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Sample records for code case omn-1

  1. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising.

  2. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising

  3. OM Code Requirements For MOVs -- OMN-1 and Appendix III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin G. DeWall

    2011-08-01

    The purpose or scope of the ASME OM Code is to establish the requirements for pre-service and in-service testing of nuclear power plant components to assess their operational readiness. For MOVs this includes those that perform a specific function in shutting down a reactor to the safe shutdown condition, maintaining the safe shutdown condition, and mitigating the consequences of an accident. This paper will present a brief history of industry and regulatory activities related to MOVs and the development of Code requirements to address weaknesses in earlier versions of the OM Code. The paper will discuss the MOV requirements contained in the 2009 version of ASME OM Code, specifically Mandatory Appendix III and OMN-1, Revision 1.

  4. OM Code Requirements For MOVs -- OMN-1 and Appendix III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose or scope of the ASME OM Code is to establish the requirements for pre-service and in-service testing of nuclear power plant components to assess their operational readiness. For MOVs this includes those that perform a specific function in shutting down a reactor to the safe shutdown condition, maintaining the safe shutdown condition, and mitigating the consequences of an accident. This paper will present a brief history of industry and regulatory activities related to MOVs and the development of Code requirements to address weaknesses in earlier versions of the OM Code. The paper will discuss the MOV requirements contained in the 2009 version of ASME OM Code, specifically Mandatory Appendix III and OMN-1, Revision 1.

  5. Case Study of the NENE Code Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendall, Richard; Post, Douglass; Mark, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    ...) Program is sponsoring a series of case studies to identify the life cycles, workflows, and technical challenges of computational science and engineering code development that are representative...

  6. "Hour of Code": A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the delivery of the "Hour of Code" tutorials to college students. The college students who participated in this study were surveyed about their opinion of the Hour of Code. First, the students' comments were discussed. Next, a content analysis of the offered tutorials highlights their reliance on visual…

  7. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  8. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices

  9. Sample test cases using the environmental computer code NECTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponting, A.C.

    1984-06-01

    This note demonstrates a few of the many different ways in which the environmental computer code NECTAR may be used. Four sample test cases are presented and described to show how NECTAR input data are structured. Edited output is also presented to illustrate the format of the results. Two test cases demonstrate how NECTAR may be used to study radio-isotopes not explicitly included in the code. (U.K.)

  10. FARO base case post-test analysis by COMETA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C. [Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The paper analyzes the COMETA (Core Melt Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis) post test calculations of FARO Test L-11, the so-called Base Case Test. The FARO Facility, located at JRC Ispra, is used to simulate the consequences of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants under a variety of conditions. The COMETA Code has a 6 equations two phase flow field and a 3 phases corium field: the jet, the droplets and the fused-debris bed. The analysis shown that the code is able to pick-up all the major phenomena occurring during the fuel-coolant interaction pre-mixing phase.

  11. [Seasonal distribution of clinical case codes (DOC study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dercks, N; Melz, R; Hepp, P; Theopold, J; Marquass, B; Josten, C

    2017-02-01

    The German diagnosis-related groups remuneration system (G-DRG) was implemented in 2004 and patient-related diagnoses and procedures lead to allocation to specific DRGs. This system includes several codes, such as case mix (CM), case mix index (CMI) and number of cases. Seasonal distribution of these codes as well as distribution of diagnoses and DRGs may lead to logistical consequences for clinical management. From 2004 to 2013 all the main diagnoses and DRGs for inpatients were recorded. Monthly and seasonal distributions were analyzed using ANOVA. The average monthly number of cases was 265 ± 25 cases, the average CM was 388.50 ± 51.75 and the average CMI was 1.46 ± 0.15 with no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.1). Concussion was the most frequently occurring main diagnosis (3739 cases) followed by fractures of the humeral head (699). Significant distribution differences could be shown for humeral head fractures in monthly (p = 0.018) and seasonal comparisons (p = 0.006) with a maximum in winter. Radius (p = 0.01) and ankle fractures (p ≤ 0.001) also occurred most frequently in winter. Non-bony lesions of the shoulder were significantly less in spring (p = 0.04). The DRGs showed no evidence of a monthly or seasonal clustering (p > 0.1). The significant clustering of injuries in specific months and seasons should lead to logistic consequences (e.g. operating room slots, availability of nursing and anesthesia staff). For a needs assessment the analysis of main diagnoses is more appropriate than DRGs.

  12. 75 FR 24323 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...The NRC proposes to amend its regulations to incorporate by reference the 2005 Addenda through 2008 Addenda of Section III, Division 1, and the 2005 Addenda through 2008 Addenda of Section XI, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B&PV Code); and the 2005 Addenda and 2006 Addenda of the ASME Code for Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants (ASME OM Code). The NRC also proposes to incorporate by reference ASME Code Case N-722-1, ``Additional Examinations for PWR Pressure Retaining Welds in Class 1 Components Fabricated With Alloy 600/82/182 Materials Section XI, Division 1,'' and Code Case N-770, ``Alternative Examination Requirements and Acceptance Standards for Class 1 PWR [Pressurized- Water Reactor] Piping and Vessel Nozzle Butt Welds Fabricated with UNS N06082 or UNS W86182 Weld Filler Material with or without Application of Listed Mitigation Activities.''

  13. 76 FR 36231 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...The NRC is amending its regulations to incorporate by reference the 2005 Addenda (July 1, 2005) and 2006 Addenda (July 1, 2006) to the 2004 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1; 2007 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, 2007 Edition (July 1, 2007), with 2008a Addenda (July 1, 2008); 2005 Addenda (July 1, 2005) and 2006 Addenda (July 1, 2006) to the 2004 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Division 1; 2007 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Division 1, 2007 Edition (July 1, 2007), with 2008a Addenda (July 1, 2008); and 2005 Addenda, ASME OMa Code-2005 (approved July 8, 2005) and 2006 Addenda, ASME OMb Code-2006 (approved July 6, 2006) to the 2004 ASME Code for Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants (OM Code). The NRC is also incorporating by reference (with conditions on their use) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case N-722-1, ``Additional Examinations for PWR Pressure Retaining Welds in Class 1 Components Fabricated with Alloy 600/82/182 Materials, Section XI, Division 1,'' Supplement 8, ASME approval date: January 26, 2009, and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case N-770-1, ``Alternative Examination Requirements and Acceptance Standards for Class 1 PWR Piping and Vessel Nozzle Butt Welds Fabricated With UNS N06082 or UNS W86182 Weld Filler Material With or Without Application of Listed Mitigation Activities, Section XI, Division 1,'' ASME approval date: December 25, 2009.

  14. Exploring Trilingual Code-Switching: The Case of "Hokaglish"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings of an initial study on a trilingual code-switching (CS) phenomenon called "Hokaglish" in Binondo, Manila, The Philippines. Beginning with descriptions of multiculturalism and multilingualism in the Philippines, the discussion eventually leads to the description and survey of the code-switching phenomenon…

  15. Preliminary application of the draft code case for alloy 617 for a high temperature component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Yong Wan; Song, Kee Nam

    2008-01-01

    The ASME draft Code Case for Alloy 617 was developed in the late 1980s for the design of very-high-temperature gas cooled reactors. The draft Code Case was patterned after the ASME Code Section III Subsection NH and was intended to cover Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy 617 to 982 .deg. C (1800 .deg. F). But the draft Code Case is still in an incomplete status, lacking necessary material properties and design data. In this study, a preliminary evaluation on the creep-fatigue damage for a high temperature hot duct pipe structure has been carried out according to the draft Code Case. The evaluation procedures and results according to the draft Code Case for Alloy 617 material were compared with those of the ASME Subsection NH and RCC-MR for Alloy 800H material. It was shown that many data including material properties, fatigue and creep data should be supplemented for the draft Code Case. However, when the evaluation results on the creep-fatigue damage according to the draft Code Case, ASME-NH and RCC-MR were compared based on the preliminary evaluation, it was shown that the Alloy 617 results from the draft Code Case tended to be more resistant to the creep damage while less resistant to the fatigue damage than those from the ASME-NH and RCC-MR

  16. Generalized rank weights of reducible codes, optimal cases and related properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Peñas, Umberto

    2018-01-01

    in network coding. In this paper, we study their security behavior against information leakage on networks when applied as coset coding schemes, giving the following main results: 1) we give lower and upper bounds on their generalized rank weights (GRWs), which measure worst case information leakage...... to the wire tapper; 2) we find new parameters for which these codes are MRD (meaning that their first GRW is optimal) and use the previous bounds to estimate their higher GRWs; 3) we show that all linear (over the extension field) codes, whose GRWs are all optimal for fixed packet and code sizes but varying...... length are reducible codes up to rank equivalence; and 4) we show that the information leaked to a wire tapper when using reducible codes is often much less than the worst case given by their (optimal in some cases) GRWs. We conclude with some secondary related properties: conditions to be rank...

  17. Case studies in Gaussian process modelling of computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Marc C.; Anderson, Clive W.; Conti, Stefano; O'Hagan, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a number of recent applications in which an emulator of a computer code is created using a Gaussian process model. Tools are then applied to the emulator to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity analysis is used both as an aid to model improvement and as a guide to how much the output uncertainty might be reduced by learning about specific inputs. Uncertainty analysis allows us to reflect output uncertainty due to unknown input parameters, when the finished code is used for prediction. The computer codes themselves are currently being developed within the UK Centre for Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics

  18. Evaluating Coding Accuracy in General Surgery Residents' Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Procedural Case Logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Fadi; Garwe, Tabitha; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Stamile, Tessa; Kim, Jennifer; Mahnken, Heidi; Lees, Jason

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case log captures resident operative experience based on Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and is used to track operative experience during residency. With increasing emphasis on resident operative experiences, coding is more important than ever. It has been shown in other surgical specialties at similar institutions that the residents' ACGME case log may not accurately reflect their operative experience. What barriers may influence this remains unclear. As the only objective measure of resident operative experience, an accurate case log is paramount in representing one's operative experience. This study aims to determine the accuracy of procedural coding by general surgical residents at a single institution. Data were collected from 2 consecutive graduating classes of surgical residents' ACGME case logs from 2008 to 2014. A total of 5799 entries from 7 residents were collected. The CPT codes entered by residents were compared to departmental billing records submitted by the attending surgeon for each procedure. Assigned CPT codes by institutional American Academy of Professional Coders certified abstract coders were considered the "gold standard." A total of 4356 (75.12%) of 5799 entries were identified in billing records. Excel 2010 and SAS 9.3 were used for analysis. In the event of multiple codes for the same patient, any match between resident codes and billing record codes was considered a "correct" entry. A 4-question survey was distributed to all current general surgical residents at our institution for feedback on coding habits, limitations to accurate coding, and opinions on ACGME case log representation of their operative experience. All 7 residents had a low percentage of correctly entered CPT codes. The overall accuracy proportion for all residents was 52.82% (range: 43.32%-60.07%). Only 1 resident showed significant improvement in accuracy during his/her training (p = 0

  19. Evaluating QR Code Case Studies Using a Mobile Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikala, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Quick Response (QR) codes and mobile devices in the context of Finnish basic education. The feasibility was analyzed through a mobile learning framework, which includes the core characteristics of mobile learning. The study is part of a larger research where the aim is to develop a…

  20. Integration of QR codes into an anesthesia information management system for resident case log management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Weissman, Charles; Levin, Phillip D

    2015-04-01

    Quick response (QR) codes containing anesthesia syllabus data were introduced into an anesthesia information management system. The code was generated automatically at the conclusion of each case and available for resident case logging using a smartphone or tablet. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use and usability/user-friendliness of such system. Resident case logging practices were assessed prior to introducing the QR codes. QR code use and satisfactions amongst residents was reassessed at three and six months. Before QR code introduction only 12/23 (52.2%) residents maintained a case log. Most of the remaining residents (9/23, 39.1%) expected to receive a case list from the anesthesia information management system database at the end of their residency. At three months and six months 17/26 (65.4%) and 15/25 (60.0%) residents, respectively, were using the QR codes. Satisfaction was rated as very good or good. QR codes for residents' case logging with smartphones or tablets were successfully introduced in an anesthesia information management system and used by most residents. QR codes can be successfully implemented into medical practice to support data transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words.Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters.We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities.The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  2. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  3. Industrial process heat case studies. [PROSYS/ECONMAT code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, D.W.; May, E.K.; West, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Commercially available solar collectors have the potential to provide a large fraction of the energy consumed for industrial process heat (IPH). Detailed case studies of individual industrial plants are required in order to make an accurate assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of applications. This report documents the results of seven such case studies. The objectives of the case study program are to determine the near-term feasibility of solar IPH in selected industries, identify energy conservation measures, identify conditions of IPH systems that affect solar applications, test SERI's IPH analysis software (PROSYS/ECONOMAT), disseminate information to the industrial community, and provide inputs to the SERI research program. The detailed results from the case studies are presented. Although few near-term, economical solar applications were found, the conditions that would enhance the opportunities for solar IPH applications are identified.

  4. A Case for Dynamic Reverse-code Generation to Debug Non-deterministic Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyong Yi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Backtracking (i.e., reverse execution helps the user of a debugger to naturally think backwards along the execution path of a program, and thinking backwards makes it easy to locate the origin of a bug. So far backtracking has been implemented mostly by state saving or by checkpointing. These implementations, however, inherently do not scale. Meanwhile, a more recent backtracking method based on reverse-code generation seems promising because executing reverse code can restore the previous states of a program without state saving. In the literature, there can be found two methods that generate reverse code: (a static reverse-code generation that pre-generates reverse code through static analysis before starting a debugging session, and (b dynamic reverse-code generation that generates reverse code by applying dynamic analysis on the fly during a debugging session. In particular, we espoused the latter one in our previous work to accommodate non-determinism of a program caused by e.g., multi-threading. To demonstrate the usefulness of our dynamic reverse-code generation, this article presents a case study of various backtracking methods including ours. We compare the memory usage of various backtracking methods in a simple but nontrivial example, a bounded-buffer program. In the case of non-deterministic programs such as this bounded-buffer program, our dynamic reverse-code generation outperforms the existing backtracking methods in terms of memory efficiency.

  5. Interpretation, with respect to ASME code Case N-318, of limit moment and fatigue tests of lugs welded to pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, D.C.; Van Duyne, D.A.; Budlong, L.A.; Muffett, J.W.; Wais, E.A.; Streck, G.; Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Two nonmandatory ASME code cases have been used often in the evaluation of lugs on nuclear-power- plant piping systems. ASME Code Case N-318 provides guidance for evaluation of the design of rectangular cross-section attachments on Class 2 or 3 piping, and ASME Code Case N-122 provides guidance for evaluation of lugs on Class 1 piping. These code cases have been reviewed and evaluated based on available test data. The results indicate that the Code cases are overly conservative. Recommendations for revisions to the cases are presented which, if adopted, will reduce the overconservatism

  6. Technical basis for the extension of ASME Code Case N-494 for assessment of austenitic piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for Nuclear Components approved Code Case N-494 as an alternative procedure for evaluating laws in Light Water Reactor alterative procedure for evaluating flaws in Light Water Reactor (LWR) ferritic piping. The approach is an alternative to Appendix H of the ASME Code and alloys the user to remove some unnecessary conservatism in the existing procedure by allowing the use of pipe specific material properties. The Code Case is an implementation of the methodology of the Deformation Plasticity Failure Assessment diagram (DPFAD). The key ingredient in the application of DPFAD is that the material stress-strain curve must be in the format of a simple power law hardening stress-strain curve such as the Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) model. Ferritic materials can be accurately fit by the R-O model and, therefore, it was natural to use the DPFAD methodology for the assessment of LWR ferritic piping. An extension of Code Case N-494 to austenitic piping required a modification of the existing DPFAD methodology. The Code Case N-494 approach was revised using the PWFAD procedure in the same manner as in the development of the original N-494 approach for ferritic materials. A lower bound stress-strain curve was used to generate a PWFAD curve for the geometry of a part-through wall circumferential flaw in a cylinder under tension. Earlier work demonstrated that a cylinder under axial tension with a 50% flaw depth, 90 degrees in circumference, and radius to thickness of 10, produced a lower bound FAD curve. Validation of the new proposed Code Case procedure for austenitic piping was performed using actual pipe test data. Using the lower bound PWFAD curve, pipe test results were conservatively predicted. The resultant development of ht PWFAD curve for austenitic piping led to a revision of Code Case N-494 to include a procedure for assessment of flaws in austenitic piping

  7. Verification of the AZNHEX code v.1.4 with MCNP6 for different reference cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia A, J.; Francois L, J. L.; Bastida O, G. E.; Del Valle G, E.

    2017-09-01

    The codes that make up the AZTLAN platform (AZTHECA, AZTRAN, AZKIND and AZNHEX) are currently in the testing phase simulating a variety of nuclear reactor assemblies and cores to compare and validate the results obtained for a particular case, with codes globally used in the nuclear area such as CASMO, Serpent and MCNP. The objective of this work is to continue improving the future versions of the codes of the AZTLAN platform so that accurate and reliable results can be obtained for the user. To test the current version of the AZNHEX code, 3 cases were taken into account, the first being the simulation of a VVER-440 reactor assembly; for the second case, the assembly of a fast reactor cooled with helium was simulated and for the third case it was decided to take up the case of the core of a fast reactor cooled with sodium, this because the previous versions of AZNHEX did not show adequate results and, in addition, they presented a considerable amount of limitations. The comparison and validation of the results (neutron multiplication factor, radial power, radial flow, axial power) for these three cases were made using the code MCNP6. The results obtained show that this version of AZNHEX produces values of the neutron multiplication factor and the neutron and power flow distributions very close to those of MCNP6. (Author)

  8. Coding response to a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyra, Colin

    2004-08-01

    To examine the hospital coding response to a payment model using a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses and the resulting impact on a hospital cost model. Financial, clinical, and supplementary data for all Ontario short stay hospitals from years 1997 to 2002. Disaggregated trends in hospital case-mix growth are examined for five years following the adoption of an inpatient classification system making extensive use of combinations of secondary diagnoses. Hospital case mix is decomposed into base and complexity components. The longitudinal effects of coding variation on a standard hospital payment model are examined in terms of payment accuracy and impact on adjustment factors. Introduction of the refined case-mix system provided incentives for hospitals to increase reporting of secondary diagnoses and resulted in growth in highest complexity cases that were not matched by increased resource use over time. Despite a pronounced coding response on the part of hospitals, the increase in measured complexity and case mix did not reduce the unexplained variation in hospital unit cost nor did it reduce the reliance on the teaching adjustment factor, a potential proxy for case mix. The main implication was changes in the size and distribution of predicted hospital operating costs. Jurisdictions introducing extensive refinements to standard diagnostic related group (DRG)-type payment systems should consider the effects of induced changes to hospital coding practices. Assessing model performance should include analysis of the robustness of classification systems to hospital-level variation in coding practices. Unanticipated coding effects imply that case-mix models hypothesized to perform well ex ante may not meet expectations ex post.

  9. Coding Response to a Case-Mix Measurement System Based on Multiple Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyra, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine the hospital coding response to a payment model using a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses and the resulting impact on a hospital cost model. Data Sources Financial, clinical, and supplementary data for all Ontario short stay hospitals from years 1997 to 2002. Study Design Disaggregated trends in hospital case-mix growth are examined for five years following the adoption of an inpatient classification system making extensive use of combinations of secondary diagnoses. Hospital case mix is decomposed into base and complexity components. The longitudinal effects of coding variation on a standard hospital payment model are examined in terms of payment accuracy and impact on adjustment factors. Principal Findings Introduction of the refined case-mix system provided incentives for hospitals to increase reporting of secondary diagnoses and resulted in growth in highest complexity cases that were not matched by increased resource use over time. Despite a pronounced coding response on the part of hospitals, the increase in measured complexity and case mix did not reduce the unexplained variation in hospital unit cost nor did it reduce the reliance on the teaching adjustment factor, a potential proxy for case mix. The main implication was changes in the size and distribution of predicted hospital operating costs. Conclusions Jurisdictions introducing extensive refinements to standard diagnostic related group (DRG)-type payment systems should consider the effects of induced changes to hospital coding practices. Assessing model performance should include analysis of the robustness of classification systems to hospital-level variation in coding practices. Unanticipated coding effects imply that case-mix models hypothesized to perform well ex ante may not meet expectations ex post. PMID:15230940

  10. Automated Source Code Analysis to Identify and Remove Software Security Vulnerabilities: Case Studies on Java Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2013-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is to illustrate the development of generic solution strategies to remove software security vulnerabilities that could be identified using automated tools for source code analysis on software programs (developed in Java). We use the Source Code Analyzer and Audit Workbench automated tools, developed by HP Fortify Inc., for our testing purposes. We present case studies involving a file writer program embedded with features for password validation, and ...

  11. Procedures of ASME code case N-201 for KALIMER. Reactor internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Yoo, B.

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to describe the design procedure of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Code Case N-201-4, which is an elevated temperature structural design code of the Nuclear reactor internal structures, checking the criteria of stress limit, accumulated inelastic strain and deformation, creep-fatigue damage, and buckling limit. As one of examples, the creep-fatigue damage evaluations are carried out for the KALIMER reactor internal structures of baffle annulus. This report is expected to be very useful in evaluating the structural integrity of the liquid metal reactor operating under an elevated temperature

  12. Comprehensive Report For Proposed Elevated Temperature Elastic Perfectly Plastic (EPP) Code Cases Representative Example Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, Greg L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Background: The current rules in the nuclear section of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code , Section III, Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200F (650C)1. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature 2, 3, and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. The revised code cases have been developed. Task Objectives: The goal of the Sample Problem task is to exercise these code cases through example problems to demonstrate their feasibility and, also, to identify potential corrections and improvements should problems be encountered. This will provide input to the development of technical background documents for consideration by the applicable B&PV committees considering these code cases for approval. This task has been performed by Hollinger and Pease of Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Nuclear Services Division and a report detailing the results of the E-PP analyses conducted on example problems per the procedures of the E-PP strain limits and creep-fatigue draft code cases is enclosed as Enclosure 1. Conclusions: The feasibility of the application of the E-PP code cases has been demonstrated through example problems that consist of realistic geometry (a nozzle attached to a semi-hemispheric shell with a circumferential weld) and load (pressure; pipe reaction load applied at the end of the nozzle, including axial and shear forces, bending and torsional moments; through-wall transient temperature gradient) and design and operating conditions (Levels A, B and C).

  13. Systematic review of validated case definitions for diabetes in ICD-9-coded and ICD-10-coded data in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Bushra; Jette, Nathalie; Metcalfe, Amy; Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Quan, Hude; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Butalia, Sonia; Rabi, Doreen

    2016-08-05

    With steady increases in 'big data' and data analytics over the past two decades, administrative health databases have become more accessible and are now used regularly for diabetes surveillance. The objective of this study is to systematically review validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based case definitions for diabetes in the adult population. Electronic databases, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched for validation studies where an administrative case definition (using ICD codes) for diabetes in adults was validated against a reference and statistical measures of the performance reported. The search yielded 2895 abstracts, and of the 193 potentially relevant studies, 16 met criteria. Diabetes definition for adults varied by data source, including physician claims (sensitivity ranged from 26.9% to 97%, specificity ranged from 94.3% to 99.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 71.4% to 96.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 95% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.8 to 0.9), hospital discharge data (sensitivity ranged from 59.1% to 92.6%, specificity ranged from 95.5% to 99%, PPV ranged from 62.5% to 96%, NPV ranged from 90.8% to 99% and κ ranged from 0.6 to 0.9) and a combination of both (sensitivity ranged from 57% to 95.6%, specificity ranged from 88% to 98.5%, PPV ranged from 54% to 80%, NPV ranged from 98% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.7 to 0.8). Overall, administrative health databases are useful for undertaking diabetes surveillance, but an awareness of the variation in performance being affected by case definition is essential. The performance characteristics of these case definitions depend on the variations in the definition of primary diagnosis in ICD-coded discharge data and/or the methodology adopted by the healthcare facility to extract information from patient records. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Variation in National ACGME Case Log Data for Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellowships: Are Fellow Coding Practices Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Philip K; Woiczik, Marcella; Karol, Lori; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    The introduction of the 80-hour work week for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited fellowship programs initiated many efforts to optimize surgical training. One particular area of interest is on recording and tracking surgical experiences. The current standard is logging cases based on Current Procedural Terminology codes, which are primarily designed for billing. Proposed guidelines from the ACGME regarding logging exist, but their implementation is unknown, as is the variation in case volume across fellowship programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate variability in the national case log data, and explore potential sources of variation using fellow surveys. National ACGME case log data for pediatric orthopaedic fellowships from 2012 to 2015 were reviewed, with particular attention to the domains of spine, pelvis/hip, arthroscopy, trauma, and other (which includes clubfoot casting). To explore potential sources of case log variability, a survey on case logging behavior was distributed to all pediatric orthopaedic fellows for the academic year 2015 to 2016. Reported experiences based on ACGME case logs varied widely between fellows with percentage difference of up to 100% in all areas. Similarly, wide variability is present in coding practices of pediatric orthopaedic fellows, who often lack formal education on the topic of appropriate coding/logging. In the survey, hypothetical case scenarios had an absolute difference in recorded codes of up to 13 and a percentage difference of up to 100%. ACGME case log data for pediatric orthopaedic fellowships demonstrates wide variability in reported surgical experiences. This variability may be due, in part, to differences in logging practices by individual fellows. This observation makes meaningful interpretation of national data on surgical volume challenging. Proposed surgical experience minimums should be interpreted in light of these data, and may not be advisable unless

  15. Differentially Encoded LDPC Codes—Part I: Special Case of Product Accumulate Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Tiffany JingLi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Part I of a two-part series investigates product accumulate codes, a special class of differentially-encoded low density parity check (DE-LDPC codes with high performance and low complexity, on flat Rayleigh fading channels. In the coherent detection case, Divsalar's simple bounds and iterative thresholds using density evolution are computed to quantify the code performance at finite and infinite lengths, respectively. In the noncoherent detection case, a simple iterative differential detection and decoding (IDDD receiver is proposed and shown to be robust for different Doppler shifts. Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT charts reveal that, with pilot symbol assisted differential detection, the widespread practice of inserting pilot symbols to terminate the trellis actually incurs a loss in capacity, and a more efficient way is to separate pilots from the trellis. Through analysis and simulations, it is shown that PA codes perform very well with both coherent and noncoherent detections. The more general case of DE-LDPC codes, where the LDPC part may take arbitrary degree profiles, is studied in Part II Li 2008.

  16. Technical Review on Fitness-for-Service for Buried Pipe by ASME Code Case N-806

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Lee, Yo Seop; So, Il Su; Lim, Bu Taek

    2012-01-01

    Fitness-for-Service is a useful technology to determine replacement timing, next inspection timing or in-service when nuclear power plant's buried pipes are damaged. If is possible for buried pipes to be aged by material loss, cracks and occlusion as operating time goes by. Therefore Fitness-for-Service technology for buried pipe is useful for plant industry to perform replacement and repair. Fitness-for-Service for buried pipe is studied in terms of existing code and standard for Fitness-for-Service and a current developing code case. Fitness-for-Service for buried pipe was performed according to Code Case N-806 developed by ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

  17. Materials and design bases issues in ASME Code Case N-47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1993-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Areas where Code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure the operation over the expected life cycles for the next-generation advanced high-temperature reactor systems, with designs to be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been identified as unresolved issues. Twenty-two unresolved issues were identified and brief scoping plans developed for resolving these issues

  18. Reasons for Adopting or Revising a Journalism Ethics Code: The Case of Three Ethics Codes in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Poler Kovačič, Melita; van Putten, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this article approached the dilemma of whether or not a universal code of journalism ethics should be drafted based on the existence of factors prompting the need for a new ethics code in a national environment. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the key persons involved in the process of drafting or revising three ethics codes in the Netherlands from 2007 onwards: the Journalism Guideline by the Press Council, the Journalism Code by the Society of Chief-Editors and...

  19. Differentially Encoded LDPC Codes—Part II: General Case and Code Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li (Tiffany

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This two-part series of papers studies the theory and practice of differentially encoded low-density parity-check (DE-LDPC codes, especially in the context of noncoherent detection. Part I showed that a special class of DE-LDPC codes, product accumulate codes, perform very well with both coherent and noncoherent detections. The analysis here reveals that a conventional LDPC code, however, is not fitful for differential coding and does not, in general, deliver a desirable performance when detected noncoherently. Through extrinsic information transfer (EXIT analysis and a modified “convergence-constraint” density evolution (DE method developed here, we provide a characterization of the type of LDPC degree profiles that work in harmony with differential detection (or a recursive inner code in general, and demonstrate how to optimize these LDPC codes. The convergence-constraint method provides a useful extension to the conventional “threshold-constraint” method, and can match an outer LDPC code to any given inner code with the imperfectness of the inner decoder taken into consideration.

  20. Structuring and coding in health care records: a qualitative analysis using diabetes as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R R Robertson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background   Globally, diabetes mellitus presents a substantial burden to individuals and healthcare systems. Structuring and/or coding of medical records underpin attempts to improve information sharing and searching, potentially bringing clinical and secondary uses benefits.Aims and objectives   We investigated if, how and why records for adults with diabetes were structured and/or coded, and explored stakeholders’ perceptions of current practice.Methods   We carried out a qualitative, theoretically-informed case study of documenting healthcare information for diabetes patients in family practice and hospital settings, using semi-structured interviews, observations, systems demonstrations and documentary data.Results   We conducted 22 interviews and four on-site observations, and reviewed 25 documents. For secondary uses – research, audit, public health and service planning – the benefits of highly structured and coded diabetes data were clearly articulated. Reported clinical benefits in terms of managing and monitoring diabetes, and perhaps encouraging patient self-management, were modest. We observed marked differences in levels of record structuring and/or coding between settings, and found little evidence that these data were being exploited to improve information sharing between them.Conclusions   Using high levels of data structuring and coding in medical records for diabetes patients has potential to be exploited more fully, and lessons might be learned from successful developments elsewhere in the UK.

  1. Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to evaluate thermal radiation propagation from partially enclosed nozzle surfaces, an experimental benchmark test case was developed for code comparison. This paper briefly describes the nozzle test rig and the developed analytical nozzle geometry used to compare the experimental and predicted thermal radiation results. A major objective of this effort was to make available the experimental results and the analytical model in a format to facilitate conversion to existing computer code formats. For code validation purposes this nozzle geometry represents one validation case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages based on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single nozzle baseline validation case can be limited for some code comparisons.

  2. Code for ethical international recruitment practices: the CGFNS alliance case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin A; Bakhshi, Mukul; Dutka, Julia To; Phillips, Janice

    2016-06-30

    Projections indicate a global workforce shortage of approximately 4.3 million across the health professions. The need to ensure an adequate supply of health workers worldwide has created a context for the increased global migration of these professionals. The global trend in the migration of health professionals has given rise to the international recruitment industry to facilitate the passage of health workers from source to destination countries. This is particularly the case in the United States, where the majority of immigrant health professionals have come by way of the recruiting industry. This industry is largely unregulated in the United States as well as in many other countries, for which voluntary codes have been used as a means to increase transparency of the recruitment process, shape professional conduct, and mitigate harm to foreign-educated health workers. The CGFNS Alliance case study presented herein describes a multi-stakeholder effort in the United States to promote ethical recruitment practices. Such codes not only complement the WHO Global Code of Practice but are necessary to maximize the impact of these global standards on local settings. This case study offers both a historical perspective and a conceptual framework for examining the multiplicity of factors affecting the migration of human resources for health. The lessons learned provide critical insights into the factors pertaining to the relevancy and effectiveness of the WHO Code from the perspectives of both source and destination countries. This study provides a conceptual model for examining the usefulness of the WHO Code as well as how best to ensure its viability, sustainability, relevancy, and effectiveness in the global environment. This case study concludes with recommendations for evolving business models that need to be in place to strengthen the effectiveness of the WHO Code in the marketplace and to ensure its impact on the international recruitment industry in advancing

  3. Structuring and coding in health care records: a qualitative analysis using diabetes as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ann R R; Fernando, Bernard; Morrison, Zoe; Kalra, Dipak; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-03-27

    Globally, diabetes mellitus presents a substantial and increasing burden to individuals, health care systems and society. Structuring and coding of information in the electronic health record underpin attempts to improve sharing and searching for information. Digital records for those with long-term conditions are expected to bring direct and secondary uses benefits, and potentially to support patient self-management. We sought to investigate if how and why records for adults with diabetes were structured and coded and to explore a range of UK stakeholders' perceptions of current practice in the National Health Service. We carried out a qualitative, theoretically informed case study of documenting health care information for diabetes in family practice and hospital settings in England, using semi-structured interviews, observations, systems demonstrations and documentary data. We conducted 22 interviews and four on-site observations. With respect to secondary uses - research, audit, public health and service planning - interviewees clearly articulated the benefits of highly structured and coded diabetes data and it was believed that benefits would expand through linkage to other datasets. Direct, more marginal, clinical benefits in terms of managing and monitoring diabetes and perhaps encouraging patient self-management were also reported. We observed marked differences in levels of record structuring and/or coding between family practices, where it was high, and the hospital. We found little evidence that structured and coded data were being exploited to improve information sharing between care settings. Using high levels of data structuring and coding in records for diabetes patients has the potential to be exploited more fully, and lessons might be learned from successful developments elsewhere in the UK. A first step would be for hospitals to attain levels of health information technology infrastructure and systems use commensurate with family practices.

  4. The priority cases of the FUMEX-III exercises simulated with the TRANSURANUS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneva, S.

    2011-01-01

    The FUMEX-III project provides a good basis for testing common code priorities and the needs for further developments. The GAIN experiment contains results on four Gd 2 O 3 doped UO 2 rods and offers good opportunities for testing of the fuel performance codes in the case of Gd-doped fuel. A good agreement between the TRANSURANUS calculations and the measurements is achieved for the fuel and the cladding deformation. The FUMEX-III priority cases cover two rods from the GINNA reactor experiment: rod2 with fuel solid pellets, and rod4 with annular pellets and standard Zircaloy-4 cladding. Both rods were irradiated 5 cycles up to 52MWd/kgU. The simulations of the GINNA and US PWR experiments are part of the ongoing validation of the TRANSURANUS code - for different pellet design. The simulations of irradiation transients reveal the need for improving the fission gas release model, including burst release and release from the high burn-up structure

  5. The use of case tools in OPG safety analysis code qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, J.; Cheung, A.; Westbye, C.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is currently qualifying its critical safety analysis software. The software quality assurance (SQA) framework is described. Given the legacy nature of much of the safety analysis software the reverse engineering methodology has been adopted. The safety analysis suite of codes was developed over a period of many years to differing standards of quality and had sparse or incomplete documentation. Key elements of the reverse engineering process require recovery of design information from existing coding. This recovery, if performed manually, could represent an enormous effort. Driven by a need to maximize productivity and enhance the repeatability and objectivity of software qualification activities the decision was made to acquire or develop and implement Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. This paper presents relevant background information on CASE tools and discusses how the OPG SQA requirements were used to assess the suitability of available CASE tools. Key findings from the application of CASE tools to the qualification of the OPG safety analysis software are discussed. (author)

  6. Trends in EFL Technology and Educational Coding: A Case Study of an Evaluation Application Developed on LiveCode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Suwako; Noriega, Edgar Josafat Martinez

    2016-01-01

    The availability of user-friendly coding software is increasing, yet teachers might hesitate to use this technology to develop for educational needs. This paper discusses studies related to technology for educational uses and introduces an evaluation application being developed. Through questionnaires by student users and open-ended discussion by…

  7. A controlled evaluation of case clinical effect coding by poison center specialists for detection of WMD scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuhler, Michael C; Wittler, Mary A; Ford, Marsha; Dulaney, Anna R

    2011-08-01

    Many public health entities employ computer-based syndromic surveillance to monitor for aberrations including possible exposures to weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Often, this is done by screening signs and symptoms reported for cases against syndromic definitions. Poison centers (PCs) may offer significant contributions to public health surveillance because of their detailed clinical effect data field coding and real-time data entry. Because improper clinical effect coding may impede syndromic surveillance, it is important to assess this accuracy for PCs. An AAPCC-certified regional PC assessed the accuracy of clinical effect coding by specialists in poison information (SPIs) listening to audio recordings of standard cases. Eighteen different standardized cases were used, consisting of six cyanide, six botulism, and six control cases. Cases were scripted to simulate clinically relevant telephone conversations and converted to audio recordings. Ten SPIs were randomly selected from the center's staff to listen to and code case information from the recorded cases. Kappa scores and the percentage of correctly coding a present clinical effect were calculated for individual clinical effects summed over all test cases along with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. The rate of the case coding by the SPIs triggering the PC's automated botulism and cyanide alerts was also determined. The kappa scores and the percentage of correctly coding a present clinical effect varied depending on the specific clinical effect, with greater accuracy observed for the clinical effects of vomiting and agitation/irritability, and poor accuracy observed for the clinical effects of visual defect and anion gap increase. Lack of correct coding resulted in only 60 and 86% of the cases that met the botulism and cyanide surveillance definitions, respectively, triggering the corresponding alert. There was no difference observed in the percentage of coding a present clinical effect between

  8. Application of the core-concrete interaction code Wechsl to reactor case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenerino, G.

    1986-09-01

    The WECHSL code, developed at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, West-Germany, is used for core melt accidents in nuclear power plants. The first calculations, considering silicate and limestone/common sand concretes of different compositions, analyze the influence of the initial mass of Zirconium in the corium and, in one case, the effect of sump water ingression on the top of the melt. Moreover, for a limestone concrete, a sensitivity study is made on the melting temperature of the concrete influencing the decomposition enthalpy. The main conclusion of that paper is that, in any case, the temperature of the melt drops rapidly from the initial temperature to a temperature level close to the solidification temperature of the metal phase in a relatively short period of time (approximately 15 minutes) and then a balance between the removed heat from the melt and heating sources inside the melt is established

  9. Validation and optimisation of an ICD-10-coded case definition for sepsis using administrative health data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Rachel J; Jetté, Nathalie; Sawka, Keri Jo; Diep, Lucy; Goliath, Jade; Roberts, Derek J; Yipp, Bryan G; Doig, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Administrative health data are important for health services and outcomes research. We optimised and validated in intensive care unit (ICU) patients an International Classification of Disease (ICD)-coded case definition for sepsis, and compared this with an existing definition. We also assessed the definition's performance in non-ICU (ward) patients. Setting and participants All adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to a multisystem ICU with general medicosurgical ICU care from one of three tertiary care centres in the Calgary region in Alberta, Canada, between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012 were included. Research design Patient medical records were randomly selected and linked to the discharge abstract database. In ICU patients, we validated the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) ICD-10-CA (Canadian Revision)-coded definition for sepsis and severe sepsis against a reference standard medical chart review, and optimised this algorithm through examination of other conditions apparent in sepsis. Measures Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results Sepsis was present in 604 of 1001 ICU patients (60.4%). The CIHI ICD-10-CA-coded definition for sepsis had Sn (46.4%), Sp (98.7%), PPV (98.2%) and NPV (54.7%); and for severe sepsis had Sn (47.2%), Sp (97.5%), PPV (95.3%) and NPV (63.2%). The optimised ICD-coded algorithm for sepsis increased Sn by 25.5% and NPV by 11.9% with slightly lowered Sp (85.4%) and PPV (88.2%). For severe sepsis both Sn (65.1%) and NPV (70.1%) increased, while Sp (88.2%) and PPV (85.6%) decreased slightly. Conclusions This study demonstrates that sepsis is highly undercoded in administrative data, thus under-ascertaining the true incidence of sepsis. The optimised ICD-coded definition has a higher validity with higher Sn and should be preferentially considered if used for surveillance purposes. PMID:26700284

  10. A MacWilliams Identity for Convolutional Codes: The General Case

    OpenAIRE

    Gluesing-Luerssen, Heide; Schneider, Gert

    2008-01-01

    A MacWilliams Identity for convolutional codes will be established. It makes use of the weight adjacency matrices of the code and its dual, based on state space realizations (the controller canonical form) of the codes in question. The MacWilliams Identity applies to various notions of duality appearing in the literature on convolutional coding theory.

  11. Case file coding of child maltreatment: Methods, challenges, and innovations in a longitudinal project of youth in foster care☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffhines, Lindsay; Tunno, Angela M.; Cho, Bridget; Hambrick, Erin P.; Campos, Ilse; Lichty, Brittany; Jackson, Yo

    2016-01-01

    State social service agency case files are a common mechanism for obtaining information about a child’s maltreatment history, yet these documents are often challenging for researchers to access, and then to process in a manner consistent with the requirements of social science research designs. Specifically, accessing and navigating case files is an extensive undertaking, and a task that many researchers have had to maneuver with little guidance. Even after the files are in hand and the research questions and relevant variables have been clarified, case file information about a child’s maltreatment exposure can be idiosyncratic, vague, inconsistent, and incomplete, making coding such information into useful variables for statistical analyses difficult. The Modified Maltreatment Classification System (MMCS) is a popular tool used to guide the process, and though comprehensive, this coding system cannot cover all idiosyncrasies found in case files. It is not clear from the literature how researchers implement this system while accounting for issues outside of the purview of the MMCS or that arise during MMCS use. Finally, a large yet reliable file coding team is essential to the process, however, the literature lacks training guidelines and methods for establishing reliability between coders. In an effort to move the field toward a common approach, the purpose of the present discussion is to detail the process used by one large-scale study of child maltreatment, the Studying Pathways to Adjustment and Resilience in Kids (SPARK) project, a longitudinal study of resilience in youth in foster care. The article addresses each phase of case file coding, from accessing case files, to identifying how to measure constructs of interest, to dealing with exceptions to the coding system, to coding variables reliably, to training large teams of coders and monitoring for fidelity. Implications for a comprehensive and efficient approach to case file coding are discussed. PMID

  12. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  13. Performance of automated and manual coding systems for occupational data: a case study of historical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehul D; Rose, Kathryn M; Owens, Cindy R; Bang, Heejung; Kaufman, Jay S

    2012-03-01

    Occupational data are a common source of workplace exposure and socioeconomic information in epidemiologic research. We compared the performance of two occupation coding methods, an automated software and a manual coder, using occupation and industry titles from U.S. historical records. We collected parental occupational data from 1920-40s birth certificates, Census records, and city directories on 3,135 deceased individuals in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Unique occupation-industry narratives were assigned codes by a manual coder and the Standardized Occupation and Industry Coding software program. We calculated agreement between coding methods of classification into major Census occupational groups. Automated coding software assigned codes to 71% of occupations and 76% of industries. Of this subset coded by software, 73% of occupation codes and 69% of industry codes matched between automated and manual coding. For major occupational groups, agreement improved to 89% (kappa = 0.86). Automated occupational coding is a cost-efficient alternative to manual coding. However, some manual coding is required to code incomplete information. We found substantial variability between coders in the assignment of occupations although not as large for major groups.

  14. A MacWilliams Identity for Convolutional Codes : The General Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, Heide; Schneider, Gert

    A MacWilliams Identity for convolutional codes will be established. It makes use of the weight adjacency matrices of the code and its dual, based on state space realizations (the controller canonical form) of the codes in question. The MacWilliams Identity applies to various notions of duality

  15. Use Them ... or Lose Them? The Case for and against Using QR Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Chuck; Dull, Cassie

    2011-01-01

    A quick-response (QR) code is a two-dimensional, black-and-white square barcode and links directly to a URL of one's choice. When the code is scanned with a smartphone, it will automatically redirect the user to the designated URL. QR codes are popping up everywhere--billboards, magazines, posters, shop windows, TVs, computer screens, and more.…

  16. Solutions to HYDROCOIN [Hydrologic Code Intercomparison] Level 1 problems using STOKES and PARTICLE (Cases 1,2,4,7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.; Andrews, A.; Steidl, S.B.; Brandstetter, A.

    1987-10-01

    HYDROCOIN (Hydrologic Code Intercomparison) Level 1 benchmark problems are solved using the finite element ground-water flow code STOKES and the pathline generating code PARTICLE developed for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD). The objective of the Level 1 benchmark problems is to verify the numerical accuracy of ground-water flow codes by intercomparison of their results with analytical solutions and other numerical computer codes. Seven test cases were proposed for Level 1 to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the managing participant of HYDROCOIN. Cases 1, 2, 4, and 7 were selected by OCRD because of their appropriateness to the nature of crystalline repository hydrologic performance. The background relevance, conceptual model, and assumptions of each case are presented. The governing equations, boundary conditions, input parameters, and the solution schemes applied to each case are discussed. The results are shown in graphic and tabular form with concluding remarks. The results demonstrate the two-dimensional verification of STOKES and PARTICLE. 5 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs

  17. Development of System Based Code: Case Study of Life-Cycle Margin Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Asayama; Masaki Morishita; Masanori Tashimo

    2006-01-01

    For a leap of progress in structural deign of nuclear plant components, The late Professor Emeritus Yasuhide Asada proposed the System Based Code. The key concepts of the System Based Code are; (1) life-cycle margin optimization, (2) expansion of technical options as well as combinations of technical options beyond the current codes and standards, and (3) designing to clearly defined target reliabilities. Those concepts are very new to most of the nuclear power plant designers who are naturally obliged to design to current codes and standards; the application of the concepts of the System Based Code to design will lead to entire change of practices that designers have long been accustomed to. On the other hand, experienced designers are supposed to have expertise that can support and accelerate the development of the System Based Code. Therefore, interfacing with experienced designers is of crucial importance for the development of the System Based Code. The authors conducted a survey on the acceptability of the System Based Code concept. The results were analyzed from the possibility of improving structural design both in terms of reliability and cost effectiveness by the introduction of the System Based Code concept. It was concluded that the System Based Code is beneficial for those purposes. Also described is the expertise elicited from the results of the survey that can be reflected to the development of the System Based Code. (authors)

  18. Combining loop unrolling strategies and code predication to reduce the worst-case execution time of real-time software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Carminati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Worst-case execution time (WCET is a parameter necessary to guarantee timing constraints on real-time systems. The higher the worst-case execution time of tasks, the higher will be the resource demand for the associated system. The goal of this paper is to propose a different way to perform loop unrolling on data-dependent loops using code predication targeting WCET reduction, because existing techniques only consider loops with fixed execution counts. We also combine our technique with existing unrolling approaches. Results showed that this combination can produce aggressive WCET reductions when compared with the original code.

  19. Nuclear code case development of printed-circuit heat exchangers with thermal and mechanical performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakre, Shaun R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Jentz, Ian W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Anderson, Mark H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2018-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has agreed to fund a three-year integrated research project to close technical gaps involved with compact heat exchangers to be used in nuclear applications. This paper introduces the goals of the project, the research institutions, and industrial partners working in collaboration to develop a draft Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case for this technology. Heat exchanger testing, as well as non-destructive and destructive evaluation, will be performed by researchers across the country to understand the performance of compact heat exchangers. Testing will be performed using coolants and conditions proposed for Gen IV Reactor designs. Preliminary observations of the mechanical failure mechanisms of the heat exchangers using destructive and non-destructive methods is presented. Unit-cell finite element models assembled to help predict the mechanical behavior of these high-temperature components are discussed as well. Performance testing methodology is laid out in this paper along with preliminary modeling results, an introduction to x-ray and neutron inspection techniques, and results from a recent pressurization test of a printed-circuit heat exchanger. The operational and quality assurance knowledge gained from these models and validation tests will be useful to developers of supercritical CO2 systems, which commonly employ printed-circuit heat exchangers.

  20. Differentially Encoded LDPC Codes—Part II: General Case and Code Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li (Tiffany Jing

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-part series of papers studies the theory and practice of differentially encoded low-density parity-check (DE-LDPC codes, especially in the context of noncoherent detection. Part I showed that a special class of DE-LDPC codes, product accumulate codes, perform very well with both coherent and noncoherent detections. The analysis here reveals that a conventional LDPC code, however, is not fitful for differential coding and does not, in general, deliver a desirable performance when detected noncoherently. Through extrinsic information transfer (EXIT analysis and a modified "convergence-constraint" density evolution (DE method developed here, we provide a characterization of the type of LDPC degree profiles that work in harmony with differential detection (or a recursive inner code in general, and demonstrate how to optimize these LDPC codes. The convergence-constraint method provides a useful extension to the conventional "threshold-constraint" method, and can match an outer LDPC code to any given inner code with the imperfectness of the inner decoder taken into consideration.

  1. Code Switching in the Classroom: A Case Study of Economics and Management Students at the University of Sfax, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Baoueb, Sallouha Lamia; Toumi, Naouel

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores the motivations for code switching (CS) in the interactions of Tunisian students at the faculty of Economics and Management in Sfax, Tunisia. The study focuses on students' (EMSs) classroom conversations and out-of-classroom peer interactions. The analysis of the social motivations of EMSs' CS behaviour shows that…

  2. Implementing the Netherlands Code of Conduct for Scientific Practice : A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurbiers, D.; Osseweijer, P.; Kinderlerer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Widespread enthusiasm for establishing scientific codes of conduct notwithstanding, the utility of such codes in influencing scientific practice is not self-evident. It largely depends on the implementation phase following their establishment—a phase which often receives little attention. The aim of

  3. Case-crossover analysis of heat-coded deaths and vulnerable subpopulations: Oklahoma, 1990-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brianna F.; Brooke Anderson, G.; Johnson, Matthew G.; Brown, Sheryll; Bradley, Kristy K.; Magzamen, Sheryl

    2017-11-01

    The extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths, for which heat is the primary cause of death, remains largely unknown. We explored the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and potential interactions with various demographic and environmental factors. A total of 335 heat-coded deaths that occurred in Oklahoma from 1990 through 2011 were identified using heat-related International Classification of Diseases codes, cause-of-death nomenclature, and narrative descriptions. Conditional logistic regression models examined the association between temperature and heat index on heat-coded deaths. Interaction by demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, living alone, outdoor/heavy labor occupations) and environmental factors (ozone, PM10, PM2.5) was also explored. Temperatures ≥99 °F (the median value) were associated with approximately five times higher odds of a heat-coded death as compared to temperatures effect estimates were attenuated when exposure to heat was characterized by heat index. The interaction results suggest that effect of temperature on heat-coded deaths may depend on sex and occupation. For example, the odds of a heat-coded death among outdoor/heavy labor workers exposed to temperatures ≥99 °F was greater than expected based on the sum of the individual effects (observed OR = 14.0, 95% CI 2.7, 72.0; expected OR = 4.1 [2.8 + 2.3-1.0]). Our results highlight the extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and emphasize the need for a comprehensive, multisource definition of heat-coded deaths. Furthermore, based on the interaction results, we recommend that states implement or expand heat safety programs to protect vulnerable subpopulations, such as outdoor workers.

  4. Mechatronics Engineers’ Perception of Code Mixing: Philadelphia University and Hashemite University as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Al-Khawaldeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been widely recognized that code-switching is prevalent in Jordanians' daily conversation in various situations such as home, cafés, universities, restaurants and clubs. Abalhassan and Alshalawi (2000: 183 made a very related observation on code switching behavior among Arab speakers of English that “without exception, all respondents switched into English to some degree”. This could be referred to the increase number of technological advances and people travelling across countries for pleasure or for pursuing further education. In light of this observation, the crucial role of language in people's life, ambivalent attitudes towards code-switching (Akbar, 2007, the dearth of research in this area, such a present study is required to explore Jordanian university students’ and instructors’ perceptions of code-switching in their daily classroom conversation and its expected impact on their language proficiency. In particular, it investigates the factors leading them to code mix and their underlying attitudes towards its expected future impact on their language proficiency. To the best knowledge of the present researcher, this study is the first of its kind in Jordan. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire from 70 university students and 30 instructors from both Philadelphia University and the Hashemite University. Data revealed that code mixing between English and Arabic is a common phenomenon in lectures they have attended in their academic institutions. The participants also show that they find code mixing fascinating and believe that though code switching might have a positive impact on their learning as it helps them better understand the topic. The instructors revealed that code mixing fulfill a set of functions that serve the educational process.

  5. Mechatronics Engineers’ Perception of Code Mixing: Philadelphia University and Hashemite University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Al-Khawaldeh; Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh; Baker Bani-Khair; Hussein Algwery

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been widely recognized that code-switching is prevalent in Jordanians' daily conversation in various situations such as home, cafés, universities, restaurants and clubs. Abalhassan and Alshalawi (2000: 183) made a very related observation on code switching behavior among Arab speakers of English that “without exception, all respondents switched into English to some degree”. This could be referred to the increase number of technological advances and people travelling across cou...

  6. Calculation code evaluating the confinement of a nuclear facility in case of fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, J.C.; Prevost, C.; Vendel, J.

    1995-01-01

    Accident events involving fire are quite frequent and could have a severe effect on the safety of nuclear facilities. As confinement must be maintained, the ventilation and filtration systems have to be designed to limit radioactive release to the environment. To determine and analyse the consequences of a fire on the contamination confinement, IPSN, COGEMA and SGN are participating in development of a calculation code based on introduction, in the SIMEVENT ventilation code, of various models associated to fire risk and mass transfer in the ventilation networks. This calculation code results from the coupling of the SIMEVENT code with several models describing the temperature in a room resulting of a fire, the temperatures along the ventilation ducts, the contamination transfers through out the ventilation equipments (ducts, dampers, valves, air cleaning systems) and the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters clogging. The paper proposed presents the current level of progress in development of this calculation code. It describes, in particular, the empirical model used for the clogging of HEPA filters by the aerosols derived from the combustion of standard materials used in the nuclear industry. It describes, also, the specific models used to take into account the mass transfers and resulting from the basic mechanisms of aerosols physics. In addition, an assessment of this code is given using the example of a simple laboratory installation

  7. Calculation code evaluating the confinement of a nuclear facility in case of fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborde, J.C.; Prevost, C.; Vendel, J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    Accident events involving fire are quite frequent and could have a severe effect on the safety of nuclear facilities. As confinement must be maintained, the ventilation and filtration systems have to be designed to limit radioactive release to the environment. To determine and analyse the consequences of a fire on the contamination confinement, IPSN, COGEMA and SGN are participating in development of a calculation code based on introduction, in the SIMEVENT ventilation code, of various models associated to fire risk and mass transfer in the ventilation networks. This calculation code results from the coupling of the SIMEVENT code with several models describing the temperature in a room resulting of a fire, the temperatures along the ventilation ducts, the contamination transfers through out the ventilation equipments (ducts, dampers, valves, air cleaning systems) and the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters clogging. The paper proposed presents the current level of progress in development of this calculation code. It describes, in particular, the empirical model used for the clogging of HEPA filters by the aerosols derived from the combustion of standard materials used in the nuclear industry. It describes, also, the specific models used to take into account the mass transfers and resulting from the basic mechanisms of aerosols physics. In addition, an assessment of this code is given using the example of a simple laboratory installation.

  8. Building energy performance analysis by an in-house developed dynamic simulation code: An investigation for different case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; Palombo, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new dynamic simulation code for building energy performance analysis is presented. • The thermal behavior of each building element is modeled by a thermal RC network. • The physical models implemented in the code are illustrated. • The code was validated by the BESTEST standard procedure. • We investigate residential buildings, offices and stores in different climates. - Abstract: A novel dynamic simulation model for the building envelope energy performance analysis is presented in this paper. This tool helps the investigation of many new building technologies to increase the system energy efficiency and it can be carried out for scientific research purposes. In addition to the yearly heating and cooling load and energy demand, the obtained output is the dynamic temperature profile of indoor air and surfaces and the dynamic profile of the thermal fluxes through the building elements. The presented simulation model is also validated through the BESTEST standard procedure. Several new case studies are developed for assessing, through the presented code, the energy performance of three different building envelopes with several different weather conditions. In particular, dwelling and commercial buildings are analysed. Light and heavyweight envelopes as well as different glazed surfaces areas have been used for every case study. With the achieved results interesting design and operating guidelines can be obtained. Such data have been also compared vs. those calculated by TRNSYS and EnergyPlus. The detected deviation of the obtained results vs. those of such standard tools are almost always lower than 10%

  9. Analysis of NEA-NSC PWR Uncontrolled Control Rod Withdrawal at Zero Power Benchmark Cases with NODAL3 Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor Malem Sembiring

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-house coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic (N/T-H code of BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, NODAL3, based on the few-group neutron diffusion equation in 3-dimensional geometry using the polynomial nodal method, has been verified with static and transient PWR benchmark cases. This paper reports the verification of NODAL3 code in the NEA-NSC PWR uncontrolled control rods withdrawal at zero power benchmark. The objective of this paper is to determine the accuracy of NODAL3 code in solving the continuously slow and fast reactivity insertions due to single and group of control rod bank withdrawn while the power and temperature increment are limited by the Doppler coefficient. The benchmark is chosen since many organizations participated using various methods and approximations, so the calculation results of NODAL3 can be compared to other codes’ results. The calculated parameters are performed for the steady-state, transient core averaged, and transient hot pellet results. The influence of radial and axial nodes number was investigated for all cases. The results of NODAL3 code are in very good agreement with the reference solutions if the radial and axial nodes number is 2 × 2 and 2 × 18 (total axial layers, respectively.

  10. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today's safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL

  11. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G.; Peebles, R.C.; Smith, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today's safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL

  12. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today`s safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL.

  13. The Moral Reasoning of Public Accountants in the Development of a Code of Ethics: the Case of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. L. Lindawati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the user’s perceptions of the role of moral reasoning in influencing the implementation of codes of ethics as standards and guidance for professional audit practice by Indonesian public accountants. The study focuses on two important aspects of influence: (i the key factors influencing professional public accountants in implementing a code of ethics as a standard for audit practice, and (ii the key activities performed by public accountants as moral agents for establishing awareness of professional values. Two theoretical approaches/models are used as guides for exploring the influence of moral reasoning of public accountants: first, Kolhberg’s model of moral development (Kolhberg 1982 and, secondly, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA’s Code of Conduct, especially the five principles of the code of ethics (1992, 2004. The study employs a multiple case study model to analyse the data collected from interviewing 15 financial managers of different company categories (as users. The findings indicate that (i moral development is an important component in influencing the moral reasoning of the individual public accountants, (ii the degree of professionalism of public accountants is determined by the degree of the development of their moral reasoning, and (iii moral reasoning of individuals influences both Indonesian public accountants and company financial managers in building and improving the effectiveness of the implementation of codes of conduct. It is concluded that the role of moral reasoning is an important influence on achieving ethical awareness in public accountants and financial managers. The development of a full code of ethics and an effective compliance monitoring system is essential for Indonesia if it is to play a role in the emerging global economy.

  14. Code-switching in university classroom interaction: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    lecturers teaching first-year students in the departments of Political Science ... from a range of perspectives, including formal or structural linguistics (cf. ... All these ideological changes have had a significant impact on the language-in- ..... Numerous studies on code-switching in multilingual classrooms at the ... Methodology.

  15. Is Self-Regulation Sufficient? Case of the German Transparency Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Buske

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The German pharmaceutical industry is stepping ahead with its implementation of a new transparency disclosure code for cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and health care professionals (HCPs and health care organisations (HCOs. In Germany, this transparency code (“Transparenzkodex” is applicable since January 2015, and data will be publicly available around mid-2016. No empirical work has been done that addresses the impact of the transparency code on cooperation between HCPs, HCOs and the pharmaceutical companies, including the possibilities of competitive analysis of the available data. In this paper, we interviewed experts from 11 pharmaceutical companies representing small, medium-sized as well as multinational corporations which represent 80% of the German pharmaceutical market. Besides interviews, the authors designed a game to evaluate possible financial investments in key opinion leaders. The market can be regarded as a zero sum game. By allowing public identification of such key HCPs and HCOs, the amount spent on them might increase and not decrease. In a way, the transparency code may foster more and not less spending; in our simulation game, the financial investment in marketing key HCPs and HCOs exceeded sustainable limits.

  16. Code Generation by Model Transformation : A Case Study in Transformation Modularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: Theory and Practice of Model Transformations (ICMT 2008), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5063; doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69927-9_13 The realization of model-driven software development requires effective techniques for implementing code generators for domain-specific

  17. Challenges to implementation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on International Recruitment of Health Personnel: the case of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuagla, Ayat; Badr, Elsheikh

    2016-06-30

    The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel (hereafter the WHO Code) was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2010 as a voluntary instrument to address challenges of health worker migration worldwide. To ascertain its relevance and effectiveness, the implementation of the WHO Code needs to be assessed based on country experience; hence, this case study on Sudan. This qualitative study depended mainly on documentary sources in addition to key informant interviews. Experiences of the authors has informed the analysis. Migration of Sudanese health workers represents a major health system challenge. Over half of Sudanese physicians practice abroad and new trends are showing involvement of other professions and increased feminization. Traditional destinations include Gulf States, especially Saudi Arabia and Libya, as well as the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Low salaries, poor work environment, and a lack of adequate professional development are the leading push factors. Massive emigration of skilled health workers has jeopardized coverage and quality of healthcare and health professional education. Poor evidence, lack of a national policy, and active recruitment in addition to labour market problems were barriers for effective migration management in Sudan. Response of destination countries in relation to cooperative arrangements with Sudan as a source country has always been suboptimal, demonstrating less attention to solidarity and ethical dimensions. The WHO Code boosted Sudan's efforts to address health worker migration and health workforce development in general. Improving migration evidence, fostering a national dialogue, and promoting bilateral agreements in addition to catalysing health worker retention strategies are some of the benefits accrued. There are, however, limitations in publicity of the WHO Code and its incorporation into national laws and regulatory frameworks for ethical recruitment. The

  18. Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J [Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4.

  19. Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J

    2008-01-01

    Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4

  20. Position coding effects in a 2D scenario: the case of musical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Centelles, Arnau; Jiménez, María

    2013-07-01

    How does the cognitive system encode the location of objects in a visual scene? In the past decade, this question has attracted much attention in the field of visual-word recognition (e.g., "jugde" is perceptually very close to "judge"). Letter transposition effects have been explained in terms of perceptual uncertainty or shared "open bigrams". In the present study, we focus on note position coding in music reading (i.e., a 2D scenario). The usual way to display music is the staff (i.e., a set of 5 horizontal lines and their resultant 4 spaces). When reading musical notation, it is critical to identify not only each note (temporal duration), but also its pitch (y-axis) and its temporal sequence (x-axis). To examine note position coding, we employed a same-different task in which two briefly and consecutively presented staves contained four notes. The experiment was conducted with experts (musicians) and non-experts (non-musicians). For the "different" trials, the critical conditions involved staves in which two internal notes that were switched vertically, horizontally, or fully transposed--as well as the appropriate control conditions. Results revealed that note position coding was only approximate at the early stages of processing and that this encoding process was modulated by expertise. We examine the implications of these findings for models of object position encoding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  2. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  3. [Differentiation of coding quality in orthopaedics by special, illustration-oriented case group analysis in the G-DRG System 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, U; Reichel, H; Dreinhöfer, K

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a grouping system for clinical practice which allows the separation of DRG coding in specific orthopaedic groups based on anatomic regions, operative procedures, therapeutic interventions and morbidity equivalent diagnosis groups. With this, a differentiated aim-oriented analysis of illustrated internal DRG data becomes possible. The group-specific difference of the coding quality between the DRG groups following primary coding by the orthopaedic surgeon and final coding by the medical controlling is analysed. In a consecutive series of 1600 patients parallel documentation and group-specific comparison of the relevant DRG parameters were carried out in every case after primary and final coding. Analysing the group-specific share in the additional CaseMix coding, the group "spine surgery" dominated, closely followed by the groups "arthroplasty" and "surgery due to infection, tumours, diabetes". Altogether, additional cost-weight-relevant coding was necessary most frequently in the latter group (84%), followed by group "spine surgery" (65%). In DRGs representing conservative orthopaedic treatment documented procedures had nearly no influence on the cost weight. The introduced system of case group analysis in internal DRG documentation can lead to the detection of specific problems in primary coding and cost-weight relevant changes of the case mix. As an instrument for internal process control in the orthopaedic field, it can serve as a communicative interface between an economically oriented classification of the hospital performance and a specific problem solution of the medical staff involved in the department management.

  4. Challenges and opportunities in coding the commons: problems, procedures, and potential solutions in large-N comparative case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elicia Ratajczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On-going efforts to understand the dynamics of coupled social-ecological (or more broadly, coupled infrastructure systems and common pool resources have led to the generation of numerous datasets based on a large number of case studies. This data has facilitated the identification of important factors and fundamental principles which increase our understanding of such complex systems. However, the data at our disposal are often not easily comparable, have limited scope and scale, and are based on disparate underlying frameworks inhibiting synthesis, meta-analysis, and the validation of findings. Research efforts are further hampered when case inclusion criteria, variable definitions, coding schema, and inter-coder reliability testing are not made explicit in the presentation of research and shared among the research community. This paper first outlines challenges experienced by researchers engaged in a large-scale coding project; then highlights valuable lessons learned; and finally discusses opportunities for further research on comparative case study analysis focusing on social-ecological systems and common pool resources.

  5. Structural integrity assessment of a pressure container component. Design and service code implementation. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzi, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the most important results of the local stresses occurred in the cracked pipes with a axial through-wall crack (outer), produced during operation of a Petrochemical Plant, using finite elements method, are presented. As requested, the component has been verified based 3D FE plastic analysis, under the postulated failure loading, assuring with this method a high degree of accuracy in the results. Codes used by Design and Service, as ASME Section VIII Div. 2 and API 579, have been used in the analysis. (author) [es

  6. Draft ASME code case on ductile cast iron for transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Arai, T.; Hirose, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Tezuka, Y.; Urabe, N.; Hueggenberg, R.

    2004-01-01

    The current Rules for Construction of ''Containment Systems for Storage and Transport Packagings of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Material and Waste'' of Division 3 in Section III of ASME Code (2001 Edition) does not include ductile cast iron in its list of materials permitted for use. The Rules specify required fracture toughness values of ferritic steel material for nominal wall thickness 5/8 to 12 inches (16 to 305 mm). New rule for ductile cast iron for transport packaging of which wall thickness is greater than 12 inches (305mm) is required

  7. Language, Power and Gender: A Case Study of Code Switching by Less Educated People In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim KARIM

    2014-03-01

    The major aims of this research were to find out the relation between language and power and how speakers’ use of powerful language varied across gender. This study was quantitative. Data collection was done through questionnaire comprising of two sections. The first section was consisted of 10 close ended questions to know the relation between language and power. The second section of the questionnaire comprising of 10 close ended questions measured the status of Punjabi and Urdu. After careful inquires 30 less educated L1 Punjabi speakers were randomly selected from the city Sheikhupura. Among these 30 participants 15 were male and 15 were female. Audio recording was taken from 14 participants, 7 males and 7 females who had also took part in survey questionnaire to get the data about Urdu code switching. The results collected through the gathered data revealed the L1 Punjabi speakers regarded Urdu as powerful language and they asserted that language and power are closely related with each other. Further women used more powerful language and for this purpose they did more Urdu code switching as compared to men.

  8. Evaluation of control room habitability in case of LOCA for Maanshan NPP using codes RADTRAD, HABIT and ALOHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Jong-Rong; Chen, Hsiung-Chih; Chiang, Yu; Chen, Shao-Wen; Shih, Chunkuan

    2018-01-01

    The method for the evaluation of the control room habitability is presented in this paper with focus on Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) using the codes RADTRAD, HABIT, and ALOHA. Therefore, this paper is divided into two parts: The first part is the evaluation of the cumulative dose at the control room, the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the low population zone (LPZ) in case of an design basis loss of coolant accident (DBA/LOCA). For this first part, the Maanshan NPP models of the code RADTRAD/SNAP were used for the analysis. The second part is the evaluation of the control room habitability under the assumption of CO 2 storage burst. For this part, the HABIT and ALOHA codes were used. As result it was seen that the RADTRAD calculation results are below the failure criteria of standard review plan (SRP) and 10 CFR 100.11. The HABIT and ALOHA results are below the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria. These results indicate that Maanshan NPP' habitability can be maintained under the above conditions.

  9. The usefulness of CBF brain SPECT in forensic medicine: the civil law codes cases. A description of four cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunowicz, M.; Lass, P.; Bandurski, T.; Krzyzanowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this report was to assess the usefulness of cerebral blood flow (CBF) scanning utilising the SPECT technique in forensic medicine cases in the area of civil law cases. CBF SPECT scanning was performed in four patients utilising 99m Tc-ECD and a triple-head gammacamera. In the analysis both the asymmetry index and cerebellar normalisation were applied. Reference values were obtained by studying 30 healthy volunteers. In those cases CBF SPECT scanning played an important role in forensic argument. It influenced the sentence and the amount of financial compensation. CBF SPECT scanning may provide valuable information in forensic medicine argument in civil law cases, but only when taken together with psychometric tests and other neuroimaging methods (CT, MRI). The value of CBF SPECT scanning alone may be limited in judicial proceedings. (author)

  10. Heterogeneous fuels for minor actinides transmutation: Fuel performance codes predictions in the EFIT case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, R., E-mail: rolando.calabrese@enea.i [ENEA, Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Closure Division, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Vettraino, F.; Artioli, C. [ENEA, Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Closure Division, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Sobolev, V. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Thetford, R. [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, 150 Harwell Business Centre, Didcot OX11 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Plutonium recycling in new-generation fast reactors coupled with minor actinides (MA) transmutation in dedicated nuclear systems could achieve a decrease of nuclear waste long-term radiotoxicity by two orders of magnitude in comparison with current once-through strategy. In a double-strata scenario, purpose-built accelerator-driven systems (ADS) could transmute minor actinides. The innovative nuclear fuel conceived for such systems demands significant R and D efforts in order to meet the safety and technical performance of current fuel systems. The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EUROpean research programme for the TRANSmutation of high level nuclear waste in ADS), part of the EURATOM Framework Programme 6 (FP6), undertook some of this research. EUROTRANS developed from the FP5 research programmes on ADS (PDS-XADS) and on fuels dedicated to MA transmutation (FUTURE, CONFIRM). One of its main objectives is the conceptual design of a small sub-critical nuclear system loaded with uranium-free fuel to provide high MA transmutation efficiency. These principles guided the design of EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) in the domain DESIGN of IP EUROTRANS. The domain AFTRA (Advanced Fuels for TRAnsmutation system) identified two composite fuel systems: a ceramic-ceramic (CERCER) where fuel particles are dispersed in a magnesia matrix, and a ceramic-metallic (CERMET) with a molybdenum matrix in the place of MgO matrix to host a ceramic fissile phase. The EFIT fuel is composed of plutonium and MA oxides in solid solution with isotopic vectors typical of LWR spent fuel with 45 MWd/kg{sub HM} discharge burnup and 30 years interim storage before reprocessing. This paper is focused on the thermomechanical state of the hottest fuel pins of two EFIT cores of 400 MW{sub (th)} loaded with either CERCER or CERMET fuels. For calculations three fuel performance codes were used: FEMALE, TRAFIC and TRANSURANUS. The analysis was performed at the beginning of fuel life

  11. Application of the ASME-code-case N 47 to a typical thickwalled HTR-component made of Incoloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemter, F.; Schmidt, A.

    Several components of the HTR-plant are exposed to temperatures beyond 500 0 C, i.e. within the high-temperature range. The service life of those components is not only limited by fatigue damage but also mainly by creep damage and accumulated inelastic strain. These can be conservatively estimated according to the ASME-Code (high temperature part CC N47) by means of the results of elastic calculations, yet this simplified method to provide evidence often leads to calculated overloads such as the present case of the live steam collector of the steam generator of a HTR. For providing the evidence that the actual loads of the component are within permissible limits, comprehensive inelastic analyses have to be referred to in such a case. The two-dimensional inelastic analysis which is reported here in detail shows that the creep and fatigue failure as well as the inelastic extensions of the live steam collectors accumulated during the service time are below the permissible limit stated in the ASME-Code and failure of those components while used in the reactor can this be excluded. (orig.) [de

  12. Simulation of VVER MCCI reactor test case with ASTEC V2/MEDICIS computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, A.; Grudev, P.; Gencheva, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the ASTEC v2, module MEDICIS for simulation of VVER Molten core concrete interaction test (MCCI) case without water injection. The main purpose of performed calculation is verification and improvement of module MEDICIS/ASTECv2 for better simulation of core concrete interaction processes. The VVER-1000 reference nuclear power plant was chosen as SARNET2 benchmark MCCI test-case. The initial conditions for MCCI test are taken after SBO scenario calculated with ASTEC version 1.3R2 by INRNE. (authors)

  13. Containment PT Analysis in case of installation of PCCS using CAP Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Jun; Hong, Soon Joon [Future and Challenge Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gon Han; Cheon, Jong [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The goal of this project is developing of the conceptual design of containment passive cooling system, including PMCCS (Passive Molten Core Cooling System) and furthermore, applying to APR+ and iPOWER reactor finally. Advanced researches on PCCS were carried out by global nuclear industrial companies and the several types of reactor, such as AP1000, ESBWR and VVER, were introduced. Using the different way, these reactor types, however, are devised to mitigate the consequence of LOCA accident and remove the long-term decay heat. To confirm the reliability of PCCS function during an accident progress, experimental proofs and computational evaluations are vital. To evaluate the PCCS performance, CAP code simulation is preliminarily conducted on the ShinKori 3/4 DEDLSB accident. Two condensation models, Uchida and Dehbi's correlation, are tested for the condensation model applied on PCCS condensation tube outside surface. As compared with the existing spray system, it revealed the good performance in terms of containment pressure reduction. On the other hand, re-pressurization with the start of PCCT coolant temperature increment is observed also.

  14. STATIC CODE ANALYSIS FOR SOFTWARE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: A CASE STUDY IN BCI FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indar Sugiarto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how the systematic approach in software testing using static code analysis method can be used for improving the software quality of a BCI framework. The method is best performed during the development phase of framework programs. In the proposed approach, we evaluate several software metrics which are based on the principles of object oriented design. Since such method is depending on the underlying programming language, we describe the method in term of C++ language programming whereas the Qt platform is also currently being used. One of the most important metric is so called software complexity. Applying the software complexity calculation using both McCabe and Halstead method for the BCI framework which consists of two important types of BCI, those are SSVEP and P300, we found that there are two classes in the framework which have very complex and prone to violation of cohesion principle in OOP. The other metrics are fit the criteria of the proposed framework aspects, such as: MPC is less than 20; average complexity is around value of 5; and the maximum depth is below 10 blocks. Such variables are considered very important when further developing the BCI framework in the future.

  15. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  16. The Role of Architectural and Learning Constraints in Neural Network Models: A Case Study on Visual Space Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Alberto; De Filippo De Grazia, Michele; Zorzi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The recent "deep learning revolution" in artificial neural networks had strong impact and widespread deployment for engineering applications, but the use of deep learning for neurocomputational modeling has been so far limited. In this article we argue that unsupervised deep learning represents an important step forward for improving neurocomputational models of perception and cognition, because it emphasizes the role of generative learning as opposed to discriminative (supervised) learning. As a case study, we present a series of simulations investigating the emergence of neural coding of visual space for sensorimotor transformations. We compare different network architectures commonly used as building blocks for unsupervised deep learning by systematically testing the type of receptive fields and gain modulation developed by the hidden neurons. In particular, we compare Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs), which are stochastic, generative networks with bidirectional connections trained using contrastive divergence, with autoencoders, which are deterministic networks trained using error backpropagation. For both learning architectures we also explore the role of sparse coding, which has been identified as a fundamental principle of neural computation. The unsupervised models are then compared with supervised, feed-forward networks that learn an explicit mapping between different spatial reference frames. Our simulations show that both architectural and learning constraints strongly influenced the emergent coding of visual space in terms of distribution of tuning functions at the level of single neurons. Unsupervised models, and particularly RBMs, were found to more closely adhere to neurophysiological data from single-cell recordings in the primate parietal cortex. These results provide new insights into how basic properties of artificial neural networks might be relevant for modeling neural information processing in biological systems.

  17. Medical Ethics Code: an Analysis from Ethical-Disciplinary Cases Against Medical Professionals within the Specialty of Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Crosara Gracindo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the nature of infractions committed by doctors working within the field of psychiatry, between 2010 and 2016, from the scope of appeals within ethical-disciplinary cases judged at the Plenary Tribunal of the Federal Medical Council, based on the medical ethics code, and to list some elements that make it possible to outline the professional profile of those involved. Method: This was a document-based investigation in the form of a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were gathered using the Federal Medical Council (CFM database and from consultation of judgments issued by the Plenary Body of the Medical Ethics Tribunal (TSEM, of the CFM. The investigation used a sample consisting of 206 appeals and 19 referrals, totaling 224 appeals by doctors who underwent trials. We took into account cases judged between April 13, 2010 and August 3, 2016. Three databases were used in the investigation: cases (224; doctors facing charges (191 and cases/penalties (146. Based on the records of the 191 doctors charged, the ethical-disciplinary cases of seven doctors working in psychiatry were analyzed specifically for the present study, whether or not they had a specialist title. Characterization of infractions committed encompassed references to the articles of the medical ethics code most frequently infringed in the field of psychiatry, along with a survey of the motives for these infractions and some characteristics relating to these professionals’ profile. Results: Among the findings from this investigation, infractions of the articles of the medical ethics code can be highlighted, such as article 30 “[...] Use of the profession to corrupt customs and to commit or favor crime [...]” and article 40 “[...] Taking advantage of situations arising from the doctor-patient relationship to obtain physical, emotional, financial or any other advantage [...]”. The professional profile of those involved in these cases was also shown

  18. The use of Markov chains in forecasting wind speed: Matlab source code and applied case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Alexandru Petre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the wind speed has an important role for renewable energy industry which relies on wind speed forecasts in order to calculate the power a wind farm can produce in an area. There are several well-known methods to predict wind speed, but in this paper we focus on short-term wind forecasting using Markov chains. Often gaps can be found in the time series of the wind speed measurements and repeating the measurements is usually not a valid option. In this study it is shown that using Markov chains these gaps from the time series can be filled (they can be generated in an efficient way, but only when the missing data is for a short period of time. Also, the developed Matlab programms that are used in the case study, are included in the paper beeing presented and commented by the authors. In the case study data from a wind farm in Italy is used. The available data are as average wind speed at an interval of 10 minutes in the time period 11/23/2005 - 4/27/2006.

  19. Absence of Doppler signal in transcranial color-coded ultrasonography may be confirmatory for brain death: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD is a valuable tool for demonstrating cerebral circulatory arrest (CCA in the setting of brain death. Complete reversal of diastolic flow (to-and-fro flow and systolic spikes in bilateral terminal internal carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar circulation are considered as specific sonogram configurations supporting the diagnosis of CCA. Because of the possibility of sonic bone window impermeability, absence of any waveform in TCD is not confirmatory for CCA unless there is documentation of disappearance of a previously well detected signal by the same recording settings. Transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS with B-mode imaging can reliably detect adequacy of bone windows with clarity contralateral skull and ipsilateral planum temporale visualization. Therefore, absence of detectable intracranial Doppler signal along with available ultrasound window in TCCS can confirm clinical diagnosis of brain death. We herein discuss this entity from the frame of a representative case.

  20. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  1. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  2. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  3. Use of diagnosis codes for detection of clinically significant opioid poisoning in the emergency department: A retrospective analysis of a surveillance case definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Joseph M; Harmon, Katherine J; Schult, Genevieve C; Staton, Catherine A; Waller, Anna E

    2016-02-08

    Although fatal opioid poisonings tripled from 1999 to 2008, data describing nonfatal poisonings are rare. Public health authorities are in need of tools to track opioid poisonings in near real time. We determined the utility of ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for identifying clinically significant opioid poisonings in a state-wide emergency department (ED) surveillance system. We sampled visits from four hospitals from July 2009 to June 2012 with diagnosis codes of 965.00, 965.01, 965.02 and 965.09 (poisoning by opiates and related narcotics) and/or an external cause of injury code of E850.0-E850.2 (accidental poisoning by opiates and related narcotics), and developed a novel case definition to determine in which cases opioid poisoning prompted the ED visit. We calculated the percentage of visits coded for opioid poisoning that were clinically significant and compared it to the percentage of visits coded for poisoning by non-opioid agents in which there was actually poisoning by an opioid agent. We created a multivariate regression model to determine if other collected triage data can improve the positive predictive value of diagnosis codes alone for detecting clinically significant opioid poisoning. 70.1 % of visits (Standard Error 2.4 %) coded for opioid poisoning were primarily prompted by opioid poisoning. The remainder of visits represented opioid exposure in the setting of other primary diseases. Among non-opioid poisoning codes reviewed, up to 36 % were reclassified as an opioid poisoning. In multivariate analysis, only naloxone use improved the positive predictive value of ICD-9-CM codes for identifying clinically significant opioid poisoning, but was associated with a high false negative rate. This surveillance mechanism identifies many clinically significant opioid overdoses with a high positive predictive value. With further validation, it may help target control measures such as prescriber education and pharmacy monitoring.

  4. Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basol, Mit; Kielb, John F.; MuHooly, John F.; Smit, Kobus

    2007-01-01

    On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate

  5. Computational system to create an entry file for replicating I-125 seeds simulating brachytherapy case studies using the MCNPX code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo da Silva Boia

    2014-03-01

    decline for short distances.------------------------------Cite this article as: Boia LS, Junior J, Menezes AF, Silva AX. Computational system to create an entry file for replicating I-125 seeds simulating brachytherapy case studies using the MCNPX code. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:02023.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0202.3

  6. "There are too many, but never enough": qualitative case study investigating routine coding of clinical information in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Morrison, Zoe; Kalra, Dipak; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    We sought to understand how clinical information relating to the management of depression is routinely coded in different clinical settings and the perspectives of and implications for different stakeholders with a view to understanding how these may be aligned. Qualitative investigation exploring the views of a purposefully selected range of healthcare professionals, managers, and clinical coders spanning primary and secondary care. Our dataset comprised 28 semi-structured interviews, a focus group, documents relating to clinical coding standards and participant observation of clinical coding activities. We identified a range of approaches to coding clinical information including templates and order entry systems. The challenges inherent in clearly establishing a diagnosis, identifying appropriate clinical codes and possible implications of diagnoses for patients were particularly prominent in primary care. Although a range of managerial and research benefits were identified, there were no direct benefits from coded clinical data for patients or professionals. Secondary care staff emphasized the role of clinical coders in ensuring data quality, which was at odds with the policy drive to increase real-time clinical coding. There was overall no evidence of clear-cut direct patient care benefits to inform immediate care decisions, even in primary care where data on patients with depression were more extensively coded. A number of important secondary uses were recognized by healthcare staff, but the coding of clinical data to serve these ends was often poorly aligned with clinical practice and patient-centered considerations. The current international drive to encourage clinical coding by healthcare professionals during the clinical encounter may need to be critically examined.

  7. “There Are Too Many, but Never Enough": Qualitative Case Study Investigating Routine Coding of Clinical Information in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Morrison, Zoe; Sheikh, Aziz; Kalra, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to understand how clinical information relating to the management of depression is routinely coded in different clinical settings and the perspectives of and implications for different stakeholders with a view to understanding how these may be aligned. Materials and Methods Qualitative investigation exploring the views of a purposefully selected range of healthcare professionals, managers, and clinical coders spanning primary and secondary care. Results Our dataset comprised 28 semi-structured interviews, a focus group, documents relating to clinical coding standards and participant observation of clinical coding activities. We identified a range of approaches to coding clinical information including templates and order entry systems. The challenges inherent in clearly establishing a diagnosis, identifying appropriate clinical codes and possible implications of diagnoses for patients were particularly prominent in primary care. Although a range of managerial and research benefits were identified, there were no direct benefits from coded clinical data for patients or professionals. Secondary care staff emphasized the role of clinical coders in ensuring data quality, which was at odds with the policy drive to increase real-time clinical coding. Conclusions There was overall no evidence of clear-cut direct patient care benefits to inform immediate care decisions, even in primary care where data on patients with depression were more extensively coded. A number of important secondary uses were recognized by healthcare staff, but the coding of clinical data to serve these ends was often poorly aligned with clinical practice and patient-centered considerations. The current international drive to encourage clinical coding by healthcare professionals during the clinical encounter may need to be critically examined. PMID:22937106

  8. Developments on ASME Code Cases to Risk-Informed Repair/Replacement Activities in Support of Risk-Informed Regulation Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, Kenneth R.; Holston, William C.

    2002-01-01

    ASME Code Case N-658, 'Risk-Informed Safety Classification for Use in Risk-Informed Repair/Replacement Activities' and Code Case N-660, 'Alternative Repair/Replacement Requirements For Items Classified In Accordance With Risk-Informed Processes' are being completed to expand the breadth of risk-informed requirements for pressure-retaining items. This initiative, which is built from prior ASME Section XI risk-informed inservice inspection developments over the past decade, has been undertaken in conjunction with U.S. risk-informed regulation efforts. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the industry on risk informing Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50 (10CFR50). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's basic proposal is to allow modification of some of the special treatment requirements of 10CFR50. Their effort is proceeding via an Advanced Notice of Public Rulemaking, March 3, 2000, and an announcement of Availability of Draft Rule Wording, November 29, 2001, to add 10 CFR 50.69, 'Risk-Informed Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components'. A parallel task by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) to develop a guideline on how to implement the results of the rulemaking is also well underway via NEI 00-04 (Draft Revision B), 'Option 2 Implementation Guideline', May 2001. This paper summarizes the content and status of approval of the proposed ASME Code Cases, including how they relate to the above NRC and NEI efforts. Some initial results from trial application of the Code Cases will also be cited. (authors)

  9. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs

  10. GEYSER/TONUS: A coupled multi-D lumped parameter code for reactor thermal hydraulics analysis in case of severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.; Durin, M.; Gauvain, J. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1995-09-01

    In many countries, the safety requirements for future light water reactors include accounting for severe accidents in the design process. As far as the containment is concerned, the design must now include mitigation features to limit the pressure and temperature inside the building. Hydrogen concentration is also a major issue for severe accidents. In this context, new needs appear for the modeling of the thermal hydraulics inside the containment. It requires the description of complex phenomena such as condensation, stratification, transport of gases and aerosols, heat transfers. Moreover, the effect of mitigation systems will increase the heterogeneities in the building, and most of those phenomena can be coupled, as for example hydrogen stratification and condensation. To model such a complex situation, the use of multi-dimensional computer codes seems to be necessary in case of large volumes. The aim of the GEYSER/TONUS computer code is to fulfill this need. This code is currently under development at CEA in Saclay. It will allow the coupling of parts of the containment described in a lumped parameter manner, together with meshed parts. Emphasis is put on the numerical methods used to solve the transient problem, as the objective is to be able to treat complete scenarios. Physical models of classical lumped parameters codes will adapted for the spatially described zones. The code is developed in the environment of the CASTEM 2000/TRIO EF system which allows, thanks to its modular conception, to construct sophisticated applications based upon it.

  11. Hearing the voices of service user researchers in collaborative qualitative data analysis: the case for multiple coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Angela; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Williams, Sally; Wykes, Til; Rose, Diana S

    2013-12-01

    Health research is frequently conducted in multi-disciplinary teams, with these teams increasingly including service user researchers. Whilst it is common for service user researchers to be involved in data collection--most typically interviewing other service users--it is less common for service user researchers to be involved in data analysis and interpretation. This means that a unique and significant perspective on the data is absent. This study aims to use an empirical report of a study on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) to demonstrate the value of multiple coding in enabling service users voices to be heard in team-based qualitative data analysis. The CBTp study employed multiple coding to analyse service users' discussions of CBT for psychosis (CBTp) from the perspectives of a service user researcher, clinical researcher and psychology assistant. Multiple coding was selected to enable multiple perspectives to analyse and interpret data, to understand and explore differences and to build multi-disciplinary consensus. Multiple coding enabled the team to understand where our views were commensurate and incommensurate and to discuss and debate differences. Through the process of multiple coding, we were able to build strong consensus about the data from multiple perspectives, including that of the service user researcher. Multiple coding is an important method for understanding and exploring multiple perspectives on data and building team consensus. This can be contrasted with inter-rater reliability which is only appropriate in limited circumstances. We conclude that multiple coding is an appropriate and important means of hearing service users' voices in qualitative data analysis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Quality assurance in coding expertise of hospital cases in the German DRG system. Evaluation of inter-rater reliability in MDK expertise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, H; Brambrink, M; Funk, R; Rieger, M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the D-DRG results of a hospital case by 2 independently coding MKD raters. Calculation of the 2-inter-rater reliability was performed by examination of the coding of individual hospital cases. The reasons for the non-agreement of the expert evaluations and suggestions to improve the process are discussed. From the expert evaluation pool of the MDK-WL a random sample of 0.7% of the 57,375 expertises was taken. Distribution equality with the basic total was tested by the χ² test or, respectively, Fisher's exact test. For the total of 402 individual hospital cases, the G-DRG case sums of 2 experts of the MDK were determined independently and the results checked for each individual case for agreement or non-agreement. The corresponding confidence intervals with standard errors were analysed to test if certain major diagnosis categories (MDC) were statistically significantly more affected by differing expertise results than others. In 280 of the total 402 tested hospital cases, the 2 MDK raters independently reached the same G-DRG results; in 122 cases the G-DRG case sums determined by the 2 raters differed (agreement 70%; CI 65.2-74.1). Different DRG results between the 2 experts occurred regularly in the entire MDC spectrum. No MDC chapter in which significant differences between the 2 raters arose could be identified. The results of our study demonstrate an almost 70% agreement in the evaluation of hospital cost accounts by 2 independently operating MDK. This result leaves room for improvement. Optimisation potentials can be recognised on the basis of the results. Potential for improvement was established in combination with regular further training and the expansion of binding internal code recommendations as well as exchange of code-relevant information among experts in internal forums. The presented model is in principle suitable for cross-border examinations within the MDK system with the advantage that

  13. Transient cases analyses of the TRIGA IPR-R1 using thermal hydraulic and neutron kinetic coupled codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Patricia A.L.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Scari, Maria E., E-mail: patricialire@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: melizabethscari@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (INCT/CNPq), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail: rmiro@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Simulations and analyses of nuclear reactors have been improved by utilization of coupled thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutron kinetics (NK) system codes especially to simulate transients that involve strong feedback effects between NK and TH. The TH-NK coupling technique was initially developed and used to simulate the behavior of power reactors; however, several coupling methodologies are now being applied for research reactors. This work presents the coupling methodology application between RELAP5 and PARCS codes using as a model the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor. Analyses of steady state and transient conditions and comparisons with results from simulations using only the RELAP5 code are being presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Development of a dose assessment computer code for the NPP severe accident at intermediate level - Korean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, J.H.; Lee, K.J.; Cho, H.Y.; Lim, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time dose assessment computer code named RADCON (RADiological CONsequence analysis) has been developed. An approximation method describing the distribution of radionuclides in a puff was proposed and implemented in the code. This method is expected to reduce the time required to calculate the cloud shine (external dose from radioactive plumes). RADCON can simulate an NPP emergency situation by considering complex topography and continuous washout phenomena and provide a function of effective emergency planning. To verify the code results, RADCON has been compared with RASCAL, which was developed for the U.S. NRC by ORNL, for eight hypothetical accident scenarios. Sensitivity analysis was also performed for the important input parameters. (2 tabs., 3 figs.)

  15. Functions and Functional Preferences of Code Switching: A Case Study at a Private K-8 School in Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin DEMIRCI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the changes in the approaches and methods in English language teaching throughout history, the use of mother tongue (L1 has been one of the most important topics discussed in the foreign language teaching field. Although most of the approaches used nowadays do not support the use of mother tongue, there is a change in the perception towards teachers’ code-switching in foreign language (L2 learning classrooms. There are various recent studies suggesting that using mother tongue facilitates foreign language learning. In this respect, the purpose of this study was to examine the teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards L1 use in L2 classrooms and under which circumstances they preferred using mother tongue. In addition, learners’ preferences of teachers’ code switching were also analyzed. Both teachers’ and students’ perceptions and beliefs on code switching were investigated using the questionnaires, classroom observations and interviews as data collection tools. There were 2 hour-observation periods (90 minutes in the classrooms of 2nd grade, 4th grade and 7th grade in which the circumstances of L1 use were analyzed to determine if there were any common characteristics of the L1 use. Findings of the revealed that there were some common circumstances where teachers code-switched to facilitate learning in the classroom and that students had some clear preferences for their teachers to switch to L1.

  16. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes.......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....

  17. Specification of a test problem for HYDROCOIN [Hydrologic Code Intercomparison] Level 3 Case 2: Sensitivity analysis for deep disposal in partially saturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prindle, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    The international Hydrologic Code Intercomparison Project (HYDROCOIN) was formed to evaluate hydrogeologic models and computer codes and their use in performance assessment for high-level radioactive waste repositories. Three principal activities in the HYDROCOIN Project are Level 1, verification and benchmarking of hydrologic codes; Level 2, validation of hydrologic models; and Level 3, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the models and codes. This report presents a test case defined for the HYDROCOIN Level 3 activity to explore the feasibility of applying various sensitivity-analysis methodologies to a highly nonlinear model of isothermal, partially saturated flow through fractured tuff, and to develop modeling approaches to implement the methodologies for sensitivity analysis. These analyses involve an idealized representation of a repository sited above the water table in a layered sequence of welded and nonwelded, fractured, volcanic tuffs. The analyses suggested here include one-dimensional, steady flow; one-dimensional, nonsteady flow; and two-dimensional, steady flow. Performance measures to be used to evaluate model sensitivities are also defined; the measures are related to regulatory criteria for containment of high-level radioactive waste. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. The Monte Carlo method for shielding calculations analysis by MORSE code of a streaming case in the CAORSO BWR power reactor shielding (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitouni, Y.

    1987-04-01

    In the field of shielding, the requirement of radiation transport calculations in severe conditions, characterized by irreducible three-dimensional geometries has increased the use of the Monte Carlo method. The latter has proved to be the only rigorous and appropriate calculational method in such conditions. However, further efforts at optimization are still necessary to render the technique practically efficient, despite recent improvements in the Monte Carlo codes, the progress made in the field of computers and the availability of accurate nuclear data. Moreover, the personal experience acquired in the field and the control of sophisticated calculation procedures are of the utmost importance. The aim of the work which has been carried out is the gathering of all the necessary elements and features that would lead to an efficient utilization of the Monte Carlo method used in connection with shielding problems. The study of the general aspects of the method and the exploitation techniques of the MORSE code, which has proved to be one of the most comprehensive of the Monte Carlo codes, lead to a successful analysis of an actual case. In fact, the severe conditions and difficulties met have been overcome using such a stochastic simulation code. Finally, a critical comparison between calculated and high-accuracy experimental results has allowed the final confirmation of the methodology used by us

  19. Large-scale thermal convection of viscous fluids in a faulted system: 3D test case for numerical codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Fabien; Cacace, Mauro; Fischer, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to simple homogeneous 1D and 2D systems, no appropriate analytical solutions exist to test onset of thermal convection against numerical models of complex 3D systems that account for variable fluid density and viscosity as well as permeability heterogeneity (e.g. presence of faults). Owing to the importance of thermal convection for the transport of energy and minerals, the development of a benchmark test for density/viscosity driven flow is crucial to ensure that the applied numerical models accurately simulate the physical processes at hands. The presented study proposes a 3D test case for the simulation of thermal convection in a faulted system that accounts for temperature dependent fluid density and viscosity. The linear stability analysis recently developed by Malkovsky and Magri (2016) is used to estimate the critical Rayleigh number above which thermal convection of viscous fluids is triggered. The numerical simulations are carried out using the finite element technique. OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012) and Moose (Gaston et al., 2009) results are compared to those obtained using the commercial software FEFLOW (Diersch, 2014) to test the ability of widely applied codes in matching both the critical Rayleigh number and the dynamical features of convective processes. The methodology and Rayleigh expressions given in this study can be applied to any numerical model that deals with 3D geothermal processes in faulted basins as by example the Tiberas Basin (Magri et al., 2016). References Kolditz, O., Bauer, S., Bilke, L., Böttcher, N., Delfs, J. O., Fischer, T., U. J. Görke, T. Kalbacher, G. Kosakowski, McDermott, C. I., Park, C. H., Radu, F., Rink, K., Shao, H., Shao, H.B., Sun, F., Sun, Y., Sun, A., Singh, K., Taron, J., Walther, M., Wang,W., Watanabe, N., Wu, Y., Xie, M., Xu, W., Zehner, B., 2012. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media. Environmental

  20. Structural evaluation method for class 1 vessels by using elastic-plastic finite element analysis in code case of JSME rules on design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Seiji; Hirano, Takashi; Nagata, Tetsuya; Kasahara, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    A structural evaluation method by using elastic-plastic finite element analysis has been developed and published as a code case of Rules on Design and Construction for Nuclear Power Plants (The First Part: Light Water Reactor Structural Design Standard) in the JSME Codes for Nuclear Power Generation Facilities. Its title is 'Alternative Structural Evaluation Criteria for Class 1 Vessels Based on Elastic-Plastic Finite Element Analysis' (NC-CC-005). This code case applies elastic-plastic analysis to evaluation of such failure modes as plastic collapse, thermal ratchet, fatigue and so on. Advantage of this evaluation method is free from stress classification, consistently use of Mises stress and applicability to complex 3-dimensional structures which are hard to be treated by the conventional stress classification method. The evaluation method for plastic collapse has such variation as the Lower Bound Approach Method, Twice-Elastic-Slope Method and Elastic Compensation Method. Cyclic Yield Area (CYA) based on elastic analysis is applied to screening evaluation of thermal ratchet instead of secondary stress evaluation, and elastic-plastic analysis is performed when the CYA screening criteria is not satisfied. Strain concentration factors can be directly calculated based on elastic-plastic analysis. (author)

  1. Color-coded perfusion analysis of CEUS for pre-interventional diagnosis of microvascularisation in cases of vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusch, V I; Wohlgemuth, W A; Piehler, A P; Jung, E M

    2014-01-01

    Aim of our pilot study was the application of a contrast-enhanced color-coded ultrasound perfusion analysis in patients with vascular malformations to quantify microcirculatory alterations. 28 patients (16 female, 12 male, mean age 24.9 years) with high flow (n = 6) or slow-flow (n = 22) malformations were analyzed before intervention. An experienced examiner performed a color-coded Doppler sonography (CCDS) and a Power Doppler as well as a contrast-enhanced ultrasound after intravenous bolus injection of 1 - 2.4 ml of a second-generation ultrasound contrast medium (SonoVue®, Bracco, Milan). The contrast-enhanced examination was documented as a cine sequence over 60 s. The quantitative analysis based on color-coded contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) images included percentage peak enhancement (%peak), time to peak (TTP), area under the curve (AUC), and mean transit time (MTT). No side effects occurred after intravenous contrast injection. The mean %peak in arteriovenous malformations was almost twice as high as in slow-flow-malformations. The area under the curve was 4 times higher in arteriovenous malformations compared to the mean value of other malformations. The mean transit time was 1.4 times higher in high-flow-malformations compared to slow-flow-malformations. There was no difference regarding the time to peak between the different malformation types. The comparison between all vascular malformation and surrounding tissue showed statistically significant differences for all analyzed data (%peak, TTP, AUC, MTT; p < 0.01). High-flow and slow-flow vascular malformations had statistically significant differences in %peak (p < 0.01), AUC analysis (p < 0.01), and MTT (p < 0.05). Color-coded perfusion analysis of CEUS seems to be a promising technique for the dynamic assessment of microvasculature in vascular malformations.

  2. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to colorectal cancer risk: a two-step gene-wide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Daniele; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodickova, Ludmila; Novotny, Jan; Steinke, Verena; Rahner, Nils; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Morak, Monika; Schackert, Hans K; Görgens, Heike; Kötting, Judith; Betz, Beate; Kloor, Matthias; Engel, Christoph; Büttner, Reinhard; Propping, Peter; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Kari; Barale, Roberto; Vodicka, Pavel; Canzian, Federico

    2010-09-28

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also indicates a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study to examine the association of common genetic variants in the genes coding for ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor (GHSR) with colorectal cancer risk. Pairwise tagging was used to select the 11 polymorphisms included in the study. The selected polymorphisms were genotyped in 680 cases and 593 controls from the Czech Republic. We found two SNPs associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer, namely SNPs rs27647 and rs35683. We replicated the two hits, in additional 569 cases and 726 controls from Germany. A joint analysis of the two populations indicated that the T allele of rs27647 SNP exerted a protective borderline effect (Ptrend = 0.004).

  3. Should diagnosis codes from emergency department data be used for case selection for emergency department key performance indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stuart C; Wills, Rachael A; Johnston, Trisha C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the suitability of emergency department (ED) discharge diagnosis for identifying patient cohorts included in the definitions of key performance indicators (KPIs) that are used to evaluate ED performance. Hospital inpatient episodes of care with a principal diagnosis that corresponded to an ED-defined KPI were extracted from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection (QHAPDC) for the year 2010-2011. The data were then linked to the corresponding ED patient record and the diagnoses applied in the two settings were compared. The asthma and injury cohorts produced favourable results with respect to matching the QHAPDC principal diagnosis with the ED discharge diagnosis. The results were generally modest when the QHAPDC principal diagnosis was upper respiratory tract infection, poisoning and toxic effects or a mental health diagnosis, and were quite poor for influenza. There is substantial variation in the capture of patient cohorts using discharge diagnosis as recorded on Queensland Hospital Emergency Department data. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? There are several existing KPIs that are defined according to the diagnosis recorded on ED data collections. However, there have been concerns over the quality of ED diagnosis in Queensland and other jurisdictions, and the value of these data in identifying patient cohorts for the purpose of assessing ED performance remains uncertain. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper identifies diagnosis codes that are suitable for use in capturing the patient cohorts that are used to evaluate ED performance, as well as those codes that may be of limited value. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? The limitations of diagnosis codes within ED data should be understood by those seeking to use these data items for healthcare planning and management or for research into healthcare quality and outcomes.

  4. Meeting the requirements of specialists and generalists in Version 3 of the Read Codes: Two illustrative "Case Reports"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Sinclair

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The Read Codes have been recognised as the standard for General Practice computing since 1988 and the original 4-byte set continues to be extensively used to record primary health care data. Read Version 3 (the Read Thesaurus is an expanded clinical vocabulary with an enhanced file structure designed to meet the detailed requirements of specialist practitioners and to address some of the limitations of previous versions. A recent phase of integration of the still widely-used 4-byte set has highlighted the need to ensure that the new Thesaurus continues to support generalist requirements.

  5. Impact of School Uniforms on Student Discipline and the Learning Climate: A Comparative Case Study of Two Middle Schools with Uniform Dress Codes and Two Middle Schools without Uniform Dress Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, Charles Dewitt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of uniform dress codes on a school's climate for student behavior and learning in four middle schools in North Carolina. The research will compare the perceptions of parents, teachers, and administrators in schools with uniform dress codes against schools without uniform dress codes. This…

  6. Application of InSAR and gravimetric surveys for developing construction codes in zones of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction: case study of Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pacheco-Martínez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR has become a valuable tool for surface deformation monitoring, including land subsidence associated with groundwater extraction. Another useful tools for studying Earth's surface processes are geophysical methods such as Gravimetry. In this work we present the application of InSAR analysis and gravimetric surveying to generate valuable information for risk management related to land subsidence and surface faulting. Subsidence of the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico is presented as study case. Aguascalientes local governments have addressed land subsidence issues by including new requirements for new constructions projects in the State Urban Construction Code. Nevertheless, the resulting zoning proposed in the code is still subjective and not clearly defined. Our work based on gravimetric and InSAR surveys is aimed for improving the subsidence hazard zoning proposed in the State Urban Code in a more comprehensive way. The study includes a 2007–2011 ALOS InSAR time-series analysis of the Aguascalientes valley, an interpretation of the compete Bouguer gravimetric anomaly of the Aguascalientes urban area, and the application of time series and gravimetric anomaly maps for improve the subsidence hazard zoning of Aguascalientes City.

  7. Application of Monte-Carlo Code to dose distribution calculation in a case of lung cancer by the emitted photon beams from linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thanh Xuan; Nguyen Thi Cam Thu; Tran Van Nghia; Truong Thi Hong Loan; Vo Thanh Nhon

    2015-01-01

    The dose distribution calculation is one of the major steps in radiotherapy. In this paper the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 has been applied for simulation 15 MV photon beams emitted from linear accelerator in a case of lung cancer of the General Hospital of Kien Giang. The settings for beam directions, field sizes and isocenter position used in MCNP5 must be the same as those in treatment plan at the hospital to ensure the results from MCNP5 are accurate. We also built a program CODIM by using MATLAB® programming software. This program was used to construct patient model from lung CT images obtained from cancer treatment cases at the General Hospital of Kien Giang and then MCNP5 code was used to simulate the delivered dose in the patient. The results from MCNP5 show that there is a difference of 5% in comparison with Prowess Panther program - a semi-empirical simulation program which is being used for treatment planning in the General Hospital of Kien Giang. The success of the work will help the planners to verify the patient dose distribution calculated from the treatment planning program being used at the hospital. (author)

  8. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  9. Calculation of DND-signals in case of fuel pin failures in KNK II with the computer code FICTION III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuck, I.

    1990-11-01

    In KNK II two delayed neutron detectors are installed for quick detection of fuel subassembly cladding failures. They record the release of the precursors of the emitters of delayed neutrons into the sodium. The computer code FICTION III calculates the expected delayed neutron signals for certain fuel pin failures, where the user has to set the boundary conditions interactively. In view of FICTION II the advancement of FICTION III consists of the following items: application of the data sets of 105 isotopes, distinction of thermal and fast neutron induced fission, partitioning of the sodium flow into two circuits, consideration of the specific fission rates in 10 fuel pin sections, elaboration of the user's interaction possibilities for input/ output. The capability of FICTION III is shown by means of two applications (UNi-test pin on position 100 and the third KNK fuel subassembly cladding failure). Object of further evaluations will be among other things the analysis of increased delayed neutron signals in regard to the fault location and dimension

  10. CODE PREFERENCES OF 1st YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS – CASE STUDY OF “SOCIOLOGY OF DISPOSITIONAL GROUPS” STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Błaszczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the formal and non-formal changes which are taking place in Polish higher education, the role and function of the university is also changing. Contemporary Polish students consider higher education as one of the phases of their career. The new generations of students expect rapid and effective education, perceiving academic education as a purchase of services or professional training. The aim of the study was to diagnose if those trends are visible also in the processes of communication between the students and the academic staff. To verify this thesis, the author diagnoses the language expression of students, in the form of essay writing. Expressions were analysed quantitatively and were correlated with some chosen indicators of the students social background. Results indicated that students language expression could be divided into three types: mixed, restricted and elaborate expression. Each of those types can be classified as social codes, which have their own features. Gathered data only partially confirmed the hypothesis tested by the author. Because of the low scale of the study, it can only be considered an inspiration for other researchers and future studies on a high-scale level.

  11. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  12. The Need to Remove the Civil Code from Mexican Commercial Laws: The Case of “Offers” and “Firm Promises”

    OpenAIRE

    Iturralde González, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In 1889, then Mexican President Porfirio Díaz enacted the Mexican Commercial Code that is still in force today. This code was inspired on the Napoleonic code of 1807. Unfortunately, the Mexican code eliminated the use of commercial customs and practices as an accepted method for breaching gaps in commercial law. Since then, Mexican commercial law has held the civil code as the basis for dealing with gaps and loopholes in the application of commercial law. This has prevented the furt...

  13. Verification of the AZNHEX code v.1.4 with MCNP6 for different reference cases; Verificacion del codigo AZNHEX v.1.4 con MCNP6 para diferentes casos de referencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia A, J.; Francois L, J. L.; Bastida O, G. E. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior s/n, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: jgaliciaa87@gmail.com [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The codes that make up the AZTLAN platform (AZTHECA, AZTRAN, AZKIND and AZNHEX) are currently in the testing phase simulating a variety of nuclear reactor assemblies and cores to compare and validate the results obtained for a particular case, with codes globally used in the nuclear area such as CASMO, Serpent and MCNP. The objective of this work is to continue improving the future versions of the codes of the AZTLAN platform so that accurate and reliable results can be obtained for the user. To test the current version of the AZNHEX code, 3 cases were taken into account, the first being the simulation of a VVER-440 reactor assembly; for the second case, the assembly of a fast reactor cooled with helium was simulated and for the third case it was decided to take up the case of the core of a fast reactor cooled with sodium, this because the previous versions of AZNHEX did not show adequate results and, in addition, they presented a considerable amount of limitations. The comparison and validation of the results (neutron multiplication factor, radial power, radial flow, axial power) for these three cases were made using the code MCNP6. The results obtained show that this version of AZNHEX produces values of the neutron multiplication factor and the neutron and power flow distributions very close to those of MCNP6. (Author)

  14. Validation of Neutron Calculation Codes and Models by means of benchmark cases in the frame of the Binational Commission of Nuclear Energy. Probabilistic Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, Adimir; Siqueira, Paulo de Tarso D.; Andrade e Silva, Graciete Simões; Grant, Carlos; Tarazaga, Ariel E.; Barberis, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In year 2008 the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) of Argentina, and the Brazilian Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN), under the frame of Nuclear Energy Argentine Brazilian Agreement (COBEN), among many others, included the project “Validation and Verification of Calculation Methods used for Research and Experimental Reactors . At this time, it was established that the validation was to be performed with models implemented in the deterministic codes HUEMUL and PUMA (cell and reactor codes) developed by CNEA and those ones implemented in MCNP by CNEA and IPEN. The necessary data for these validations would correspond to theoretical-experimental reference cases in the research reactor IPEN/MB-01 located in São Paulo, Brazil. The staff of the group Reactor and Nuclear Power Studies (SERC) of CNEA, from the argentine side, performed calculations with deterministic models (HUEMUL-PUMA) and probabilistic methods (MCNP) modeling a great number of physical situations of de reactor, which previously have been studied and modeled by members of the Center of Nuclear Engineering of the IPEN, whose results were extensively provided to CNEA. In this paper results of comparison of calculated and experimental results for critical configurations, temperature coefficients, kinetic parameters and fission rates evaluated with probabilistic models spatial distributions are shown. (author)

  15. Validation of Neutron Calculation Codes and Models by means of benchmark cases in the frame of the Binational Commission of Nuclear Energy. Criticality Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, Adimir; Siqueira, Paulo de Tarso D.; Andrade e Silva, Graciete Simões; Grant, Carlos; Tarazaga, Ariel E.; Barberis, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In year 2008 the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) of Argentina, and the Brazilian Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN), under the frame of Nuclear Energy Argentine Brazilian Agreement (COBEN), among many others, included the project “Validation and Verification of Calculation Methods used for Research and Experimental Reactors . At this time, it was established that the validation was to be performed with models implemented in the deterministic codes HUEMUL and PUMA (cell and reactor codes) developed by CNEA and those ones implemented in MCNP by CNEA and IPEN. The necessary data for these validations would correspond to theoretical-experimental reference cases in the research reactor IPEN/MB-01 located in São Paulo, Brazil. The staff of the group Reactor and Nuclear Power Studies (SERC) of CNEA, from the argentine side, performed calculations with deterministic models (HUEMUL-PUMA) and probabilistic methods (MCNP) modeling a great number of physical situations of de reactor, which previously have been studied and modeled by members of the Center of Nuclear Engineering of the IPEN, whose results were extensively provided to CNEA. In this paper results for critical configurations are shown. (author)

  16. Regulation and innovation dynamics for nanoresponsible development: The case of the French code de l'environnement L 523-1 to L 523-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auplat, C; Slimane, S Ben

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines one aspect of innovation dynamics for nanoresponsible development: the links between regulation and innovation dynamics. It focuses on the case of the French Code de l'environnement, Articles L. 523-1 to L. 523-3. Articles L. 523-1 to L. 523-3 of the French environment code provide for the obligation to declare the quantities and uses of substances at nanoscale produced, distributed or imported in France. This procedure is intended to improve knowledge of these substances and their uses as well as of their markets and volumes sold, to ensure traceability and to collect available information on their toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. The paper builds on recent work on the emergence of a regulatory framework for nanotechnologies to take stock of the current situation in France, in the EU and globally and to explore how this specific law package may influence innovation and the shaping of new markets for nanobased materials. The study shows that nano-regulation does have an impact on innovation. However, the impact is not the same with EU regulation and with French regulation, and while EU regulation seems to create a favourable context for innovation, French regulation seems to do the opposite. With this study we hope to bring new perspectives to the field of the strategic management of innovation, and also to shed some light on the roles and challenges of institutions to facilitate nanoresponsible development. (paper)

  17. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  18. Application of the Severe Accident Code ATHLET-CD. Coolant injection to primary circuit of a PWR by mobile pump system in case of SBLOCA severe accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobst, Matthias; Wilhelm, Polina; Kliem, Soeren; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactor Safety

    2017-06-01

    The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants is a continuously on-going process. The analysis of transients and accidents is an important research topic, which significantly contributes to safety enhancements of existing power plants. In case of an accident with multiple failures of safety systems, core uncovery and heat-up can occur. In order to prevent the accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, different accident management measures can be applied. By means of numerical analyses performed with the compute code ATHLET-CD, the effectiveness of coolant injection with a mobile pump system into the primary circuit of a PWR was studied. According to the analyses, such a system can stop the melt progression if it is activated prior to 10 % of total core is molten.

  19. On a New Variance Reduction Technique: Neural Network Biasing-a Study of Two Test Cases with the Monte Carlo Code Tripoli4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumonteil, E.

    2009-01-01

    Various variance-reduction techniques are used in Monte Carlo particle transport. Most of them rely either on a hypothesis made by the user (parameters of the exponential biasing, mesh and weight bounds for weight windows, etc.) or on a previous calculation of the system with, for example, a deterministic solver. This paper deals with a new acceleration technique, namely, auto-adaptative neural network biasing. Indeed, instead of using any a priori knowledge of the system, it is possible, at a given point in a simulation, to use the Monte Carlo histories previously simulated to train a neural network, which, in return, should be able to provide an estimation of the adjoint flux, used then for biasing the simulation. We will describe this method, detail its implementation in the Monte Carlo code Tripoli4, and discuss its results on two test cases. (author)

  20. Application of the Severe Accident Code ATHLET-CD. Coolant injection to primary circuit of a PWR by mobile pump system in case of SBLOCA severe accident scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, Matthias; Wilhelm, Polina; Kliem, Soeren; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants is a continuously on-going process. The analysis of transients and accidents is an important research topic, which significantly contributes to safety enhancements of existing power plants. In case of an accident with multiple failures of safety systems, core uncovery and heat-up can occur. In order to prevent the accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, different accident management measures can be applied. By means of numerical analyses performed with the compute code ATHLET-CD, the effectiveness of coolant injection with a mobile pump system into the primary circuit of a PWR was studied. According to the analyses, such a system can stop the melt progression if it is activated prior to 10 % of total core is molten.

  1. Coding in Stroke and Other Cerebrovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Pearce J; Jones, William

    2017-02-01

    Accurate coding is critical for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of coding principles for patients with strokes and other cerebrovascular diseases and includes an illustrative case as a review of coding principles in a patient with acute stroke.

  2. Some Families of Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes Constructed from Constacyclic Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianzhang; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing

    2018-02-01

    Quantum maximal-distance-separable (MDS) codes that satisfy quantum Singleton bound with different lengths have been constructed by some researchers. In this paper, seven families of asymmetric quantum MDS codes are constructed by using constacyclic codes. We weaken the case of Hermitian-dual containing codes that can be applied to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with parameters [[n,k,dz/dx

  3. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  4. Aztheca Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  5. Vocable Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...

  6. LDGM Codes for Channel Coding and Joint Source-Channel Coding of Correlated Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Frias

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a coding scheme based on the use of systematic linear codes with low-density generator matrix (LDGM codes for channel coding and joint source-channel coding of multiterminal correlated binary sources. In both cases, the structures of the LDGM encoder and decoder are shown, and a concatenated scheme aimed at reducing the error floor is proposed. Several decoding possibilities are investigated, compared, and evaluated. For different types of noisy channels and correlation models, the resulting performance is very close to the theoretical limits.

  7. Converter of a continuous code into the Grey code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchar, A.I.; TrUbnikov, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a converter of a continuous code into the Grey code used in a 12-charged precision amplitude-to-digital converter to decrease the digital component of spectrometer differential nonlinearity to +0.7% in the 98% range of the measured band. To construct the converter of a continuous code corresponding to the input signal amplitude into the Grey code used is the regularity in recycling of units and zeroes in each discharge of the Grey code in the case of a continuous change of the number of pulses of a continuous code. The converter is constructed on the elements of 155 series, the frequency of continuous code pulse passing at the converter input is 25 MHz

  8. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  9. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  10. Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  11. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  12. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  13. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  14. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. Numerical Tokamak Project code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.; Beer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Tokamak Project undertook a code comparison using a set of TFTR tokamak parameters. Local radial annulus codes of both gyrokinetic and gyrofluid types were compared for both slab and toroidal case limits assuming ion temperature gradient mode turbulence in a pure plasma with adiabatic electrons. The heat diffusivities were found to be in good internal agreement within ± 50% of the group average over five codes

  16. An Analysis of Language Code Used by the Cross- Married Couples, Banjarese- Javanese Ethnics: A Case Study in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Supiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the use of language code applied by the participants and to find out the factors influencing the choice of language codes. This research is qualitative research that describe the use of language code in the cross married couples. The data are taken from the discourses about language code phenomena dealing with the cross- married couples, Banjarese- Javanese ethnics in Tanah Laut regency South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conversations occur in the family and social life such as between a husband and a wife, a father and his son/daughter, a mother and her son/daughter, a husband and his friends, a wife and her neighbor, and so on. There are 23 data observed and recoded by the researcher based on a certain criteria. Tanah Laut regency is chosen as a purposive sample where this regency has many different ethnics so that they do cross cultural marriage for example between Banjarese- Javanese ethnics. Findings reveal that mostly the cross married couple used code mixing and code switching in their conversation of daily activities. Code mixing is uttered by Javanese father or mother to their children. Mixed codes are used namely Banjarese+Javanese+Indonesian. Meanwhile, code switching occurs when there is another factor or a new participant who join in the discourse. The codes change from Banjarese to Indonesian codes or Javanese to Indonesian codes due to new participant who involve himself/herself in the dialogue. The influential factors are situational factors, the environment (neighborhood, relative status, and ethnicity. Keywords: Language codes, Cross- married couples, Banjarese and Javanese ethics, Dialects

  17. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  18. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gara, P.; Martin, E.

    1983-01-01

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils [fr

  19. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  20. Energy information data base: report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used. (RWR)

  1. Energy information data base: report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used

  2. Code portability and data management considerations in the SAS3D LMFBR accident-analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The SAS3D code was produced from a predecessor in order to reduce or eliminate interrelated problems in the areas of code portability, the large size of the code, inflexibility in the use of memory and the size of cases that can be run, code maintenance, and running speed. Many conventional solutions, such as variable dimensioning, disk storage, virtual memory, and existing code-maintenance utilities were not feasible or did not help in this case. A new data management scheme was developed, coding standards and procedures were adopted, special machine-dependent routines were written, and a portable source code processing code was written. The resulting code is quite portable, quite flexible in the use of memory and the size of cases that can be run, much easier to maintain, and faster running. SAS3D is still a large, long running code that only runs well if sufficient main memory is available

  3. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  4. Hermitian self-dual quasi-abelian codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert S. Palines

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-abelian codes constitute an important class of linear codes containing theoretically and practically interesting codes such as quasi-cyclic codes, abelian codes, and cyclic codes. In particular, the sub-class consisting of 1-generator quasi-abelian codes contains large families of good codes. Based on the well-known decomposition of quasi-abelian codes, the characterization and enumeration of Hermitian self-dual quasi-abelian codes are given. In the case of 1-generator quasi-abelian codes, we offer necessary and sufficient conditions for such codes to be Hermitian self-dual and give a formula for the number of these codes. In the case where the underlying groups are some $p$-groups, the actual number of resulting Hermitian self-dual quasi-abelian codes are determined.

  5. AAA and PBC calculation accuracy in the surface build-up region in tangential beam treatments. Phantom and breast case study with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Barsoum, Pierre; Westermark, Mathias; Brualla, Lorenzo; Lax, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: In tangential beam treatments accurate dose calculation of the absorbed dose in the build-up region is of major importance, in particular when the target has superficial extension close to the skin. In most analytical treatment planning systems (TPSs) calculations depend on the experimental measurements introduced by the user in which accuracy might be limited by the type of detector employed to perform them. To quantify the discrepancy between analytically calculated and delivered dose in the build-up region, near the skin of a patient, independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the PENELOPE code were performed. Dose distributions obtained with MC simulations were compared with those given by the Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) algorithm and the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) implemented in the commercial TPS Eclipse. Material and methods: A cylindrical phantom was used to approximate the breast contour of a patient for MC simulations and the TPS. Calculations of the absorbed doses were performed for 6 and 18 MV beams for four different angles of incidence: 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg. and 75 deg. and different field sizes: 3 x 3 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 and 40 x 40 cm 2 . Absorbed doses along the phantom central axis were obtained with both the PBC algorithm and the AAA and compared to those estimated by the MC simulations. Additionally, a breast patient case was calculated with two opposed 6 MV photon beams using all the aforementioned analytical and stochastic algorithms. Results: For the 6 MV photon beam in the phantom case, both the PBC algorithm and the AAA tend to underestimate the absorbed dose in the build-up region in comparison to MC results. These differences are clinically irrelevant and are included in a 1 mm range. This tendency is also confirmed in the breast patient case. For the 18 MV beam the PBC algorithm underestimates the absorbed dose with respect to the AAA. In comparison to MC simulations the PBC algorithm tends

  6. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  7. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  8. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  9. Case study of the propagation of a small flaw under PWR loading conditions and comparison with the ASME code design life. Comparison of ASME Code Sections III and XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahr, G.T.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Richardson, A.K.; Server, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cooperative study was performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the degree of conservatism and consistency in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III fatigue evaluation procedure and Section XI flaw acceptance standards. A single, realistic, sample problem was analyzed to determine the significance of certain points of criticism made of an earlier parametric study by staff members of the Division of Engineering Standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The problem was based on a semielliptical flaw located on the inside surface of the hot-leg piping at the reactor vessel safe-end weld for the Zion 1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR). Two main criteria were used in selecting the problem; first, it should be a straight pipe to minimize the computational expense; second, it should exhibit as high a cumulative usage factor as possible. Although the problem selected has one of the highest cumulative usage factors of any straight pipe in the primary system of PWRs, it is still very low. The Code Section III fatigue usage factor was only 0.00046, assuming it was in the as-welded condition, and fatigue crack-growth analyses predicted negligible crack growth during the 40-year design life. When the analyses were extended past the design life, the usage factor was less than 1.0 when the flaw had propagated to failure. The current study shows that the criticism of the earlier report should not detract from the conclusion that if a component experiences a high level of cyclic stress corresponding to a fatigue usage factor near 1.0, very small cracks can propagate to unacceptable sizes

  10. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Dynamic Shannon Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gagie, Travis

    2005-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for dynamic prefix-free coding, based on Shannon coding. We give a simple analysis and prove a better upper bound on the length of the encoding produced than the corresponding bound for dynamic Huffman coding. We show how our algorithm can be modified for efficient length-restricted coding, alphabetic coding and coding with unequal letter costs.

  12. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  13. Codes Over Hyperfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamewoue Surdive

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define linear codes and cyclic codes over a finite Krasner hyperfield and we characterize these codes by their generator matrices and parity check matrices. We also demonstrate that codes over finite Krasner hyperfields are more interesting for code theory than codes over classical finite fields.

  14. Writing the Live Coding Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackwell, Alan; Cox, Geoff; Lee, Sang Wong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide range...... of personal, historical, technical and critical perspectives. This book project has been both experimental and reflective, in a manner that allows us to draw on critical understanding of both code and writing, and point to the potential for new practices in the future....

  15. Studies on DANESS Code Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon

    2009-09-01

    The DANESS code modeling study has been performed. DANESS code is widely used in a dynamic fuel cycle analysis. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has used the DANESS code for the Korean national nuclear fuel cycle scenario analysis. In this report, the important models such as Energy-demand scenario model, New Reactor Capacity Decision Model, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Facility History Model, and Fuel Cycle Model are investigated. And, some models in the interface module are refined and inserted for Korean nuclear fuel cycle model. Some application studies have also been performed for GNEP cases and for US fast reactor scenarios with various conversion ratios

  16. Teaching Professional Codes of Ethics to Forestry and Wildlife Students: A Case Study Using Diameter-Limit Harvesting in a Bottomland Hardwood Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Ralph D. Nyland

    2004-01-01

    Professional ethics involve statements by a professional organization to guide the behavior of its members, and to help them determine acceptable and unacceptable behavior in a given situation. Most, if not all, natural resource organizations have Code of Ethics. How to incorporate them across the curriculum and in individual courses of a natural resources program is a...

  17. Higher-Order Thinking and Metacognition in the First-Year Core-Education Classroom: A Case Study in the Use of Color-Coded Drafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to provide some modest insights into the pedagogy of higher-order thinking and metacognition and to share the use of color-coded drafts as a best practice in service of both higher-order thinking and metacognition. This article will begin with a brief theoretical exploration of thinking and of thinking about thinking--the latter…

  18. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  19. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  20. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  1. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  2. Coding and decoding for code division multiple user communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new algorithm is introduced which decodes code division multiple user communication signals. The algorithm makes use of the distinctive form or pattern of each signal to separate it from the composite signal created by the multiple users. Although the algorithm is presented in terms of frequency-hopped signals, the actual transmitter modulator can use any of the existing digital modulation techniques. The algorithm is applicable to error-free codes or to codes where controlled interference is permitted. It can be used when block synchronization is assumed, and in some cases when it is not. The paper also discusses briefly some of the codes which can be used in connection with the algorithm, and relates the algorithm to past studies which use other approaches to the same problem.

  3. Optimizing Excited-State Electronic-Structure Codes for Intel Knights Landing: A Case Study on the BerkeleyGW Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslippe, Jack; da Jornada, Felipe H.; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Barnes, Taylor; Wichmann, Nathan; Raman, Karthik; Sasanka, Ruchira; Louie, Steven G.

    2016-10-06

    We profile and optimize calculations performed with the BerkeleyGW code on the Xeon-Phi architecture. BerkeleyGW depends both on hand-tuned critical kernels as well as on BLAS and FFT libraries. We describe the optimization process and performance improvements achieved. We discuss a layered parallelization strategy to take advantage of vector, thread and node-level parallelism. We discuss locality changes (including the consequence of the lack of L3 cache) and effective use of the on-package high-bandwidth memory. We show preliminary results on Knights-Landing including a roofline study of code performance before and after a number of optimizations. We find that the GW method is particularly well-suited for many-core architectures due to the ability to exploit a large amount of parallelism over plane-wave components, band-pairs, and frequencies.

  4. Discrete Sparse Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.

  5. GEYSER/TONUS: a coupled multi-D lumped parameter code for reactor thermal hydraulics analysis in case of severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.; Durin, M.; Gauvain, J.

    1995-12-31

    The safety requirements for future light water reactors include accounting for severe accidents in the design process. The design must now include mitigation features to limit pressure and temperature inside the building. Hydrogen concentration is also a major issue for severe accidents. Modelling the thermal hydraulics inside the containment requires the description of complex phenomena such as condensation, stratification, transport of gases and aerosols, heat transfers. The effect of mitigation systems will increase the heterogeneities in the building, and most of those phenomena can be coupled. The GEYSER/TONUS multi-dimensional computer code is under development at CEA Saclay to model this complex situation. It allow the coupling of parts of the containment described in a lumped parameter manner, together with meshed parts. Emphasis is put on the numerical methods used to solve the transient problem, and physical models of classical lumped parameters codes will be adapted for the spatially described zones. The code is developed in the environment of the CASTEM 2000/TRIO EF system which allows to construct sophisticated applications based upon it. (J.S.). 22 refs., 1 fig.

  6. GEYSER/TONUS: a coupled multi-D lumped parameter code for reactor thermal hydraulics analysis in case of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Durin, M.; Gauvain, J.

    1995-01-01

    The safety requirements for future light water reactors include accounting for severe accidents in the design process. The design must now include mitigation features to limit pressure and temperature inside the building. Hydrogen concentration is also a major issue for severe accidents. Modelling the thermal hydraulics inside the containment requires the description of complex phenomena such as condensation, stratification, transport of gases and aerosols, heat transfers. The effect of mitigation systems will increase the heterogeneities in the building, and most of those phenomena can be coupled. The GEYSER/TONUS multi-dimensional computer code is under development at CEA Saclay to model this complex situation. It allow the coupling of parts of the containment described in a lumped parameter manner, together with meshed parts. Emphasis is put on the numerical methods used to solve the transient problem, and physical models of classical lumped parameters codes will be adapted for the spatially described zones. The code is developed in the environment of the CASTEM 2000/TRIO EF system which allows to construct sophisticated applications based upon it. (J.S.). 22 refs., 1 fig

  7. ESCADRE and ICARE code systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reocreux, M.; Gauvain, J.

    1992-01-01

    The French sever accident code development program is following two parallel approaches: the first one is dealing with ''integral codes'' which are designed for giving immediate engineer answers, the second one is following a more mechanistic way in order to have the capability of detailed analysis of experiments, in order to get a better understanding of the scaling problem and reach a better confidence in plant calculations. In the first approach a complete system has been developed and is being used for practical cases: this is the ESCADRE system. In the second approach, a set of codes dealing first with primary circuit is being developed: a mechanistic core degradation code, ICARE, has been issued and is being coupled with the advanced thermalhydraulic code CATHARE. Fission product codes have been also coupled to CATHARE. The ''integral'' ESCADRE system and the mechanistic ICARE and associated codes are described. Their main characteristics are reviewed and the status of their development and assessment given. Future studies are finally discussed. 36 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  8. Coded communications with nonideal interleaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Shaul

    1991-02-01

    Burst error channels - a type of block interference channels - feature increasing capacity but decreasing cutoff rate as the memory rate increases. Despite the large capacity, there is degradation in the performance of practical coding schemes when the memory length is excessive. A short-coding error parameter (SCEP) was introduced, which expresses a bound on the average decoding-error probability for codes shorter than the block interference length. The performance of a coded slow frequency-hopping communication channel is analyzed for worst-case partial band jamming and nonideal interleaving, by deriving expressions for the capacity and cutoff rate. The capacity and cutoff rate, respectively, are shown to approach and depart from those of a memoryless channel corresponding to the transmission of a single code letter per hop. For multiaccess communications over a slot-synchronized collision channel without feedback, the channel was considered as a block interference channel with memory length equal to the number of letters transmitted in each slot. The effects of an asymmetrical background noise and a reduced collision error rate were studied, as aspects of real communications. The performance of specific convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes was examined for slow frequency-hopping systems with nonideal interleaving. An upper bound is presented for the performance of a Viterbi decoder for a convolutional code with nonideal interleaving, and a soft decision diversity combining technique is introduced.

  9. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  10. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  11. Automatic code generation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Kuhrmann, Marco; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -specific language to specify those requirements and to allow for generating a safety-enforcing layer of code, which is deployed to the robot. The paper at hand reports experiences in practically applying code generation to mobile robots. For two cases, we discuss how we addressed challenges, e.g., regarding weaving......Mobile robots often use a distributed architecture in which software components are deployed to heterogeneous hardware modules. Ensuring the consistency with the designed architecture is a complex task, notably if functional safety requirements have to be fulfilled. We propose to use a domain...... code generation into proprietary development environments and testing of manually written code. We find that a DSL based on the same conceptual model can be used across different kinds of hardware modules, but a significant adaptation effort is required in practical scenarios involving different kinds...

  12. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  13. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  14. Coding for effective denial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jackie; Lineberry, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Nearly everyone will agree that accurate and consistent coding of diagnoses and procedures is the cornerstone for operating a compliant practice. The CPT or HCPCS procedure code tells the payor what service was performed and also (in most cases) determines the amount of payment. The ICD-9-CM diagnosis code, on the other hand, tells the payor why the service was performed. If the diagnosis code does not meet the payor's criteria for medical necessity, all payment for the service will be denied. Implementation of an effective denial management program can help "stop the bleeding." Denial management is a comprehensive process that works in two ways. First, it evaluates the cause of denials and takes steps to prevent them. Second, denial management creates specific procedures for refiling or appealing claims that are initially denied. Accurate, consistent and compliant coding is key to both of these functions. The process of proactively managing claim denials also reveals a practice's administrative strengths and weaknesses, enabling radiology business managers to streamline processes, eliminate duplicated efforts and shift a larger proportion of the staff's focus from paperwork to servicing patients--all of which are sure to enhance operations and improve practice management and office morale. Accurate coding requires a program of ongoing training and education in both CPT and ICD-9-CM coding. Radiology business managers must make education a top priority for their coding staff. Front office staff, technologists and radiologists should also be familiar with the types of information needed for accurate coding. A good staff training program will also cover the proper use of Advance Beneficiary Notices (ABNs). Registration and coding staff should understand how to determine whether the patient's clinical history meets criteria for Medicare coverage, and how to administer an ABN if the exam is likely to be denied. Staff should also understand the restrictions on use of

  15. Evaluation procedure of the structural integrity of a pipe of nuclear use. Application of codes for design and service. Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzi, H.; Asta, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we are presenting the most important results of the local stresses occurred in the cracked pipes with a axial through-wall, under Failure Concept 0.1A, using Finite Element Method and Fracture Mechanics. As requested, the component has been verified based 3D FE plastic analysis, under the postulated failure loading, assuring with this method a high degree of accuracy in the results. Codes used by Design and Service, as ASME Section III Div. 1 and API 579, have been used in the analysis. (author)

  16. Psacoin level S intercomparison: An International code intercomparison exercise on a hypothetical safety assessment case study for radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report documents the Level S exercise of the Probabilistic System Assessment Group (PSAG). Level S is the fifth in a series of Probabilistic Code Intercomparison (PSACOIN) exercises designed to contribute to the verification of probabilistic codes and methodologies that may be used in assessing the safety of radioactive waste disposal systems and concepts. The focus of the Level S exercise lies on sensitivity analysis. Given a common data set of model output and input values the participants were asked to identify both the underlying model's most important parameters (deterministic sensitivity analysis) and the link between the distributions of the input and output values (distribution sensitivity analysis). Agreement was generally found where it was expected and the exercise has achieved its objectives in acting as a focus for testing and discussing sensitivity analysis issues. Among the outstanding issues that have been identified are: (i) that techniques for distribution sensitivity analysis are needed that avoid the problem of statistical noise; (ii) that further investigations are warranted on the most appropriate way of handling large numbers of effectively zero results generated by Monte Carlo sampling; and (iii) that methods need to be developed for demonstrating that the results of sensitivity analysis are indeed correct

  17. Verification and Validation (V&V) Methodologies for Multiphase Turbulent and Explosive Flows. V&V Case Studies of Computer Simulations from Los Alamos National Laboratory GMFIX codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartevelle, S.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale volcanic eruptions are inherently hazardous events, hence cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurements; hence, volcanic explosive phenomenology is inadequately constrained in terms of initial and inflow conditions. Consequently, little to no real-time data exist to Verify and Validate computer codes developed to model these geophysical events as a whole. However, code Verification and Validation remains a necessary step, particularly when volcanologists use numerical data for mitigation of volcanic hazards as more often performed nowadays. The Verification and Validation (V&V) process formally assesses the level of 'credibility' of numerical results produced within a range of specific applications. The first step, Verification, is 'the process of determining that a model implementation accurately represents the conceptual description of the model', which requires either exact analytical solutions or highly accurate simplified experimental data. The second step, Validation, is 'the process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world', which requires complex experimental data of the 'real world' physics. The Verification step is rather simple to formally achieve, while, in the 'real world' explosive volcanism context, the second step, Validation, is about impossible. Hence, instead of validating computer code against the whole large-scale unconstrained volcanic phenomenology, we rather suggest to focus on the key physics which control these volcanic clouds, viz., momentum-driven supersonic jets and multiphase turbulence. We propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple but well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent these two key-phenomenology separately. Herewith, we use GMFIX (Geophysical Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange, v1.62), a set of multiphase- CFD FORTRAN codes, which have been recently redeveloped to meet the strict

  18. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  19. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  20. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.

  1. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  2. Code-Mixing and Code Switchingin The Process of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe a form of code switching and code mixing specific form found in the teaching and learning activities in the classroom as well as determining factors influencing events stand out that form of code switching and code mixing in question.Form of this research is descriptive qualitative case study which took place in Al Mawaddah Boarding School Ponorogo. Based on the analysis and discussion that has been stated in the previous chapter that the form of code mixing and code switching learning activities in Al Mawaddah Boarding School is in between the use of either language Java language, Arabic, English and Indonesian, on the use of insertion of words, phrases, idioms, use of nouns, adjectives, clauses, and sentences. Code mixing deciding factor in the learning process include: Identification of the role, the desire to explain and interpret, sourced from the original language and its variations, is sourced from a foreign language. While deciding factor in the learning process of code, includes: speakers (O1, partners speakers (O2, the presence of a third person (O3, the topic of conversation, evoke a sense of humour, and just prestige. The significance of this study is to allow readers to see the use of language in a multilingual society, especially in AL Mawaddah boarding school about the rules and characteristics variation in the language of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Furthermore, the results of this research will provide input to the ustadz / ustadzah and students in developing oral communication skills and the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies in boarding schools.

  3. Issues in Developing a Surveillance Case Definition for Nonfatal Suicide Attempt and Intentional Self-harm Using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) Coded Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, Holly; Schoenbaum, Michael; Claassen, Cynthia; Crosby, Alex; Holland, Kristin; Proescholdbell, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Suicide and intentional self-harm are among the leading causes of death in the United States. To study this public health issue, epidemiologists and researchers often analyze data coded using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Prior to October 1, 2015, health care organizations and providers used the clinical modification of the Ninth Revision of ICD (ICD-9-CM) to report medical information in electronic claims data. The transition in October 2015 to use of the clinical modification of the Tenth Revision of ICD (ICD-10-CM) resulted in the need to update methods and selection criteria previously developed for ICD-9-CM coded data. This report provides guidance on the use of ICD-10-CM codes to identify cases of nonfatal suicide attempts and intentional self-harm in ICD-10-CM coded data sets. ICD-10-CM codes for nonfatal suicide attempts and intentional self-harm include: X71-X83, intentional self-harm due to drowning and submersion, firearms, explosive or thermal material, sharp or blunt objects, jumping from a high place, jumping or lying in front of a moving object, crashing of motor vehicle, and other specified means; T36-T50 with a 6th character of 2 (except for T36.9, T37.9, T39.9, T41.4, T42.7, T43.9, T45.9, T47.9, and T49.9, which are included if the 5th character is 2), intentional self-harm due to drug poisoning (overdose); T51-T65 with a 6th character of 2 (except for T51.9, T52.9, T53.9, T54.9, T56.9, T57.9, T58.0, T58.1, T58.9, T59.9, T60.9, T61.0, T61.1, T61.9, T62.9, T63.9, T64.0, T64.8, and T65.9, which are included if the 5th character is 2), intentional self-harm due to toxic effects of nonmedicinal substances; T71 with a 6th character of 2, intentional self-harm due to asphyxiation, suffocation, strangulation; and T14.91, Suicide attempt. Issues to consider when selecting records for nonfatal suicide attempts and intentional self-harm from ICD-10-CM coded administrative data sets are also discussed. All material appearing in this

  4. Code stroke in Asturias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, L; Villanueva, M J; Vega, P; Casado, I; Vidal, J A; Castaño, B; Amorín, M; de la Vega, V; Santos, H; Trigo, A; Gómez, M B; Larrosa, D; Temprano, T; González, M; Murias, E; Calleja, S

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke when applied during the first 4.5 hours, but less than 15% of patients have access to this technique. Mechanical thrombectomy is more frequently able to recanalise proximal occlusions in large vessels, but the infrastructure it requires makes it even less available. We describe the implementation of code stroke in Asturias, as well as the process of adapting various existing resources for urgent stroke care in the region. By considering these resources, and the demographic and geographic circumstances of our region, we examine ways of reorganising the code stroke protocol that would optimise treatment times and provide the most appropriate treatment for each patient. We distributed the 8 health districts in Asturias so as to permit referral of candidates for reperfusion therapies to either of the 2 hospitals with 24-hour stroke units and on-call neurologists and providing IV fibrinolysis. Hospitals were assigned according to proximity and stroke severity; the most severe cases were immediately referred to the hospital with on-call interventional neurology care. Patient triage was provided by pre-hospital emergency services according to the NIHSS score. Modifications to code stroke in Asturias have allowed us to apply reperfusion therapies with good results, while emphasising equitable care and managing the severity-time ratio to offer the best and safest treatment for each patient as soon as possible. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  6. Replacement of radiography with ultrasonic phased array for feeder tubes in CANDU reactors using ASME code case N-659-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.; Bower, Q.; Arseneau, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss phased array technology for the replacement of radiography on new construction projects in the nuclear industry. Specifically, through the implementation of A.S.M.E. code N-659-2 and MetaPhase phased array services. Phased Array is not considered a new technique on in service welds in the nuclear industry; however it was unprecedented on new construction welds and required significant investment in regulatory approval (C.N.S.C.), technology research and development, regulatory, client and technician training for successful service implementation. This paper will illustrate the abilities and limitations associated in replacing radiography with MetaPhase, as well as the substantial benefits relative to increased production, improved weld quality, enhanced safety and overall project cost savings. (author)

  7. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  8. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  9. Detection of Multiple Budding Yeast Cells and a Partial Sequence of 43-kDa Glycoprotein Coding Gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a Case of Lacaziosis in a Female Pacific White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Izawa, Takeshi; Konno, Toshihiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Sano, Ayako; Wada, Shinpei

    2016-08-01

    Lacaziosis, formerly called as lobomycosis, is a zoonotic mycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, found in humans and dolphins, and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean of Japanese coast. Susceptible Cetacean species include the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus), and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis); however, no cases have been recorded in other Cetacean species. We diagnosed a case of Lacaziosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) nursing in an aquarium in Japan. The dolphin was a female estimated to be more than 14 years old at the end of June 2015 and was captured in a coast of Japan Sea in 2001. Multiple, lobose, and solid granulomatous lesions with or without ulcers appeared on her jaw, back, flipper and fluke skin, in July 2014. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present case were similar to those of our previous cases. Multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells were detected in the biopsied samples. The partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein coding gene confirmed by a nested PCR and sequencing, which revealed a different genotype from both Amazonian and Japanese lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins, and was 99 % identical to those derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; a sister fungal species to L. loboi. This is the first case of lacaziosis in Pacific white-sided dolphin.

  10. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  11. Implementation of constitutive equations for creep damage mechanics into the ABAQUS finite element code - some practical cases in high temperature component design and life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segle, P.; Samuelson, L.Aa.; Andersson, Peder; Moberg, F.

    1996-01-01

    Constitutive equations for creep damage mechanics are implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS using a user supplied subroutine, UMAT. A modified Kachanov-Rabotnov constitutive equation which accounts for inhomogeneity in creep damage is used. With a user defined material a number of bench mark tests are analyzed for verification. In the cases where analytical solutions exist, the numerical results agree very well. In other cases, the creep damage evolution response appear to be realistic in comparison with laboratory creep tests. The appropriateness of using the creep damage mechanics concept in design and life assessment of high temperature components is demonstrated. 18 refs

  12. Linear codes associated to determinantal varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir R.; Hasan, Sartaj Ul

    2015-01-01

    We consider a class of linear codes associated to projective algebraic varieties defined by the vanishing of minors of a fixed size of a generic matrix. It is seen that the resulting code has only a small number of distinct weights. The case of varieties defined by the vanishing of 2×2 minors is ...

  13. Compiler Driven Code Comments and Refactoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Ladelsky, Razya; Karlsson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    . We demonstrate the ability of our tool to trans- form code, and suggest code refactoring that increase its amenability to optimization. The preliminary results shows that, with our tool-set, au- tomatic loop parallelization with the GNU C compiler, gcc, yields 8.6x best-case speedup over...

  14. Use of environmental isotopes in studying surface and groundwaters in the Upper Orontes basin: A case study of modeling elements and pollutants transport using the code PHREEQM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2001-06-01

    This report evaluate the chemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwater in the upper Orontes basin, together with a study of the precipitation behavior of Bloudan, Homs and Tartous stations. It presents also the so far obtained results throughout the application of the geochemical code PHREEQM in studying the elements and pollutant as transport in the groundwater of this basin. The results show that the rainfall chemistry was a moderate dissolved content, and, and accompanied with how ph values and high sulfate contents, as a result of domestic and industrial pollution. the altitude effect is shown up by a depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.18 % and -1.39% per 100 m elevation of δ 18 O and δ D, respectively. surface water in the Orontes River, up to Qattineh Lake, was characterized by a low solute content, high ph values (higher than 8), high dissolved oxygen content, depleted concentration in heavy stable isotopes and natural mineralization in 15 N and organic pollutants (N and P). Un the opposite, the water of this river was more saline and more enriched in organic pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorous, after its getting out of the Qattineh Lake. The river water was also characterized by low ph values and low concentration in dissolved oxygen, as a consequence of organic matter oxidation. The depleted concentration of heavy stable isotopes in the Cenomanian Turonian aquifer system reveals that the altitude of recharge zone is rather higher than 1000 m, which corresponds to an exposure of these rocks in Lebanon, the altitude of recharge zones for the continental and volcanic pliocene aquifers is not lower than 500 m. The mean turnover time (residence time) of groundwater in the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer was evaluated to be about 40-50 years. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 0.8 billion cubic m was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size. The results of geochemical modeling of elements and

  15. MO-G-BRE-05: Clinical Process Improvement and Billing in Radiation Oncology: A Case Study of Applying FMEA for CPT Code 77336 (continuing Medical Physics Consultation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirydovich, S; Huq, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The improvement of quality in healthcare can be assessed by Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). In radiation oncology, FMEA, as applied to the billing CPT code 77336, can improve both charge capture and, most importantly, quality of the performed services. Methods: We created an FMEA table for the process performed under CPT code 77336. For a given process step, each member of the assembled team (physicist, dosimetrist, and therapist) independently assigned numerical values for: probability of occurrence (O, 1–10), severity (S, 1–10), and probability of detection (D, 1–10) for every failure mode cause and effect combination. The risk priority number, RPN, was then calculated as a product of O, S and D from which an average RPN was calculated for each combination mentioned above. A fault tree diagram, with each process sorted into 6 categories, was created with linked RPN. For processes with high RPN recommended actions were assigned. 2 separate R and V systems (Lantis and EMR-based ARIA) were considered. Results: We identified 9 potential failure modes and corresponding 19 potential causes of these failure modes all resulting in unjustified 77336 charge and compromised quality of care. In Lantis, the range of RPN was 24.5–110.8, and of S values – 2–10. The highest ranking RPN of 110.8 came from the failure mode described as “end-of-treatment check not done before the completion of treatment”, and the highest S value of 10 (RPN=105) from “overrides not checked”. For the same failure modes, within ARIA electronic environment with its additional controls, RPN values were significantly lower (44.3 for end-of-treatment missing check and 20.0 for overrides not checked). Conclusion: Our work has shown that when charge capture was missed that also resulted in some services not being performed. Absence of such necessary services may result in sub-optimal quality of care rendered to patients

  16. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  17. Coding chaotic billiards. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoni, M.J.; Ullmo, D.

    1993-01-01

    A method was proposed earlier to derive exact symbolic dynamics for polygonal billiards defined on a negative curvature surface, whose all vertices lie at infinity. This method is now extended to the case of compact billiards tiling the Poincare disk, using elementary tools such as the bounce mapping. An exact coding is derived also in this case. Furthermore, some results are obtained without using the tiling property. They allow to tackle the more complicated case of non-tiling billiards. (authors). 18 refs., 13 figs

  18. [A comparative study of coding and information systems for the evaluation of medical and social conditions: the case of addictive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais-Mannone, Claire; Cherikh, Faredj; Gicquel, Nathalie; Gelsi, Eve; Jove, Frédérique; Staccini, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive and comparative analysis of the tools used by healthcare professionals specializing in addictive disorders to promote a rapprochement of information systems. The evaluation guide used to assess the compensation needs of disabled persons treated in "Maisons Départementales des Personnes Handicapées" (centres for disabled people) organizes information in different areas, including a psychological component. The guide includes social and environmental information in the "Recueil Commun sur les Addictions et les Prises en charges" (Joint Report on Drug Addiction and Drug Treatment). While the program for the medicalization of information systems includes care data, the current information about social situations remains inadequate. The international classification of diseases provides synthetic diagnostic codes to describe substance use, etiologic factors and the somatic and psychological complications inherent to addictive disorders. The current system could be radically simplified and harmonized and would benefit from adopting a more individualized approach to non-substance behavioral addictions. The international classification of disabilities provides tools for evaluating the psychological component included in the recent definition of addictive disorders. Legal information should play an integral role in the structure of the information system and in international classifications. The prevalence of episodes of care and treatment of addictive and psychological disorders was assessed at Nice University Hospital in all disciplines. Except in addiction treatment units, very few patients were found to have a RECAP file.

  19. Separate mechanisms for magnitude and order processing in the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect: The strange case of musical note values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpic, Valter; Fumarola, Antonia; De Tommaso, Matteo; Luccio, Riccardo; Murgia, Mauro; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-08-01

    The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect is considered an evidence of the association between numbers and space, with faster left key-press responses to small numbers and faster right key-press responses to large numbers. We examined whether visually presented note values produce a SNARC-like effect. Differently from numbers, note values are represented as a decreasing left-to-right progression, allowing us to disambiguate the contribution of order and magnitude in determining the direction of the effect. Musicians with formal education performed a note value comparison in Experiment 1 (direct task), a line orientation judgment in Experiment 2 (indirect task), and a detection task in Experiment 3 (indirect task). When note values were task relevant (direct task), participants responded faster to large note values with the left key-press, and vice versa. Conversely, when note values were task irrelevant (indirect tasks), the direction of this association was reversed. This evidence suggests the existence of separate mechanisms underlying the SNARC effect. Namely, an Order-Related Mechanism (ORM) and a Magnitude-Related Mechanism (MRM) that are revealed by different task demands. Indeed, according to a new model we proposed, ordinal and magnitude related information appears to be preferentially involved in direct and indirect tasks, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Use of computer codes for system reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabek, M.; Gaafar, M.; Poucet, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives a collective summary of the studies performed at the JRC, ISPRA on the use of computer codes for complex systems analysis. The computer codes dealt with are: CAFTS-SALP software package, FRANTIC, FTAP, computer code package RALLY, and BOUNDS codes. Two reference study cases were executed by each code. The results obtained logic/probabilistic analysis as well as computation time are compared

  1. Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download the coding manual and training resources for cases diagnosed from 2007 to 2017. Sites included are lung, breast, colon, melanoma of the skin, head and neck, kidney, renal pelvis/ureter/bladder, benign brain, and malignant brain.

  2. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN......, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  3. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  4. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  5. Synthesizing Certified Code

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach for formally demonstrating software quality. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates that can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it requires detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding annotations to th...

  6. FERRET data analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.

    1979-09-01

    A documentation of the FERRET data analysis code is given. The code provides a way to combine related measurements and calculations in a consistent evaluation. Basically a very general least-squares code, it is oriented towards problems frequently encountered in nuclear data and reactor physics. A strong emphasis is on the proper treatment of uncertainties and correlations and in providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Documentation includes a review of the method, structure of the code, input formats, and examples

  7. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  8. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  9. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded...

  10. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  11. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  12. Coded aperture tomography revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.; Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Coded aperture (CA) Tomography never achieved wide spread use in Nuclear Medicine, except for the degenerate case of Seven Pinhole tomagraphy (7PHT). However it enjoys several attractive features (high sensitivity and tomographic ability with a statis detector). On the other hand, resolution is usually poor especially along the depth axis and the reconstructed volume is rather limited. Arguments are presented justifying the position that CA tomography can be useful for imaging time-varying 3D structures, if its major drawbacks (poor longitudinal resolution and difficulty in quantification) are overcome. Poor results obtained with 7PHT can be explained by both a very limited angular range sampled and a crude modelling of the image formation process. Therefore improvements can be expected by the use of a dual-detector system, along with a better understanding of its sampling properties and the use of more powerful reconstruction algorithms. Non overlapping multipinhole plates, because they do not involve a decoding procedure, should be considered first for practical applications. Use of real CA should be considered for cases in which non overlapping multipinhole plates do not lead to satisfactory solutions. We have been and currently are carrying out theoretical and experimental works, in order to define the factors which limit CA imaging and to propose satisfactory solutions for Dynamic Emission Tomography

  13. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  14. Validations and applications of the FEAST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Tayal, M.; Lau, J.H.; Evinou, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Jun, J.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    The FEAST (Finite Element Analysis for STresses) code is part of a suite of computer codes that are used to assess the structural integrity of CANDu fuel elements and bundles. A detailed validation of the FEAST code was recently performed. The FEAST calculations are in good agreement with a variety of analytical solutions (18 cases) for stresses, strains and displacements. This consistency shows that the FEAST code correctly incorporates the fundamentals of stress analysis. Further, the calculations of the FEAST code match the variations in axial and hoop strain profiles, measured by strain gauges near the sheath-endcap weld during an out-reactor compression test. The code calculations are also consistent with photoelastic measurements in simulated endcaps. (author)

  15. Validations and applications of the FEAST code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Tayal, M.; Lau, J.H.; Evinou, D.; Jun, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The FEAST (Finite Element Analysis for STresses) code is part of a suite of computer codes that are used to assess the structural integrity of CANDu fuel elements and bundles. A detailed validation of the FEAST code was recently performed. The FEAST calculations are in good agreement with a variety of analytical solutions (18 cases) for stresses, strains and displacements. This consistency shows that the FEAST code correctly incorporates the fundamentals of stress analysis. Further, the calculations of the FEAST code match the variations in axial and hoop strain profiles, measured by strain gauges near the sheath-endcap weld during an out-reactor compression test. The code calculations are also consistent with photoelastic measurements in simulated endcaps. (author)

  16. Validation of Neutron Calculation Codes and Models by means of benchmark cases in the frame of the Binational Commission of Nuclear Energy. Kinetic Parameters, Temperature Coefficients and Power Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, Adimir; Siqueira, Paulo de Tarso D.; Andrade e Silva, Graciete Simões; Grant, Carlos; Tarazaga, Ariel E.; Barberis, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In year 2008 the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) of Argentina, and the Brazilian Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN), under the frame of Nuclear Energy Argentine Brazilian Agreement (COBEN), among many others, included the project “Validation and Verification of Calculation Methods used for Research and Experimental Reactors . At this time, it was established that the validation was to be performed with models implemented in the deterministic codes HUEMUL and PUMA (cell and reactor codes) developed by CNEA and those ones implemented in MCNP by CNEA and IPEN. The necessary data for these validations would correspond to theoretical-experimental reference cases in the research reactor IPEN/MB-01 located in São Paulo, Brazil. The staff of the group Reactor and Nuclear Power Studies (SERC) of CNEA, from the argentine side, performed calculations with deterministic models (HUEMUL-PUMA) and probabilistic methods (MCNP) modeling a great number of physical situations of de reactor, which previously have been studied and modeled by members of the Center of Nuclear Engineering of the IPEN, whose results were extensively provided to CNEA. In this paper results of comparison of calculated and experimental results for temperature coefficients, kinetic parameters and fission rates spatial distributions are shown. (author)

  17. Efficient visual object and word recognition relies on high spatial frequency coding in the left posterior fusiform gyrus: evidence from a case-series of patients with ventral occipito-temporal cortex damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel J; Woollams, Anna M; Kim, Esther; Beeson, Pelagie M; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2013-11-01

    Recent visual neuroscience investigations suggest that ventral occipito-temporal cortex is retinotopically organized, with high acuity foveal input projecting primarily to the posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG), making this region crucial for coding high spatial frequency information. Because high spatial frequencies are critical for fine-grained visual discrimination, we hypothesized that damage to the left pFG should have an adverse effect not only on efficient reading, as observed in pure alexia, but also on the processing of complex non-orthographic visual stimuli. Consistent with this hypothesis, we obtained evidence that a large case series (n = 20) of patients with lesions centered on left pFG: 1) Exhibited reduced sensitivity to high spatial frequencies; 2) demonstrated prolonged response latencies both in reading (pure alexia) and object naming; and 3) were especially sensitive to visual complexity and similarity when discriminating between novel visual patterns. These results suggest that the patients' dual reading and non-orthographic recognition impairments have a common underlying mechanism and reflect the loss of high spatial frequency visual information normally coded in the left pFG.

  18. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  19. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  20. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  1. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  2. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present lecture has a main goal to show how the transport lattice calculations are realised in a standard computer code. This is illustrated on the example of the WIMSD code, belonging to the most popular tools for reactor calculations. Most of the approaches discussed here can be easily modified to any other lattice code. The description of the code assumes the basic knowledge of reactor lattice, on the level given in the lecture on 'Reactor lattice transport calculations'. For more advanced explanation of the WIMSD code the reader is directed to the detailed descriptions of the code cited in References. The discussion of the methods and models included in the code is followed by the generally used homogenisation procedure and several numerical examples of discrepancies in calculated multiplication factors based on different sources of library data. (author)

  3. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  4. Toric Varieties and Codes, Error-correcting Codes, Quantum Codes, Secret Sharing and Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    We present toric varieties and associated toric codes and their decoding. Toric codes are applied to construct Linear Secret Sharing Schemes (LSSS) with strong multiplication by the Massey construction. Asymmetric Quantum Codes are obtained from toric codes by the A.R. Calderbank P.W. Shor and A.......M. Steane construction of stabilizer codes (CSS) from linear codes containing their dual codes....

  5. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  6. An Optimal Linear Coding for Index Coding Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeshkpour, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    An optimal linear coding solution for index coding problem is established. Instead of network coding approach by focus on graph theoric and algebraic methods a linear coding program for solving both unicast and groupcast index coding problem is presented. The coding is proved to be the optimal solution from the linear perspective and can be easily utilize for any number of messages. The importance of this work is lying mostly on the usage of the presented coding in the groupcast index coding ...

  7. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  8. Majorana fermion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara M; Leemhuis, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    We initiate the study of Majorana fermion codes (MFCs). These codes can be viewed as extensions of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires to higher spatial dimensions and interacting fermions. The purpose of MFCs is to protect quantum information against low-weight fermionic errors, that is, operators acting on sufficiently small subsets of fermionic modes. We examine to what extent MFCs can surpass qubit stabilizer codes in terms of their stability properties. A general construction of 2D MFCs is proposed that combines topological protection based on a macroscopic code distance with protection based on fermionic parity conservation. Finally, we use MFCs to show how to transform any qubit stabilizer code to a weakly self-dual CSS code.

  9. Theory of epigenetic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D

    1984-06-07

    The logic of genetic control of development may be based on a binary epigenetic code. This paper revises the author's previous scheme dealing with the numerology of annelid metamerism in these terms. Certain features of the code had been deduced to be combinatorial, others not. This paradoxical contrast is resolved here by the interpretation that these features relate to different operations of the code; the combinatiorial to coding identity of units, the non-combinatorial to coding production of units. Consideration of a second paradox in the theory of epigenetic coding leads to a new solution which further provides a basis for epimorphic regeneration, and may in particular throw light on the "regeneration-duplication" phenomenon. A possible test of the model is also put forward.

  10. DISP1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokac, P.

    1999-12-01

    DISP1 code is a simple tool for assessment of the dispersion of the fission product cloud escaping from a nuclear power plant after an accident. The code makes it possible to tentatively check the feasibility of calculations by more complex PSA3 codes and/or codes for real-time dispersion calculations. The number of input parameters is reasonably low and the user interface is simple enough to allow a rapid processing of sensitivity analyses. All input data entered through the user interface are stored in the text format. Implementation of dispersion model corrections taken from the ARCON96 code enables the DISP1 code to be employed for assessment of the radiation hazard within the NPP area, in the control room for instance. (P.A.)

  11. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  13. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described

  14. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  15. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  16. Coding training for medical students: How good is diagnoses coding with ICD-10 by novices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stausberg, Jürgen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of knowledge and competence in documentation and coding is an essential part of medical education. Therefore, coding training had been placed within the course of epidemiology, medical biometry, and medical informatics. From this, we can draw conclusions about the quality of coding by novices. One hundred and eighteen students coded diagnoses from 15 nephrological cases in homework. In addition to interrater reliability, validity was calculated by comparison with a reference coding. On the level of terminal codes, 59.3% of the students' results were correct. The completeness was calculated as 58.0%. The results on the chapter level increased up to 91.5% and 87.7% respectively. For the calculation of reliability a new, simple measure was developed that leads to values of 0.46 on the level of terminal codes and 0.87 on the chapter level for interrater reliability. The figures of concordance with the reference coding are quite similar. In contrary, routine data show considerably lower results with 0.34 and 0.63 respectively. Interrater reliability and validity of coding by novices is as good as coding by experts. The missing advantage of experts could be explained by the workload of documentation and a negative attitude to coding on the one hand. On the other hand, coding in a DRG-system is handicapped by a large number of detailed coding rules, which do not end in uniform results but rather lead to wrong and random codes. Anyway, students left the course well prepared for coding.

  17. Motion-adaptive intraframe transform coding of video signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    With, de P.H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Spatial transform coding has been widely applied for image compression because of its high coding efficiency. However, in many intraframe systems, in which every TV frame is independently processed, coding of moving objects in the case of interlaced input signals is not addressed. In this paper, we

  18. Development and application of the BOA code in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortuero Lopez, C.; Doncel Gutierrez, N.; Culebras, F.

    2012-01-01

    The BOA code allows to quantitatively establish the level of risk of Axial Offset Anomaly and increased deposition of crud on the basis of specific conditions in each case. For this reason, the code is parameterized according to the individual characteristics of each plant. This paper summarizes the results obtained in the implementation of the code, as well as its future perspective.

  19. Applications of American design codes for elevated temperature environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.

    1980-03-01

    A brief summary of the ASME Code rules of Case N-47 is presented. An overview of the typical procedure used to demonstrate Code compliance is provided. Application experience and some examples of detailed inelastic analysis and simplified-approximate methods are given. Recent developments and future trends in design criteria and ASME Code rules are also presented

  20. Quality assurance requirements in various codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; EL-Sayed, A.; Aly, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The quality assurance requirements in various countries and according to various international codes and standards are presented, compared and critically discussed. Cases of developing countries are also discussed, and the use of IAEA code of practice and other codes for quality assurance in these countries is reviewed. Recommendations are made regarding the quality assurance system to be applied for Egypt's nuclear power plants

  1. The maximum number of minimal codewords in long codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alahmadi, A.; Aldred, R.E.L.; dela Cruz, R.

    2013-01-01

    Upper bounds on the maximum number of minimal codewords in a binary code follow from the theory of matroids. Random coding provides lower bounds. In this paper, we compare these bounds with analogous bounds for the cycle code of graphs. This problem (in the graphic case) was considered in 1981 by...

  2. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to a stream of equally-likely symbols so as to recover the original stream in the event of errors. The for- ... The source-coding problem is one of finding a mapping from U to a ... probability that the random variable X takes the value x written as ...

  3. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  4. Ways with Data: Understanding Coding as Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Chris

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I report findings from an exploratory case-study about Ray, a web developer, who works on a data-driven news team that finds and tells compelling stories with large sets of data. I implicate this case of Ray's coding on a data team in a writing studies epistemology, which is guided by the following question: "What might…

  5. Code of ethics for dental researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The International Association for Dental Research, in 2009, adopted a code of ethics. The code applies to members of the association and is enforceable by sanction, with the stated requirement that members are expected to inform the association in cases where they believe misconduct has occurred. The IADR code goes beyond the Belmont and Helsinki statements by virtue of covering animal research. It also addresses issues of sponsorship of research and conflicts of interest, international collaborative research, duty of researchers to be informed about applicable norms, standards of publication (including plagiarism), and the obligation of "whistleblowing" for the sake of maintaining the integrity of the dental research enterprise as a whole. The code is organized, like the ADA code, into two sections. The IADR principles are stated, but not defined, and number 12, instead of the ADA's five. The second section consists of "best practices," which are specific statements of expected or interdicted activities. The short list of definitions is useful.

  6. Synthesizing Certified Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  7. Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  8. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  9. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  10. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  11. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan; Dalgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  12. RFQ simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1984-04-01

    We have developed the RFQLIB simulation system to provide a means to systematically generate the new versions of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac simulation codes that are required by the constantly changing needs of a research environment. This integrated system simplifies keeping track of the various versions of the simulation code and makes it practical to maintain complete and up-to-date documentation. In this scheme, there is a certain standard version of the simulation code that forms a library upon which new versions are built. To generate a new version of the simulation code, the routines to be modified or added are appended to a standard command file, which contains the commands to compile the new routines and link them to the routines in the library. The library itself is rarely changed. Whenever the library is modified, however, this modification is seen by all versions of the simulation code, which actually exist as different versions of the command file. All code is written according to the rules of structured programming. Modularity is enforced by not using COMMON statements, simplifying the relation of the data flow to a hierarchy diagram. Simulation results are similar to those of the PARMTEQ code, as expected, because of the similar physical model. Different capabilities, such as those for generating beams matched in detail to the structure, are available in the new code for help in testing new ideas in designing RFQ linacs

  13. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  14. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International... Code. International Property Maintenance Code. International Residential Code. International Swimming Pool and Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. International Zoning Code. ICC Standards...

  15. Code for Internal Dosimetry (CINDY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Sula, M.J.; Johnson, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    The CINDY (Code for Internal Dosimetry) Software Package has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to address the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11 by providing the capabilities to calculate organ dose equivalents and effective dose equivalents using the approach of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 30. The code assist in the interpretation of bioassay data, evaluates committed and calendar-year doses from intake or bioassay measurement data, provides output consistent with revised DOE orders, is easy to use, and is generally applicable to DOE sites. Flexible biokinetics models are used to determine organ doses for annual, 50-year, calendar-year, or any other time-point dose necessary for chronic or acute intakes. CINDY is an interactive program that prompts the user to describe the cases to be analyzed and calculates the necessary results for the type of analysis being performed. Four types of analyses may be specified. 92 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Improving coding accuracy in an academic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dana; O'Mara, Heather; Powell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Practice management has become an increasingly important component of graduate medical education. This applies to every practice environment; private, academic, and military. One of the most critical aspects of practice management is documentation and coding for physician services, as they directly affect the financial success of any practice. Our quality improvement project aimed to implement a new and innovative method for teaching billing and coding in a longitudinal fashion in a family medicine residency. We hypothesized that implementation of a new teaching strategy would increase coding accuracy rates among residents and faculty. Design: single group, pretest-posttest. military family medicine residency clinic. Study populations: 7 faculty physicians and 18 resident physicians participated as learners in the project. Educational intervention: monthly structured coding learning sessions in the academic curriculum that involved learner-presented cases, small group case review, and large group discussion. overall coding accuracy (compliance) percentage and coding accuracy per year group for the subjects that were able to participate longitudinally. Statistical tests used: average coding accuracy for population; paired t test to assess improvement between 2 intervention periods, both aggregate and by year group. Overall coding accuracy rates remained stable over the course of time regardless of the modality of the educational intervention. A paired t test was conducted to compare coding accuracy rates at baseline (mean (M)=26.4%, SD=10%) to accuracy rates after all educational interventions were complete (M=26.8%, SD=12%); t24=-0.127, P=.90. Didactic teaching and small group discussion sessions did not improve overall coding accuracy in a residency practice. Future interventions could focus on educating providers at the individual level.

  17. Validation of thermalhydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic codes require to be validated against experimental data collected over a wide range of situations if they are to be relied upon. A good example is provided by the nuclear industry where codes are used for safety studies and for determining operating conditions. Errors in the codes could lead to financial penalties, to the incorrect estimation of the consequences of accidents and even to the accidents themselves. Comparison between prediction and experiment is often described qualitatively or in approximate terms, e.g. ''agreement is within 10%''. A quantitative method is preferable, especially when several competing codes are available. The codes can then be ranked in order of merit. Such a method is described. (Author)

  18. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W; Herbert, A.; Long, J.

    1989-03-01

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  19. Audit of Clinical Coding of Major Head and Neck Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Indu; Malik, Tass; Homer, Jarrod J; Loughran, Sean

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Within the NHS, operations are coded using the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) classification system. These codes, together with diagnostic codes, are used to generate Healthcare Resource Group (HRG) codes, which correlate to a payment bracket. The aim of this study was to determine whether allocated procedure codes for major head and neck operations were correct and reflective of the work undertaken. HRG codes generated were assessed to determine accuracy of remuneration. PATIENTS AND METHODS The coding of consecutive major head and neck operations undertaken in a tertiary referral centre over a retrospective 3-month period were assessed. Procedure codes were initially ascribed by professional hospital coders. Operations were then recoded by the surgical trainee in liaison with the head of clinical coding. The initial and revised procedure codes were compared and used to generate HRG codes, to determine whether the payment banding had altered. RESULTS A total of 34 cases were reviewed. The number of procedure codes generated initially by the clinical coders was 99, whereas the revised codes generated 146. Of the original codes, 47 of 99 (47.4%) were incorrect. In 19 of the 34 cases reviewed (55.9%), the HRG code remained unchanged, thus resulting in the correct payment. Six cases were never coded, equating to £15,300 loss of payment. CONCLUSIONS These results highlight the inadequacy of this system to reward hospitals for the work carried out within the NHS in a fair and consistent manner. The current coding system was found to be complicated, ambiguous and inaccurate, resulting in loss of remuneration. PMID:19220944

  20. Multiuser Random Coding Techniques for Mismatched Decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Scarlett, Jonathan; Martinez, Alfonso; Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies multiuser random coding techniques for channel coding with a given (possibly suboptimal) decoding rule. For the mismatched discrete memoryless multiple-access channel, an error exponent is obtained that is tight with respect to the ensemble average, and positive within the interior of Lapidoth's achievable rate region. This exponent proves the ensemble tightness of the exponent of Liu and Hughes in the case of maximum-likelihood decoding. An equivalent dual form of Lapidoth...

  1. The NMC code: conduct, performance and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Jan

    The Code: Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics for Nurses and Midwives is a set of key principles that should underpin the practice of all nurses and midwives, and remind them of their professional responsibilities. It is not just a tool used in fitness-to-practise cases--it should be used to guide daily practice for all nurses and midwives. Alongside other standards, guidance and advice from the NMC, the code should be used to support professional development.

  2. Fast neutron analysis code SAD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.; Ott, C.

    1985-01-01

    A listing and an example of outputs of the M.C. code SAD1 are given here. This code has been used many times to predict responses of fast neutrons in hydrogenic materials (in our case emulsions or plastics) towards the elastic n, p scattering. It can be easily extended to other kinds of such materials and to any kind of incident fast neutron spectrum

  3. Behaviour Codes in Sicily. Bypassing the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Blok

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Focused on oral culture in western Sicily, this paper explores informal behaviour codes in their interaction with formal law. State-formation in Italy left people in peripheral areas to forge strategies of self-help and negotiate support from patrons (called “friends”. Ironically, the very networks of clientelism and their attendant behaviour codes further weakened the state’s control over its southern periphery and hindered its economic integration into the national and international economy – which in turn reinforced the impact of informal codes and practices on the working of formal law. The Sicilian case provides an example of the periphery as a locus of innovation.

  4. Statistical mechanics of error-correcting codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashima, Y.; Saad, D.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the performance of error-correcting codes, where the code word comprises products of K bits selected from the original message and decoding is carried out utilizing a connectivity tensor with C connections per index. Shannon's bound for the channel capacity is recovered for large K and zero temperature when the code rate K/C is finite. Close to optimal error-correcting capability is obtained for finite K and C. We examine the finite-temperature case to assess the use of simulated annealing for decoding and extend the analysis to accommodate other types of noisy channels.

  5. Decoding Algorithms for Random Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of efficient decoding of a random linear code over a finite field. In particular we are interested in the case where the code is random, relatively sparse, and use the binary finite field as an example. The goal is to decode the data using fewer operations to potentially...... achieve a high coding throughput, and reduce energy consumption.We use an on-the-fly version of the Gauss-Jordan algorithm as a baseline, and provide several simple improvements to reduce the number of operations needed to perform decoding. Our tests show that the improvements can reduce the number...

  6. Gap Conductance model Validation in the TASS/SMR-S code using MARS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Jun; Yang, Soo Hyung; Chung, Young Jong; Lee, Won Jae

    2010-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing the TASS/SMR-S (Transient and Setpoint Simulation/Small and Medium Reactor) code, which is a thermal hydraulic code for the safety analysis of the advanced integral reactor. An appropriate work to validate the applicability of the thermal hydraulic models within the code should be demanded. Among the models, the gap conductance model which is describes the thermal gap conductivity between fuel and cladding was validated through the comparison with MARS code. The validation of the gap conductance model was performed by evaluating the variation of the gap temperature and gap width as the changed with the power fraction. In this paper, a brief description of the gap conductance model in the TASS/SMR-S code is presented. In addition, calculated results to validate the gap conductance model are demonstrated by comparing with the results of the MARS code with the test case

  7. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  8. Quantum computation with Turaev-Viro codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Robert; Kuperberg, Greg; Reichardt, Ben W.

    2010-01-01

    For a 3-manifold with triangulated boundary, the Turaev-Viro topological invariant can be interpreted as a quantum error-correcting code. The code has local stabilizers, identified by Levin and Wen, on a qudit lattice. Kitaev's toric code arises as a special case. The toric code corresponds to an abelian anyon model, and therefore requires out-of-code operations to obtain universal quantum computation. In contrast, for many categories, such as the Fibonacci category, the Turaev-Viro code realizes a non-abelian anyon model. A universal set of fault-tolerant operations can be implemented by deforming the code with local gates, in order to implement anyon braiding. We identify the anyons in the code space, and present schemes for initialization, computation and measurement. This provides a family of constructions for fault-tolerant quantum computation that are closely related to topological quantum computation, but for which the fault tolerance is implemented in software rather than coming from a physical medium.

  9. Preliminary Coupling of MATRA Code for Multi-physics Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongjin; Choi, Jinyoung; Yang, Yongsik; Kwon, Hyouk; Hwang, Daehyun

    2014-01-01

    The boundary conditions such as the inlet temperature, mass flux, averaged heat flux, power distributions of the rods, and core geometry is given by constant values or functions of time. These conditions are separately calculated and provided by other codes, such as a neutronics or a system codes, into the MATRA code. In addition, the coupling of several codes in the different physics field is focused and embodied. In this study, multiphysics coupling methods were developed for a subchannel code (MATRA) with neutronics codes (MASTER, DeCART) and a fuel performance code (FRAPCON-3). Preliminary evaluation results for representative sample cases are presented. The MASTER and DeCART codes provide the power distribution of the rods in the core to the MATRA code. In case of the FRAPCON-3 code, the variation of the rod diameter induced by the thermal expansion is yielded and provided. The MATRA code transfers the thermal-hydraulic conditions that each code needs. Moreover, the coupling method with each code is described

  10. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  11. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  12. Adventure Code Camp: Library Mobile Design in the Backcountry

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, David; Hahn, James; Mestre, Lori

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study exploring the use of a student Coding Camp as a bottom-up mobile design process to generate library mobile apps. A code camp sources student programmer talent and ideas for designing software services and features.  This case study reviews process, outcomes, and next steps in mobile web app coding camps. It concludes by offering implications for services design beyond the local camp presented in this study. By understanding how patrons expect to integrate li...

  13. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  14. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  15. Transport theory and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter begins with a neutron transport equation which includes the one dimensional plane geometry problems, the one dimensional spherical geometry problems, and numerical solutions. The section on the ANISN code and its look-alikes covers problems which can be solved; eigenvalue problems; outer iteration loop; inner iteration loop; and finite difference solution procedures. The input and output data for ANISN is also discussed. Two dimensional problems such as the DOT code are given. Finally, an overview of the Monte-Carlo methods and codes are elaborated on

  16. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  18. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements

  19. SASSYS LMFBR systems code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code is being developed mainly to analyze the behavior of the shut-down heat-removal system and the consequences of failures in the system, although it is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel. The code includes a detailed SAS4A multi-channel core treatment plus a general thermal-hydraulic treatment of the primary and intermediate heat-transport loops and the steam generators. The code can handle any LMFBR design, loop or pool, with an arbitrary arrangement of components. The code is fast running: usually faster than real time

  20. OCA Code Enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Office of the County Attorney (OCA) processes Code Violation Citations issued by County agencies. The citations can be viewed by issued department, issued date...

  1. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  2. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  3. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  4. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  5. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  6. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    2001-01-01

    The description of reactor lattice codes is carried out on the example of the WIMSD-5B code. The WIMS code in its various version is the most recognised lattice code. It is used in all parts of the world for calculations of research and power reactors. The version WIMSD-5B is distributed free of charge by NEA Data Bank. The description of its main features given in the present lecture follows the aspects defined previously for lattice calculations in the lecture on Reactor Lattice Transport Calculations. The spatial models are described, and the approach to the energy treatment is given. Finally the specific algorithm applied in fuel depletion calculations is outlined. (author)

  7. Critical Care Coding for Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Marc R; Vespa, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  8. Towards advanced code simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) uses advanced thermohydraulic codes extensively to support PWR safety analyses. A system has been developed to allow fully interactive execution of any code with graphical simulation of the operator desk and mimic display. The system operates in a virtual machine environment, with the thermohydraulic code executing in one virtual machine, communicating via interrupts with any number of other virtual machines each running other programs and graphics drivers. The driver code itself does not have to be modified from its normal batch form. Shortly following the release of RELAP5 MOD1 in IBM compatible form in 1983, this code was used as the driver for this system. When RELAP5 MOD2 became available, it was adopted with no changes needed in the basic system. Overall the system has been used for some 5 years for the analysis of LOBI tests, full scale plant studies and for simple what-if studies. For gaining rapid understanding of system dependencies it has proved invaluable. The graphical mimic system, being independent of the driver code, has also been used with other codes to study core rewetting, to replay results obtained from batch jobs on a CRAY2 computer system and to display suitably processed experimental results from the LOBI facility to aid interpretation. For the above work real-time execution was not necessary. Current work now centers on implementing the RELAP 5 code on a true parallel architecture machine. Marconi Simulation have been contracted to investigate the feasibility of using upwards of 100 processors, each capable of a peak of 30 MIPS to run a highly detailed RELAP5 model in real time, complete with specially written 3D core neutronics and balance of plant models. This paper describes the experience of using RELAP5 as an analyzer/simulator, and outlines the proposed methods and problems associated with parallel execution of RELAP5

  9. Cracking the Gender Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    extensive work to raise the proportion of women. This has helped slightly, but women remain underrepresented at the corporate top. Why is this so? What can be done to solve it? This article presents five different types of answers relating to five discursive codes: nature, talent, business, exclusion...... in leadership management, we must become more aware and take advantage of this complexity. We must crack the codes in order to crack the curve....

  10. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, R.; Jamieson, T.; Lord, M.; Lafortune, J.F.

    1997-07-01

    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  11. KENO-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P 1 scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes

  12. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  13. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content ...

  14. Benchmark calculation of subchannel analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    In order to evaluate the analysis capabilities of various subchannel codes used in thermal-hydraulic design of light water reactors, benchmark calculations were performed. The selected benchmark problems and major findings obtained by the calculations were as follows: (1)As for single-phase flow mixing experiments between two channels, the calculated results of water temperature distribution along the flow direction were agreed with experimental results by tuning turbulent mixing coefficients properly. However, the effect of gap width observed in the experiments could not be predicted by the subchannel codes. (2)As for two-phase flow mixing experiments between two channels, in high water flow rate cases, the calculated distributions of air and water flows in each channel were well agreed with the experimental results. In low water flow cases, on the other hand, the air mixing rates were underestimated. (3)As for two-phase flow mixing experiments among multi-channels, the calculated mass velocities at channel exit under steady-state condition were agreed with experimental values within about 10%. However, the predictive errors of exit qualities were as high as 30%. (4)As for critical heat flux(CHF) experiments, two different results were obtained. A code indicated that the calculated CHF's using KfK or EPRI correlations were well agreed with the experimental results, while another code suggested that the CHF's were well predicted by using WSC-2 correlation or Weisman-Pei mechanistic model. (5)As for droplets entrainment and deposition experiments, it was indicated that the predictive capability was significantly increased by improving correlations. On the other hand, a remarkable discrepancy between codes was observed. That is, a code underestimated the droplet flow rate and overestimated the liquid film flow rate in high quality cases, while another code overestimated the droplet flow rate and underestimated the liquid film flow rate in low quality cases. (J.P.N.)

  15. Economic aspects and models for building codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Pedersen, Dan Ove; Johnsen, Kjeld

    It is the purpose of this bulletin to present an economic model for estimating the consequence of new or changed building codes. The object is to allow comparative analysis in order to improve the basis for decisions in this field. The model is applied in a case study.......It is the purpose of this bulletin to present an economic model for estimating the consequence of new or changed building codes. The object is to allow comparative analysis in order to improve the basis for decisions in this field. The model is applied in a case study....

  16. A Network Coding Approach to Loss Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattari, Pegah; Markopoulou, Athina; Fragouli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    network coding capabilities. We design a framework for estimating link loss rates, which leverages network coding capabilities and we show that it improves several aspects of tomography, including the identifiability of links, the tradeoff between estimation accuracy and bandwidth efficiency......, and the complexity of probe path selection. We discuss the cases of inferring the loss rates of links in a tree topology or in a general topology. In the latter case, the benefits of our approach are even more pronounced compared to standard techniques but we also face novel challenges, such as dealing with cycles...

  17. Ethical and educational considerations in coding hand surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifchez, Scott D; Leinberry, Charles F; Rivlin, Michael; Blazar, Philip E

    2014-07-01

    To assess treatment coding knowledge and practices among residents, fellows, and attending hand surgeons. Through the use of 6 hypothetical cases, we developed a coding survey to assess coding knowledge and practices. We e-mailed this survey to residents, fellows, and attending hand surgeons. In additionally, we asked 2 professional coders to code these cases. A total of 71 participants completed the survey out of 134 people to whom the survey was sent (response rate = 53%). We observed marked disparity in codes chosen among surgeons and among professional coders. Results of this study indicate that coding knowledge, not just its ethical application, had a major role in coding procedures accurately. Surgical coding is an essential part of a hand surgeon's practice and is not well learned during residency or fellowship. Whereas ethical issues such as deliberate unbundling and upcoding may have a role in inaccurate coding, lack of knowledge among surgeons and coders has a major role as well. Coding has a critical role in every hand surgery practice. Inconstancies among those polled in this study reveal that an increase in education on coding during training and improvement in the clarity and consistency of the Current Procedural Terminology coding rules themselves are needed. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Different Spreading Codes Using FEC on DWT Based MC-CDMA System

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Saleh; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Islam, Md. Matiqul; Shams, Rifat Ara; Ullah, Shaikh Enayet

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different spreading codes in DWT based MC-CDMA wireless communication system is investigated. In this paper, we present the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of different spreading codes (Walsh-Hadamard code, Orthogonal gold code and Golay complementary sequences) using Forward Error Correction (FEC) of the proposed system. The data is analyzed and is compared among different spreading codes in both coded and uncoded cases. It is found via computer simulation that the performance...

  19. Whether and Where to Code in the Wireless Relay Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Médard, Muriel; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    The throughput benefits of random linear network codes have been studied extensively for wirelined and wireless erasure networks. It is often assumed that all nodes within a network perform coding operations. In energy-constrained systems, however, coding subgraphs should be chosen to control...... the number of coding nodes while maintaining throughput. In this paper, we explore the strategic use of network coding in the wireless packet erasure relay channel according to both throughput and energy metrics. In the relay channel, a single source communicates to a single sink through the aid of a half......-duplex relay. The fluid flow model is used to describe the case where both the source and the relay are coding, and Markov chain models are proposed to describe packet evolution if only the source or only the relay is coding. In addition to transmission energy, we take into account coding and reception...

  20. Assessment of the computer code COBRA/CFTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Burhop, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    The COBRA/CFTL code has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for thermal-hydraulic analysis of simulated gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) core assemblies to be tested in the core flow test loop (CFTL). The COBRA/CFTL code was obtained by modifying the General Atomic code COBRA*GCFR. This report discusses these modifications, compares the two code results for three cases which represent conditions from fully rough turbulent flow to laminar flow. Case 1 represented fully rough turbulent flow in the bundle. Cases 2 and 3 represented laminar and transition flow regimes. The required input for the COBRA/CFTL code, a sample problem input/output and the code listing are included in the Appendices

  1. Benchmarking the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Viallet, M.; Baraffe, I.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Constantino, T.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical benchmark study for the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) based on widely applicable two- and three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics problems relevant to stellar interiors. MUSIC is an implicit large eddy simulation code that uses implicit time integration, implemented as a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. A physics based preconditioning technique which can be adjusted to target varying physics is used to improve the performance of the solver. The problems used for this benchmark study include the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the decay of the Taylor-Green vortex. Additionally we show a test of hydrostatic equilibrium, in a stellar environment which is dominated by radiative effects. In this setting the flexibility of the preconditioning technique is demonstrated. This work aims to bridge the gap between the hydrodynamic test problems typically used during development of numerical methods and the complex flows of stellar interiors. A series of multidimensional tests were performed and analysed. Each of these test cases was analysed with a simple, scalar diagnostic, with the aim of enabling direct code comparisons. As the tests performed do not have analytic solutions, we verify MUSIC by comparing it to established codes including ATHENA and the PENCIL code. MUSIC is able to both reproduce behaviour from established and widely-used codes as well as results expected from theoretical predictions. This benchmarking study concludes a series of papers describing the development of the MUSIC code and provides confidence in future applications.

  2. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  3. Under-coding of secondary conditions in coded hospital health data: Impact of co-existing conditions, death status and number of codes in a record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingkai; Southern, Danielle A; Williamson, Tyler; Quan, Hude

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the coding validity of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and depression related to the presence of their co-existing conditions, death status and the number of diagnosis codes in hospital discharge abstract database. We randomly selected 4007 discharge abstract database records from four teaching hospitals in Alberta, Canada and reviewed their charts to extract 31 conditions listed in Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity indices. Conditions associated with the four study conditions were identified through multivariable logistic regression. Coding validity (i.e. sensitivity, positive predictive value) of the four conditions was related to the presence of their associated conditions. Sensitivity increased with increasing number of diagnosis code. Impact of death on coding validity is minimal. Coding validity of conditions is closely related to its clinical importance and complexity of patients' case mix. We recommend mandatory coding of certain secondary diagnosis to meet the need of health research based on administrative health data.

  4. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE CODING OCDMA SYSTEMS USING ENHANCED DOUBLE WEIGHT CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. HASOON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems based on double weight (DW code families is proposed. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Enhanced double-weight (EDW code is another variation of a DW code family that can has a variable weight greater than one. The EDW code possesses ideal cross-correlation properties and exists for every natural number n. A much better performance can be provided by using the EDW code compared to the existing code such as Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes. It has been observed that theoretical analysis and simulation for EDW is much better performance compared to Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes.

  5. Nuclear code abstracts (1975 edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanuma, Makoto; Hirakawa, Takashi

    1976-02-01

    Nuclear Code Abstracts is compiled in the Nuclear Code Committee to exchange information of the nuclear code developments among members of the committee. Enlarging the collection, the present one includes nuclear code abstracts obtained in 1975 through liaison officers of the organizations in Japan participating in the Nuclear Energy Agency's Computer Program Library at Ispra, Italy. The classification of nuclear codes and the format of code abstracts are the same as those in the library. (auth.)

  6. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  7. Blood and Books: Performing Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Friedman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Code switching is a linguistic term that identifies ways individuals use communication modes and registers to negotiate difference in social relations. This essay suggests that arts-based inquiry, in the form of choreography and performance, provides a suitable and efficacious location within which both verbal and nonverbal channels of code switching can be investigated. Blood and Books, a case study of dance choreography within the context of post-colonial Maori performance in Aotearoa/New Zealand, is described and analyzed for its performance of code switching. The essay is framed by a discussion of how arts-based research within tertiary higher education requires careful negotiation in the form of code switching, as performed by the author's reflexive use of vernacular and formal registers in the essay. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802462

  8. Fundamentals of the DIGES code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, N.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1994-08-01

    Recently the authors have completed the development of the DIGES code (Direct GEneration of Spectra) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents the fundamental theoretical aspects of the code. The basic modeling involves a representation of typical building-foundation configurations as multi degree-of-freedom dynamic which are subjected to dynamic inputs in the form of applied forces or pressure at the superstructure or in the form of ground motions. Both the deterministic as well as the probabilistic aspects of DIGES are described. Alternate ways of defining the seismic input for the estimation of in-structure spectra and their consequences in terms of realistically appraising the variability of the structural response is discussed in detaiL These include definitions of the seismic input by ground acceleration time histories, ground response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra or power spectral densities. Conversions of one of these forms to another due to requirements imposed by certain analysis techniques have been shown to lead, in certain cases, in controversial results. Further considerations include the definition of the seismic input as the excitation which is directly applied at the foundation of a structure or as the ground motion of the site of interest at a given point. In the latter case issues related to the transferring of this motion to the foundation through convolution/deconvolution and generally through kinematic interaction approaches are considered.

  9. Deterministic and unambiguous dense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengjun; Cohen, Scott M.; Sun Yuqing; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal dense coding using a partially-entangled pure state of Schmidt rank D and a noiseless quantum channel of dimension D is studied both in the deterministic case where at most L d messages can be transmitted with perfect fidelity, and in the unambiguous case where when the protocol succeeds (probability τ x ) Bob knows for sure that Alice sent message x, and when it fails (probability 1-τ x ) he knows it has failed. Alice is allowed any single-shot (one use) encoding procedure, and Bob any single-shot measurement. For D≤D a bound is obtained for L d in terms of the largest Schmidt coefficient of the entangled state, and is compared with published results by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A71, 012311 (2005)]. For D>D it is shown that L d is strictly less than D 2 unless D is an integer multiple of D, in which case uniform (maximal) entanglement is not needed to achieve the optimal protocol. The unambiguous case is studied for D≤D, assuming τ x >0 for a set of DD messages, and a bound is obtained for the average . A bound on the average requires an additional assumption of encoding by isometries (unitaries when D=D) that are orthogonal for different messages. Both bounds are saturated when τ x is a constant independent of x, by a protocol based on one-shot entanglement concentration. For D>D it is shown that (at least) D 2 messages can be sent unambiguously. Whether unitary (isometric) encoding suffices for optimal protocols remains a major unanswered question, both for our work and for previous studies of dense coding using partially-entangled states, including noisy (mixed) states

  10. Cyclic and constacyclic codes over a non-chain ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Bayram

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider linear and especially cyclic codes over the non-chain ring $Z_{p}[v]/\\langle v^{p}-v\\rangle$ where $p$ is a prime. This is a generalization of the case $p=3.$ Further, in this work the structure of constacyclic codes are studied as well. This study takes advantage mainly from a Gray map which preserves the distance between codes over this ring and $p$-ary codes and moreover this map enlightens the structure of these codes. Furthermore, a MacWilliams type identity is presented together with some illustrative examples.

  11. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  12. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  13. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  14. The Aster code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  15. Adaptive distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, David; Lin, Yao-Chung; Girod, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    We consider distributed source coding in the presence of hidden variables that parameterize the statistical dependence among sources. We derive the Slepian-Wolf bound and devise coding algorithms for a block-candidate model of this problem. The encoder sends, in addition to syndrome bits, a portion of the source to the decoder uncoded as doping bits. The decoder uses the sum-product algorithm to simultaneously recover the source symbols and the hidden statistical dependence variables. We also develop novel techniques based on density evolution (DE) to analyze the coding algorithms. We experimentally confirm that our DE analysis closely approximates practical performance. This result allows us to efficiently optimize parameters of the algorithms. In particular, we show that the system performs close to the Slepian-Wolf bound when an appropriate doping rate is selected. We then apply our coding and analysis techniques to a reduced-reference video quality monitoring system and show a bit rate saving of about 75% compared with fixed-length coding.

  16. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  17. ProClaT, a new bioinformatics tool for in silico protein reclassification: case study of DraB, a protein coded from the draTGB operon in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Elisa Terumi; Raittz, Roberto Tadeu; Coimbra, Nilson Antonio da Rocha; Gehlen, Michelly Alves Coutinho; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira

    2016-12-15

    Azopirillum brasilense is a plant-growth promoting nitrogen-fixing bacteria that is used as bio-fertilizer in agriculture. Since nitrogen fixation has a high-energy demand, the reduction of N 2 to NH 4 + by nitrogenase occurs only under limiting conditions of NH 4 + and O 2 . Moreover, the synthesis and activity of nitrogenase is highly regulated to prevent energy waste. In A. brasilense nitrogenase activity is regulated by the products of draG and draT. The product of the draB gene, located downstream in the draTGB operon, may be involved in the regulation of nitrogenase activity by an, as yet, unknown mechanism. A deep in silico analysis of the product of draB was undertaken aiming at suggesting its possible function and involvement with DraT and DraG in the regulation of nitrogenase activity in A. brasilense. In this work, we present a new artificial intelligence strategy for protein classification, named ProClaT. The features used by the pattern recognition model were derived from the primary structure of the DraB homologous proteins, calculated by a ProClaT internal algorithm. ProClaT was applied to this case study and the results revealed that the A. brasilense draB gene codes for a protein highly similar to the nitrogenase associated NifO protein of Azotobacter vinelandii. This tool allowed the reclassification of DraB/NifO homologous proteins, hypothetical, conserved hypothetical and those annotated as putative arsenate reductase, ArsC, as NifO-like. An analysis of co-occurrence of draB, draT, draG and of other nif genes was performed, suggesting the involvement of draB (nifO) in nitrogen fixation, however, without the definition of a specific function.

  18. Use of computer codes for system reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabek, M.; Gaafar, M.; Poucet, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of studies performed at the JRC, ISPRA on the use of computer codes for complex systems analysis. The computer codes dealt with are: CAFTS-SALP software package, FRACTIC, FTAP, computer code package RALLY, and BOUNDS. Two reference case studies were executed by each code. The probabilistic results obtained, as well as the computation times are compared. The two cases studied are the auxiliary feedwater system of a 1300 MW PWR reactor and the emergency electrical power supply system. (author)

  19. Use of computer codes for system reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabek, M.; Gaafar, M. (Nuclear Regulatory and Safety Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)); Poucet, A. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre)

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of studies performed at the JRC, ISPRA on the use of computer codes for complex systems analysis. The computer codes dealt with are: CAFTS-SALP software package, FRACTIC, FTAP, computer code package RALLY, and BOUNDS. Two reference case studies were executed by each code. The probabilistic results obtained, as well as the computation times are compared. The two cases studied are the auxiliary feedwater system of a 1300 MW PWR reactor and the emergency electrical power supply system. (author).

  20. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  1. Aztheca Code; Codigo Aztheca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H., E-mail: sequga@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior s/n, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  2. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Revised SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-09-01

    Since the publication of JAERI-1285 in 1983 for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are (1) addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, (2) a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, (3) a generalized Dancoff factor, (4) a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, (5) the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, (6) a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, (7) an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc. This report is a revision of the users manual which consists of the general description, input data requirements and their explanation, detailed information on usage, mathematics, contents of libraries and sample I/O. (author)

  4. The correspondence between projective codes and 2-weight codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Eupen, van M.J.M.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.; Willems, F.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The hyperplanes intersecting a 2-weight code in the same number of points obviously form the point set of a projective code. On the other hand, if we have a projective code C, then we can make a 2-weight code by taking the multiset of points E PC with multiplicity "Y(w), where W is the weight of

  5. Visualizing code and coverage changes for code review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwaal, Sebastiaan; van Deursen, A.; De Souza Coelho, R.; Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the tasks of reviewers is to verify that code modifications are well tested. However, current tools offer little support in understanding precisely how changes to the code relate to changes to the tests. In particular, it is hard to see whether (modified) test code covers the changed code.

  6. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, both turbo codes and low-density parity-check codes are largely superior to other code families and are being used in an increasing number of modern communication systems including 3G standards, satellite and deep space communications. However, the two codes have certain distinctive characteristics that ...

  7. Code of Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . SZD-SZZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Te Code was approved on December 12, 1992, at the 3rd regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia and revised on April 24, 1997, at the 27th regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia. The Code was updated and harmonized with the Medical Association of Slovenia and approved on October 6, 2016, at the regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia.

  8. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2018-04-08

    Convolutional Sparse Coding (CSC) is a well-established image representation model especially suited for image restoration tasks. In this work, we extend the applicability of this model by proposing a supervised approach to convolutional sparse coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements to be discriminative. Experimental results show that using supervised convolutional learning results in two key advantages. First, we learn more semantically relevant filters in the dictionary and second, we achieve improved image reconstruction on unseen data.

  9. CONCEPT computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.

    1984-01-01

    CONCEPT is a computer code that will provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for nuclear and coal-fired power plants. The code can develop an estimate for construction at any point in time. Any unit size within the range of about 400 to 1300 MW electric may be selected. Any of 23 reference site locations across the United States and Canada may be selected. PWR, BWR, and coal-fired plants burning high-sulfur and low-sulfur coal can be estimated. Multiple-unit plants can be estimated. Costs due to escalation/inflation and interest during construction are calculated

  10. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  11. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...... includes a reformulation of the usual methods to estimate the minimum distances of evaluation codes into the setting of affine variety codes. Finally we describe the connection to the theory of one-pointgeometric Goppa codes. Contents 4.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4.9 Codes form order domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 4.10 One-point geometric Goppa codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.11 Bibliographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 References...

  12. Audit of accuracy of clinical coding in oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naran, S; Hudovsky, A; Antscherl, J; Howells, S; Nouraei, S A R

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to study the accuracy of clinical coding within oral surgery and to identify ways in which it can be improved. We undertook did a multidisciplinary audit of a sample of 646 day case patients who had had oral surgery procedures between 2011 and 2012. We compared the codes given with their case notes and amended any discrepancies. The accuracy of coding was assessed for primary and secondary diagnoses and procedures, and for health resource groupings (HRGs). The financial impact of coding Subjectivity, Variability and Error (SVE) was assessed by reference to national tariffs. The audit resulted in 122 (19%) changes to primary diagnoses. The codes for primary procedures changed in 224 (35%) cases; 310 (48%) morbidities and complications had been missed, and 266 (41%) secondary procedures had been missed or were incorrect. This led to at least one change of coding in 496 (77%) patients, and to the HRG changes in 348 (54%) patients. The financial impact of this was £114 in lost revenue per patient. There is a high incidence of coding errors in oral surgery because of the large number of day cases, a lack of awareness by clinicians of coding issues, and because clinical coders are not always familiar with the large number of highly specialised abbreviations used. Accuracy of coding can be improved through the use of a well-designed proforma, and standards can be maintained by the use of an ongoing data quality assurance programme. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Construction of Short-length High-rates Ldpc Codes Using Difference Families

    OpenAIRE

    Deny Hamdani; Ery Safrianti

    2007-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is linear-block error-correcting code defined by sparse parity-check matrix. It isdecoded using the massage-passing algorithm, and in many cases, capable of outperforming turbo code. This paperpresents a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes showing good performance with low encoding complexity.The code is constructed using difference families from combinatorial design. The resulting code, which is designed tohave short code length and high code r...

  14. The impact of three discharge coding methods on the accuracy of diagnostic coding and hospital reimbursement for inpatient medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopra, Rosy; Peckham, Daniel; Beirne, Paul; Rodger, Kirsty; Callister, Matthew; White, Helen; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Ghosh, Dipansu; Whitaker, Paul; Clifton, Ian J; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2018-07-01

    Coding of diagnoses is important for patient care, hospital management and research. However coding accuracy is often poor and may reflect methods of coding. This study investigates the impact of three alternative coding methods on the inaccuracy of diagnosis codes and hospital reimbursement. Comparisons of coding inaccuracy were made between a list of coded diagnoses obtained by a coder using (i)the discharge summary alone, (ii)case notes and discharge summary, and (iii)discharge summary with the addition of medical input. For each method, inaccuracy was determined for the primary, secondary diagnoses, Healthcare Resource Group (HRG) and estimated hospital reimbursement. These data were then compared with a gold standard derived by a consultant and coder. 107 consecutive patient discharges were analysed. Inaccuracy of diagnosis codes was highest when a coder used the discharge summary alone, and decreased significantly when the coder used the case notes (70% vs 58% respectively, p coded from the discharge summary with medical support (70% vs 60% respectively, p coding with case notes, and 35% for coding with medical support. The three coding methods resulted in an annual estimated loss of hospital remuneration of between £1.8 M and £16.5 M. The accuracy of diagnosis codes and percentage of correct HRGs improved when coders used either case notes or medical support in addition to the discharge summary. Further emphasis needs to be placed on improving the standard of information recorded in discharge summaries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual Coding in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  16. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  17. Radioactive action code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    A new coding system, 'Hazrad', for buildings and transportation containers for alerting emergency services personnel to the presence of radioactive materials has been developed in the United Kingdom. The hazards of materials in the buildings or transport container, together with the recommended emergency action, are represented by a number of codes which are marked on the building or container and interpreted from a chart carried as a pocket-size guide. Buildings would be marked with the familiar yellow 'radioactive' trefoil, the written information 'Radioactive materials' and a list of isotopes. Under this the 'Hazrad' code would be written - three symbols to denote the relative radioactive risk (low, medium or high), the biological risk (also low, medium or high) and the third showing the type of radiation emitted, alpha, beta or gamma. The response cards indicate appropriate measures to take, eg for a high biological risk, Bio3, the wearing of a gas-tight protection suit is advised. The code and its uses are explained. (U.K.)

  18. Building Codes and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  19. Physics of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Jones, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The title given this paper is a bit presumptuous, since one can hardly expect to cover the physics incorporated into all the codes already written and currently being written. The authors focus on those codes which have been found to be particularly useful in the analysis and design of linacs. At that the authors will be a bit parochial and discuss primarily those codes used for the design of radio-frequency (rf) linacs, although the discussions of TRANSPORT and MARYLIE have little to do with the time structures of the beams being analyzed. The plan of this paper is first to describe rather simply the concepts of emittance and brightness, then to describe rather briefly each of the codes TRANSPORT, PARMTEQ, TBCI, MARYLIE, and ISIS, indicating what physics is and is not included in each of them. It is expected that the vast majority of what is covered will apply equally well to protons and electrons (and other particles). This material is intended to be tutorial in nature and can in no way be expected to be exhaustive. 31 references, 4 figures

  20. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  1. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  2. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  3. Nuclear safety code study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.H.; Ford, D.; Le, H.; Park, S.; Cooke, K.L.; Bleakney, T.; Spanier, J.; Wilburn, N.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Carmichael, B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to analyze an overpower accident in an LMFBR. A simplified model of the primary coolant loop was developed in order to understand the instabilities encountered with the MELT III and SAS codes. The computer programs were translated for switching to the IBM 4331. Numerical methods were investigated for solving the neutron kinetics equations; the Adams and Gear methods were compared. (DLC)

  4. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  5. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  6. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information and coding theory. A large scale relay computer had failed to deliver the expected results due to a hardware fault. Hamming, one of the active proponents of computer usage, was determined to find an efficient means by which computers could detect and correct their own faults. A mathematician by train-.

  7. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives ...

  8. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  9. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  10. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  11. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    having a probability Pi of being equal to a 1. Let us assume ... equal to a 0/1 has no bearing on the probability of the. It is often ... bits (call this set S) whose individual bits add up to zero ... In the context of binary error-correct~ng codes, specifi-.

  12. The Redox Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  13. Z₂-double cyclic codes

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, J.

    2014-01-01

    A binary linear code C is a Z2-double cyclic code if the set of coordinates can be partitioned into two subsets such that any cyclic shift of the coordinates of both subsets leaves invariant the code. These codes can be identified as submodules of the Z2[x]-module Z2[x]/(x^r − 1) × Z2[x]/(x^s − 1). We determine the structure of Z2-double cyclic codes giving the generator polynomials of these codes. The related polynomial representation of Z2-double cyclic codes and its duals, and the relation...

  14. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CALMAR: A New Versatile Code Library for Adjustment from Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CALMAR, a new library for adjustment has been developed. This code performs simultaneous shape and level adjustment of an initial prior spectrum from measured reactions rates of activation foils. It is written in C++ using the ROOT data analysis framework,with all linear algebra classes. STAYSL code has also been reimplemented in this library. Use of the code is very flexible : stand-alone, inside a C++ code, or driven by scripts. Validation and test cases are under progress. Theses cases will be included in the code package that will be available to the community. Future development are discussed. The code should support the new Generalized Nuclear Data (GND format. This new format has many advantages compared to ENDF.

  16. The ASME Code today -- Challenges, threats, opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since its modest beginning as a single volume in 1914 the ASME Code, or some of its parts, is recognized today in 48 of the United States and all providence's of Canada. The ASME Code today is composed of 25 books including two Code Case books. These books cover the new construction of boilers and pressure vessels and the new construction and In-Service-Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components. The ASME accredits all manufacturers of boilers and pressure vessels built to the ASME Code. There are approximately 7650 symbol stamps issued throughout the world. Over 23% of the symbol stamps have been issued outside the USA and Canada. The challenge to the ASME Code is to be accepted as the world standard for pressure boundary components. There are activities underway to achieve that goal. The ASME Code is being revised to make it a more friendly document to entities outside of North America. To achieve that end there are specific tasks underway which are described here

  17. Transmission imaging with a coded source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, W.W.; Sage, J.P.; Braun, M.; Wilson, D.T.; Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The conventional approach to transmission imaging is to use a rotating anode x-ray tube, which provides the small, brilliant x-ray source needed to cast sharp images of acceptable intensity. Stationary anode sources, although inherently less brilliant, are more compatible with the use of large area anodes, and so they can be made more powerful than rotating anode sources. Spatial modulation of the source distribution provides a way to introduce detailed structure in the transmission images cast by large area sources, and this permits the recovery of high resolution images, in spite of the source diameter. The spatial modulation is deliberately chosen to optimize recovery of image structure; the modulation pattern is therefore called a ''code.'' A variety of codes may be used; the essential mathematical property is that the code possess a sharply peaked autocorrelation function, because this property permits the decoding of the raw image cast by th coded source. Random point arrays, non-redundant point arrays, and the Fresnel zone pattern are examples of suitable codes. This paper is restricted to the case of the Fresnel zone pattern code, which has the unique additional property of generating raw images analogous to Fresnel holograms. Because the spatial frequency of these raw images are extremely coarse compared with actual holograms, a photoreduction step onto a holographic plate is necessary before the decoded image may be displayed with the aid of coherent illumination

  18. REVISED STREAM CODE AND WASP5 BENCHMARK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2005-01-01

    STREAM is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River. The STREAM code uses an algebraic equation to approximate the solution of the one dimensional advective transport differential equation. This approach generates spurious oscillations in the concentration profile when modeling long duration releases. To improve the capability of the STREAM code to model long-term releases, its calculation module was replaced by the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US EPA water quality analysis program that simulates one-dimensional pollutant transport through surface water. Test cases were performed to compare the revised version of STREAM with the existing version. For continuous releases, results predicted by the revised STREAM code agree with physical expectations. The WASP5 code was benchmarked with the US EPA 1990 and 1991 dye tracer studies, in which the transport of the dye was measured from its release at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam downstream to Savannah. The peak concentrations predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±20.0%. The transport times of the dye concentration peak predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±3.6%. These benchmarking results demonstrate that STREAM should be capable of accurately modeling releases from SRS outfalls

  19. Optimal interference code based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye; Chen, Qian; Hu, Xiaobo; Cao, Ercong; Qian, Weixian; Gu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of pseudo-random code, by the case of m sequence. Depending on the description of coding theory, we introduce the jamming methods. We simulate the interference effect or probability model by the means of MATLAB to consolidate. In accordance with the length of decoding time the adversary spends, we find out the optimal formula and optimal coefficients based on machine learning, then we get the new optimal interference code. First, when it comes to the phase of recognition, this study judges the effect of interference by the way of simulating the length of time over the decoding period of laser seeker. Then, we use laser active deception jamming simulate interference process in the tracking phase in the next block. In this study we choose the method of laser active deception jamming. In order to improve the performance of the interference, this paper simulates the model by MATLAB software. We find out the least number of pulse intervals which must be received, then we can make the conclusion that the precise interval number of the laser pointer for m sequence encoding. In order to find the shortest space, we make the choice of the greatest common divisor method. Then, combining with the coding regularity that has been found before, we restore pulse interval of pseudo-random code, which has been already received. Finally, we can control the time period of laser interference, get the optimal interference code, and also increase the probability of interference as well.

  20. Fast decoders for qudit topological codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Brown, Benjamin J; Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E

    2014-01-01

    Qudit toric codes are a natural higher-dimensional generalization of the well-studied qubit toric code. However, standard methods for error correction of the qubit toric code are not applicable to them. Novel decoders are needed. In this paper we introduce two renormalization group decoders for qudit codes and analyse their error correction thresholds and efficiency. The first decoder is a generalization of a ‘hard-decisions’ decoder due to Bravyi and Haah (arXiv:1112.3252). We modify this decoder to overcome a percolation effect which limits its threshold performance for many-level quantum systems. The second decoder is a generalization of a ‘soft-decisions’ decoder due to Poulin and Duclos-Cianci (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 050504), with a small cell size to optimize the efficiency of implementation in the high dimensional case. In each case, we estimate thresholds for the uncorrelated bit-flip error model and provide a comparative analysis of the performance of both these approaches to error correction of qudit toric codes. (paper)

  1. Development of 2-d cfd code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, a two-dimensional computer code has been developed in FORTRAN using CFD technique, which is basically a numerical scheme. This computer code solves the Navier Stokes equations and continuity equation to find out the velocity and pressure fields within a given domain. This analysis has been done for the developed within a square cavity driven by the upper wall which has become a bench mark for testing and comparing the newly developed numerical schemes. Before to handle this task, different one-dimensional cases have been studied by CFD technique and their FORTRAN programs written. The cases studied are Couette flow, Poiseuille flow with and without using symmetric boundary condition. Finally a comparison between CFD results and analytical results has also been made. For the cavity flow the results from the developed code have been obtained for different Reynolds numbers which are finally presented in the form of velocity vectors. The comparison of the developed code results have been made with the results obtained from the share ware version of a commercially available code for Reynolds number of 10.0. The disagreement in the results quantitatively and qualitatively at some grid points of the calculation domain have been discussed and future recommendations in this regard have also been made. (author)

  2. Essential idempotents and simplex codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Chalom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We define essential idempotents in group algebras and use them to prove that every mininmal abelian non-cyclic code is a repetition code. Also we use them to prove that every minimal abelian code is equivalent to a minimal cyclic code of the same length. Finally, we show that a binary cyclic code is simplex if and only if is of length of the form $n=2^k-1$ and is generated by an essential idempotent.

  3. A method for scientific code coupling in a distributed environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caremoli, C.; Beaucourt, D.; Chen, O.; Nicolas, G.; Peniguel, C.; Rascle, P.; Richard, N.; Thai Van, D.; Yessayan, A.

    1994-12-01

    This guide book deals with coupling of big scientific codes. First, the context is introduced: big scientific codes devoted to a specific discipline coming to maturity, and more and more needs in terms of multi discipline studies. Then we describe different kinds of code coupling and an example of code coupling: 3D thermal-hydraulic code THYC and 3D neutronics code COCCINELLE. With this example we identify problems to be solved to realize a coupling. We present the different numerical methods usable for the resolution of coupling terms. This leads to define two kinds of coupling: with the leak coupling, we can use explicit methods, and with the strong coupling we need to use implicit methods. On both cases, we analyze the link with the way of parallelizing code. For translation of data from one code to another, we define the notion of Standard Coupling Interface based on a general structure for data. This general structure constitutes an intermediary between the codes, thus allowing a relative independence of the codes from a specific coupling. The proposed method for the implementation of a coupling leads to a simultaneous run of the different codes, while they exchange data. Two kinds of data communication with message exchange are proposed: direct communication between codes with the use of PVM product (Parallel Virtual Machine) and indirect communication with a coupling tool. This second way, with a general code coupling tool, is based on a coupling method, and we strongly recommended to use it. This method is based on the two following principles: re-usability, that means few modifications on existing codes, and definition of a code usable for coupling, that leads to separate the design of a code usable for coupling from the realization of a specific coupling. This coupling tool available from beginning of 1994 is described in general terms. (authors). figs., tabs

  4. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...

  5. Observations on Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3041 September 2016 Observations on Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding David Wasserman Approved for public release. SSC...described in [2, 3]. In FY15 and FY16 we used cyclic redundancy check (CRC)-aided polar list decoding [4]. Section 2 describes the basics of polar coding ...and gives details of the encoders and decoders we used. In the course of our research, we performed simulations of polar codes in hundreds of cases

  6. The SEDA computer code and its utilization for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.

    1988-11-01

    The implementation of SEDA 2.0 computer code, developed at Ezeiza Atomic Center, Argentine for Angra 1 reactor is described. The SEDA code gives an estimate for radiological consequences of nuclear accidents with release of radiactive materials for the environment. This code is now available for an IBM PC-XT. The computer environment, the files used, data, the programining structure and the models used are presented. The input data and results for two sample case are described. (author) [pt

  7. Complete permutation Gray code implemented by finite state machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An enumerating method of complete permutation array is proposed. The list of n! permutations based on Gray code defined over finite symbol set Z(n = {1, 2, …, n} is implemented by finite state machine, named as n-RPGCF. An RPGCF can be used to search permutation code and provide improved lower bounds on the maximum cardinality of a permutation code in some cases.

  8. Improvement of MARS code reflood model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Chung, Bub-Dong

    2011-01-01

    A specifically designed heat transfer model for the reflood process which normally occurs at low flow and low pressure was originally incorporated in the MARS code. The model is essentially identical to that of the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. The model, however, is known to have under-estimated the peak cladding temperature (PCT) with earlier turn-over. In this study, the original MARS code reflood model is improved. Based on the extensive sensitivity studies for both hydraulic and wall heat transfer models, it is found that the dispersed flow film boiling (DFFB) wall heat transfer is the most influential process determining the PCT, whereas the interfacial drag model most affects the quenching time through the liquid carryover phenomenon. The model proposed by Bajorek and Young is incorporated for the DFFB wall heat transfer. Both space grid and droplet enhancement models are incorporated. Inverted annular film boiling (IAFB) is modeled by using the original PSI model of the code. The flow transition between the DFFB and IABF, is modeled using the TRACE code interpolation. A gas velocity threshold is also added to limit the top-down quenching effect. Assessment calculations are performed for the original and modified MARS codes for the Flecht-Seaset test and RBHT test. Improvements are observed in terms of the PCT and quenching time predictions in the Flecht-Seaset assessment. In case of the RBHT assessment, the improvement over the original MARS code is found marginal. A space grid effect, however, is clearly seen from the modified version of the MARS code. (author)

  9. How Effective Are Codes of Ethics? A Look at Three Newsrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyink, David E.

    1994-01-01

    Presents case studies of three newsrooms and their codes of ethics. Finds that while the content of codes is not irrelevant, the value of codes needs to be examined in the context of the newsroom environment; and that ethical discussions and debate within the newsroom are critical to bridge the gap between ethical standards and concrete cases. (RS)

  10. Development of Coolant Radioactivity Interpretation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Jung, Youngsuk; Kim, Kyounghyun; Kim, Jangwook

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, the coolant radioactivity analysis has been performed by using the computer codes of foreign companies such as CADE (Westinghouse), IODYNE and CESIUM (ABB-CE). However, these computer codes are too conservative and have involved considerable errors. Furthermore, since these codes are DOS-based program, their easy operability is not satisfactory. Therefore it is required development of an enhanced analysis algorithm applying an analytical method reflecting the change of operational environments of domestic nuclear power plants and a fuel failure evaluation software considering user' conveniences. We have developed a nuclear fuel failure evaluation code able to estimate the number of failed fuel rods and the burn-up of failed fuels during nuclear power plant operation cycle. A Coolant Radio-activity Interpretation Code (CRIC) for LWR has been developed as the output of the project 'Development of Fuel Reliability Enhanced Technique' organized by Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP). The CRIC is Windows based-software able to evaluate the number of failed fuel rods and the burn-up of failed fuel region by analyzing coolant radioactivity of LWR in operation. The CRIC is based on the model of fission products release commonly known as 'three region model' (pellet region, gap region, and coolant region), and we are verifying the CRIC results based on the cases of domestic fuel failures. CRIC users are able to estimate the number of failed fuel rods, burn-up and regions of failed fuel considered enrichment and power distribution of fuel region by using operational cycle data, coolant activity data, fuel loading pattern, Cs-134/Cs-137 ratio according to burn-up and U-235 enrichment provided in the code. Due to development of the CRIC, it is secured own unique fuel failure evaluation code. And, it is expected to have the following significant meaning. This is that the code reflecting a proprietary technique for quantitatively

  11. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes constructed from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing

    2017-12-01

    Recently, entanglement-assisted quantum codes have been constructed from cyclic codes by some scholars. However, how to determine the number of shared pairs required to construct entanglement-assisted quantum codes is not an easy work. In this paper, we propose a decomposition of the defining set of negacyclic codes. Based on this method, four families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes constructed in this paper satisfy the entanglement-assisted quantum Singleton bound, where the minimum distance satisfies q+1 ≤ d≤ n+2/2. Furthermore, we construct two families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes with maximal entanglement.

  12. Testing efficiency transfer codes for equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, T.; Celik, N.; Cornejo Diaz, N.; Dlabac, A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Carrazana Gonzalez, J.A.; Hult, M.; Jovanovic, S.; Lepy, M.-C.; Mihaljevic, N.; Sima, O.; Tzika, F.; Jurado Vargas, M.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Vidmar, G.

    2010-01-01

    Four general Monte Carlo codes (GEANT3, PENELOPE, MCNP and EGS4) and five dedicated packages for efficiency determination in gamma-ray spectrometry (ANGLE, DETEFF, GESPECOR, ETNA and EFFTRAN) were checked for equivalence by applying them to the calculation of efficiency transfer (ET) factors for a set of well-defined sample parameters, detector parameters and energies typically encountered in environmental radioactivity measurements. The differences between the results of the different codes never exceeded a few percent and were lower than 2% in the majority of cases.

  13. Quantum coding with finite resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomamichel, Marco; Berta, Mario; Renes, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The quantum capacity of a memoryless channel determines the maximal rate at which we can communicate reliably over asymptotically many uses of the channel. Here we illustrate that this asymptotic characterization is insufficient in practical scenarios where decoherence severely limits our ability to manipulate large quantum systems in the encoder and decoder. In practical settings, we should instead focus on the optimal trade-off between three parameters: the rate of the code, the size of the quantum devices at the encoder and decoder, and the fidelity of the transmission. We find approximate and exact characterizations of this trade-off for various channels of interest, including dephasing, depolarizing and erasure channels. In each case, the trade-off is parameterized by the capacity and a second channel parameter, the quantum channel dispersion. In the process, we develop several bounds that are valid for general quantum channels and can be computed for small instances. PMID:27156995

  14. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  15. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off......-the-shelf hardware is less reliable than the dedicated network elements used in conventional cellular deployments. The typical solution for this problem is to duplicate network functions across geographically distributed hardware in order to ensure diversity. In contrast, this letter proposes to leverage channel...... coding in order to enhance the robustness on NFV to hardware failure. The proposed approach targets the network function of uplink channel decoding, and builds on the algebraic structure of the encoded data frames in order to perform in-network coding on the signals to be processed at different servers...

  16. The NIMROD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

  17. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  18. Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Colin; Hone, Christopher; Nowlan, N.V.

    1984-05-01

    This Code of Practice introduces accepted safety procedures associated with the use of alpha, beta, gamma and X-radiation in secondary schools (pupils aged 12 to 18) in Ireland, and summarises good practice and procedures as they apply to radiation protection. Typical dose rates at various distances from sealed sources are quoted, and simplified equations are used to demonstrate dose and shielding calculations. The regulatory aspects of radiation protection are outlined, and references to statutory documents are given

  19. Tokamak simulation code manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Kyoo; Oh, Byung Hoon; Hong, Bong Keun; Lee, Kwang Won

    1995-01-01

    The method to use TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) developed by Princeton plasma physics laboratory is illustrated. In KT-2 tokamak, time dependent simulation of axisymmetric toroidal plasma and vertical stability have to be taken into account in design phase using TSC. In this report physical modelling of TSC are described and examples of application in JAERI and SERI are illustrated, which will be useful when TSC is installed KAERI computer system. (Author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  1. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  2. Code Modernization of VPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert; Nystrom, David; Albright, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The ability of scientific simulations to effectively deliver performant computation is increasingly being challenged by successive generations of high-performance computing architectures. Code development to support efficient computation on these modern architectures is both expensive, and highly complex; if it is approached without due care, it may also not be directly transferable between subsequent hardware generations. Previous works have discussed techniques to support the process of adapting a legacy code for modern hardware generations, but despite the breakthroughs in the areas of mini-app development, portable-performance, and cache oblivious algorithms the problem still remains largely unsolved. In this work we demonstrate how a focus on platform agnostic modern code-development can be applied to Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to facilitate effective scientific delivery. This work builds directly on our previous work optimizing VPIC, in which we replaced intrinsic based vectorisation with compile generated auto-vectorization to improve the performance and portability of VPIC. In this work we present the use of a specialized SIMD queue for processing some particle operations, and also preview a GPU capable OpenMP variant of VPIC. Finally we include a lessons learnt. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and supported by the LANL LDRD program.

  3. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  4. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  5. Performance Evaluation of HARQ Technique with UMTS Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Brkić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid automatic repeat request technique (HARQ represents the error control principle which combines an error correcting code and automatic repeat request procedure (ARQ, within the same transmission system. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulation process, the characteristics of HARQ technique are determined, for the case of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS turbo code.

  6. On affine variety codes from the Klein quartic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Ozbudak, Ferruh

    2018-01-01

    as the best known codes according to Grassl (2007) and in the remaining few cases the parameters are almost as good. To establish the code parameters we apply the footprint bound (Geil and Høholdt, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 46(2), 635–641, 2000 and Høholdt 1998) from Gröbner basis theory and for this purpose...

  7. FINELM: a multigroup finite element diffusion code. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davierwalla, D.M.

    1981-05-01

    The author presents the axisymmetric case in cylindrical coordinates for the finite element multigroup neutron diffusion code, FINELM. The numerical acceleration schemes incorporated viz. the Lebedev extrapolations and the coarse mesh rebalancing, space collapsing, are discussed. A few benchmark computations are presented as validation of the code. (Auth.)

  8. Kodo: An Open and Research Oriented Network Coding Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Fitzek, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of efficient decoding of a random linear code over a finite field. In particular we are interested in the case where the code is random, relatively sparse, and use the binary finite field as an example. The goal is to decode the data using fewer operations to potentially a...

  9. An Adaptive Coding Scheme For Effective Bandwidth And Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Codes for communication channels are in most cases chosen on the basis of the signal to noise ratio expected on a given transmission channel. The worst possible noise condition is normally assumed in the choice of appropriate codes such that a specified minimum error shall result during transmission on the channel.

  10. Blending Classroom Teaching and Learning with QR Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikala, Jenni; Kankaanranta, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case study was to explore the feasibility of the Quick Response (QR) codes and mobile devices in the context of Finnish basic education. The interest was especially to explore how mobile devices and QR codes can enhance and blend teaching and learning. The data were collected with a teacher interview and pupil surveys. The learning…

  11. Quality Improvement of MARS Code and Establishment of Code Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2010-04-01

    The improvement of MARS code quality and coupling with regulatory auditing code have been accomplished for the establishment of self-reliable technology based regulatory auditing system. The unified auditing system code was realized also by implementing the CANDU specific models and correlations. As a part of the quality assurance activities, the various QA reports were published through the code assessments. The code manuals were updated and published a new manual which describe the new models and correlations. The code coupling methods were verified though the exercise of plant application. The education-training seminar and technology transfer were performed for the code users. The developed MARS-KS is utilized as reliable auditing tool for the resolving the safety issue and other regulatory calculations. The code can be utilized as a base technology for GEN IV reactor applications

  12. Design of convolutional tornado code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yao; Gao, Hongmin; Tan, Lu

    2017-09-01

    As a linear block code, the traditional tornado (tTN) code is inefficient in burst-erasure environment and its multi-level structure may lead to high encoding/decoding complexity. This paper presents a convolutional tornado (cTN) code which is able to improve the burst-erasure protection capability by applying the convolution property to the tTN code, and reduce computational complexity by abrogating the multi-level structure. The simulation results show that cTN code can provide a better packet loss protection performance with lower computation complexity than tTN code.

  13. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  14. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  15. TASS code topical report. V.1 TASS code technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Suk K.; Chang, W. P.; Kim, K. D.; Kim, H. C.; Yoon, H. Y.

    1997-02-01

    TASS 1.0 code has been developed at KAERI for the initial and reload non-LOCA safety analysis for the operating PWRs as well as the PWRs under construction in Korea. TASS code will replace various vendor's non-LOCA safety analysis codes currently used for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs in Korea. This can be achieved through TASS code input modifications specific to each reactor type. The TASS code can be run interactively through the keyboard operation. A simimodular configuration used in developing the TASS code enables the user easily implement new models. TASS code has been programmed using FORTRAN77 which makes it easy to install and port for different computer environments. The TASS code can be utilized for the steady state simulation as well as the non-LOCA transient simulations such as power excursions, reactor coolant pump trips, load rejections, loss of feedwater, steam line breaks, steam generator tube ruptures, rod withdrawal and drop, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The malfunctions of the control systems, components, operator actions and the transients caused by the malfunctions can be easily simulated using the TASS code. This technical report describes the TASS 1.0 code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code technical manual has been prepared as a part of the TASS code manual which includes TASS code user's manual and TASS code validation report, and will be submitted to the regulatory body as a TASS code topical report for a licensing non-LOCA safety analysis for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs operating and under construction in Korea. (author). 42 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs

  16. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  17. User Effect on Code Application and Qualification Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Salah, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Experience with some code assessment case studies and also additional ISPs have shown the dominant effect of the code user on the predicted system behavior. The general findings of the user effect investigations on some of the case studies indicate, specifically, that in addition to user effects, there are other reasons which affect the results of the calculations and are hidden under the general title of user effects. The specific characteristics of experimental facilities, i.e. limitations as far as code assessment is concerned; limitations of the used thermal-hydraulic codes to simulate certain system behavior or phenomena; limitations due to interpretation of experimental data by the code user, i.e. interpretation of experimental data base. On the basis of the discussions in this paper, the following conclusions and recommendations can be made: More dialogue appears to be necessary with the experimenters in the planning of code assessment calculations, e.g. ISPs.; User guidelines are not complete for the codes and the lack of sufficient and detailed user guidelines are observed with some of the case studies; More extensive user instruction and training, improved user guidelines, or quality assurance procedures may partially reduce some of the subjective user influence on the calculated results; The discrepancies between experimental data and code predictions are due both to the intrinsic code limit and to the so called user effects. There is a worthful need to quantify the percentage of disagreement due to the poor utilization of the code and due to the code itself. This need especially arises for the uncertainty evaluation studies (e.g. [18]) which do not take into account the mentioned user effects; A much focused investigation, based on the results of comparison calculations e.g. ISPs, analyzing the experimental data and the results of the specific code in order to evaluate the user effects and the related experimental aspects should be integral part of the

  18. An improved version of the HULLAC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, M.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.; Oreg, J. [ARTEPARTEP is a contractor to the Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Accurate and detailed atomic structure codes are needed for simulation of spectrally resolved X-ray output of laser driven target. As such, the HULLAC code has already been presented several times. First of all, an overhaul was performed, modernizing many parts to make them easier to understand and adding many comments. The source, in Fortran-77, was compiled and checked on many different systems with different compilers. In the new version, we have added the possibility to directly compute the relativistic configuration averages, skipping the fine structure. However in this case configuration interactions can be accounted for only within each non-relativistic configuration. Therefore we added the possibility of a mixed description, where not all configurations are described at the fine structure level. Recently, cooperation was proposed to anyone interested in extending or developing the code. HULLAC is now ready to be distributed on a basis of collaboration.

  19. An improved version of the HULLAC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.; Oreg, J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and detailed atomic structure codes are needed for simulation of spectrally resolved X-ray output of laser driven target. As such, the HULLAC code has already been presented several times. First of all, an overhaul was performed, modernizing many parts to make them easier to understand and adding many comments. The source, in Fortran-77, was compiled and checked on many different systems with different compilers. In the new version, we have added the possibility to directly compute the relativistic configuration averages, skipping the fine structure. However in this case configuration interactions can be accounted for only within each non-relativistic configuration. Therefore we added the possibility of a mixed description, where not all configurations are described at the fine structure level. Recently, cooperation was proposed to anyone interested in extending or developing the code. HULLAC is now ready to be distributed on a basis of collaboration

  20. Code ATOM for calculation of atomic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    In applying atomic physics to problems of plasma diagnostics, it is necessary to determine some atomic characteristics, including energies and transition probabilities, for very many atoms and ions. Development of general codes for calculation of many types of atomic characteristics has been based on general but comparatively simple approximate methods. The program ATOM represents an attempt at effective use of such a general code. This report gives a brief description of the methods used, and the possibilities of and limitations to the code are discussed. Characteristics of the following processes can be calculated by ATOM: radiative transitions between discrete levels, radiative ionization and recombination, collisional excitation and ionization by electron impact, collisional excitation and ionization by point heavy particle (Born approximation only), dielectronic recombination, and autoionization. ATOM explores Born (for z=1) or Coulomb-Born (for z>1) approximations. In both cases exchange and normalization can be included. (N.K.)

  1. Documentation and verification of the SHAFT code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1991-12-01

    The SHAFT code incorporates equations to compute stresses in a shaft liner when the rock through which a shaft passes is subject to known three-dimensional states of stress or strain. The deformation modes considered are hoop deformation, axial deformation, and shear on a plane normal to the shaft axis. Interaction between the liner and the soil and rock is considered, and it is assumed that the liner is in place before loading is applied. This code is intended to be used interactively but creates a permanent record complete with necessary quality assurance information. The code has been carefully verified for the case of generalized plane strain, in which an arbitrary axial strain can be defined. It may also be used for plane stress analysis. Output is given in the form of stresses at selected sample points in the linear and the rock and a simple graphical representation of the distribution of stress through the liner. 12 figs., 13 tabs

  2. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  3. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency and fault density of software generated by code generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreur, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Flight computers and flight software are used for GN&C (guidance, navigation, and control), engine controllers, and avionics during missions. The software development requires the generation of a considerable amount of code. The engineers who generate the code make mistakes and the generation of a large body of code with high reliability requires considerable time. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools are available which generates code automatically with inputs through graphical interfaces. These tools are referred to as code generators. In theory, code generators could write highly reliable code quickly and inexpensively. The various code generators offer different levels of reliability checking. Some check only the finished product while some allow checking of individual modules and combined sets of modules as well. Considering NASA's requirement for reliability, an in house manually generated code is needed. Furthermore, automatically generated code is reputed to be as efficient as the best manually generated code when executed. In house verification is warranted.

  5. An Efficient Construction of Self-Dual Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yoonjin; Kim, Jon-Lark

    2012-01-01

    We complete the building-up construction for self-dual codes by resolving the open cases over $GF(q)$ with $q \\equiv 3 \\pmod 4$, and over $\\Z_{p^m}$ and Galois rings $\\GR(p^m,r)$ with an odd prime $p$ satisfying $p \\equiv 3 \\pmod 4$ with $r$ odd. We also extend the building-up construction for self-dual codes to finite chain rings. Our building-up construction produces many new interesting self-dual codes. In particular, we construct 945 new extremal self-dual ternary $[32,16,9]$ codes, each ...

  6. Description and application of the AERIN Code at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    The AERIN code was written at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1976 to compute the organ burdens and absorbed dose resulting from a chronic or acute inhalation of transuranic isotopes. The code was revised in 1982 to reflect the concepts of ICRP-30. This paper will describe the AERIN code and how it has been used at LLNL to study more than 80 cases of internal deposition and obtain estimates of internal dose. A comparison with the computed values of the committed organ dose is made with ICRP-30 values. The benefits of using the code are described. 3 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  7. IS THE CODE OF CONDUCT A MERE MARKETING TOOL OR A NECESSARY INSTRUMENT FOR A GLOBAL COMPANY LIKE VAISALA : A Case Study of a Finnish Public Limited Company Vaisala, specializing in environmental and industrial measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Raninen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the implementation of the company code of conduct of a Finnish Public Company called Vaisala. Vaisala is a global company operating in more than 140 countries and focuses on environmental measurements such as weather measurement and chosen industrial measurements.

  8. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Decoding Xing-Ling codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed.......This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed....

  10. WWER reactor physics code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, J.; Kereszturi, A.; Gacs, A.; Telbisz, M.

    1994-01-01

    The coupled steady-state reactor physics and thermohydraulic code system KARATE has been developed and applied for WWER-1000 and WWER-440 operational calculations. The 3 D coupled kinetic code KIKO3D has been developed and validated for WWER-440 accident analysis applications. The coupled kinetic code SMARTA developed by VTT Helsinki has been applied for WWER-440 accident analysis. The paper gives a summary of the experience in code development and application. (authors). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  11. The path of code linting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  12. The CORSYS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Krumbein, A.D.; Saphier, D.; Shapira, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assemble a code package for LWR core physics including coupled neutronics, burnup and thermal hydraulics. The CORSYS system is built around the cell code WIMS (for group microscopic cross section calculations) and 3-dimension diffusion code CITATION (for burnup and fuel management). We are implementing such a system on an IBM RS-6000 workstation. The code was rested with a simplified model of the Zion Unit 2 PWR. (authors). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs

  13. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  14. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially-available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  15. Quick response codes in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moidin Shakil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick response (QR code codes are two-dimensional barcodes, which encodes for a large amount of information. QR codes in Orthodontics are an innovative approach in which patient details, radiographic interpretation, and treatment plan can be encoded. Implementing QR code in Orthodontics will save time, reduces paperwork, and minimizes manual efforts in storage and retrieval of patient information during subsequent stages of treatment.

  16. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  17. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  18. UNSPEC: revisited (semaphore code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neifert, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The UNSPEC code is used to solve the problem of unfolding an observed x-ray spectrum given the response matrix of the measuring system and the measured signal values. UNSPEC uses an iterative technique to solve the unfold problem. Due to experimental errors in the measured signal values and/or computer round-off errors, discontinuities and oscillatory behavior may occur in the iterated spectrum. These can be suppressed by smoothing the results after each iteration. Input/output options and control cards are explained; sample input and output are provided

  19. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  20. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  1. The FLIC conversion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  2. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  3. Information sets as permutation cycles for quadratic residue codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Jenson

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The two cases p=7 and p=23 are the only known cases where the automorphism group of the [p+1,   (p+1/2] extended binary quadratic residue code, O(p, properly contains PSL(2,p. These codes have some of their information sets represented as permutation cycles from Aut(Q(p. Analysis proves that all information sets of Q(7 are so represented but those of Q(23 are not.

  4. Performance Analysis of a Decoding Algorithm for Algebraic Geometry Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helge Elbrønd; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund; Høholdt, Tom

    1998-01-01

    We analyse the known decoding algorithms for algebraic geometry codes in the case where the number of errors is greater than or equal to [(dFR-1)/2]+1, where dFR is the Feng-Rao distance......We analyse the known decoding algorithms for algebraic geometry codes in the case where the number of errors is greater than or equal to [(dFR-1)/2]+1, where dFR is the Feng-Rao distance...

  5. Recent results in the decoding of Algebraic geometry codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    1998-01-01

    We analyse the known decoding algorithms for algebraic geometry codes in the case where the number of errors is [(dFR-1)/2]+1, where dFR is the Feng-Rao distance......We analyse the known decoding algorithms for algebraic geometry codes in the case where the number of errors is [(dFR-1)/2]+1, where dFR is the Feng-Rao distance...

  6. Application of the extended TRANSURANUS code in FUMEX-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, A.; Di Marcello, V.; Van Uffelen van de Laar, P.J.; Botazzoli, P.; Pastore, G.; Boneva, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the TRANSURANUS code to the LWR priority cases of FUMEX-III. In the 2-nd section the present situation for the main topics of interest is illustrated on examples. The 3-rd section outlines the ongoing code developments and discusses their impact on the simulation of further specific cases of FUMEX-III. In the last section conclusions are drawn from the current status of the analysis

  7. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  8. Direct-semidirect (DSD) codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvelbar, F.

    1999-01-01

    Recent codes for direct-semidirect (DSD) model calculations in the form of answers to a detailed questionnaire are reviewed. These codes include those embodying the classical DSD approach covering only the transitions to the bound states (RAF, HIKARI, and those of the Bologna group), as well as the code CUPIDO++ that also treats transitions to unbound states. (author)

  9. Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    1982-01-01

    Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

  10. Strongly-MDS convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R

    Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the

  11. Lattice polytopes in coding theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Soprunov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss combinatorial questions about lattice polytopes motivated by recent results on minimum distance estimation for toric codes. We also include a new inductive bound for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes. As an application, we give new formulas for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes for special lattice point configurations.

  12. Computer codes for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    Computer codes for fusion safety analysis have been under development in the United States for about a decade. This paper will discuss five codes that are currently under development by the Fusion Safety Program. The purpose and capability of each code will be presented, a sample given, followed by a discussion of the present status and future development plans

  13. Geochemical computer codes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this report a review of available codes is performed and some code intercomparisons are also discussed. The number of codes treating natural waters (groundwater, lake water, sea water) is large. Most geochemical computer codes treat equilibrium conditions, although some codes with kinetic capability are available. A geochemical equilibrium model consists of a computer code, solving a set of equations by some numerical method and a data base, consisting of thermodynamic data required for the calculations. There are some codes which treat coupled geochemical and transport modeling. Some of these codes solve the equilibrium and transport equations simultaneously while other solve the equations separately from each other. The coupled codes require a large computer capacity and have thus as yet limited use. Three code intercomparisons have been found in literature. It may be concluded that there are many codes available for geochemical calculations but most of them require a user that us quite familiar with the code. The user also has to know the geochemical system in order to judge the reliability of the results. A high quality data base is necessary to obtain a reliable result. The best results may be expected for the major species of natural waters. For more complicated problems, including trace elements, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption, etc., the results seem to be less reliable. (With 44 refs.) (author)

  14. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are 1/2 and 1/3. The performances of both systems with high (10−2 and low (10−4 BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  15. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  16. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ 2 + μυ F 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF 2 . In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R 2 , for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ 2 = 0, υ 2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R 2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R 2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2 . (paper)

  17. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burr Alister

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are and . The performances of both systems with high ( and low ( BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  18. Concentration - dose - risk computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frujinoiu, C.; Preda, M.

    1997-01-01

    Generally, the society is less willing in promoting remedial actions in case of low level chronic exposure situations. Radon in dwellings and workplaces is a case connected to chronic exposure. Apart from radon, the solely source on which the international community agreed for setting action levels, there are other numerous sources technically modified by man that can generate chronic exposure. Even if the nuclear installations are the most relevant, we are surrounded by 'man-made radioactivity' such as: mining industry, coal-fired power plants and fertilizer industry. The operating of an installation even within 'normal limits' could generate chronic exposure due to accumulation of the pollutants after a definite time. This asymptotic proclivity to a constant level define a steady-state concentration that represents a characteristic of the source's presence in the environment. The paper presents a methodology and a code package that derives sequentially the steady-state concentration, doses, detriments, as well as the costs of the effects of installation operation in a given environment. (authors)

  19. Acceleration of a Monte Carlo radiation transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochstedler, R.D.; Smith, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    Execution time for the Integrated TIGER Series (ITS) Monte Carlo radiation transport code has been reduced by careful re-coding of computationally intensive subroutines. Three test cases for the TIGER (1-D slab geometry), CYLTRAN (2-D cylindrical geometry), and ACCEPT (3-D arbitrary geometry) codes were identified and used to benchmark and profile program execution. Based upon these results, sixteen top time-consuming subroutines were examined and nine of them modified to accelerate computations with equivalent numerical output to the original. The results obtained via this study indicate that speedup factors of 1.90 for the TIGER code, 1.67 for the CYLTRAN code, and 1.11 for the ACCEPT code are achievable. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Codes on the Klein quartic, ideals, and decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    1987-01-01

    descriptions as left ideals in the group-algebra GF(2^{3})[G]. This description allows for easy decoding. For instance, in the case of the single error correcting code of length21and dimension16with minimal distance3. decoding is obtained by multiplication with an idempotent in the group algebra.......A sequence of codes with particular symmetries and with large rates compared to their minimal distances is constructed over the field GF(2^{3}). In the sequence there is, for instance, a code of length 21 and dimension10with minimal distance9, and a code of length21and dimension16with minimal...... distance3. The codes are constructed from algebraic geometry using the dictionary between coding theory and algebraic curves over finite fields established by Goppa. The curve used in the present work is the Klein quartic. This curve has the maximal number of rational points over GF(2^{3})allowed by Serre...

  1. COSY INFINITY, a new arbitrary order optics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY is presented. The code is based on differential algebraic (DA) methods. COSY INFINITY has a full structured object oriented language environment. This provides a simple interface for the casual or novice user. At the same time, it offers the advanced user a very flexible and powerful tool for the utilization of DA. The power and generality of the environment is perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that the physics routines of COSY INFINITY are written in its own input language. The approach also facilitates the implementation of new features because special code generated by a user can be readily adopted to the source code. Besides being very compact in size, the code is also very fast, thanks to efficiently programmed elementary DA operations. For simple low order problems, which can be handled by conventional codes, the speed of COSY INFINITY is comparable and in certain cases even higher

  2. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  3. Adventure Code Camp: Library Mobile Design in the Backcountry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study exploring the use of a student Coding Camp as a bottom-up mobile design process to generate library mobile apps. A code camp sources student programmer talent and ideas for designing software services and features.  This case study reviews process, outcomes, and next steps in mobile web app coding camps. It concludes by offering implications for services design beyond the local camp presented in this study. By understanding how patrons expect to integrate library services and resources into their use of mobile devices, librarians can better design the user experience for this environment.

  4. On decoding of multi-level MPSK modulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Gupta, Alok Kumar

    1990-01-01

    The decoding problem of multi-level block modulation codes is investigated. The hardware design of soft-decision Viterbi decoder for some short length 8-PSK block modulation codes is presented. An effective way to reduce the hardware complexity of the decoder by reducing the branch metric and path metric, using a non-uniform floating-point to integer mapping scheme, is proposed and discussed. The simulation results of the design are presented. The multi-stage decoding (MSD) of multi-level modulation codes is also investigated. The cases of soft-decision and hard-decision MSD are considered and their performance are evaluated for several codes of different lengths and different minimum squared Euclidean distances. It is shown that the soft-decision MSD reduces the decoding complexity drastically and it is suboptimum. The hard-decision MSD further simplifies the decoding while still maintaining a reasonable coding gain over the uncoded system, if the component codes are chosen properly. Finally, some basic 3-level 8-PSK modulation codes using BCH codes as component codes are constructed and their coding gains are found for hard decision multistage decoding.

  5. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  6. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  7. Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozes, Shay; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of a d -level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d . In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d2] with the possible exception of d2-1 . We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.

  8. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... documents from ICC's Chicago District Office: International Code Council, 4051 W Flossmoor Road, Country... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International...

  9. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    polynomial included. This fundamental property is then used as the key to a variety of code constructions including 1) a simplified derivation of the binary Reed-Muller codes and, for any primepgreater than 2, a new extensive class ofp-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 2) a new class of "repeated-root" cyclic codes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm.......For any nonzero elementcof a general finite fieldGF(q), it is shown that the polynomials(x - c)^i, i = 0,1,2,cdots, have the "weight-retaining" property that any linear combination of these polynomials with coefficients inGF(q)has Hamming weight at least as great as that of the minimum degree...

  10. Introduction of SCIENCE code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haoliang; Li Jinggang; Zhu Ya'nan; Bai Ning

    2012-01-01

    The SCIENCE code package is a set of neutronics tools based on 2D assembly calculations and 3D core calculations. It is made up of APOLLO2F, SMART and SQUALE and used to perform the nuclear design and loading pattern analysis for the reactors on operation or under construction of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group. The purpose of paper is to briefly present the physical and numerical models used in each computation codes of the SCIENCE code pack age, including the description of the general structure of the code package, the coupling relationship of APOLLO2-F transport lattice code and SMART core nodal code, and the SQUALE code used for processing the core maps. (authors)

  11. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory text to algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain inside knowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeper understanding of state-of-the-art coding systems. This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar with this topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptography and communication. Linear error-correcting block codes through elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text. Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decoding algorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography and secret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutions at the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbert bound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac- Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error, and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finite field Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm f...

  12. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  13. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej; Lindskog, Staffan

    2007-03-01

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  14. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    of interfering nodes and usage of spatial reservation mechanisms. Specifically, we introduce a reserved area in order to protect the nodes involved in two-way relaying from the interference caused by neighboring nodes. We analytically derive the end-to-end rate achieved by PLNC considering the impact......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  15. Concatenated quantum codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.

    1996-07-01

    One main problem for the future of practial quantum computing is to stabilize the computation against unwanted interactions with the environment and imperfections in the applied operations. Existing proposals for quantum memories and quantum channels require gates with asymptotically zero error to store or transmit an input quantum state for arbitrarily long times or distances with fixed error. This report gives a method which has the property that to store or transmit a qubit with maximum error {epsilon} requires gates with errors at most {ital c}{epsilon} and storage or channel elements with error at most {epsilon}, independent of how long we wish to store the state or how far we wish to transmit it. The method relies on using concatenated quantum codes and hierarchically implemented recovery operations. The overhead of the method is polynomial in the time of storage or the distance of the transmission. Rigorous and heuristic lower bounds for the constant {ital c} are given.

  16. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  17. GOC: General Orbit Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-08-01

    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  18. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  19. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liangdong; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena; Liu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    The entanglement-assisted formalism generalizes the standard stabilizer formalism, which can transform arbitrary classical linear codes into entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs) by using pre-shared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. In this work, we construct six classes of q-ary entanglement-assisted quantum MDS (EAQMDS) codes based on classical negacyclic MDS codes by exploiting two or more pre-shared maximally entangled states. We show that two of these six classes q-ary EAQMDS have minimum distance more larger than q+1. Most of these q-ary EAQMDS codes are new in the sense that their parameters are not covered by the codes available in the literature.

  20. An algebraic approach to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinero, Fernando

    This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter, contains a short introduction to coding theory in which we explain the coding theory concepts we use. In the second chapter, we present the required theory for evaluation codes and also give an example of some fundamental codes in coding...... theory as evaluation codes. Chapter three consists of the introduction to graph based codes, such as Tanner codes and graph codes. In Chapter four, we compute the dimension of some graph based codes with a result combining graph based codes and subfield subcodes. Moreover, some codes in chapter four...

  1. Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code for spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hassan Yousif; Nisar, K. S.

    2013-08-01

    Code with ideal in-phase cross correlation (CC) and practical code length to support high number of users are required in spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. SAC systems are getting more attractive in the field of OCDMA because of its ability to eliminate the influence of multiple access interference (MAI) and also suppress the effect of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN). In this paper, we have proposed new Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code families with ideal in-phase CC based on Jordan block matrix with simple algebraic ways. Four sets of DEU code families based on the code weight W and number of users N for the combination (even, even), (even, odd), (odd, odd) and (odd, even) are constructed. This combination gives DEU code more flexibility in selection of code weight and number of users. These features made this code a compelling candidate for future optical communication systems. Numerical results show that the proposed DEU system outperforms reported codes. In addition, simulation results taken from a commercial optical systems simulator, Virtual Photonic Instrument (VPI™) shown that, using point to multipoint transmission in passive optical network (PON), DEU has better performance and could support long span with high data rate.

  2. Self-complementary circular codes in coding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Starman, Martin; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2018-04-01

    Self-complementary circular codes are involved in pairing genetic processes. A maximal [Formula: see text] self-complementary circular code X of trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel in Life 7(20):1-16 2017, J Theor Biol 380:156-177, 2015; Arquès and Michel in J Theor Biol 182:45-58 1996). In this paper, self-complementary circular codes are investigated using the graph theory approach recently formulated in Fimmel et al. (Philos Trans R Soc A 374:20150058, 2016). A directed graph [Formula: see text] associated with any code X mirrors the properties of the code. In the present paper, we demonstrate a necessary condition for the self-complementarity of an arbitrary code X in terms of the graph theory. The same condition has been proven to be sufficient for codes which are circular and of large size [Formula: see text] trinucleotides, in particular for maximal circular codes ([Formula: see text] trinucleotides). For codes of small-size [Formula: see text] trinucleotides, some very rare counterexamples have been constructed. Furthermore, the length and the structure of the longest paths in the graphs associated with the self-complementary circular codes are investigated. It has been proven that the longest paths in such graphs determine the reading frame for the self-complementary circular codes. By applying this result, the reading frame in any arbitrary sequence of trinucleotides is retrieved after at most 15 nucleotides, i.e., 5 consecutive trinucleotides, from the circular code X identified in genes. Thus, an X motif of a length of at least 15 nucleotides in an arbitrary sequence of trinucleotides (not necessarily all of them belonging to X) uniquely defines the reading (correct) frame, an important criterion for analyzing the X motifs in genes in the future.

  3. Specialized Monte Carlo codes versus general-purpose Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, Vadim; DesRosiers, Colleen; Papiez, Lech; Lu, Xiaoyi

    2002-01-01

    The possibilities of Monte Carlo modeling for dose calculations and optimization treatment are quite limited in radiation oncology applications. The main reason is that the Monte Carlo technique for dose calculations is time consuming while treatment planning may require hundreds of possible cases of dose simulations to be evaluated for dose optimization. The second reason is that general-purpose codes widely used in practice, require an experienced user to customize them for calculations. This paper discusses the concept of Monte Carlo code design that can avoid the main problems that are preventing wide spread use of this simulation technique in medical physics. (authors)

  4. Use of Lump Parameter Codes at SNSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehleisen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The lump parameter codes are due to the specifics of Slovenian regulation used only in a very limited scope by the SNSA itself. The law requires that most of the analysis needed for regulatory decision making have to be performed by technical support organisations (TSOs). The use of lump parameter codes is therefore limited to the amount needed to maintain necessary technical competence and to support, to a degree, the reasoning for raising new issues and methodologies. SNSA has available its own NPP MELCOR model and uses for its own purposes NPP Krsko RELAP model. RELAP model is also part of the SNSA NPA analyser. Here presented recent uses at SNSA include use of NPA in support of a project, aimed at estimating maturity and uses of CFD codes for regulatory purposes, transition from MELCOR 1.8.3 to 1.8.5 model and its validation, developing MELCOR PAR model and use of NPA for training purposes. NPA use in support of investigation of CFD usability has been in performing lump parameter code calculation against which the CFD results could be compared. The case of SI injection and the following boron distribution in the reactor vessel has been used for this purpose. The comparison showed that for the particular case there is no urgent need for CFD code calculations, nevertheless the project clearly demonstrated wealth of additional information that can be gained by the use of CFD code. As far as MELCOR model is concerned, only transition of the model to the newer code version has been performed and PAR input prepared and tested. Even though there is a feeling at SNSA that some preliminary analysis with it (such as analysis of typical accidents with PARs present and analysis in support of wet cavity modification) would be useful as a support for decision making as well as for simple training purposes we have not been able to perform them due to other priorities and lack of human resources. SNSA is additionally tasked with support to TSOs in their efforts to maintain and

  5. DOZIM - evaluation dose code for nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Musat, D.; Ionita, I.

    2008-01-01

    During a nuclear accident an environmentally significant fission products release can happen. In that case it is not possible to determine precisely the air fission products concentration and, consequently, the estimated doses will be affected by certain errors. The stringent requirement to cope with a nuclear accident, even minor, imposes creation of a computation method for emergency dosimetric evaluations needed to compare the measurement data to certain reference levels, previously established. These comparisons will allow a qualified option regarding the necessary actions to diminish the accident effects. DOZIM code estimates the soil contamination and the irradiation doses produced either by radioactive plume or by soil contamination. Irradiations either on whole body or on certain organs, as well as internal contamination doses produced by isotope inhalation during radioactive plume crossing are taken into account. The calculus does not consider neither the internal contamination produced by contaminated food consumption, or that produced by radioactive deposits resuspension. The code is recommended for dose computation on the wind direction, at distances from 10 2 to 2 x 10 4 m. The DOZIM code was utilized for three different cases: - In air TRIGA-SSR fuel bundle destruction with different input data for fission products fractions released into the environment; - Chernobyl-like accident doses estimation; - Intervention areas determination for a hypothetical severe accident at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. For the first case input data and results (for a 60 m emission height without iodine retention on active coal filters) are presented. To summarize, the DOZIM code conception allows the dose estimation for any nuclear accident. Fission products inventory, released fractions, emission conditions, atmospherical and geographical parameters are the input data. Dosimetric factors are included in the program. The program is in FORTRAN IV language and was run on

  6. Benchmarking NNWSI flow and transport codes: COVE 1 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, N.K.

    1985-06-01

    The code verification (COVE) activity of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project is the first step in certification of flow and transport codes used for NNWSI performance assessments of a geologic repository for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes. The goals of the COVE activity are (1) to demonstrate and compare the numerical accuracy and sensitivity of certain codes, (2) to identify and resolve problems in running typical NNWSI performance assessment calculations, and (3) to evaluate computer requirements for running the codes. This report describes the work done for COVE 1, the first step in benchmarking some of the codes. Isothermal calculations for the COVE 1 benchmarking have been completed using the hydrologic flow codes SAGUARO, TRUST, and GWVIP; the radionuclide transport codes FEMTRAN and TRUMP; and the coupled flow and transport code TRACR3D. This report presents the results of three cases of the benchmarking problem solved for COVE 1, a comparison of the results, questions raised regarding sensitivities to modeling techniques, and conclusions drawn regarding the status and numerical sensitivities of the codes. 30 refs

  7. Development of the integrated system reliability analysis code MODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.H.; Yoo, K.J.; Kim, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The major components in a system reliability analysis are the determination of cut sets, importance measure, and uncertainty analysis. Various computer codes have been used for these purposes. For example, SETS and FTAP are used to determine cut sets; Importance for importance calculations; and Sample, CONINT, and MOCUP for uncertainty analysis. There have been problems when the codes run each other and the input and output are not linked, which could result in errors when preparing input for each code. The code MODULE was developed to carry out the above calculations simultaneously without linking input and outputs to other codes. MODULE can also prepare input for SETS for the case of a large fault tree that cannot be handled by MODULE. The flow diagram of the MODULE code is shown. To verify the MODULE code, two examples are selected and the results and computation times are compared with those of SETS, FTAP, CONINT, and MOCUP on both Cyber 170-875 and IBM PC/AT. Two examples are fault trees of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) of Korea Nuclear Units (KNU)-1 and -2, which have 54 gates and 115 events, 39 gates and 92 events, respectively. The MODULE code has the advantage that it can calculate the cut sets, importances, and uncertainties in a single run with little increase in computing time over other codes and that it can be used in personal computers

  8. TRANSURANUS: A fuel rod analysis code ready for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassmann, K; O` Carroll, C; Van de Laar, J [Commission of the European Communities, Karlsruhe (Germany). European Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Ott, C [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    The basic concepts of fuel rod performance codes are discussed. The TRANSURANUS code developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (GE) is presented. It is a quasi two-dimensional (1{sub 1/2}-D) code designed for treatment of a whole fuel rod for any type of reactor and any situation. The fuel rods found in the majority of test- or power reactors can be analyzed for very different situations (normal, off-normal and accidental). The time scale of the problems to be treated may range from milliseconds to years. The TRANSURANUS code consists of a clearly defined mechanical/mathematical framework into which physical models can easily be incorporated. This framework has been extensively tested and the programming very clearly reflects this structure. The code is well structured and easy to understand. It has a comprehensive material data bank for different fuels, claddings, coolants and their properties. The code can be employed in a deterministic and a statistical version. It is written in standard FORTRAN 77. The code system includes: 2 preprocessor programs (MAKROH and AXORDER) for setting up new data cases; the post-processor URPLOT for plotting all important quantities as a function of the radius, the axial coordinate or the time; the post-processor URSTART evaluating statistical analyses. The TRANSURANUS code exhibits short running times. A new WINDOWS-based interactive interface is under development. The code is now in use in various European institutions and is available to all interested parties. 7 figs., 15 refs.

  9. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  10. Ethical codes in business practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kobrlová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the issues of ethics and codes of ethics in business. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of ethics, presents its historical development and the methods and tools of business ethics. It also focuses on ethical codes and the area of law and ethics. The practical part consists of a quantitative survey, which provides views of selected business entities of business ethics and the use of codes of ethics in practice.

  11. TESLA: Large Signal Simulation Code for Klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, Alexander N.; Cooke, Simon J.; Chernin, David P.; Antonsen, Thomas M. Jr.; Nguyen, Khanh T.; Levush, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    TESLA (Telegraphist's Equations Solution for Linear Beam Amplifiers) is a new code designed to simulate linear beam vacuum electronic devices with cavities, such as klystrons, extended interaction klystrons, twistrons, and coupled cavity amplifiers. The model includes a self-consistent, nonlinear solution of the three-dimensional electron equations of motion and the solution of time-dependent field equations. The model differs from the conventional Particle in Cell approach in that the field spectrum is assumed to consist of a carrier frequency and its harmonics with slowly varying envelopes. Also, fields in the external cavities are modeled with circuit like equations and couple to fields in the beam region through boundary conditions on the beam tunnel wall. The model in TESLA is an extension of the model used in gyrotron code MAGY. The TESLA formulation has been extended to be capable to treat the multiple beam case, in which each beam is transported inside its own tunnel. The beams interact with each other as they pass through the gaps in their common cavities. The interaction is treated by modification of the boundary conditions on the wall of each tunnel to include the effect of adjacent beams as well as the fields excited in each cavity. The extended version of TESLA for the multiple beam case, TESLA-MB, has been developed for single processor machines, and can run on UNIX machines and on PC computers with a large memory (above 2GB). The TESLA-MB algorithm is currently being modified to simulate multiple beam klystrons on multiprocessor machines using the MPI (Message Passing Interface) environment. The code TESLA has been verified by comparison with MAGIC for single and multiple beam cases. The TESLA code and the MAGIC code predict the same power within 1% for a simple two cavity klystron design while the computational time for TESLA is orders of magnitude less than for MAGIC 2D. In addition, recently TESLA was used to model the L-6048 klystron, code

  12. QR code for medical information uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  13. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  14. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  15. Programming Entity Framework Code First

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Take advantage of the Code First data modeling approach in ADO.NET Entity Framework, and learn how to build and configure a model based on existing classes in your business domain. With this concise book, you'll work hands-on with examples to learn how Code First can create an in-memory model and database by default, and how you can exert more control over the model through further configuration. Code First provides an alternative to the database first and model first approaches to the Entity Data Model. Learn the benefits of defining your model with code, whether you're working with an exis

  16. User manual of UNF code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    2001-01-01

    The UNF code (2001 version) written in FORTRAN-90 is developed for calculating fast neutron reaction data of structure materials with incident energies from about 1 Kev up to 20 Mev. The code consists of the spherical optical model, the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model. The man nal of the UNF code is available for users. The format of the input parameter files and the output files, as well as the functions of flag used in UNF code, are introduced in detail, and the examples of the format of input parameters files are given

  17. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  18. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  19. Mobile code security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Srikumar

    2001-11-01

    A highly secure mobile agent system is very important for a mobile computing environment. The security issues in mobile agent system comprise protecting mobile hosts from malicious agents, protecting agents from other malicious agents, protecting hosts from other malicious hosts and protecting agents from malicious hosts. Using traditional security mechanisms the first three security problems can be solved. Apart from using trusted hardware, very few approaches exist to protect mobile code from malicious hosts. Some of the approaches to solve this problem are the use of trusted computing, computing with encrypted function, steganography, cryptographic traces, Seal Calculas, etc. This paper focuses on the simulation of some of these existing techniques in the designed mobile language. Some new approaches to solve malicious network problem and agent tampering problem are developed using public key encryption system and steganographic concepts. The approaches are based on encrypting and hiding the partial solutions of the mobile agents. The partial results are stored and the address of the storage is destroyed as the agent moves from one host to another host. This allows only the originator to make use of the partial results. Through these approaches some of the existing problems are solved.

  20. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-04-11

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.