future Actions in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    As combating plagiarism is a shared responsibility of all, this article focuses on presenting the current situation of higher education in Yemen. The critical review of four implementable policy documents and interviews revealed the absence of research ethics code, research misconduct policy, and institutional policies in the country. This led to the presence of several acts of research dishonesty. The article concludes with an initiative for necessary future actions in the nation.

  4. Foreign-Educated Graduate Nursing Students and Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Mary; Collins, Shawn Bryant

    2017-04-01

    Plagiarism is a concern related to students educated in countries other than the United States, where English is not the first language spoken. The authors' experience with plagiarism by a foreign-educated nursing student prompted an investigation into this topic. This article focuses on the occurrence of unintentional plagiarism, a common focus with foreign-educated students, addressing linguistic, as well as cultural, viewpoints. The findings from the literature on plagiarism among foreign-educated students are elicited and the article discusses strategies to help foreign-educated students learn about plagiarism and how to properly cite and reference sources. A variety of proactive strategies exist that can be used by both faculty and students to mitigate the occurrence of plagiarism by foreign-educated nursing students in higher education, starting with a clearer understanding of some of the antecedents to the problem of plagiarism. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):211-214.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Orthogonal transformations for change detection, Matlab code (ENVI-like headers)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Matlab code to do (iteratively reweighted) multivariate alteration detection (MAD) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) on image data; accommodates ENVI (like) header files.......Matlab code to do (iteratively reweighted) multivariate alteration detection (MAD) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) on image data; accommodates ENVI (like) header files....

  6. Plagiarism and ghostwriting: The rise in academic misconduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawren Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the current situation regarding plagiarism and ghostwriting, and to stimulate debate about how universities should respond to the rise in these forms of academic misconduct. The apparent upsurge in academic misconduct means that universities today face one of the greatest challenges to academic integrity they have had to deal with ever since the university system came into existence some 800 years ago. Plagiarism and ghostwriting are undermining the integrity of university degrees to an extent not seen before. Academia and fraud are not strangers. Universities have a long history of cheating of one sort or another, often associated with examinations, but also with research. In the past this cheating involved activities such as smuggling notes (commonly called "crib sheets" into examinations, and consulting them even under the watchful eyes of invigilators. It also involved students obtaining sight of an examination paper in advance. The fraudulent creation of research results has also been an issue. However, in the 21st century, the opportunities for cheating have exploded. This has resulted in universities becoming more concerned about ensuring the integrity of their examination processes and the degrees they award. Our paper focuses on cheating in the writing of dissertations or theses required at undergraduate or postgraduate level, with an emphasis on plagiarism and ghostwriting. We do not propose a simple solution to these problems, as preventing or stopping cheating is not just a matter of catching the wrongdoers. Cheating is endogenous to the current university education system, and needs to be addressed in terms of not only prevention and detection but also how people who are found to engage in such misconduct are treated. We suggest that creative ways of promoting learning would help to minimise cheating at universities. It is also important to ensure that the issue is discussed openly among students

  7. Is it cheating or learning the craft of writing? Using Turnitin to help students avoid plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Graham-Matheson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy and the use of Turnitin. The study found that staff and students largely understood the university's policy and Turnitin's place within it, and were very supportive of the use of Turnitin in originality checking. Students who had not used Turnitin were generally keen to do so. The recommendation to the senior management team, which was implemented, was that the use of Turnitin for originality checking should be made compulsory where possible – at the time of the study the use of Turnitin was at the discretion of programme directors. A further aim of the study was to contribute to the sector's body of knowledge. Prevention of plagiarism through education is a theme identified by Badge and Scott (2009 who conclude an area lacking in research is “investigation of the impact of these tools on staff teaching practices”. Although a number of recent studies have considered educational use of Turnitin they focus on individual programmes or subject areas rather than institutions as a whole and the relationship with policy.

  8. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  9. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  10. Attitude toward Plagiarism among Iranian Medical Faculty Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members ofTehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6 ± 3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7 ± 0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4 ± 0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1. It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medicalresearch ethics issues such as plagiarism.

  11. Attitude toward plagiarism among Iranian medical faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Hassanpour, Kiana; Aramesh, Kiarash; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6±3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7±0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4±0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1). It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses) to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medical research ethics issues such as plagiarism.

  12. Binary Large Object-Based Approach for QR Code Detection in Uncontrolled Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lopez-Rincon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response QR barcode detection in nonarbitrary environment is still a challenging task despite many existing applications for finding 2D symbols. The main disadvantage of recent applications for QR code detection is a low performance for rotated and distorted single or multiple symbols in images with variable illumination and presence of noise. In this paper, a particular solution for QR code detection in uncontrolled environments is presented. The proposal consists in recognizing geometrical features of QR code using a binary large object- (BLOB- based algorithm with subsequent iterative filtering QR symbol position detection patterns that do not require complex processing and training of classifiers frequently used for these purposes. The high precision and speed are achieved by adaptive threshold binarization of integral images. In contrast to well-known scanners, which fail to detect QR code with medium to strong blurring, significant nonuniform illumination, considerable symbol deformations, and noising, the proposed technique provides high recognition rate of 80%–100% with a speed compatible to real-time applications. In particular, speed varies from 200 ms to 800 ms per single or multiple QR code detected simultaneously in images with resolution from 640 × 480 to 4080 × 2720, respectively.

  13. Neural coding and perceptual detection in the primate somatosensory thalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Yuriria; Zainos, Antonio; Alvarez, Manuel; Salinas, Emilio; Romo, Ranulfo

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of the sensory thalamus to perception and decision making is not well understood. We addressed this problem by recording single neurons in the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the somatosensory thalamus while trained monkeys judged the presence or absence of a vibrotactile stimulus of variable amplitude applied to the skin of a fingertip. We found that neurons in the VPL nucleus modulated their firing rate as a function of stimulus amplitude, and that such modulations accounted for the monkeys’ overall psychophysical performance. These neural responses did not predict the animals' decision reports in individual trials, however. Moreover, the sensitivity to changes in stimulus amplitude was similar when the monkeys’ performed the detection task and when they were not required to report stimulus detection. These results suggest that the primate somatosensory thalamus likely provides a reliable neural representation of the sensory input to the cerebral cortex, where sensory information is transformed and combined with other cognitive components associated with behavioral performance. PMID:22927423

  14. Accuracy comparison among different machine learning techniques for detecting malicious codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Komal

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a machine learning based model for malware detection is proposed. It can detect newly released malware i.e. zero day attack by analyzing operation codes on Android operating system. The accuracy of Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network for detecting malicious code has been compared for the proposed model. In the experiment 400 benign files, 100 system files and 500 malicious files have been used to construct the model. The model yields the best accuracy 88.9% when neural network is used as classifier and achieved 95% and 82.8% accuracy for sensitivity and specificity respectively.

  15. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Prevention at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: A case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...

  16. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Prevention at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: A case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...

  17. CYBER-DIGITAL PLAGIARISM: AN AWARENESS APPROACH*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lehobye

    Plagiarism within the cyber-digital environment is a significant problem amongst first- time authors and ..... in the physical presence of one another. Ethics. 31 forms a ... and University of Texas System sa http://bit.ly/39Nkq9. 31 Gregory Ethics ...

  18. Plagiarism: Do Students Know What It Is?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Maureen M.; Overfield, Joyce A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of students to plagiarise coursework assessments has been a topic of much debate in recent years. The consequences of plagiarism for students may be devastating, since their failure to learn and use appropriate study skills will affect both their university experience and their subsequent career. This project set out to investigate…

  19. Plagiarism under a Magnifying-Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoytova, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This paper embodies the findings from a small part, of a larger study on plagiarism, at the School of Engineering (SOE). The study is a cross-sectional survey, conducted in an institutional setting. 15 senior academic members of staff (N = 15), from SOE were invited to complete a questionnaire. The questioner was pre-tested, to ensure its validity…

  20. Plagiarism: What Don't They Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Troy A.; Love, Leonard G.; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The present economic environment is beneficial for universities and schools of business that are experiencing significant enrollment increases. But just as the U.S. economy is suffering from an economic recession, universities increasingly suffer from an integrity recession. Student academic misconduct, particularly plagiarism, is at an all-time…

  1. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  2. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: Australasian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews nearly 80 published items concerned with promoting academic integrity and reducing plagiarism. Nearly all of them were published in the last seven years and have authors based in Australasia. Most of them have authors from computing departments and many were published in computing journals or presented at computing conferences.…

  3. Plagiarism: Do Students Know What It Is?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Maureen M.; Overfield, Joyce A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of students to plagiarise coursework assessments has been a topic of much debate in recent years. The consequences of plagiarism for students may be devastating, since their failure to learn and use appropriate study skills will affect both their university experience and their subsequent career. This project set out to investigate…

  4. Plagiarism: What Don't They Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Troy A.; Love, Leonard G.; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The present economic environment is beneficial for universities and schools of business that are experiencing significant enrollment increases. But just as the U.S. economy is suffering from an economic recession, universities increasingly suffer from an integrity recession. Student academic misconduct, particularly plagiarism, is at an all-time…

  5. Classrooms that Discourage Plagiarism and Welcome Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Nancy Guillot

    2011-01-01

    The key to establishing a defense against plagiarism is understanding the reasons that students engage in the process in the first place. Many students enter new grade levels academically unprepared for new challenges. When students encounter gaps between knowledge and the expectations of the classroom, some engage in unethical practices to propel…

  6. Strategies to promote a climate of academic integrity and minimize student cheating and plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Craig L

    2006-01-01

    Student academic misconduct is a growing problem for colleges and universities, including those responsible for preparing health professionals. Although the implementation of honor codes has had a positive impact on this problem, further reduction in student cheating and plagiarism can be achieved only via a comprehensive strategy that promotes an institutional culture of academic integrity. Such a strategy must combine efforts both to deter and detect academic misconduct, along with fair but rigorous application of sanctions against such behaviors. Methods useful in preventing or deterring dishonest behaviors among students include early integrity training complemented with course-level reinforcement, faculty role-modeling, and the application of selected testing/assignment preventive strategies, including honor pledges and honesty declarations. Giving students more responsibility for oversight of academic integrity also may help address this problem and better promote the culture needed to uphold its principles. Successful enforcement requires that academic administration provide strong and visible support for upholding academic integrity standards, including the provision of a clear and fair process and the consistent application of appropriate sanctions against those whose conduct is found to violate these standards.

  7. Performance Comparison of Turbo Code in WIMAX System with Various Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Tursenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The different FEC techniques like convolution code, RS code and turbo code are used to improve the performance of communication system. In this paper, we study the performance of the MAP, Log-MAP, Max-Log-MAP and APP decoding algorithms for turbo codes, in terms of the a priori information, a posteriori information, extrinsic information and channel reliability. We also analyze how important an accurate estimate of channel reliability factor is to the good performances of the iterative turbo decoder. The simulations are made for parallel concatenation of two recursive systematic convolution codes with a block interleaver at the transmitter, AWGN channel and iterative decoding with different algorithms at the receiver side. The comparison of these detection techniques in term of BER performance is discussed in result section.

  8. A VERTICAL LAYERED SPACE-TIME CODE AND ITS CLOSED-FORM BLIND SYMBOL DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zheng; Yin Qinye; Zhang Hong; Feng Aigang

    2003-01-01

    Vertical layered space-time codes have demonstrated the enormous potential to accommodate rapid flow data. Thus far, vertical layered space-time codes assumed that perfect estimates of current channel fading conditions are available at the receiver. However, increasing the number of transmit antennas increases the required training interval and reduces the available time in which data may be transmitted before the fading coefficients change. In this paper, a vertical layered space-time code is proposed. By applying the subspace method to the layered space-time code, the symbols can be detected without training symbols and channel estimates at the transmitter or the receiver. Monte Carlo simulations show that performance can approach that of the detection method with the knowledge of the channel.

  9. A VERTICAL LAYERED SPACE—TIME CODE AND ITS CLOSED—FORM BLIND SYMBOL DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoZheng; YinQinye

    2003-01-01

    Vertical layered space-time codes have demonstrated the snormous potential to accommodate rapid flow data.Thus far,vertical layered space-time codes assumed that perfect estimates of current channel fading conditions are available at the receiver.However,increasing the number of transmit antennas increases the required training interval and reduces the available time in which data may be transmitted before the fading coefficients change.In this paper,a vertical layered space-time code is proposed.By applying the subupace method to the layered space-time code,the symbols can be detected without training symbols and channel estimates at the transmitter or the receiver.Monte Carlo simulations show that performance can approach that of the detection method with the knowledge of the channel.

  10. Transcriptome-Wide Detection of Differentially Expressed Coding and Non-Coding Transcripts and Their Clinical Significance in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Erho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous disease. Deregulation of splice variants has been shown to contribute significantly to this complexity. High-throughput technologies such as oligonucleotide microarrays allow for the detection of transcripts that play a role in disease progression in a transcriptome-wide level. In this study, we use a publicly available dataset of normal adjacent, primary tumor, and metastatic prostate cancer samples (GSE21034 to detect differentially expressed coding and non-coding transcripts between these disease states. To achieve this, we focus on transcript-specific probe selection regions, that is, those probe sets that correspond unambiguously to a single transcript. Based on this, we are able to pinpoint at the transcript-specific level transcripts that are differentially expressed throughout prostate cancer progression. We confirm previously reported cases and find novel transcripts for which no prior implication in prostate cancer progression has been made. Furthermore, we show that transcript-specific differential expression has unique prognostic potential and provides a clinically significant source of biomarker signatures for prostate cancer risk stratification. The results presented here serve as a catalog of differentially expressed transcript-specific markers throughout prostate cancer progression that can be used as basis for further development and translation into the clinic.

  11. Moving object detection method using H.263 video coded data for remote surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Atsushi; Hata, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Minoru

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a moving object detection method using H.263 coded data. For video surveillance systems, it is necessary to detect unusual states because there are a lot of cameras in the system and video surveillance is tedious in normal states. We examine the information extracted from H.263 coded data and propose a method of detecting alarm events from that information. Our method consists of two steps. In the first step, using motion vector information, a moving object can be detected based on the vector's size and the similarities between the vectors in one frame and the two adjoining frames. In the second step, using DCT coefficients, the detection errors caused by the change of the luminous intensity can be eliminated based on the characteristics of the H.263's DCT coefficients. Thus moving objects are detected by analyzing the motion vectors and DCT coefficients, and we present some experimental results that show the effectiveness of our method.

  12. Blind Decorrelating Detection Based on Particle Swarm Optimization under Spreading Code Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jhih-Chung Chang; Chih-Chang Shen

    2014-01-01

    A way of resolving spreading code mismatches in blind multiuser detection with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is proposed. It has been shown that the PSO algorithm incorporating the linear system of the decorrelating detector, which is termed as decorrelating PSO (DPSO), can significantly improve the bit error rate (BER) and the system capacity. As the code mismatch occurs, the output BER performance is vulnerable to degradation for DPSO. With a blind decorrelating scheme, the proposed blind DPSO (BDPSO) offers more robust capabilities over existing DPSO under code mismatch scenarios.

  13. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms of self-plagiarism in scientific writing and then present good editorial policy toward questionable material. The importance of dealing with self-plagiarism is emphasized by the recently published proposal of Text Recycling Guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). PMID:23894861

  14. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak-Smocić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms of self-plagiarism in scientific writing and then present good editorial policy toward questionable material. The importance of dealing with self-plagiarism is emphasized by the recently published proposal of Text Recycling Guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

  15. Ultraspectral sounder data compression using error-detecting reversible variable-length coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bormin; Ahuja, Alok; Huang, Hung-Lung; Schmit, Timothy J.; Heymann, Roger W.

    2005-08-01

    Nonreversible variable-length codes (e.g. Huffman coding, Golomb-Rice coding, and arithmetic coding) have been used in source coding to achieve efficient compression. However, a single bit error during noisy transmission can cause many codewords to be misinterpreted by the decoder. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the design of reversible variable-length codes (RVLCs) for better data transmission in error-prone environments. RVLCs allow instantaneous decoding in both directions, which affords better detection of bit errors due to synchronization losses over a noisy channel. RVLCs have been adopted in emerging video coding standards--H.263+ and MPEG-4--to enhance their error-resilience capabilities. Given the large volume of three-dimensional data that will be generated by future space-borne ultraspectral sounders (e.g. IASI, CrIS, and HES), the use of error-robust data compression techniques will be beneficial to satellite data transmission. In this paper, we investigate a reversible variable-length code for ultraspectral sounder data compression, and present its numerical experiments on error propagation for the ultraspectral sounder data. The results show that the RVLC performs significantly better error containment than JPEG2000 Part 2.

  16. Plagiarism as the Moral Problem of the Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaeva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: plagiarism, moral, traditional creation, contemporary creativity, informa- tion society. The problem of plagiarism in the information society is specified by the opened nature of social communication, by changing author’s status in contemporary culture, by the distribution of contemporary creativity – not traditional creation. From a moral point of view a plagiarism is an insult to the moral dignity of man, capable of creative activity. Copyright is the juridic...

  17. Digital plagiarism - The web giveth and the web shall taketh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, David E

    2000-01-01

    Publishing students' and researchers' papers on the World Wide Web (WWW) facilitates the sharing of information within and between academic communities. However, the ease of copying and transporting digital information leaves these authors' ideas open to plagiarism. Using tools such as the Plagiarism.org database, which compares submissions to reports and papers available on the Internet, could discover instances of plagiarism, revolutionize the peer review process, and raise the quality of published research everywhere. PMID:11720925

  18. Plagiarism as the Moral Problem of the Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaeva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: plagiarism, moral, traditional creation, contemporary creativity, informa- tion society. The problem of plagiarism in the information society is specified by the opened nature of social communication, by changing author’s status in contemporary culture, by the distribution of contemporary creativity – not traditional creation. From a moral point of view a plagiarism is an insult to the moral dignity of man, capable of creative activity. Copyright is the juridic...

  19. Improved shear wave motion detection using coded excitation for transient elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Nian; Diao, Xian-Fen; Lin, Hao-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Si-Ping; Qin, Zheng-Di; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse. The Barker 7, Barker 13, and short pulse were used for detecting the shear wave in the TE application. Two phantom experiments and one in vitro liver experiment were done to explore the performances of the coded excitation in TE measurement. The results show that both coded pulses outperform the short pulse by providing superior shear wave signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), robust shear wave speed measurement, and higher penetration intensity. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of applying coded excitation in shear wave detection for TE application. The proposed method has the potential to facilitate robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:28295027

  20. Improved shear wave motion detection using coded excitation for transient elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Nian; Diao, Xian-Fen; Lin, Hao-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Si-Ping; Qin, Zheng-Di; Chen, Xin

    2017-03-15

    Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse. The Barker 7, Barker 13, and short pulse were used for detecting the shear wave in the TE application. Two phantom experiments and one in vitro liver experiment were done to explore the performances of the coded excitation in TE measurement. The results show that both coded pulses outperform the short pulse by providing superior shear wave signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), robust shear wave speed measurement, and higher penetration intensity. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of applying coded excitation in shear wave detection for TE application. The proposed method has the potential to facilitate robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  1. Research of Anti-Plagiarism Monitoring System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yang; YUAN Zhongshang; LIU Lu; DONG Hui

    2007-01-01

    We proposed a flexible anti-plagiarism system model based on user-defined plagiarism standards. We also proposed PlagLazy and format-legacy phenomena that plagiarist will remain format-legacy such as soft-enter symbol in his DOC document after plagiarizing material from web and corresponding optimized algorithm which improves the speed of comparison. Our model is suitable for the anti-plagiarism and monitoring of large document collections, and it can also be used in digital library, E-learning and other fields.

  2. Simple steps to avoid plagiarism and improve scientific writing

    OpenAIRE

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Peeran, Syed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Dear Sir, Plagiarism is defined by the Oxford dictionary as ‘the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own’. Plagiarism can be defined simply as literary theft. Historically, it used to take place when one tried to steal other’s work to gain recognition. In the recent times, plagiarism includes literary theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another’s work. Plagiarism encompasses either pla...

  3. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings.

  4. A New Decoding Scheme for Errorless Codes for Overloaded CDMA with Active User Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, Ali; Marvasti, Farokh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new class of binary codes for overloaded CDMA systems are proposed that not only has the ability of errorless communication but also suitable for detecting active users. These codes are called COWDA [1]. In [1], a Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoder is proposed for this class of codes. Although the proposed scheme of coding/decoding show impressive performance, the decoder can be improved. In this paper by assuming more practical conditions for the traffic in the system, we suggest an algorithm that increases the performance of the decoder several orders of magnitude (the Bit-Error-Rate (BER) is divided by a factor of 400 in some Eb/N0's The algorithm supposes the Poison distribution for the time of activation/deactivation of the users.

  5. Monitoring source in an unconscious plagiarism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, J D; Marsh, R L

    1997-06-01

    Current laboratory paradigms used to assess unconscious plagiarism consist of three tasks. First, participants generate solutions to a puzzle task with a partner (initial generation task); second, they recall their individual contribution (recall-own task); and third, they attempt to create new solutions that were not offered previously (generate-new task). An analysis of these tasks indicated that they differ in terms of the source monitoring they require. The two generative tasks require less differentiated information (e.g., familiarity) and relatively lax decision criteria. The recall-own task, however, demands more differentiated information and more extended decision criteria. In two experiments, factors known to influence source monitoring were manipulated. Consistent with the analysis, no effects were associated with the generative tasks. Recall-own plagiarisms increased when self- and other-generated solutions were difficult to distinguish (Experiment 1) and decreased when the two sources were easier to distinguish (Experiment 2).

  6. Recognition of spectral amplitude codes by frequency swept coherent detection for flexible optial label switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yongsheng; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Xin, Xiangjun;

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method of recognizing spectral amplitude code by using optical coherent detection with a frequency swept local light source oscillator. Our proposed method offer a substantial simplification in terms of required components to built optical label processing units with enhanced...

  7. Code-switched English pronunciation modeling for Swahili spoken term detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Computer Science 81 ( 2016 ) 128 – 135 5th Workshop on Spoken Language Technology for Under-resourced Languages, SLTU 2016, 9-12 May 2016, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Code-switched English Pronunciation Modeling for Swahili Spoken Term Detection Neil...

  8. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Juyal; Vijay Thawani; Shweta Thaledi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intelle...

  9. Plagiarism Continues to Affect Scholarly Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Tae

    2017-02-01

    I have encountered 3 cases of plagiarism as editor of the Journal of Korean Medical Science (JKMS). The first one was copying figures from a JKMS article without citation, the second was submission of a copied manuscript of a published article to JKMS, and the third was publishing a copied JKMS article in another journal. The first and third cases violated copyrights of JKMS, but the violating journals made no action on the misconduct. The second and third cases were slightly modified copies of the source articles but similarity check by the Crosscheck could not identify the text overlap initially and after one year reported 96% overlap for the second case. The similarity of the third case was reported 3%. The Crosscheck must upgrade its system for better reliable screening of text plagiarism. The copy of the second case was committed by a corrupt Chinese editing company and also by some unethical researchers. In conclusion, plagiarism still threatens the trustworthiness of the publishing enterprises and is a cumbersome burden for editors of scholarly journals. We require a better system to increase the vigilance and to prevent the misconduct.

  10. Plagiarism Continues to Affect Scholarly Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    I have encountered 3 cases of plagiarism as editor of the Journal of Korean Medical Science (JKMS). The first one was copying figures from a JKMS article without citation, the second was submission of a copied manuscript of a published article to JKMS, and the third was publishing a copied JKMS article in another journal. The first and third cases violated copyrights of JKMS, but the violating journals made no action on the misconduct. The second and third cases were slightly modified copies of the source articles but similarity check by the Crosscheck could not identify the text overlap initially and after one year reported 96% overlap for the second case. The similarity of the third case was reported 3%. The Crosscheck must upgrade its system for better reliable screening of text plagiarism. The copy of the second case was committed by a corrupt Chinese editing company and also by some unethical researchers. In conclusion, plagiarism still threatens the trustworthiness of the publishing enterprises and is a cumbersome burden for editors of scholarly journals. We require a better system to increase the vigilance and to prevent the misconduct. PMID:28049227

  11. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  12. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  13. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  14. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  15. Plagiarism Charges against a Scholar Can Divide Experts, Perplex Scholarly Societies, and Raise Intractable Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Carolyn J.

    1992-01-01

    A case of suspected scholarly plagiarism by Charles P. Gallmeier is reported and used to illustrate issues in plagiarism, including the definition of plagiarism, the role of motive in defining plagiarism, the appropriate investigative body, appropriate due process and punishment, and the academic community's responsibility to inform members of…

  16. Peers and Plagiarism: The Role of Student Judicial Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    After reading Kathryn Valentine's article that talked about her interaction with a Chinese student accused of plagiarism, the author was reminded of the effectiveness of student judicial boards. In this article, the author describes the benefits of having a student judicial board in fighting off plagiarism among students. She relates that although…

  17. Teaching Students about Plagiarism Using a Web-Based Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Maria Earman

    2013-01-01

    The following research delivered a web-based module about plagiarism and paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism in both a blended method, with live instruction paired with web presentation for 105 students, and a separate web-only method for 22 other students. Participants were graduates and undergraduates preparing to become teachers, the majority of…

  18. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  19. Using Computer Simulations and Games to Prevent Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    In this increasingly digital age, student plagiarism is rampant. Roughly half of college students admit to plagiarizing using content found online, directly copying and pasting the work of others. Digital technology and social media have greatly changed the landscape of how knowledge is acquired and disseminated; thus, students must be explicitly…

  20. Student Plagiarism in Higher Education in Vietnam: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Ba, Khang; Do Ba, Khai; Lam, Quoc Dung; Le, Dao Thanh Binh An; Nguyen, Phuong Lien; Nguyen, Phuong Quynh; Pham, Quoc Loc

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses and compares the prevalence of plagiarism across different student and assignment characteristics at a university in Vietnam, using the similarity index reported by the text-matching software Turnitin as a proxy measure of plagiarism on a sample of 681 student papers. The findings present a level of match higher than reported…

  1. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  2. Online plagiarism training falls short in biology classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework assignment) and their impacts on students' ability to accurately discriminate plagiarism from text that is properly quoted, paraphrased, and attributed. Using pre- and postsurveys of 173 undergraduate students in three general ecology courses, we found that students given the homework assignment had far greater success in identifying plagiarism or the lack thereof compared with students given no training. In general, students trained with the homework assignment more successfully identified plagiarism than did students trained with the online tutorial. We also found that the summative assessment associated with the plagiarism-avoidance training formats (i.e., homework grade and online tutorial assessment score) did not correlate with student improvement on surveys through time.

  3. Arresting Student Plagiarism: Are We Investigators or Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lajuan

    2011-01-01

    Managing student plagiarism can cause instructors to feel as if they are serving educational institutions in the role of investigator rather than educator. Since many educators continue to struggle with the issue of student plagiarism, the author interviewed some of her colleagues. In this article, she shares her and her colleagues' antiplagiarism…

  4. Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Nina C.; Rice, Margaret; Bryan, C. Hobson

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easier enterprise. As a result, faculty must be more diligent in their efforts to mitigate the practice of academic integrity, and institutions of higher education must provide the leadership and support to ensure the context for it. This study explored the use of a plagiarism detection…

  5. Students' Perceptions of Cheating and Plagiarism in Higher Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owunwanne, Daniel; Rustagi, Narendra; Dada, Remi

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that cheating and plagiarism are prominent problems in many universities. In informal conversations, it seems that different students perceive plagiarism differently. In this paper, we conducted a survey at Howard University to examine or to follow up with this growing trend. Specifically, team leaders in school…

  6. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  7. Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Nina C.; Rice, Margaret; Bryan, C. Hobson

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easier enterprise. As a result, faculty must be more diligent in their efforts to mitigate the practice of academic integrity, and institutions of higher education must provide the leadership and support to ensure the context for it. This study explored the use of a plagiarism detection…

  8. Plagiarism in the Japanese Universities: Truly a Cultural Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Although plagiarism is considered among western academic circles as one of the worst "crimes" a student can commit, many scholars suggest that these attitudes do not apply to students from areas outside this sphere. They believe that in many countries, plagiarism is considered culturally acceptable. As such, ESL or EFL instructors in…

  9. Non-Native University Students' Perception of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ummul Khair; Mansourizadeh, Kobra; Ai, Grace Koh Ming

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue especially among non-native students and it has received a lot of attention from researchers and scholars of academic writing. Some scholars attribute this problem to cultural perceptions and different attitudes toward texts. This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of…

  10. None-Native University Students’ Perception of Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummul Khair Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is a complex issue especially among non-native students and it has received a lot of attention from researchers and scholars of academic writing. Some scholars attribute this problem to cultural perceptions and different attitudes toward texts. This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of postgraduate students in a Malaysian university were asked to categorize ten cases of plagiarism instances. They were also asked to identify plagiarized paraphrased versions of five excerpts of different source texts provided. The findings showed that students had misconceptions about different aspect of plagiarism including citation conventions, collusion, using another writer’s idea, and style of writing. Further analysis has shown that students were aware that plagiarism is wrong but they could not correctly identify the multiple forms in which plagiarism could happen. These findings indicate that students need to be taught and exposed to various forms and layers of plagiarism so that they would know how best to avoid it in their own writing.

  11. Borrowing Others' Words: Text, Ownership, Memory, and Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    1996-01-01

    Considers some of the complexities of text, ownership, memorization, and plagiarism. The article suggests that plagiarism needs to be understood in terms of complex relationships between text, memory, and learning as part of an undertaking to explore different relationships between learning, literacy, and cultural difference. (49 references)…

  12. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  13. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  14. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  15. Plagiarism in the Japanese Universities: Truly a Cultural Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Although plagiarism is considered among western academic circles as one of the worst "crimes" a student can commit, many scholars suggest that these attitudes do not apply to students from areas outside this sphere. They believe that in many countries, plagiarism is considered culturally acceptable. As such, ESL or EFL instructors in…

  16. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  17. Plagiarism, Enclosure, and the Commons of the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurrah, William L.

    When discussing plagiarism and cheating these days, college faculty seem to find themselves using the rhetoric of crime and punishment ("It's easier to steal from the Internet") on their students rather than a rhetoric more attuned to their actual mission. A short overview in this paper of the history of plagiarism and the development of the…

  18. Using Computer Simulations and Games to Prevent Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    In this increasingly digital age, student plagiarism is rampant. Roughly half of college students admit to plagiarizing using content found online, directly copying and pasting the work of others. Digital technology and social media have greatly changed the landscape of how knowledge is acquired and disseminated; thus, students must be explicitly…

  19. Good intentions: providing students with skills to avoid accidental plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafron, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores one librarian's experience with creating and implementing a plagiarism seminar as part of the library liaison program to the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffalo. The changes and evolution of the seminar over several iterations are described. This article also examines student perceptions, misperceptions, and reactions to the plagiarism workshop.

  20. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel

    2013-12-01

    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls.

  1. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  2. Reducing Plagiarism by Using Online Software: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Ozgur; Arikan, Arda

    2011-01-01

    This action research attempts to explore the perceptions of Turkish university students on plagiarism while evaluating the effectiveness of an online application used to deter plagiarism. The participants were 40 first year university students studying in two different sections of an academic writing class. The findings show that the participants…

  3. Arresting Student Plagiarism: Are We Investigators or Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lajuan

    2011-01-01

    Managing student plagiarism can cause instructors to feel as if they are serving educational institutions in the role of investigator rather than educator. Since many educators continue to struggle with the issue of student plagiarism, the author interviewed some of her colleagues. In this article, she shares her and her colleagues' antiplagiarism…

  4. A general-purpose contact detection algorithm for nonlinear structural analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, M.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Mello, F.J.

    1993-05-01

    A new contact detection algorithm has been developed to address difficulties associated with the numerical simulation of contact in nonlinear finite element structural analysis codes. Problems including accurate and efficient detection of contact for self-contacting surfaces, tearing and eroding surfaces, and multi-body impact are addressed. The proposed algorithm is portable between dynamic and quasi-static codes and can efficiently model contact between a variety of finite element types including shells, bricks, beams and particles. The algorithm is composed of (1) a location strategy that uses a global search to decide which slave nodes are in proximity to a master surface and (2) an accurate detailed contact check that uses the projected motions of both master surface and slave node. In this report, currently used contact detection algorithms and their associated difficulties are discussed. Then the proposed algorithm and how it addresses these problems is described. Finally, the capability of the new algorithm is illustrated with several example problems.

  5. Plagiarism: Why is it such a big issue for medical writers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Natasha; Panjabi, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is the wrongful presentation of somebody else‘s work or idea as one’s own without adequately attributing it to the source. Most authors know that plagiarism is an unethical publication practice. Yet, it is a serious problem in the medical writing arena. Plagiarism is perhaps the commonest ethical issue plaguing medical writing. In this article, we highlight the different types of plagiarism and address the issues of plagiarism of text, plagiarism of ideas, mosaic plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and duplicate publication. An act of plagiarism can have several repercussions for the author, the journal in question and the publication house as a whole. Sometimes, strict disciplinary action is also taken against the plagiarist. The article cites examples of retraction of articles, suspension of authors, apology letters from journal editors, and other such actions against plagiarism. PMID:21731858

  6. On academic plagiarism in Europe. An analytical approach based on four studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Pupovac; Lidija Bilic-Zulle; Mladen Petrovecki

    2008-01-01

    With the development of information and communication technology (ICT), plagiarism becomes an ever more serious problem in the academic community. According to the studies on academic plagiarism conducted at universities in four different European countries, plagiarism rates among students are quite high and students mostly ignore or allow plagiarism because of a lack of knowledge, lack of consequences, or simply because ICT makes plagiarism easy to commit. The findings of the studies present...

  7. On academic plagiarism in Europe. An analytical approach based on four studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Pupovac; Lidija Bilic-Zulle; Mladen Petrovecki

    2008-01-01

    With the development of information and communication technology (ICT), plagiarism becomes an ever more serious problem in the academic community. According to the studies on academic plagiarism conducted at universities in four different European countries, plagiarism rates among students are quite high and students mostly ignore or allow plagiarism because of a lack of knowledge, lack of consequences, or simply because ICT makes plagiarism easy to commit. The findings of the studies present...

  8. Bio-bar-code functionalized magnetic nanoparticle label for ultrasensitive flow injection chemiluminescence detection of DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sai; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Shusheng

    2009-10-07

    A signal amplification strategy based on bio-bar-code functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as labels holds promise to improve the sensitivity and detection limit of the detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphisms by flow injection chemiluminescence assays.

  9. A Coded Aperture Compressive Imaging Array and Its Visual Detection and Tracking Algorithms for Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxiao Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an application of a compressive imaging system to the problem of wide-area video surveillance systems. A parallel coded aperture compressive imaging system is proposed to reduce the needed high resolution coded mask requirements and facilitate the storage of the projection matrix. Random Gaussian, Toeplitz and binary phase coded masks are utilized to obtain the compressive sensing images. The corresponding motion targets detection and tracking algorithms directly using the compressive sampling images are developed. A mixture of Gaussian distribution is applied in the compressive image space to model the background image and for foreground detection. For each motion target in the compressive sampling domain, a compressive feature dictionary spanned by target templates and noises templates is sparsely represented. An l1 optimization algorithm is used to solve the sparse coefficient of templates. Experimental results demonstrate that low dimensional compressed imaging representation is sufficient to determine spatial motion targets. Compared with the random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask, motion detection algorithms using a random binary phase mask can yield better detection results. However using random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask can achieve high resolution reconstructed image. Our tracking algorithm can achieve a real time speed that is up to 10 times faster than that of the l1 tracker without any optimization.

  10. Where Does Originality End and Plagiarism Start? Discussing Plagiarism in Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne; Connaway, Lynn Silipigni; Jiang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    no longer be considered to be original and starts to be considered self-plagiarism. Parts of the discussion will center on the question of whether information science researchers can actually avoid repeating the same words when today they have to publish results from research projects in as many...

  11. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  12. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  13. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  14. Design and Control of a Ferromagnetic Coded Micro-Carrier Biochip Sensor for Multiplex Detection of Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Seng Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for producing a novel type of ferromagnetic coded micro-carrier. The ferromagnetic coded micro-carriers are about 200 μm in length, 200 μm in width and 50 μm in thickness, and contain eight code elements with two distinguishable codes (hollow and solid, allowing for 28 unique codes. The code shapes include rectangle, circle, etc. Differently shaped coded micro-carriers could carry different antigens for detection of its complementary antibody. These many shapes of coded micro-carriers would be used simultaneously allowing us to make multiple detections for different antibodies at the same time. A molding process is applied for fabrication of the ferromagnetically coded micro-carriers where Fe material (Fe powder mixed with binder is shaped in many tiny molds to produce the coded shapes used for identification of the bio-molecules. Magnetic force is used to control the movement and location of the ferromagnetic coded micro-carriers to prevent the loss during the hybridization process. The results of image process and analysis system testing are satisfactory. The results of our micro-carrier detection system for two sets of R and B color analysis are proportional to those obtained from ELISA antibody detection.

  15. cuInspiral: prototype gravitational waves detection pipeline fully coded on GPU using CUDA

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, Leone B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report the prototype of the first coalescing binary detection pipeline fully implemented on NVIDIA GPU hardware accelerators. The code has been embedded in a GPU library, called cuInspiral and has been developed under CUDA framework. The library contains for example a PN gravitational wave signal generator, matched filtering/FFT and detection algorithms that have been profiled and compared with the corresponding CPU code with dedicated benchmark in order to provide gain factor respect to the standard CPU implementation. In the paper we present performances and accuracy results about some of the main important elements of the pipeline, demonstrating the feasibility and the chance of obtain an impressive computing gain from these new many-core architectures in the perspective of the second and third generations of gravitational wave detectors.

  16. Cooperative multi-user detection and ranging based on pseudo-random codes

    OpenAIRE

    Morhart, C.; E. M. Biebl

    2009-01-01

    We present an improved approach for a Round Trip Time of Flight distance measurement system. The system is intended for the usage in a cooperative localisation system for automotive applications. Therefore, it is designed to address a large number of communication partners per measurement cycle. By using coded signals in a time divison multiple access order, we can detect a large number of pedestrian sensors with just one car sensor. We achieve this by using very short transmit bursts in comb...

  17. Joint channel estimation and symbol detection for space-time block code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单淑伟; 罗汉文; 宋文涛

    2004-01-01

    The simplified joint channel estimation and symbol detection based on the EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm for space-time block code (STBC) are proposed. By assuming channel to be invariant within only one STBC word and utilizing the orthogonal structure of STBC, the computational complexity and cost of this algorithm are both very low, so it is very suitable to implementation in real systems.

  18. QR码印刷品缺陷检测%Defect Detection of Printed QR Code Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 徐迎晖; 肖青海

    2015-01-01

    Propose an effective solution of the defect detection of printed QR code image to resolve the problems of print quality than white line,black line,white block or black block appears in printed QR code image. Applying machine vision to the QR code defect in-spection of printing products,can automatically identify defective sample,so as to solve the problem brought by the artificial detection. With the reference functions of bar code decoding and image processing in HALCON,the solution uses Visual C++ to accomplish these key steps of generating neighborhood model,homogeneous projective transformation and image matching,to implement the effective de-tection for QR code printed in black and white arrows or piece of printing problems,such as black and white. The experimental results show that the solution can automatically extract bar code in test sample,quickly and accurately execute image matching,effectively detect printed defect and has good robustness.%针对QR码印刷品中出现的黑白拉线或黑白块等印刷问题,文中提出了一种有效的QR码印刷品缺陷检测的解决方案。将机器视觉应用到QR码印刷制品的缺陷检测中去,可以自动识别带有缺陷的样本,从而解决了人工检测所带来的问题。结合HALCON的条码识读和图像处理相关算子,以Visual C++编程实现解决方案中的邻域模板生成、条码区域矫正和图像匹配等关键步骤,来实现对QR码印刷品中出现的黑白拉线或黑白块等印刷问题进行有效的检测。实验结果表明,此方案能从测试样本图像中自动提取条码,并且快速而又精确地完成图像匹配,有效地检测出印刷缺陷,并具有良好的鲁棒性。

  19. Improving the detection task performance of a LWIR imaging system through the use of wavefront coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kevin A.; Kubala, Kenny

    2007-04-01

    In a traditional optical system the imaging performance is maximized at a single point in the operational space. This characteristic leads to maximizing the probability of detection if the object is on axis, at the designed conjugate, with the designed operational temperature and if the system components are manufactured without error in form and alignment. Due to the many factors that influence the system's image quality the probability of detection will decrease away from this peak value. An infrared imaging system is presented that statistically creates a higher probability of detection over the complete operational space for the Hotelling observer. The system is enabled through the use of wavefront coding, a computational imaging technology in which optics, mechanics, detection and signal processing are combined to enable LWIR imaging systems to be realized with detection task performance that is difficult or impossible to obtain in the optical domain alone. The basic principles of statistical decision theory will be presented along with a specific example of how wavefront coding technology can enable improved performance and reduced sensitivity to some of the fundamental constraints inherent in LWIR systems.

  20. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  1. Construction of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire for assessing plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  2. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  3. [Scientific stealing (Plagiarism) in medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enöz, Murat

    2007-01-01

    The obligation to publish academic papers in order to get academic rank has made medical doctors more ambitious to publish faster and more papers. According to the ethical and legal rules in our country and in the world, if an idea or technical methods of another person is used in a medical journal, the owner of the method or idea and its publication has to be cited. If an idea, information or a technical method of another scientist is published without citation as if it was one's own idea it's called "Plagiarism". Despite the prohibitive laws and rules, this scientific stealing has become an increasing problem for medical journals worldwide.

  4. Automatic Detection of Frontal Face Midline by Chain-coded Merlin-Farber Hough Trasform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Daichi; Ohyama, Wataru; Wakabayashi, Tetsushi; Kimura, Fumitaka

    We propose a novel approach for detection of the facial midline (facial symmetry axis) from a frontal face image. The facial midline has several applications, for instance reducing computational cost required for facial feature extraction (FFE) and postoperative assessment for cosmetic or dental surgery. The proposed method detects the facial midline of a frontal face from an edge image as the symmetry axis using the Merlin-Faber Hough transformation. And a new performance improvement scheme for midline detection by MFHT is present. The main concept of the proposed scheme is suppression of redundant vote on the Hough parameter space by introducing chain code representation for the binary edge image. Experimental results on the image dataset containing 2409 images from FERET database indicate that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy of midline detection from 89.9% to 95.1 % for face images with different scales and rotation.

  5. OPTIMAL ANTENNA SUBSET SELECTION AND BLIND DETECTION APPROACH APPLIED TO ORTHOGONAL SPACE-TIME BLOCK CODING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hongji; Liu Ju; Gu Bo

    2007-01-01

    An approach combining optimal antenna subset selection with blind detection scheme for Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coding (OSTBC) is proposed in this paper. The optimal antenna subset selection is taken into account at transmitter and/or receiver sides, which chooses the optimal antennas to increase the diversity order of OSTBC and improve further its performance. In order to enhance the robustness of the detection used in the conventional OSTBC scheme, a blind detection scheme based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is exploited which can directly extract transmitted signals without channel estimation. Performance analysis shows that the proposed approach can achieve the full diversity and the flexibility of system design by using the antenna selection and the ICA based blind detection schemes.

  6. Coded aperture coherent scatter imaging for breast cancer detection: a Monte Carlo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Morris, Robert E.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that conventional x-ray imaging provides a maximum contrast between cancerous and healthy fibroglandular breast tissues of 3% based on their linear x-ray attenuation coefficients at 17.5 keV, whereas coherent scatter signal provides a maximum contrast of 19% based on their differential coherent scatter cross sections. Therefore in order to exploit this potential contrast, we seek to evaluate the performance of a coded- aperture coherent scatter imaging system for breast cancer detection and investigate its accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations. In the simulations we modeled our experimental system, which consists of a raster-scanned pencil beam of x-rays, a bismuth-tin coded aperture mask comprised of a repeating slit pattern with 2-mm periodicity, and a linear-array of 128 detector pixels with 6.5-keV energy resolution. The breast tissue that was scanned comprised a 3-cm sample taken from a patient-based XCAT breast phantom containing a tomosynthesis- based realistic simulated lesion. The differential coherent scatter cross section was reconstructed at each pixel in the image using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Each pixel in the reconstructed image was then classified as being either air or the type of breast tissue with which its normalized reconstructed differential coherent scatter cross section had the highest correlation coefficient. Comparison of the final tissue classification results with the ground truth image showed that the coded aperture imaging technique has a cancerous pixel detection sensitivity (correct identification of cancerous pixels), specificity (correctly ruling out healthy pixels as not being cancer) and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9% and 92.0%, respectively. Our Monte Carlo evaluation of our experimental coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system shows that it is able to exploit the greater contrast available from coherently scattered x-rays to increase the accuracy of detecting cancerous regions within the breast.

  7. Technical justification for ASME code section xi crack detection by visual examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E. [Applied Science and Technology, Poway, CA (United States); Rashid, Y.R. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego (United States)

    2001-07-01

    A critical technical element of nuclear power plant license renewal in the United States is the demonstration that the effects of aging do not compromise the intended safety function(s) of a system, structure, or component during the extended term of operation. The demonstration may take either of two forms. First, it can be shown that the design basis for the system, structure, or component is sufficiently robust that the aging effects have been insignificant through the current license term, and will continue to be insignificant through the extended term. Alternatively, it can be shown that, while the aging effects may be potentially significant, those effects can be managed and functionality maintained by defined programmatic activities during the extended term of operation. The first of the two approaches is generally provided by the construction basis, such as construction in accordance with the ASME Code Section III and other consensus codes and standards. The second of the two approaches is often provided by periodic inservice inspection and testing, in accordance with the ASME Code Section XI. The purpose of the ASME Section XI inspections and tests is to assure that systems, components, and structures are fit for continued service until the next scheduled inspection or test. The purpose of this paper is to document the effectiveness of the current ASME Code Section XI visual examination procedures in detecting the effects of aging for systems, structures, and components that are tolerant of mature cracks. (author)

  8. Plagiarism issues in post-1998 Indonesian film posters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekky Imanjaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are online articles, with visual materials, stating that some post-1998 Indonesian film posters were accused as plagiarism by common people. However, academically speaking, it needs deeper skills and knowledge to prove acts of plagiarism. This paper will discuss the issues around Indonesian film posters and plagiarism, including the possibility of citing in graphic design. The research will treat film posters not only as marketing tools to promote the movies, as many people consider, but also as graphic design materials. Some terms such as appropriation, homage, and pastiche will be discussed to analyze the phenomenon.

  9. The dictatorship of plagiarism and the obsession with quotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Krokoscz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, plagiarism has become a concern in the national academic realm, although internationally this subject has been debated for decades. Considering some of these aspects may be important not to repeat mistakes already made ​​and overcome in relation to plagiarism and at the same time represent an opportunity to deal with the problem at a national level from what is already consolidated globally. In this sense, the aim of this text is to present some of these perspectives without intending to indicate immediate solutions to exterminate plagiarism, but rather contribute to a debate on the subject.

  10. FAULT DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION IN MOTORCYCLES BASED ON THE CHAIN CODE OF PSEUDOSPECTRA AND ACOUSTIC SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Anami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles produce sound signals with varying temporal and spectral properties under different working conditions. These sounds are indicative of the condition of the engine. Fault diagnosis is a significantly difficult task in geographically remote places where expertise is scarce. Automated fault diagnosis can assist riders to assess the health condition of their vehicles. This paper presents a method for fault detection and location in motorcycles based on the chain code of the pseudospectra and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC features of acoustic signals. The work comprises two stages: fault detection and fault location. The fault detection stage uses the chain code of the pseudospectrum as a feature vector. If the motorcycle is identified as faulty, the MFCCs of the same sample are computed and used as features for fault location. Both stages employ dynamic time warping for the classification of faults. Five types of faults in motorcycles are considered in this work. Observed classification rates are over 90% for the fault detection stage and over 94% for the fault location stage. The work identifies other interesting applications in the development of acoustic fingerprints for fault diagnosis of machinery, tuning of musical instruments, medical diagnosis, etc.

  11. Coding of Markov dynamics for multiscale community detection in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Schaub, Michael T; Barahona, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    The detection of community structure in complex networks is intimately related to the problem of finding a concise description of the network in terms of its modules. This notion has been recently exploited by the Map equation formalism (M. Rosvall and C. T. Bergstrom, PNAS, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 1118-1123, 2008) through an information-theoretic characterization of the process of coding the transitions of a random walker inside and between communities at stationarity. However, a thorough consideration of the relationship between a time-evolving Markov dynamics and the coding mechanism is still lacking. We show that the original one-step coding scheme used by the Map equation method neglects the internal structure of the communities and introduces an upper scale, the 'field-of-view' limit, for the communities that it can detect. Although the Map equation method is known for its good performance on clique-like graphs, the field-of-view limit can result in undesirable overpartitioning when communities are far fro...

  12. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  13. Simultaneous Detection of Different MicroRNA Types Using the ZIP-Code Array System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaupt, Sonja U.; Rupp, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important negative regulators of gene expression. Their implication in tumorigenesis is based on their dysregulation in many human cancer diseases. Interestingly, in tumor cells, an altered ratio of precursor and mature miRNA levels has been described. Consequently, differences in miRNA type levels have a high potential as biomarkers and comparative high-throughput-based detection might permit a more accurate characterization of subtypes, especially in the case of very heterogeneous tumor entities. Several molecular methods exist for the detection of mature and precursor miRNAs. DNA microarrays are predestinated as a high-throughput method for comprehensive miRNA detection in tumors. However, the simultaneous array-based detection of both these miRNA types is limited because the mature miRNA sequence is identically present in both forms. Here we present a ZIP-code DNA microarray-based system in combination with a novel labeling approach, which enables the simultaneous detection of precursor and mature miRNAs in one single experiment. Using synthetic miRNA templates, we demonstrate the specificity of the method for the different miRNA types, as well as the detection range up to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, mature and precursor miRNAs were detected and validated in human tumor cells. PMID:24078866

  14. Simultaneous Detection of Different MicroRNA Types Using the ZIP-Code Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja U. Weishaupt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important negative regulators of gene expression. Their implication in tumorigenesis is based on their dysregulation in many human cancer diseases. Interestingly, in tumor cells, an altered ratio of precursor and mature miRNA levels has been described. Consequently, differences in miRNA type levels have a high potential as biomarkers and comparative high-throughput-based detection might permit a more accurate characterization of subtypes, especially in the case of very heterogeneous tumor entities. Several molecular methods exist for the detection of mature and precursor miRNAs. DNA microarrays are predestinated as a high-throughput method for comprehensive miRNA detection in tumors. However, the simultaneous array-based detection of both these miRNA types is limited because the mature miRNA sequence is identically present in both forms. Here we present a ZIP-code DNA microarray-based system in combination with a novel labeling approach, which enables the simultaneous detection of precursor and mature miRNAs in one single experiment. Using synthetic miRNA templates, we demonstrate the specificity of the method for the different miRNA types, as well as the detection range up to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, mature and precursor miRNAs were detected and validated in human tumor cells.

  15. A Novel Approach to Detect Duplicate Code Blocks to Reduce Maintenance Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Gupta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It was found in many cases that a code might be a clone for one programmer but not the same for another one. This problem occurs because of inaccurate documentation. According to research, the maintainers are not aware of the original design and thus, face the difficulty of agreeing on the system’s components and their relations or understanding the work of the application. The problem also occurs because of the different team of development and maintenance resulting in more effort and time during maintenance. This paper proposes a novel approach to detect the clones at the programmer side such that if a particular code is a clone then it can be well documented. This approach will provide both the individual duplicate statements as well as the block in which they appear. The approach has been examined on seven open source systems.

  16. Angular resolution study of a combined gamma-neutron coded aperture imager for standoff detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear threat source observables at standoff distances of tens of meters from mCi class sources include both gamma-rays and neutrons. This work uses simulations to investigate the effects of the angular resolution of a mobile gamma-ray and neutron coded aperture imaging system upon orphan source detection significance and specificity. The design requires maintaining high sensitivity and specificity while keeping the system size as compact as possible to reduce weight, footprint, and cost. A mixture of inorganic and organic scintillators was considered in the detector plane for high sensitivity to both gamma-rays and fast neutrons. For gamma-rays (100 to 2500 keV) and fission spectrum neutrons, angular resolutions of 1-9° and radiation angles of incidence appropriate for mobile search were evaluated. Detection significance for gamma-rays considers those events that contribute to the photopeak of the image pixel corresponding the orphan source location. For detection of fission spectrum neutrons, energy depositions above a set pulse shape discrimination threshold were tallied. The results show that the expected detection significance for the system at an angular resolution of 1° is significantly lower compared to its detection significance an angular resolution of ˜3-4°. An angular resolution of ˜3-4° is recommended both for better detection significance and improved false alarm rate, considering that finer angular resolution does not result in improved background rejection when the coded aperture method is used. Instead, over-pixelating the search space may result in an unacceptably high false alarm rate.

  17. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.

  18. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  19. Writing a research paper at the university: authorship vs plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Alves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the need of producing academic texts at the university, many undergraduate students do it by copying texts that were already published. In this study we discuss the presence of plagiarism versus authorship marks in the introduction of academic articles produced by freshmen in a licenciateship degree. Therefore, we emphasize the issue of plagiarism and authorship, particularly from the perspective of the enunciative bakhtinian studies and then present the theoretical basis of Literacies, with the most recent studies on Literacies and Socio-Rhetorics. Data analysis revealed and confirmed the academic writing as a complex activity, given the practice of plagiarism found in the analyzed productions. The lack of knowledge of academic writing together not the theme domain contributed to the practice of plagiarism.

  20. The effects of repeated idea elaboration on unconscious plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa-Jayne; Perfect, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs in a recall task when someone presents someone else's idea as his or her own. Recent research has shown that the likelihood of such an error is inflated if the idea is improved during the retention interval, but not if it is imagined. Here, we explore the effects of repeating the elaboration phase during the retention interval. Participants in a group first generated alternate uses to common objects before elaborating the ideas either by imagining them or by improving them. This elaboration phase occurred once, twice, or not at all. Later, they attempted to recall their original ideas and generate new ideas. Repeated imagery did not inflate unconscious plagiarism on either task. In contrast, repeating the improvement phase increased plagiarism to dramatically high levels in the recall task. The latter effect might be particularly pertinent to real-world cases of plagiarism in which the ideas under dispute have been the subject of creative development over many occasions.

  1. Ultrasonic Array for Obstacle Detection Based on CDMA with Kasami Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaqúın Aparicio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises the design of an ultrasonic array for obstacle detection based on Phased Array (PA techniques, which steers the acoustic beam through the environment by electronics rather than mechanical means. The transmission of every element in the array has been encoded, according to Code Division for Multiple Access (CDMA, which allows multiple beams to be transmitted simultaneously. All these features together enable a parallel scanning system which does not only improve the image rate but also achieves longer inspection distances in comparison with conventional PA techniques.

  2. Ultrasonic array for obstacle detection based on CDMA with Kasami codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Cristina; Hernández, Alvaro; Jiménez, Ana; Alvarez, Fernando J; Sanz, Rebeca; Aparicio, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises the design of an ultrasonic array for obstacle detection based on Phased Array (PA) techniques, which steers the acoustic beam through the environment by electronics rather than mechanical means. The transmission of every element in the array has been encoded, according to Code Division for Multiple Access (CDMA), which allows multiple beams to be transmitted simultaneously. All these features together enable a parallel scanning system which does not only improve the image rate but also achieves longer inspection distances in comparison with conventional PA techniques.

  3. Iranian academia: evolution after revolution and plagiarism as a disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.

  4. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirfakhraei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  5. Non-coding RNA detection methods combined to improve usability, reproducibility and precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreikemeyer Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding RNAs gain more attention as their diverse roles in many cellular processes are discovered. At the same time, the need for efficient computational prediction of ncRNAs increases with the pace of sequencing technology. Existing tools are based on various approaches and techniques, but none of them provides a reliable ncRNA detector yet. Consequently, a natural approach is to combine existing tools. Due to a lack of standard input and output formats combination and comparison of existing tools is difficult. Also, for genomic scans they often need to be incorporated in detection workflows using custom scripts, which decreases transparency and reproducibility. Results We developed a Java-based framework to integrate existing tools and methods for ncRNA detection. This framework enables users to construct transparent detection workflows and to combine and compare different methods efficiently. We demonstrate the effectiveness of combining detection methods in case studies with the small genomes of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus pyogenes. With the combined method, we gained 10% to 20% precision for sensitivities from 30% to 80%. Further, we investigated Streptococcus pyogenes for novel ncRNAs. Using multiple methods--integrated by our framework--we determined four highly probable candidates. We verified all four candidates experimentally using RT-PCR. Conclusions We have created an extensible framework for practical, transparent and reproducible combination and comparison of ncRNA detection methods. We have proven the effectiveness of this approach in tests and by guiding experiments to find new ncRNAs. The software is freely available under the GNU General Public License (GPL, version 3 at http://www.sbi.uni-rostock.de/moses along with source code, screen shots, examples and tutorial material.

  6. Non-coding RNA detection methods combined to improve usability, reproducibility and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, Peter; Schmitz, Ulf; Patenge, Nadja; Vera, Julio; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2010-09-29

    Non-coding RNAs gain more attention as their diverse roles in many cellular processes are discovered. At the same time, the need for efficient computational prediction of ncRNAs increases with the pace of sequencing technology. Existing tools are based on various approaches and techniques, but none of them provides a reliable ncRNA detector yet. Consequently, a natural approach is to combine existing tools. Due to a lack of standard input and output formats combination and comparison of existing tools is difficult. Also, for genomic scans they often need to be incorporated in detection workflows using custom scripts, which decreases transparency and reproducibility. We developed a Java-based framework to integrate existing tools and methods for ncRNA detection. This framework enables users to construct transparent detection workflows and to combine and compare different methods efficiently. We demonstrate the effectiveness of combining detection methods in case studies with the small genomes of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus pyogenes. With the combined method, we gained 10% to 20% precision for sensitivities from 30% to 80%. Further, we investigated Streptococcus pyogenes for novel ncRNAs. Using multiple methods--integrated by our framework--we determined four highly probable candidates. We verified all four candidates experimentally using RT-PCR. We have created an extensible framework for practical, transparent and reproducible combination and comparison of ncRNA detection methods. We have proven the effectiveness of this approach in tests and by guiding experiments to find new ncRNAs. The software is freely available under the GNU General Public License (GPL), version 3 at http://www.sbi.uni-rostock.de/moses along with source code, screen shots, examples and tutorial material.

  7. An RNA-Seq strategy to detect the complete coding and non-coding transcriptome including full-length imprinted macro ncRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Huang

    Full Text Available Imprinted macro non-protein-coding (nc RNAs are cis-repressor transcripts that silence multiple genes in at least three imprinted gene clusters in the mouse genome. Similar macro or long ncRNAs are abundant in the mammalian genome. Here we present the full coding and non-coding transcriptome of two mouse tissues: differentiated ES cells and fetal head using an optimized RNA-Seq strategy. The data produced is highly reproducible in different sequencing locations and is able to detect the full length of imprinted macro ncRNAs such as Airn and Kcnq1ot1, whose length ranges between 80-118 kb. Transcripts show a more uniform read coverage when RNA is fragmented with RNA hydrolysis compared with cDNA fragmentation by shearing. Irrespective of the fragmentation method, all coding and non-coding transcripts longer than 8 kb show a gradual loss of sequencing tags towards the 3' end. Comparisons to published RNA-Seq datasets show that the strategy presented here is more efficient in detecting known functional imprinted macro ncRNAs and also indicate that standardization of RNA preparation protocols would increase the comparability of the transcriptome between different RNA-Seq datasets.

  8. Impulse feature extraction method for machinery fault detection using fusion sparse coding and online dictionary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Sen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impulse components in vibration signals are important fault features of complex machines. Sparse coding (SC algorithm has been introduced as an impulse feature extraction method, but it could not guarantee a satisfactory performance in processing vibration signals with heavy background noises. In this paper, a method based on fusion sparse coding (FSC and online dictionary learning is proposed to extract impulses efficiently. Firstly, fusion scheme of different sparse coding algorithms is presented to ensure higher reconstruction accuracy. Then, an improved online dictionary learning method using FSC scheme is established to obtain redundant dictionary and it can capture specific features of training samples and reconstruct the sparse approximation of vibration signals. Simulation shows that this method has a good performance in solving sparse coefficients and training redundant dictionary compared with other methods. Lastly, the proposed method is further applied to processing aircraft engine rotor vibration signals. Compared with other feature extraction approaches, our method can extract impulse features accurately and efficiently from heavy noisy vibration signal, which has significant supports for machinery fault detection and diagnosis.

  9. Construction and validation of attitudes toward plagiarism questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-06-01

    To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students (128 women and 99 men) from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I - positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II - negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III - subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach alpha was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I - alpha=0.83; factor II - alpha=0.79; and factor III - alpha=0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism.

  10. Plagiarism governance in nurse education; dispositions, dimensions and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Marion

    2017-08-08

    The reality of managing plagiarism in nurse education is indicative of multilayered and cumulative governance processes, which exist to fit with the needs of both the higher education institution and that of the Professional Statutory and Regulatory Body. However, the relationship between these entities is diffuse, particularly when this involves major plagiarism by post-qualified learners. This study sought to explore the strategic governance of plagiarism in Scottish higher education institutions offering nurse education and its articulation with the professional requirements of nurse education. The design involved a retrospective quantitative documentary analysis of plagiarism policies within 11 Scottish higher education institutions and a national on-line survey involving nurse educators with an active teaching role (n = 187). The documentary analysis demonstrated deficits and variations in how Scottish higher education institutions communicated the dimensions of plagiarism, and its subsequent management. Statistically significant findings from the on-line survey provided a clear mandate for educational providers to make visible the connectivity between organisational and professional governance processes to support responsive and proportional approaches to managing plagiarism by nurse learners. Significant findings also confirmed role implications and responsibilities, which nurse educators in this study, viewed as primarily pedagogical but crucially remain professionally centric. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Auditory detection of ultrasonic coded transmitters by seals and sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kane A; Hayes, Sean A; Michelle Wargo Rub, A; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonic coded transmitters (UCTs) are high-frequency acoustic tags that are often used to conduct survivorship studies of vulnerable fish species. Recent observations of differential mortality in tag control studies suggest that fish instrumented with UCTs may be selectively targeted by marine mammal predators, thereby skewing valuable survivorship data. In order to better understand the ability of pinnipeds to detect UCT outputs, behavioral high-frequency hearing thresholds were obtained from a trained harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and a trained California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Thresholds were measured for extended (500 ms) and brief (10 ms) 69 kHz narrowband stimuli, as well as for a stimulus recorded directly from a Vemco V16-3H UCT, which consisted of eight 10 ms, 69 kHz pure-tone pulses. Detection thresholds for the harbor seal were as expected based on existing audiometric data for this species, while the California sea lion was much more sensitive than predicted. Given measured detection thresholds of 113 dB re 1 μPa and 124 dB re 1 μPa, respectively, both species are likely able to detect acoustic outputs of the Vemco V16-3H under water from distances exceeding 200 m in typical natural conditions, suggesting that these species are capable of using UCTs to detect free-ranging fish.

  12. Coded moderator approach for fast neutron source detection and localization at standoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jennifer; Lukosi, Eric; Hayward, Jason; Milburn, Robert; Rowan, Allen

    2015-06-01

    Considering the need for directional sensing at standoff for some security applications and scenarios where a neutron source may be shielded by high Z material that nearly eliminates the source gamma flux, this work focuses on investigating the feasibility of using thermal neutron sensitive boron straw detectors for fast neutron source detection and localization. We utilized MCNPX simulations to demonstrate that, through surrounding the boron straw detectors by a HDPE coded moderator, a source-detector orientation-specific response enables potential 1D source localization in a high neutron detection efficiency design. An initial test algorithm has been developed in order to confirm the viability of this detector system's localization capabilities which resulted in identification of a 1 MeV neutron source with a strength equivalent to 8 kg WGPu at 50 m standoff within ±11°.

  13. Malicious Code Execution Detection and Response Immune System inspired by the Danger Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Twycross, Jamie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of system calls is one method employed by anomaly detection systems to recognise malicious code execution. Similarities can be drawn between this process and the behaviour of certain cells belonging to the human immune system, and can be applied to construct an artificial immune system. A recently developed hypothesis in immunology, the Danger Theory, states that our immune system responds to the presence of intruders through sensing molecules belonging to those invaders, plus signals generated by the host indicating danger and damage. We propose the incorporation of this concept into a responsive intrusion detection system, where behavioural information of the system and running processes is combined with information regarding individual system calls.

  14. Computer vision for detecting and quantifying gamma-ray sources in coded-aperture images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaich, P.C.; Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Ziock, K.P.

    1994-11-02

    The authors report the development of an automatic image analysis system that detects gamma-ray source regions in images obtained from a coded aperture, gamma-ray imager. The number of gamma sources in the image is not known prior to analysis. The system counts the number (K) of gamma sources detected in the image and estimates the lower bound for the probability that the number of sources in the image is K. The system consists of a two-stage pattern classification scheme in which the Probabilistic Neural Network is used in the supervised learning mode. The algorithms were developed and tested using real gamma-ray images from controlled experiments in which the number and location of depleted uranium source disks in the scene are known.

  15. Transformation of the neural code for tactile detection from thalamus to cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Yuriria; Salinas, Emilio; Romo, Ranulfo

    2013-01-01

    To understand how sensory-driven neural activity gives rise to perception, it is essential to characterize how various relay stations in the brain encode stimulus presence. Neurons in the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the somatosensory thalamus and in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) respond to vibrotactile stimulation with relatively slow modulations (∼100 ms) of their firing rate. In addition, faster modulations (∼10 ms) time-locked to the stimulus waveform are observed in both areas, but their contribution to stimulus detection is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether VPL and S1 neurons encode stimulus presence with similar accuracy and via the same response features. To address these questions, we recorded single neurons while trained monkeys judged the presence or absence of a vibrotactile stimulus of variable amplitude, and their activity was analyzed with a unique decoding method that is sensitive to the time scale of the firing rate fluctuations. We found that the maximum detection accuracy of single neurons is similar in VPL and S1. However, VPL relies more heavily on fast rate modulations than S1, and as a consequence, the neural code in S1 is more tolerant: its performance degrades less when the readout method or the time scale of integration is suboptimal. Therefore, S1 neurons implement a more robust code, one less sensitive to the temporal integration window used to infer stimulus presence downstream. The differences between VPL and S1 responses signaling the appearance of a stimulus suggest a transformation of the neural code from thalamus to cortex. PMID:23798408

  16. Transformation of the neural code for tactile detection from thalamus to cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Yuriria; Salinas, Emilio; Romo, Ranulfo

    2013-07-01

    To understand how sensory-driven neural activity gives rise to perception, it is essential to characterize how various relay stations in the brain encode stimulus presence. Neurons in the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the somatosensory thalamus and in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) respond to vibrotactile stimulation with relatively slow modulations (∼100 ms) of their firing rate. In addition, faster modulations (∼10 ms) time-locked to the stimulus waveform are observed in both areas, but their contribution to stimulus detection is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether VPL and S1 neurons encode stimulus presence with similar accuracy and via the same response features. To address these questions, we recorded single neurons while trained monkeys judged the presence or absence of a vibrotactile stimulus of variable amplitude, and their activity was analyzed with a unique decoding method that is sensitive to the time scale of the firing rate fluctuations. We found that the maximum detection accuracy of single neurons is similar in VPL and S1. However, VPL relies more heavily on fast rate modulations than S1, and as a consequence, the neural code in S1 is more tolerant: its performance degrades less when the readout method or the time scale of integration is suboptimal. Therefore, S1 neurons implement a more robust code, one less sensitive to the temporal integration window used to infer stimulus presence downstream. The differences between VPL and S1 responses signaling the appearance of a stimulus suggest a transformation of the neural code from thalamus to cortex.

  17. LeARN: a platform for detecting, clustering and annotating non-coding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiex Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, sequencing projects have led to the development of a number of annotation systems dedicated to the structural and functional annotation of protein-coding genes. These annotation systems manage the annotation of the non-protein coding genes (ncRNAs in a very crude way, allowing neither the edition of the secondary structures nor the clustering of ncRNA genes into families which are crucial for appropriate annotation of these molecules. Results LeARN is a flexible software package which handles the complete process of ncRNA annotation by integrating the layers of automatic detection and human curation. Conclusion This software provides the infrastructure to deal properly with ncRNAs in the framework of any annotation project. It fills the gap between existing prediction software, that detect independent ncRNA occurrences, and public ncRNA repositories, that do not offer the flexibility and interactivity required for annotation projects. The software is freely available from the download section of the website http://bioinfo.genopole-toulouse.prd.fr/LeARN

  18. Coherent spectral amplitude coded label detection for DQPSK payload signals in packet-switched metropolitan area networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of a frequency swept local oscillator-based spectral amplitude coding (SAC) label detection for DQPSK signals after 40km of fiber transmission. Label detection was performed for a 10.7Gbaud DQPSK signal labeled with a SAC label composed of four-frequency......We report on an experimental demonstration of a frequency swept local oscillator-based spectral amplitude coding (SAC) label detection for DQPSK signals after 40km of fiber transmission. Label detection was performed for a 10.7Gbaud DQPSK signal labeled with a SAC label composed of four...

  19. The Plagiarism in the Theses of English Education Students at Kabupaten Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkariani Sulaiman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this study is “Plagiarism in the Theses of English Education Students: Forms and Causes. In this study, the researcher limits the discussion by the following research questions: “what are the forms of students’ plagiarism in theses? and what are the causes that make students engage in the plagiarism?”. The objective of the study is specifically to know the forms of students’ plagiarism in theses; and to know the causes that make students engage in the plagiarism. In order to achieve the objective of this study, the researcher applied descriptive quantitative research. The population of this study was the theses of English education students that were submitted in 2011 and lecturers from two colleges. As instrument of the research, plagiarism forms according to government rule No. 17, 2010 and duplichecker application used to investigate the first research question; and questionnaire used to investigate the second research question. The result of the study revealed that plagiarism type 1 was the dominant type occurred in students theses, followed by plagiarism type 2, 3 and 4; chapter 1 and 2 of most of the theses are the most frequent place for plagiarism types occurred; another type of plagiarism found was chained plagiarism; and the causes of students engage in plagiarism can be divided into four main causes: a lack of knowledge in referencing and quoting; b limited access of literature; c attitude; and d plagiarism is not managed yet administratively. In line with the result, the researcher suggests that plagiarism in colleges should be familiarized, socialized and actively founded; the students also should enrich the knowledge of referencing and paraphrasing; and colleges should try to organize the standard rule clearly and firmly and introduce plagiarism detectors to reduce the plagiarism action.

  20. Performance improvement of hybrid subcarrier multiplexing optical spectrum code division multiplexing system using spectral direct decoding detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbudin, R. K. Z.; Abdullah, M. K.; Mokhtar, M.

    2009-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid subcarrier multiplexing/optical spectrum code division multiplexing (SCM/OSCDM) system for the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Optical spectrum code division multiple-access (OSCDMA) is one of the multiplexing techniques that is becoming popular because of the flexibility in the allocation of channels, ability to operate asynchronously, enhanced privacy and increased capacity in bursty nature networks. On the other hand, subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) technique is able to enhance the channel data rate of OSCDMA systems. In this paper, a newly developed detection technique for the OSCDM called spectral direct decoding (SDD) detection technique is compared mathematically with the AND subtraction detection technique. The system utilizes a new unified code construction named KS (Khazani-Syed) code. The results characterizing the bit-error-rate (BER) show that SDD offers a significant improved performance at BER of 10 -9.