Nonlinear elastic waves in materials
Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J
2014-01-01
The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...
Engelbrecht, Jüri
2015-01-01
This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.
Graff, Karl F
1991-01-01
This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter
Wave propagation in elastic solids
Achenbach, Jan
1984-01-01
The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat
Transient waves in visco-elastic media
Ricker, Norman
1977-01-01
Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave
Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial
Domino, L; Patinet, Sylvain; Eddi, A
2016-01-01
Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying sub-wavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.
Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.
Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A
2016-05-01
Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.
Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young
2017-08-30
Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.
Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav
2016-01-01
The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...
Fracture imaging with converted elastic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.
2001-05-29
This paper examines the seismic signatures of discrete, finite-length fractures, and outlines an approach for elastic, prestack reverse-time imaging of discrete fractures. The results of this study highlight the importance of incorporating fracture-generated P-S converted waves into the imaging method, and presents an alternate imaging condition that can be used in elastic reverse-time imaging when a direct wave is recorded (e.g., for crosswell and VSP acquisition geometries).
Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.
1984-01-01
Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...... the solitary waves numerically. It is demonstrated that the waves behave almost like solitons in agreement with the fact that the improved Boussinesq equations are nearly integrable. Thus three conservation theorems can be derived from the equations. A new subsonic quasibreather is found in the case of a cubic...
The theory of elastic waves and waveguides
Miklowitz, J
1984-01-01
The primary objective of this book is to give the reader a basic understanding of waves and their propagation in a linear elastic continuum. The studies of elastodynamic theory and its application to fundamental value problems should prepare the reader to tackle many physical problems of general interest in engineering and geophysics, and of particular interest in mechanics and seismology.
Simple wave interaction of an elastic string
Broer, L.J.F.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.
1977-01-01
The equations for the two-dimensional motion of a completely flexible elastic string can be derived from a Lagrangian. The equations of motion possess four characteristic velocities, to which the following four simple wave solutions correspond: leftward and rightward propagating longitudinal and
Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.
1987-01-01
In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results...
Local Tensor Radiation Conditions For Elastic Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2001-01-01
A local boundary condition is formulated, representing radiation of elastic waves from an arbitrary point source. The boundary condition takes the form of a tensor relation between the stress at a point on an arbitrarily oriented section and the velocity and displacement vectors at the point....... The tensor relation generalizes the traditional normal incidence impedance condition by accounting for the angle between wave propagation and the surface normal and by including a generalized stiffness term due to spreading of the waves. The effectiveness of the local tensor radiation condition...
Nonlinear fractional waves at elastic interfaces
Kappler, Julian; Shrivastava, Shamit; Schneider, Matthias F.; Netz, Roland R.
2017-11-01
We derive the nonlinear fractional surface wave equation that governs compression waves at an elastic interface that is coupled to a viscous bulk medium. The fractional character of the differential equation comes from the fact that the effective thickness of the bulk layer that is coupled to the interface is frequency dependent. The nonlinearity arises from the nonlinear dependence of the interface compressibility on the local compression, which is obtained from experimental measurements and reflects a phase transition at the interface. Numerical solutions of our nonlinear fractional theory reproduce several experimental key features of surface waves in phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface without freely adjustable fitting parameters. In particular, the propagation distance of the surface wave abruptly increases at a threshold excitation amplitude. The wave velocity is found to be of the order of 40 cm/s in both experiments and theory and slightly increases as a function of the excitation amplitude. Nonlinear acoustic switching effects in membranes are thus shown to arise purely based on intrinsic membrane properties, namely, the presence of compressibility nonlinearities that accompany phase transitions at the interface.
Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium, three types of quasi-waves propagate along an arbitrary direction. In general, none of the waves is truly longitudinal. The present study finds the specific directions in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium along which longitudinal waves may propagate. This paper ...
Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions
Peng, Pai
2014-05-01
We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.
Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
existence and propagation of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium. These expressions involve not only the direction and elastic stiffness of the medium, but also the pre- stresses present in the medium. Changes in conditions for the existence of longitudinal waves in orthotropic, monoclinic and ...
Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves
Tarhini, Ahmad
2017-11-06
The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.
Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves
Tarhini, Ahmad; Guo, Bowen; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-11-01
The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R^{-n} for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
reinforced solid elastic media. First, the theory of general surface waves has been derived and applied to study the particular cases of surface waves – Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to be in agreement with ...
Elastic Wave Propagation Mechanisms in Underwater Acoustic Environments
2015-09-30
Collis, and Robert I. Odom. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for oceanic T -wave generation and propagation from deep seismic sources. J. Acoust...navigation under Arctic ice. In Oceans , 2012, pages 1–8. IEEE, October 2012. 10.1109/ OCEANS .2012.6405005. PUBLICATIONS • Published in refereed journal...or elastic ice cover. OBJECTIVES To apply EPE solutions to scenarios that include fluid-elastic boundaries, either at the ocean floor, or at the
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45
her valuable comments and suggestions for improving this paper. References. Acharya D P, Sengupta P R 1978 Magneto-thermo-elastic surface waves in initially stressed conducting media. Acta Geophys. Polon. A26: 299–311. Belfield A J ...
Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elschner, Johannes [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Yamamoto, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences
2009-07-01
We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)
Thermo elastic waves with thermal relaxation in isotropic micropolar ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
elastic media. In isotropic elastic media Lord & Shulman (1967), Dhaliwal & Sherief (1980) deduced independently the generalized version of classical coupled theory. In the above theories flux rate ...... Eringen A C 1973 Linear theory of non-local microelasticity and dispersion of plane waves. Lett. Appl. Eng. Sci. 1: 11–17.
Wave propagation in channels and cracks with elastic walls
Sukhinin, S. V.; Yurkovskiy, V. S.; Konstantinov, A. P.; Trilis, A. V.
2017-10-01
In this paper wave propagation in the uniform and nonuniform elastic channels filled with fluid or gas is investigated. The weak discontinuities theory approach is proposed to determine the criteria of gradient catastrophe phenomena to occur for the cases of uniform and nonuniform channels. The results of the paper can be applied to studying of the nonlinear wave propagation phenomena in elastic pores, cracks and channels filled with fluid or gas.
Liu, Fengming; Liu, Zhengyou
2015-10-23
We theoretically investigate elastic waves propagating in metamaterials with simultaneous zero indices for both the longitudinal and transverse waves. With scattering objects (here cylinders) present in the metamaterial slabs, while the elastic waves can mostly transmit through the metamaterial slabs perfectly, exhibiting the well-known cloaking effect of zero-index metamaterials, they nevertheless become totally blocked at resonances, indicating strong elastic wave scattering by the objects in the cases. However, despite the occurrence of the elastic wave scattering, there is, counterintuitively, no mode conversion between the longitudinal and transverse waves in the process, completely in contrast to that in conventional elastic media. A design of a two-dimensional phononic crystal with these peculiar properties is presented.
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
MS received 1 March 2002. Abstract. In the paper under discussion, the problem of surface waves in fibre- reinforced anisotropic elastic media has been studied. The authors express the plane strain displacement components in terms of two scalar potentials to decouple the plane motion into P and SV waves. In the present ...
Thermoelastic waves without energy dissipation in an elastic plate to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The linear theory of thermoelasticity without energy dissipation for isotropic and homogeneous materials is employed to study waves in an elastic plate. The waves are assumed to arise out of a ramp-type stress on the plate's boundary which is maintained at constant temperature. Laplace transforms are used to solve the ...
Phase velocity and attenuation of plane waves in dissipative elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An iteration method to find the roots of a complex transcendental equation is under scanner. This method identified as functional iteration method is being used mainly in wave propagation problems to calculate the phase velocity and the attenuation of plane harmonic waves in dissipative elastic plates. Few mathematical ...
Wang, Changda; Chen, Xuejun; Wei, Peijun; Li, Yueqiu
2017-12-01
The reflection and transmission of elastic waves through a couple-stress elastic slab that is sandwiched between two couple-stress elastic half-spaces are studied in this paper. Because of the couple-stress effects, there are three types of elastic waves in the couple-stress elastic solid, two of which are dispersive. The interface conditions between two couple-stress solids involve the surface couple and rotation apart from the surface traction and displacement. The nontraditional interface conditions between the slab and two solid half-spaces are used to obtain the linear algebraic equation sets from which the amplitude ratios of reflection and transmission waves to the incident wave can be determined. Then, the energy fluxes carried by the various reflection and transmission waves are calculated numerically and the normal energy flux conservation is used to validate the numerical results. The special case, couple-stress elastic slab sandwiched by the classical elastic half-spaces, is also studied and compared with the situation that the classical elastic slab sandwiched by the classical elastic half-spaces. Incident longitudinal wave (P wave) and incident transverse wave (SV wave) are both considered. The influences of the couple-stress are mainly discussed based on the numerical results. It is found that the couple-stress mainly influences the transverse modes of elastic waves.
Focusing guided waves using surface bonded elastic metamaterials
Yan, Xiang; Zhu, Rui; Huang, Guoliang; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2013-09-01
Bonding a two-dimensional planar array of small lead discs on an aluminum plate with silicone rubber is shown numerically to focus low-frequency flexural guided waves. The "effective mass density profile" of this type of elastic metamaterials (EMMs), perpendicular to wave propagation direction, is carefully tailored and designed, which allows rays of flexural A0 mode Lamb waves to bend in succession and then focus through a 7 × 9 planar array. Numerical simulations show that Lamb waves can be focused beyond EMMs region with amplified displacement and yet largely retained narrow banded waveform, which may have potential application in structural health monitoring.
Source illusion devices for flexural Lamb waves using elastic metasurfaces
Liu, Yongquan; Liu, Fu; Diba, Owen; Lamb, Alistair; Li, Jensen
2016-01-01
Metamaterials with the transformation method has greatly promoted the development in achieving invisibility and illusion for various classical waves. However, the requirement of tailor-made bulk materials and extreme constitutive parameters associated to illusion designs hampers its further progress. Inspired by recent demonstrations of metasurfaces in achieving reduced versions of electromagnetic cloaks, we propose and experimentally demonstrate source illusion devices to manipulate flexural waves using metasurfaces. The approach is particularly useful for elastic waves due to the lack of form-invariance in usual transformation methods. We demonstrate metasurfaces for shifting, transforming and splitting a point source with "space-coiling" structures. The effects are found to be broadband and robust against a change of source position, with agreement from numerical simulations and Huygens-Fresnel theory. The proposed approach provides an avenue to generically manipulate guided elastic waves in solids, and is...
Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Wang, Shang; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.
2016-01-01
The mechanical properties of tissues can provide valuable information about tissue integrity and health and can assist in detecting and monitoring the progression of diseases such as keratoconus. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is a rapidly emerging technique, which can assess localized mechanical contrast in tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. In this work we present a noncontact method of optical coherence elastography to evaluate the changes in the mechanical properties of the cornea after UV-induced collagen cross-linking. A focused air-pulse induced a low amplitude (μm scale) elastic wave, which then propagated radially and was imaged in three dimensions by a phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (PhS-SSOCT) system. The elastic wave velocity was translated to Young’s modulus in agar phantoms of various concentrations. Additionally, the speed of the elastic wave significantly changed in porcine cornea before and after UV-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). Moreover, different layers of the cornea, such as the anterior stroma, posterior stroma, and inner region, could be discerned from the phase velocities of the elastic wave. Therefore, because of noncontact excitation and imaging, this method may be useful for in vivo detection of ocular diseases such as keratoconus and evaluation of therapeutic interventions such as CXL. PMID:27547022
Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.
2016-01-01
Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...
Elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole in a poroelastic medium ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The propagation of elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole filled with/without liquid and embedded in an infinite porous medium saturated by two immiscible fluids has been studied. The theory of porous media saturated by two immiscible fluids developed by Tuncay and Corapcioglu (1997) is employed. Frequency ...
Transmission of longitudinal wave through micro-porous elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An investigation of reflection and transmission phenomena of plane longitudinal wave from a plane interface between two distinct micropolar porous elastic solid half-spaces in welded contact has been made. Using the method of potentials, the appropriate boundary conditions at the interface are solved to obtain the ...
Conical dispersion of Lamb waves in elastic plates
Stobbe, David M.; Murray, Todd W.
2017-10-01
Guided elastic waves in homogeneous isotropic plates exhibit conical dispersion at zero wave number for discrete values of Poisson's ratio where accidental degeneracy between longitudinal and transverse thickness resonances occur. Waves excited at the coincidence frequency have the infinite phase velocity associated with thickness mode resonances, but the group velocity remains finite. This leads to propagating waves that oscillate in time but are spatially uniform over the plate surface. Here, accidental degeneracy is induced in an aluminum plate by cooling the plate to tune the Poisson's ratio through the degenerate point. We measure linear dispersion in the transition from forward to backward propagating waves near zero wave number. In addition, we demonstrate that waves generated near the coincidence frequency exhibit spatially uniform phase over the plate surface, and show angle independent mode conversion upon encountering the free edge of the plate. We propose that elastic plates offer a simple system to explore the physics of conical dispersion at zero wave number, and that this phenomenon may find application in acoustic devices and nondestructive testing.
Li, Yueqiu; Wei, Peijun
2018-01-01
The reflection and transmission of thermal elastic waves at the interface between two different dipolar gradient elastic solids are studied based on the generalized thermo-elastic theory of Green and Naghdi [(1993). J. Elasticity 31, 189-208] (type II of no energy dissipation). First, some thermodynamic formulas are generalized to a dipolar gradient elastic solid and the function of free energy density is postulated. Second, equations of thermal motion and constitutive relations in a dipolar gradient elasticity are derived. Then the nontraditional interfacial conditions are used to determine the amplitude ratio of the reflection and transmission waves with respect to the incident wave. Some numerical results of the reflection and transmission coefficients in the form of an energy flux ratio are given for different microstructure parameters while thermal parameters are fixed. The numerical results are validated by the consideration of energy conservation. It is found that there are a total of five modes of dispersive waves, namely, coupled MT1 wave, coupled MT2 wave, coupled MT3 wave, SV wave, and one evanescent wave which reduces to the surface waves at an interface, namely, SS wave. The thermal parameters mainly affect the coupled MT2 wave while the microstructure parameters affect not only the coupled waves but also the SS surface waves.
Where no wave has gone before: unconventional elastic wave fields in exotic regimes
Bohlen, T.
2012-04-01
Nowadays, elastic wave fields are acquired on land, at the sea or or within tunnels and boreholes. The increasing availability of computational resources allow to use their full information content, e.g., P- and S-waves, converted waves, guided and interface waves, to image geological discontinuities and/or to reconstruct multi-parameter models. For the full consideration of elastic wave propagation effects the efficient forward simulation in 3-D complex media gains in importance. Full wave field modelling is essential for seismic imaging and inversion but also to invent and verify new seismic reconstruction techniques. Innovative seismic methods sometimes use unconventional elastic wave fields having very specific properties and being the only solution for some exotic applications. Such unconventional elastic wave fields, for example, are exploited for the seismic prediction ahead of tunnels. Tunnel surface-waves that arrive at the front face of the tunnel are converted into body-waves. Reflected body-waves are later back-converted into tunnel surface-waves. Imaging methods based on these wave fields can successfully detect geological discontinuities ahead. The conversion of interface waves and body waves can also be observed in fluid-filled boreholes and can be used for seismic prediction while drilling. Other unconventional waves in an exotic regime are marine Scholte waves that can be excited by airguns. Scholte waves are interface waves propagating along the sea floor and can be used to reconstruct the shear-wave velocity of shallow water marine sediments - an important parameter to characterize the stability of the marine sediments for offshore constructions. The ultimative goal, however, is the consistent consideration of both unconven¬tional waves as well as all other possible elastic wave propagation effects by full waveform inversion (FWI). Over the last several years, computer resources have brought 3D elastic FWI computations within reach. Some early
Topology optimization problems for reflection and dissipation of elastic waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2007-01-01
This paper is devoted to topology optimization problems for elastic wave propagation. The objective of the study is to maximize the reflection or the dissipation in a finite slab of material for pressure and shear waves in a range of frequencies. The optimized designs consist of two or three...... material phases: a host material and scattering and/or absorbing inclusions. The capabilities of the optimization algorithm are demonstrated with two numerical examples in which the reflection and dissipation of ground-borne wave pulses are maximized....
Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity
Arda, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Metin
2016-03-01
Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied in the present work. Governing equation of motion of multiwalled carbon nanotube is obtained using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The effect of van der Waals interaction coefficient is considered between inner and outer nanotubes. Dispersion relations are obtained and discussed in detail. Effect of nonlocal parameter and van der Waals interaction to the torsional wave propagation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is investigated. It is obtained that torsional van der Waals interaction between adjacent tubes can change the rotational direction of multiwalled carbon nanotube as in-phase or anti-phase. The group and escape velocity of the waves converge to a limit value in the nonlocal elasticity approach.
Joint evaluation of fracture azimuth by electromagnetic wave and elastic wave
Feng, Xuan; Liu, Cai; Wang, Qiao; Wang, Kai; Lu, Qi; Xue, Jian; Liang, Wenjing; Yu, Yue; Ren, Qianci
2013-12-01
With the multi-wave, multi-component seismic wave exploration, one can apply the anisotropy of fracture media to analyze the attributes of the fracture media, including the fracture azimuth. In the meantime, the techniques of full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave, including full-polarimetric borehole radar, can also be used to analyze the attributes of the fracture. However, the analysis precision of both the multi-component elastic wave exploration and full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave exploration is prone to the influence of noise and other factors. So far, some researchers have conducted studies on the joint inversion of electromagnetic waves and seismic waves. This paper develops evaluation techniques of fracture azimuth by electromagnetic wave, elastic wave, and joint analysis of coincident elastic reflection and electromagnetic data. Firstly, based on the shear wave splitting of elastic waves, this paper develops a statistical analysis technique which applies Pearson correlation coefficient to count and analyze the azimuth angle of fracture. Secondly, based on the information of electromagnetic polarization rotated by fracture, this paper develops a statistical analysis method of full-polarimetric electromagnetic waves which applies the maximum amplitude ratio between the co-polarization and cross-polarization to analyze the azimuth angle of fracture. Furthermore, based on the analysis result of the elastic wave and full-polarimetric electromagnetic wave, this paper develops a joint analysis technique which adopts the standard deviation. At last, authors in this study conduct joint detection experiments on the coincident fracture medium by using the ultrasonic and full-polarimetric ground penetrating radar. The experimental result indicates that both single geophysical methods are capable of analyzing the fracture azimuth angle, but the joint analysis is more accurate.
Integrated analysis of energy transfers in elastic-wave turbulence.
Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori
2017-08-01
In elastic-wave turbulence, strong turbulence appears in small wave numbers while weak turbulence does in large wave numbers. Energy transfers in the coexistence of these turbulent states are numerically investigated in both the Fourier space and the real space. An analytical expression of a detailed energy balance reveals from which mode to which mode energy is transferred in the triad interaction. Stretching energy excited by external force is transferred nonlocally and intermittently to large wave numbers as the kinetic energy in the strong turbulence. In the weak turbulence, the resonant interactions according to the weak turbulence theory produce cascading net energy transfer to large wave numbers. Because the system's nonlinearity shows strong temporal intermittency, the energy transfers are investigated at active and moderate phases separately. The nonlocal interactions in the Fourier space are characterized by the intermittent bundles of fibrous structures in the real space.
Achieving directional propagation of elastic waves via topology optimization.
He, Jingjie; Kang, Zhan
2018-01-01
This paper presents a study on topology optimization of novel material microstructural configurations to achieve directional elastic wave propagation through maximization of partial band gaps. A waveguide incorporating a periodic-microstructure material may exhibit different propagation properties for the plane elastic waves incident from different inlets. A topology optimization problem is formulated to enhance such a property with a gradient-based mathematical programming algorithm. For alleviating the issue of local optimum traps, the random morphology description functions (RMDFs) are introduced to generate random initial designs for the optimization process. The optimized designs finally converge to the orderly material distribution and numerical validation shows improved directional propagation property as expected. The utilization of linear two-dimension phononic crystal with efficient partial band gap is suitable for directional propagation with a broad frequency range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Illusion Devices for Flexural Lamb Waves Using Elastic Metasurfaces
Liu, Yongquan; Liang, Zixian; Liu, Fu; Diba, Owen; Lamb, Alistair; Li, Jensen
2017-07-01
Inspired by recent demonstrations of metasurfaces in achieving reduced versions of electromagnetic cloaks, we propose and experimentally demonstrate source illusion devices to manipulate flexural waves using metasurfaces. The approach is particularly useful for elastic waves due to the lack of form invariance in usual transformation methods. We demonstrate compact and simple-to-implement metasurfaces for shifting, transforming, and splitting a point source. The effects are measured to be broadband and robust against a change of source positions, with agreement from numerical simulations and the Huygens-Fresnel theory. The proposed method is potentially useful for applications such as nondestructive testing, high-resolution ultrasonography, and advanced signal modulation.
Wang, T.
2017-05-26
Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) provides high-resolution parameter estimation of the subsurface but requires good initial guess of the true model. The traveltime inversion only minimizes traveltime misfits which are more sensitive and linearly related to the low-wavenumber model perturbation. Therefore, building initial P and S wave velocity models for EFWI by using elastic wave-equation reflections traveltime inversion (WERTI) would be effective and robust, especially for the deeper part. In order to distinguish the reflection travletimes of P or S-waves in elastic media, we decompose the surface multicomponent data into vector P- and S-wave seismogram. We utilize the dynamic image warping to extract the reflected P- or S-wave traveltimes. The P-wave velocity are first inverted using P-wave traveltime followed by the S-wave velocity inversion with S-wave traveltime, during which the wave mode decomposition is applied to the gradients calculation. Synthetic example on the Sigbee2A model proves the validity of our method for recovering the long wavelength components of the model.
Nonlinear reflection of shock shear waves in soft elastic media.
Pinton, Gianmarco; Coulouvrat, François; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël
2010-02-01
For fluids, the theoretical investigation of shock wave reflection has a good agreement with experiments when the incident shock Mach number is large. But when it is small, theory predicts that Mach reflections are physically unrealistic, which contradicts experimental evidence. This von Neumann paradox is investigated for shear shock waves in soft elastic solids with theory and simulations. The nonlinear elastic wave equation is approximated by a paraxial wave equation with a cubic nonlinear term. This equation is solved numerically with finite differences and the Godunov scheme. Three reflection regimes are observed. Theory is developed for shock propagation by applying the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and entropic constraints. A characteristic parameter relating diffraction and non-linearity is introduced and its theoretical values are shown to match numerical observations. The numerical solution is then applied to von Neumann reflection, where curved reflected and Mach shocks are observed. Finally, the case of weak von Neumann reflection, where there is no reflected shock, is examined. The smooth but non-monotonic transition between these three reflection regimes, from linear Snell-Descartes to perfect grazing case, provides a solution to the acoustical von Neumann paradox for the shear wave equation. This transition is similar to the quadratic non-linearity in fluids.
Application of RMS for damage detection by guided elastic waves
Radzieński, M.; Doliński, Ł.; Krawczuk, M.; dot Zak, A.; Ostachowicz, W.
2011-07-01
This paper presents certain results of an experimental study related with a damage detection in structural elements based on deviations in guided elastic wave propagation patterns. In order to excite guided elastic waves within specimens tested piezoelectric transducers have been applied. As excitation signals 5 sine cycles modulated by Hanning window have been used. Propagation of guided elastic waves has been monitored by a scanning Doppler laser vibrometer. The time signals recorded during measurement have been utilised to calculate the values of RMS. It has turned out that the values of RMS differed significantly in damaged areas from the values calculated for the healthy ones. In this way it has become possible to pinpoint precisely the locations of damage over the entire measured surface. All experimental investigations have been carried out for thin aluminium or composite plates. Damage has been simulated by a small additional mass attached on the plate surface or by a narrow notch cut. It has been shown that proposed method allows one to localise damage of various shapes and sizes within structural elements over the whole area under investigation.
Application of RMS for damage detection by guided elastic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radzienski, M; Dolinski, L; Krawczuk, M [Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Zak, A; Ostachowicz, W, E-mail: Maciej.Radzienski@gmail.com [Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)
2011-07-19
This paper presents certain results of an experimental study related with a damage detection in structural elements based on deviations in guided elastic wave propagation patterns. In order to excite guided elastic waves within specimens tested piezoelectric transducers have been applied. As excitation signals 5 sine cycles modulated by Hanning window have been used. Propagation of guided elastic waves has been monitored by a scanning Doppler laser vibrometer. The time signals recorded during measurement have been utilised to calculate the values of RMS. It has turned out that the values of RMS differed significantly in damaged areas from the values calculated for the healthy ones. In this way it has become possible to pinpoint precisely the locations of damage over the entire measured surface. All experimental investigations have been carried out for thin aluminium or composite plates. Damage has been simulated by a small additional mass attached on the plate surface or by a narrow notch cut. It has been shown that proposed method allows one to localise damage of various shapes and sizes within structural elements over the whole area under investigation.
Elastic wave from fast heavy ion irradiation on solids
Kambara, T; Kanai, Y; Kojima, T M; Nanai, Y; Yoneda, A; Yamazaki, Y
2002-01-01
To study the time-dependent mechanical effects of fast heavy ion irradiations, we have irradiated various solids by a short-bunch beam of 95 MeV/u Ar ions and observed elastic waves generated in the bulk. The irradiated targets were square-shaped plates of poly-crystals of metals (Al and Cu), invar alloy, ceramic (Al sub 2 O sub 3), fused silica (SiO sub 2) and single crystals of KC1 and LiF with a thickness of 10 mm. The beam was incident perpendicular to the surface and all ions were stopped in the target. Two piezo-electric ultrasonic sensors were attached to the surface of the target and detected the elastic waves. The elastic waveforms as well as the time structure and intensity of the beam bunch were recorded for each shot of a beam bunch. The sensor placed opposite to the beam spot recorded a clear waveform of the longitudinal wave across the material, except for the invar and fused silica targets. From its propagation time along with the sound velocity and the thickness of the target, the depth of the...
Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-12-01
Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to k_{p}R = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.
Elastic Wave Radiation from a Line Source of Finite Length
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldridge, D.F.
1998-11-04
Straightforward algebraic expressions describing the elastic wavefield produced by a line source of finite length are derived in circular cylindrical coordinates. The surrounding elastic medium is assumed to be both homogeneous and isotropic, anc[ the source stress distribution is considered axisymmetic. The time- and space-domain formulae are accurate at all distances and directions from the source; no fa-field or long-wavelength assumptions are adopted for the derivation. The mathematics yield a unified treatment of three different types of sources: an axial torque, an axial force, and a radial pressure. The torque source radiates only azirnuthally polarized shear waves, whereas force and pressure sources generate simultaneous compressional and shear radiation polarized in planes containing the line source. The formulae reduce to more familiar expressions in the two limiting cases where the length of the line source approaches zero and infinity. Far-field approximations to the exact equations indicate that waves radiated parallel to the line source axI.s are attenuated relative to those radiated normal to the axis. The attenuation is more severe for higher I?equencies and for lower wavespeeds. Hence, shear waves are affected more than compressional waves. This fi-equency- and directiondependent attenuation is characterized by an extremely simple mathematical formula, and is readily apparent in example synthetic seismograms.
Asymmetric wave transmission in a diatomic acoustic/elastic metamaterial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Bing; Tan, K. T., E-mail: ktan@uakron.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3903 (United States)
2016-08-21
Asymmetric acoustic/elastic wave transmission has recently been realized using nonlinearity, wave diffraction, or bias effects, but always at the cost of frequency distortion, direction shift, large volumes, or external energy. Based on the self-coupling of dual resonators, we propose a linear diatomic metamaterial, consisting of several small-sized unit cells, to realize large asymmetric wave transmission in low frequency domain (below 1 kHz). The asymmetric transmission mechanism is theoretically investigated, and numerically verified by both mass-spring and continuum models. This passive system does not require any frequency conversion or external energy, and the asymmetric transmission band can be theoretically predicted and mathematically controlled, which extends the design concept of unidirectional transmission devices.
Plane waves in a rotating generalized thermo-elastic solid with voids ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Propagation of plane waves in a rotating thermo-elastic solid with voids has been studied. The theory for thermo-elastic materials with voids developed by Iesan in the context of thermo- elastic theory of Lord and Shulman has been employed for mathematical treatment. It has been found that there exist one transverse wave ...
Concrete wave dispersion interpretation through Mindlin's strain gradient elastic theory.
Iliopoulos, Sokratis N; Malm, Fabian; Grosse, Christian U; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Polyzos, Demosthenes
2017-07-01
Classical elastic wave features like pulse velocity and attenuation have been used for decades for concrete condition characterization. Relatively recently the effect of frequency has been studied showing no doubt over the dispersive behavior of the material. Despite the experimental evidence, there is no unified theory to model the material and explain this phase velocity change at frequencies below 200 kHz. Herein, the Mindlin's strain gradient elastic theory including the additional micro-stiffness and micro-inertia parameters is considered as an alternative of multiple scattering theory. Experimental results are produced from material with dictated microstructure using a specific diameter of glass beads in cement paste. Results show that Mindlin's theory provides conclusions on the microstructure of the material and is suitable for describing the observed dispersion in different length scales (from millimeters in the case of mortar to several centimeters in the case of concrete).
Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams
Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.
1990-01-01
Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.
Reflection of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The governing equations for generalized thermodiffusion in an elastic solid are solved. There exists three kinds of dilatational waves and a Shear Vertical (SV) wave in a two-dimensional model of the solid. The reflection phenomena of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid with thermodiffusion is considered.
Reflection of plane waves from free surface of a microstretch elastic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
In the present investigation, it is shown that there exists five basic waves in a microstretch elastic solid half-space. The problem of reflection of plane waves from free surface of a microstretch elastic solid half-space is studied. The energy ratios for various reflected waves are obtained for aluminium- epoxy composite as a ...
The relationship between elastic constants and structure of shock waves in a zinc single crystal
Krivosheina, M. N.; Kobenko, S. V.; Tuch, E. V.
2017-12-01
The paper provides a 3D finite element simulation of shock-loaded anisotropic single crystals on the example of a Zn plate under impact using a mathematical model, which allows for anisotropy in hydrostatic stress and wave velocities in elastic and plastic ranges. The simulation results agree with experimental data, showing the absence of shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a plastic wave in Zn single crystals impacted in the [0001] direction. It is assumed that the absence of an elastic precursor under impact loading of a zinc single crystal along the [0001] direction is determined by the anomalously large ratio of the c/a-axes and close values of the propagation velocities of longitudinal and bulk elastic waves. It is shown that an increase in only one elastic constant along the [0001] direction results in shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a shock wave of "plastic" compression.
Propagation of Love waves in an elastic layer with void pores
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
of longitudinal and shear waves in void media and came to the conclusion that there may be two wave fronts for longitudinal waves. Deyet al(1993) discussed the propagation of torsional surface waves in an elastic medium with void pores. The influence of local irregularities on propagation of Love waves has been studied ...
Propagation of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials.
Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K
2016-02-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love waves is discussed. Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love wave based devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modeling Anisotropic Elastic Wave Propagation in Jointed Rock Masses
Hurley, R.; Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.
2016-12-01
We present a numerical approach for determining the anisotropic stiffness of materials with nonlinearly-compliant joints capable of sliding. The proposed method extends existing ones for upscaling the behavior of a medium with open cracks and inclusions to cases relevant to natural fractured and jointed rocks, where nonlinearly-compliant joints can undergo plastic slip. The method deviates from existing techniques by incorporating the friction and closure states of the joints, and recovers an anisotropic elastic form in the small-strain limit when joints are not sliding. We present the mathematical formulation of our method and use Representative Volume Element (RVE) simulations to evaluate its accuracy for joint sets with varying complexity. We then apply the formulation to determine anisotropic elastic constants of jointed granite found at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) where the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), a campaign of underground chemical explosions, are performed. Finally, we discuss the implementation of our numerical approach in a massively parallel Lagrangian code Geodyn-L and its use for studying wave propagation from underground explosions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
A staggered-grid convolutional differentiator for elastic wave modelling
Sun, Weijia; Zhou, Binzhong; Fu, Li-Yun
2015-11-01
The computation of derivatives in governing partial differential equations is one of the most investigated subjects in the numerical simulation of physical wave propagation. An analytical staggered-grid convolutional differentiator (CD) for first-order velocity-stress elastic wave equations is derived in this paper by inverse Fourier transformation of the band-limited spectrum of a first derivative operator. A taper window function is used to truncate the infinite staggered-grid CD stencil. The truncated CD operator is almost as accurate as the analytical solution, and as efficient as the finite-difference (FD) method. The selection of window functions will influence the accuracy of the CD operator in wave simulation. We search for the optimal Gaussian windows for different order CDs by minimizing the spectral error of the derivative and comparing the windows with the normal Hanning window function for tapering the CD operators. It is found that the optimal Gaussian window appears to be similar to the Hanning window function for tapering the same CD operator. We investigate the accuracy of the windowed CD operator and the staggered-grid FD method with different orders. Compared to the conventional staggered-grid FD method, a short staggered-grid CD operator achieves an accuracy equivalent to that of a long FD operator, with lower computational costs. For example, an 8th order staggered-grid CD operator can achieve the same accuracy of a 16th order staggered-grid FD algorithm but with half of the computational resources and time required. Numerical examples from a homogeneous model and a crustal waveguide model are used to illustrate the superiority of the CD operators over the conventional staggered-grid FD operators for the simulation of wave propagations.
Propagation of Love waves in an elastic layer with void pores
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The paper presents a study of propagation of Love waves in a poroelastic layer resting over a poro-elastic half-space. Pores contain nothing of mechanical or energetic signiﬁcance. The study reveals that such a medium transmits two types of love waves. The ﬁrst front depends upon the modulus of rigidity of the elastic ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swinteck, N., E-mail: swinteck@email.arizona.edu; Matsuo, S.; Runge, K.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Vasseur, J. O. [Institut d' Electronique, de Micro-électronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR CNRS 8520, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)
2015-08-14
Recent progress in electronic and electromagnetic topological insulators has led to the demonstration of one way propagation of electron and photon edge states and the possibility of immunity to backscattering by edge defects. Unfortunately, such topologically protected propagation of waves in the bulk of a material has not been observed. We show, in the case of sound/elastic waves, that bulk waves with unidirectional backscattering-immune topological states can be observed in a time-dependent elastic superlattice. The superlattice is realized via spatial and temporal modulation of the stiffness of an elastic material. Bulk elastic waves in this superlattice are supported by a manifold in momentum space with the topology of a single twist Möbius strip. Our results demonstrate the possibility of attaining one way transport and immunity to scattering of bulk elastic waves.
Elasticity in drift-wave-zonal-flow turbulence
Guo, Z. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Gürcan, Ö. D.
2014-04-01
We present a theory of turbulent elasticity, a property of drift-wave-zonal-flow (DW-ZF) turbulence, which follows from the time delay in the response of DWs to ZF shears. An emergent dimensionless parameter |'|/Δωk is found to be a measure of the degree of Fickian flux-gradient relation breaking, where |'| is the ZF shearing rate and Δωk is the turbulence decorrelation rate. For |'|/Δωk>1, we show that the ZF evolution equation is converted from a diffusion equation, usually assumed, to a telegraph equation, i.e., the turbulent momentum transport changes from a diffusive process to wavelike propagation. This scenario corresponds to a state very close to the marginal instability of the DW-ZF system, e.g., the Dimits shift regime. The frequency of the ZF wave is ΩZF=±γd1/2γmodu1/2, where γd is the ZF friction coefficient and γmodu is the net ZF growth rate for the case of the Fickian flux-gradient relation. This insight provides a natural framework for understanding temporally periodic ZF structures in the Dimits shift regime and in the transition from low confined mode to high confined mode in confined plasmas.
Finite-Difference Simulation of Elastic Wave with Separation in Pure P- and S-Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ke-Yang Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Elastic wave equation simulation offers a way to study the wave propagation when creating seismic data. We implement an equivalent dual elastic wave separation equation to simulate the velocity, pressure, divergence, and curl fields in pure P- and S-modes, and apply it in full elastic wave numerical simulation. We give the complete derivations of explicit high-order staggered-grid finite-difference operators, stability condition, dispersion relation, and perfectly matched layer (PML absorbing boundary condition, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the proposed elastic wave equation. The final numerical results of pure P- and S-modes are completely separated. Storage and computing time requirements are strongly reduced compared to the previous works. Numerical testing is used further to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.
Longitudinal elastic wave control by pre-deforming semi-linear materials.
Guo, Dengke; Chen, Yi; Chang, Zheng; Hu, Gengkai
2017-09-01
An incremental wave superimposed on a pre-deformed hyper-elastic material perceives an elastic media with the instantaneous modulus of the current material. This offers a new route with a broadband feature to control elastic waves by purposely creating finite deformation field. This study proves that the governing equation of a semi-linear material under a symmetric pre-deformation condition maintains the form invariance for longitudinal wave, so the longitudinal wave control can be made by transformation method without the constraint condition on principle stretches; however, this is not the case for shear waves. Therefore, pre-deforming a semi-linear material provides a potential method for treating longitudinal and shear waves differently. Examples with elastic wave control and band structure shift through pre-deforming a semi-linear material are provided to illustrate this finding. Finally, a one-dimensional spring lattice is proposed to mimic a semi-linear material, and the dispersion relation for longitudinal waves in a sandwich structure with such spring lattice is shown to be invariant during elongation, confirming the result found based on a homogeneous semi-linear material. These results may stimulate researches on designing new hyper-elastic microstructures as well as designing new devices based on pre-deformed hyper-elastic materials.
Diameter effect on stress-wave evaluation of modulus of elasticity of logs
Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; John Punches; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Roy E. Pellerin
2004-01-01
Recent studies on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of logs have shown that a longitudinal stress-wave method can be used to nondestructively evaluate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. A strong relationship has been found between stress-wave MOE and static MOE of logs, but a significant deviation was observed between stress-wave and static values. The objective of...
Detection of placenta elasticity modulus by quantitative real-time shear wave imaging.
Li, W J; Wei, Z T; Yan, R L; Zhang, Y L
2012-01-01
To explore the clinical values in detecting the placental elastic modulus using real-time quantitative shear wave elasticity imaging. A total of 30 women in the late pregnancy stage without complications and having normal, single pregnancies, as well as normal fetal growth, amniotic fluid index, and anterior placenta were selected. A real-time elasticity imaging shear wave ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus was used to randomly select regions of interest at the central and edge of the placenta. The elastography imaging mode was launched to measure the elasticity of the elastic modulus of these placental parts. A total of 15 measured values were obtained at the placental center and edge for each pregnancy case. Umbilical artery and uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) values for 18 cases were also randomly measured. The average value of 30 placental edges of the elastic modulus (n = 15) was (7.60 +/- 1.71) kPa. The average value of the 30 placental central elastic modulus (n = 15 ) was (7.84 +/- 1.68) kPa. No significant difference was observed between placenta central and edge elastic modulus. The PI mean value of umbilical artery in 18 cases was 0.94, whereas the average PI values of the uterine artery was 0.83. No linear correlation was found among the elastic modulus, the placental uterine artery PI values, and the umbilical artery PI values (p > 0.05). No difference between the placental center of normal pregnancies and the edge of the elastic modulus was detected. The elastic modulus of the placenta could be obtained in the best position. The placenta varied greatly between elastic modulus. No correlation was found between the placental elastic modulus, the uterine artery, and umbilical artery PI values. Real-time shear wave elasticity imaging technology can provide morphological evidence of placental function, which may emerge as a new clinical assessment approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)
1997-05-27
Algorithm is constructed and a program developed for a full-wave inversion (FWI) method utilizing the elastic wave equation in seismic exploration. The FWI method is a method for obtaining a physical property distribution using the whole observed waveforms as the data. It is capable of high resolution which is several times smaller than the wavelength since it can handle such phenomena as wave reflection and dispersion. The method for determining the P-wave velocity structure by use of the acoustic wave equation does not provide information about the S-wave velocity since it does not consider S-waves or converted waves. In an analysis using the elastic wave equation, on the other hand, not only P-wave data but also S-wave data can be utilized. In this report, under such circumstances, an inverse analysis algorithm is constructed on the basis of the elastic wave equation, and a basic program is developed. On the basis of the methods of Mora and of Luo and Schuster, the correction factors for P-wave and S-wave velocities are formulated directly from the elastic wave equation. Computations are performed and the effects of the hypocenter frequency and vibration transmission direction are examined. 6 refs., 8 figs.
A novel ultrasonic surface machining tool utilizing elastic traveling waves.
Ji, Ruinan; Jin, Jiamei; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Jianhui
2017-09-01
With the rapid development of modern industrial technology and high performance technology products, ultra-precision machining technology becomes increasingly important. However, joint clearance of kinematic pairs, lack of feeding accuracy and overlarge contact stress still limit the further improvement of ultra-precision machining technology. In this study, a novel surface machining method utilizing structural elastic waves was proposed, and a machining tool using the piezoelectric actuating principle was presented for verifying the proposed method. Two vibration modes with a phase shift of π/2 in both space and time domains are exited simultaneously in the elliptical motion of points on the structural surface. By means of adjusting driving signal parameters, such as frequency, voltage amplitude and phase shift, different machining performances could be achieved. The configuration and working vibration modes of the proposed machining tool were firstly calculated by the finite element method, and then the optimal working frequency of the machining tool prototype was determined by vibration characteristic experiments. At last, machining characteristic experiments were conducted to validate the proposed machining method. Experimental results showed that the minimum working contact force between the machining tool and workpiece was 1N, and the chipped depth of 1.93μm was achieved at the same contact force after machining for 5min. And at the conditions of the contact force of 6N, two driving voltages of 400V pp with a phase shift of π/2, and machining time of 5min, the prototype could achieve to machine the workpiece most efficiently and the roughness of the machined workpiece surface could be reached approximating 0.20μm. In conclusion, this proposed machining method could achieve a good quality machined surface with low residual stress and little damage by applying low contact force. Furthermore, it also had the advantage of no joint clearance error due to no
Xu, Jing; Li, Bin; Zhou, Chuanping; Xiao, Jing; Ni, Jing
2017-07-01
An experimental investigation of wetting behavior of liquid droplet on texture vibrating substrate and the theoretical calculations of elastic wave scattering with two holes which based on the elastodynamics, employing complex functions are investigated to study the relationship between texture vibrating plate dynamic wettability and elastic wave scattering. Experimental results show the dynamic behavior of droplet was unstable. In 0 to π/2 cycle, droplet appeared the waveform with front steep and rear gentle along the flow direction. In π/2 to π cycle, droplet appeared slightly periodic oscillation and accompanied by a certain ripple. Based on the dynamic wetting phenomenon in a single cycle, the influence of elastic wave scattering on wetting property are analyzed. Analysis has shown that the stress concentration is caused by complex elastic wave scattering. The more concentrated the stress, the more concentrated the elastic wave energy. Compared with the single hole, the variations of dynamic stress concentration factors for two holes are complex due to the influence of interaction between two holes. Droplet emerge movement is response to the local vibration. The vibration spread in elastic plate at a time of strain, this elastic force cause droplet displacement and vibration, and accompanied with energy transfer.
Enhanced sensing and conversion of ultrasonic Rayleigh waves by elastic metasurfaces.
Colombi, Andrea; Ageeva, Victoria; Smith, Richard J; Clare, Adam; Patel, Rikesh; Clark, Matt; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V
2017-07-28
Recent years have heralded the introduction of metasurfaces that advantageously combine the vision of sub-wavelength wave manipulation, with the design, fabrication and size advantages associated with surface excitation. An important topic within metasurfaces is the tailored rainbow trapping and selective spatial frequency separation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves using graded metasurfaces. This frequency dependent trapping and spatial frequency segregation has implications for energy concentrators and associated energy harvesting, sensing and wave filtering techniques. Different demonstrations of acoustic and electromagnetic rainbow devices have been performed, however not for deep elastic substrates that support both shear and compressional waves, together with surface Rayleigh waves; these allow not only for Rayleigh wave rainbow effects to exist but also for mode conversion from surface into shear waves. Here we demonstrate experimentally not only elastic Rayleigh wave rainbow trapping, by taking advantage of a stop-band for surface waves, but also selective mode conversion of surface Rayleigh waves to shear waves. These experiments performed at ultrasonic frequencies, in the range of 400-600 kHz, are complemented by time domain numerical simulations. The metasurfaces we design are not limited to guided ultrasonic waves and are a general phenomenon in elastic waves that can be translated across scales.
Influence of energy dissipation on plane harmonic waves through a piezo-thermo-elastic medium
Atwa, Sarhan Y.; Nazeer, M.; Adnan, J.; Rehman, Nadia
2017-07-01
The concept of thermo-elasticity proposed by Green and Naghdi is employed to study the plane harmonic waves through a piezo-electric thermo-elastic medium. An analytical technique of normal modes is adopted to find the exact solution of the problem. The theoretical results obtained are represented graphically for the particular material. It is found that energy dissipation reduces the amplitude of waves propagating through the medium. The results fully agree with physical interpretation of the problem.
Transmission of longitudinal wave through micro-porous elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
theory of micropolar elasticity which is a subclass of the non-linear theory of simple microelastic solids earlier developed by. Eringen and his .... and employing these relations into equations of motion (4) – (6), we obtain the following system of equations. (12). ,0 ...... Axially symmetric problems for a porous elastic solid.
One-Dimensional Mass-Spring Chains Supporting Elastic Waves with Non-Conventional Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-04-01
Full Text Available There are two classes of phononic structures that can support elastic waves with non-conventional topology, namely intrinsic and extrinsic systems. The non-conventional topology of elastic wave results from breaking time reversal symmetry (T-symmetry of wave propagation. In extrinsic systems, energy is injected into the phononic structure to break T-symmetry. In intrinsic systems symmetry is broken through the medium microstructure that may lead to internal resonances. Mass-spring composite structures are introduced as metaphors for more complex phononic crystals with non-conventional topology. The elastic wave equation of motion of an intrinsic phononic structure composed of two coupled one-dimensional (1D harmonic chains can be factored into a Dirac-like equation, leading to antisymmetric modes that have spinor character and therefore non-conventional topology in wave number space. The topology of the elastic waves can be further modified by subjecting phononic structures to externally-induced spatio-temporal modulation of their elastic properties. Such modulations can be actuated through photo-elastic effects, magneto-elastic effects, piezo-electric effects or external mechanical effects. We also uncover an analogy between a combined intrinsic-extrinsic systems composed of a simple one-dimensional harmonic chain coupled to a rigid substrate subjected to a spatio-temporal modulation of the side spring stiffness and the Dirac equation in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The modulation is shown to be able to tune the spinor part of the elastic wave function and therefore its topology. This analogy between classical mechanics and quantum phenomena offers new modalities for developing more complex functions of phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salas, E.; Jimenez-Villacorta, F.; Jimenez Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Martin, A.; Prieto, J.E.; Joco, V. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2013-03-15
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity has been determined by high resolution Brillouin light scattering to study the mechano-elastic properties of boron carbide films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The comparison of experimentally observed elastic behaviour with simulations made by considering film composition obtained from elastic recoil detection analysis-time of flight (ERDA-ToF) spectroscopy allows establishing that elastic properties are determined by that of crystalline boron carbide with a lessening of the SAW velocity values due to surface oxidation. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Park, In-Ae
2014-03-01
The objective of this study was to compare the quantitative and qualitative shear-wave elastographic (SWE) features of breast cancers with mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics. This prospective study was conducted with institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Shear-wave elastography was performed for 30 invasive breast cancers in 30 women before surgery. The mechanical elasticity of a fresh breast tissue section, correlated with the ultrasound image, was measured using an indentation system. Quantitative (maximum, mean, minimum, and standard deviation of elasticity in kilopascals) and qualitative (color heterogeneity and presence of signal void areas in the mass) SWE features were compared with mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Maximum SWE values showed a moderate correlation with maximum mechanical elasticity (r = 0.530, P = 0.003). There were no significant differences between SWE values and mechanical elasticity in histologic grade I or II cancers (P = 0.268). However, SWE values were significantly higher than mechanical elasticity in histologic grade III cancers (P elasticity (r = 0.469, P = 0.009). Signal void areas in the masses were present in 43% of breast cancers (13 of 30) and were correlated with dense collagen depositions (n = 11) or intratumoral necrosis (n = 2). Quantitative and qualitative SWE features reflect both the mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics of breast cancers.
Possible second-order nonlinear interactions of plane waves in an elastic solid
Korneev, V.A.; Demcenko, A.
2014-01-01
There exist ten possible nonlinear elastic wave interactions for an isotropic solid described by three constants of the third order. All other possible interactions out of 54 combinations (triplets) of interacting and resulting waves are prohibited, because of restrictions of various kinds. The
Elastic Wave Propagation for Condition Assessment of Steel Bar Embedded in Mortar
Rucka, M.; Zima, B.
2015-02-01
This study deals with experimental and numerical investigations of elastic wave propagation in steel bars partially embedded in mortar. The bars with different bonding lengths were tested. Two types of damage were considered: damage of the steel bar and damage of the mortar. Longitudinal waves were excited by a piezoelectric actuator and a vibrometer was used to non-contact measurements of velocity signals. Numerical calculations were performed using the finite elements method. As a result, this paper discusses the possibility of condition assessment in bars embedded in mortar by means of elastic waves.
Time reversal of continuous-wave, monochromatic signals in elastic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, Brian E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ulrich, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Experimental observations of spatial focusing of continuous-wave, steady-state elastic waves in a reverberant elastic cavity using time reversal are reported here. Spatially localized focusing is achieved when multiple channels are employed, while a single channel does not yield such focusing. The amplitude of the energy at the focal location increases as the square of the number of channels used, while the amplitude elsewhere in the medium increases proportionally with the number of channels used. The observation is important in the context of imaging in solid laboratory samples as well as problems involving continuous-wave signals in Earth.
Deng, Yufeng; Rouze, Ned C; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathryn R
2016-10-03
Ultrasound elasticity imaging has been developed over the last decade to estimate tissue stiffness. Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) quantifies tissue stiffness by measuring the speed of propagating shear waves following acoustic radiation force excitation. This work presents the sequencing and data processing protocols of SWEI using a Verasonics system. The selection of the sequence parameters in a Verasonics programming script is discussed in detail. The data processing pipeline to calculate group shear wave speed (SWS), including tissue motion estimation, data filtering, and SWS estimation is demonstrated. In addition, the procedures for calibration of beam position, scanner timing, and transducer face heating are provided to avoid SWS measurement bias and transducer damage.
Deng, Yufeng; Rouze, Ned C; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathryn R
2017-01-01
Ultrasound elasticity imaging has been developed over the last decade to estimate tissue stiffness. Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) quantifies tissue stiffness by measuring the speed of propagating shear waves following acoustic radiation force excitation. This paper presents the sequencing and data processing protocols of SWEI using a Verasonics system. The selection of the sequence parameters in a Verasonics programming script is discussed in detail. The data processing pipeline to calculate group shear wave speed (SWS), including tissue motion estimation, data filtering, and SWS estimation, is demonstrated. In addition, the procedures for calibration of beam position, scanner timing, and transducer face heating are provided to avoid SWS measurement bias and transducer damage.
Elastic wave velocity of granite during triaxial compression under controlled pore pressure
Zaima, K.; Katayama, I.
2016-12-01
Elastic wave velocity is one of important physical properties to investigate structure in the Earth's interior. Because of a markedly change in elastic wave velocity at the presence of fluid, the geothermal fluid reservoir is frequently detected through seismic tomography. Previous laboratory experiments have carried to investigate effect of confining pressure (e.g. Nur and Simmons, 1969), axial stress during deformation (e.g. Lockner et al, 1977), fluid saturation (e.g. Nur and Simmons, 1969). However, there are few studies examining elastic wave velocity change on fracture process under controlled pore pressure. In this study, we examined change of elastic wave velocity and amplitude during triaxial compression under pore pressure as a fundamental research on estimating of artificial geothermal reservoir on hot dry rock system. We used Aji granite with a cylindrical shape. On dry condition, confining pressure was 20 MPa, and on wet condition, we used water as a pore fluid and confining pressure was 20 MPa and pore pressure was 10 MPa. We adopted pulse transmission method for measurements of elastic wave velocity and amplitude. We observed a systematic change of elastic wave velocity possibly due to closure, growth and formation of cracks during deformation. While elastic wave velocity was increased due to closure of preexisting cracks at the primary stage of deformation, it decreased markedly at the late stage of deformation. Vp/Vs tends to increase during deformation on wet condition while it decreases on dry condition. These data are consistent with theoretical model by O'Connell and Budiansky (1974), in which fluid filled cracks increase Vp/Vs but open (dry) cracks have an opposite influence. Based on the theoretical model, crack density tends to be suppressed during deformation under wet experiments. During deformation, amplitude was decreased with increasing cracks in the specimens, in which P wave has relatively small amplitude compared to wet condition
Viscothermal wave propagation including acousto-elastic interaction
Beltman, W.M.
1998-01-01
This research deals with pressure waves in a gas trapped in thin layers or narrow tubes. In these cases viscous and thermal effects can have a significant effect on the propagation of waves. This so-called viscothermal wave propagation is governed by a number of dimensionless parameters. The two
Liu, Hu; Liu, Hua; Yang, Jialing
2017-09-01
In the present paper, the coupling effect of transverse magnetic field and elastic medium on the longitudinal wave propagation along a carbon nanotube (CNT) is studied. Based on the nonlocal elasticity theory and Hamilton's principle, a unified nonlocal rod theory which takes into account the effects of small size scale, lateral inertia and radial deformation is proposed. The existing rod theories including the classic rod theory, the Rayleigh-Love theory and Rayleigh-Bishop theory for macro solids can be treated as the special cases of the present model. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type model) is used to represent the elastic medium. The influence of transverse magnetic field, Pasternak-type elastic medium and small size scale on the longitudinal wave propagation behavior of the CNT is investigated in detail. It is shown that the influences of lateral inertia and radial deformation cannot be neglected in analyzing the longitudinal wave propagation characteristics of the CNT. The results also show that the elastic medium and the transverse magnetic field will also affect the longitudinal wave dispersion behavior of the CNT significantly. The results obtained in this paper are helpful for understanding the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures embedded in an elastic medium.
Rzymski, Paweł; Skórzewska, Agnieszka; Skibińska-Zielińska, Myriam; Opala, Tomasz
2011-01-01
Introduction Many physiological changes of breast elasticity depend on the age, hormonal status, menstrual cycle and many others. The aim of this study was to evaluate viscoelastic properties of normal breast tissues in a large group of women and to search for factors which play a role in its mechanical properties. Material and methods 101 women aged 18-74 years who underwent B-mode sonography and additionally sonoelastography. We measured viscoelasticity in 8 quadrants by a share wave ultrasonic device estimating Young modules in regions of interest. Results Mean elasticity measured in all 8 scans in glandular and fatty tissue were 11.28 ±5.79 kPa (0.1-46.26 kPa) and 9.24 ±4.48 kPa (0.1-29.78 kPa), respectively. The correlation between age and mean elasticity of glandular tissue was Rs = 0.27 (p = 0.007). The correlation between glandular tissue elasticity heterogeneity and breast mastalgia measured by VAS was Rs = –0.23 (p = 0.241). Fat tissue elasticity correlated with duration of lactation was Rs = 0.21 (p = 0.01). Conclusions There are several parameters influencing breast viscoelasticity measured by share wave sonoelastography. Glandular tissue elasticity correlates positively with age, fatty tissue elasticity correlates positively with duration of lactation and heterogeneity of the elasticity map of glandular tissue correlates with breast pain and fat tissue with BMI. PMID:22291745
Rzymski, Paweł; Skórzewska, Agnieszka; Skibińska-Zielińska, Myriam; Opala, Tomasz
2011-02-01
Many physiological changes of breast elasticity depend on the age, hormonal status, menstrual cycle and many others. The aim of this study was to evaluate viscoelastic properties of normal breast tissues in a large group of women and to search for factors which play a role in its mechanical properties. 101 women aged 18-74 years who underwent B-mode sonography and additionally sonoelastography. We measured viscoelasticity in 8 quadrants by a share wave ultrasonic device estimating Young modules in regions of interest. Mean elasticity measured in all 8 scans in glandular and fatty tissue were 11.28 ±5.79 kPa (0.1-46.26 kPa) and 9.24 ±4.48 kPa (0.1-29.78 kPa), respectively. The correlation between age and mean elasticity of glandular tissue was Rs = 0.27 (p = 0.007). The correlation between glandular tissue elasticity heterogeneity and breast mastalgia measured by VAS was Rs = -0.23 (p = 0.241). Fat tissue elasticity correlated with duration of lactation was Rs = 0.21 (p = 0.01). There are several parameters influencing breast viscoelasticity measured by share wave sonoelastography. Glandular tissue elasticity correlates positively with age, fatty tissue elasticity correlates positively with duration of lactation and heterogeneity of the elasticity map of glandular tissue correlates with breast pain and fat tissue with BMI.
Elastic metamaterials for tuning circular polarization of electromagnetic waves
Zárate, Yair; Babaee, Sahab; Kang, Sung H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Bertoldi, Katia; Powell, David A.
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic resonators are integrated with advanced elastic material to develop a new type of tunable metamaterial. An electromagnetic-elastic metamaterial able to switch on and off its electromagnetic chiral response is experimentally demonstrated. Such tunability is attained by harnessing the unique buckling properties of auxetic elastic materials (buckliballs) with embedded electromagnetic resonators. In these structures, simple uniaxial compression results in a complex but controlled pattern of deformation, resulting in a shift of its electromagnetic resonance, and in the structure transforming to a chiral state. The concept can be extended to the tuning of three-dimensional materials constructed from the meta-molecules, since all the components twist and deform into the same chiral configuration when compressed. PMID:27320212
Elastic metamaterials for tuning circular polarization of electromagnetic waves.
Zárate, Yair; Babaee, Sahab; Kang, Sung H; Neshev, Dragomir N; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Bertoldi, Katia; Powell, David A
2016-06-20
Electromagnetic resonators are integrated with advanced elastic material to develop a new type of tunable metamaterial. An electromagnetic-elastic metamaterial able to switch on and off its electromagnetic chiral response is experimentally demonstrated. Such tunability is attained by harnessing the unique buckling properties of auxetic elastic materials (buckliballs) with embedded electromagnetic resonators. In these structures, simple uniaxial compression results in a complex but controlled pattern of deformation, resulting in a shift of its electromagnetic resonance, and in the structure transforming to a chiral state. The concept can be extended to the tuning of three-dimensional materials constructed from the meta-molecules, since all the components twist and deform into the same chiral configuration when compressed.
thermoelastic waves without energy dissipation in an elastic plate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
cistvr
stress on the plate's boundary which is maintained at constant temperature. ... induced by a suddenly punched hole in an unbounded elastic plate, under the ..... Substituting for u and from (23) and (24) into (17), and equating the corresponding coefficients of the Bessel functions, we have α α α α. − ε. = A. mC s ms. B. T. 2. 2.
Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization
Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2012-03-01
We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elastic wave induced by friction as a signature of human skin ageing and gender effect.
Djaghloul, M; Morizot, F; Zahouani, H
2016-08-01
In this work, we propose an innovative approach based on a rotary tribometer coupled with laser velocimetry for measuring the elastic wave propagation on the skin. The method is based on a dynamic contact with the control of the normal force (Fn ), the contact length and speed. During the test a quantification of the friction force is produced. The elastic wave generated by friction is measured at the surface of the skin 35 mm from the source of friction exciter. In order to quantify the spectral range and the energy property of the wave generated, we have used laser velocimetry whose spot laser diameter is 120 μm, which samples the elastic wave propagation at a frequency which may reach 100 kHz. In this configuration, the speaker is the friction exciter and the listener the laser velocimetry. In order to perform non-invasive friction tests, the normal stress has been set to 0.3 N and the rotary velocity to 3 revolutions per second, which involves a sliding velocity of 63 mm/s. This newly developed innovative tribometer has been used for the analysis of the elastic wave propagation induced by friction on human skin during chronological ageing and gender effect. Measurements in vivo have been made on 60 healthy men and women volunteers, aged from 25 to 70. The results concerning the energy of the elastic wave signature induced by friction show a clear difference between the younger and older groups in the range of a low band of frequencies (0-200 Hz). The gender effect was marked by a 20% decrease in the energy of elastic wave propagation in the female group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Three-dimensional Single-Track-Location Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging (STL-SWEI).
Hollender, Peter; Lipman, Samantha; Trahey, Gregg
2017-09-06
Conventional multiple track location shear wave elasticity imaging (MTL-SWEI) is a powerful tool for noninvasively estimating tissue elasticity. The resolution and noise levels of MTL-SWEI systems, however, are limited by ultrasound speckle. Single track location SWEI (STL-SWEI) is a novel variant which fixes the position of the tracking beam and modulates the push location to effectively cancel out the effects of speckle-induced bias. We present here a three-dimensional STL-SWEI system which provides full suppression of lateral and elevation speckle bias for high resolution volumetric elasticity imaging, and requires no spatial smoothing to make accurate measurements of shear wave speed. We demonstrate and analyze the system's performance in homogeneous and layered elasticity phantoms.
Employing pre-stress to generate finite cloaks for antiplane elastic waves
Parnell, William J.; Norris, Andrew N.; Shearer, Tom
2012-01-01
It is shown that nonlinear elastic pre-stress of neo-Hookean hyperelastic materials can be used as a mechanism to generate finite cloaks and thus render objects near-invisible to incoming antiplane elastic waves. This approach appears to negate the requirement for special cloaking metamaterials with inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties in this case. These properties are induced naturally by virtue of the pre-stress. This appears to provide a mechanism for broadband cloaking since...
Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity
Dae Woo Park
2016-01-01
Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model...
Rayleigh Waves in a Rotating Orthotropic Micropolar Elastic Solid Half-Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baljeet Singh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A problem on Rayleigh wave in a rotating half-space of an orthotropic micropolar material is considered. The governing equations are solved for surface wave solutions in the half space of the material. These solutions satisfy the boundary conditions at free surface of the half-space to obtain the frequency equation of the Rayleigh wave. For numerical purpose, the frequency equation is approximated. The nondimensional speed of Rayleigh wave is computed and shown graphically versus nondimensional frequency and rotation-frequency ratio for both orthotropic micropolar elastic and isotropic micropolar elastic cases. The numerical results show the effects of rotation, orthotropy, and nondimensional frequency on the nondimensional speed of the Rayleigh wave.
Thermo elastic waves with thermal relaxation in isotropic micropolar ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present investigation, we have discussed about the features of waves in different modes of wave propagation in an inﬁnitely long thermoelastic, isotropic micropolar plate, when the generalized theory of Lord–Shulman (L–S) is considered. A more general dispersion equation is obtained. The different analytic ...
Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Modiﬁed Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation deﬁne the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...
Optimal synthesis of tunable elastic wave-guides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Evgrafov, Anton; Rupp, Cory J.; Dunn, Martin L.
2008-01-01
Topology optimization, or control in the coefficients of partial differential equations, has been successfully utilized for designing wave-guides with precisely tailored functionalities. For many applications it would be desirable to have the possibility of drastically altering the wave-guiding p...
Numerical simulation of ultrasonic waves in an isotropic elastic layer with a piezoelectric actuator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey V. Pivkov
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to finite-element modeling (FEM of elastic waves caused by the work of a piezoactuator. For this purpose, a mathematical model of the ‘elastic layer—piezoelectric element’ system has been developed. In the terms of the model, the simultaneous solution of the piezoelectricity and the solid-mechanics equations was employed. This model allowed us to describe the propagation process of high-frequency mechanical vibrations caused by the application of the probing electrical pulse to the electrodes of the piezoelectric element (the vibrations occur in the elastic layer and to reproduce the potential difference arising in the reception of the reflected wave. The influence of t-parameters of the FEM and numerical integration scheme on the calculation results was investigated. The essential sensitivity of the reflected-wave's delay-time to the integrating time-step was found.
Orbital-type trapping of elastic Lamb waves.
Lomonosov, Alexey M; Yan, Shi-Ling; Han, Bing; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Shen, Zhong-Hua
2016-01-01
The interaction of laser-generated Lamb waves propagating in a plate with a sharp-angle conical hole was studied experimentally and numerically. Part of the energy of the incident wave is trapped within the conic area in two ways: the antisymmetric Lamb wave orbiting the center of the hole and the wave localized at the acute edge. Parameters and conditions for optimal conversion of the incident wave into the trapped modes were studied in this work. Experiments were performed using the laser stroboscopic shearography technique, which delivers the time evolution of the acoustic field in the whole area of interest. The effect of trapping can be used for efficient damping, similar to the one-dimensional acoustical black hole effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The impact of intraocular pressure on elastic wave velocity estimates in the crystalline lens
Park, Suhyun; Yoon, Heechul; Larin, Kirill V.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Aglyamov, Salavat R.
2017-02-01
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is believed to influence the mechanical properties of ocular tissues including cornea and sclera. The elastic properties of the crystalline lens have been mainly investigated with regard to presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation power of the eye. However, the relationship between the elastic properties of the lens and IOP remains to be established. The objective of this study is to measure the elastic wave velocity, which represents the mechanical properties of tissue, in the crystalline lens ex vivo in response to changes in IOP. The elastic wave velocities in the cornea and lens from seven enucleated bovine globe samples were estimated using ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging. To generate and then image the elastic wave propagation, an ultrasound imaging system was used to transmit a 600 µs pushing pulse at 4.5 MHz center frequency and to acquire ultrasound tracking frames at 6 kHz frame rate. The pushing beams were separately applied to the cornea and lens. IOP in the eyeballs was varied from 5 to 50 mmHg. The results indicate that while the elastic wave velocity in the cornea increased from 0.96 ± 0.30 m s-1 to 6.27 ± 0.75 m s-1 as IOP was elevated from 5 to 50 mmHg, there were insignificant changes in the elastic wave velocity in the crystalline lens with the minimum and the maximum speeds of 1.44 ± 0.27 m s-1 and 2.03 ± 0.46 m s-1, respectively. This study shows that ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging can be used to assess the biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens noninvasively. Also, it was observed that the dependency of the crystalline lens stiffness on the IOP was significantly lower in comparison with that of cornea.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Ho Geon; Song, Dong Gi; Jhang, Kyoung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
Measurement of elastic constants is crucial for engineering aspects of predicting the behavior of materials under load as well as structural health monitoring of material degradation. Ultrasonic velocity measurement for material properties has been broadly used as a nondestructive evaluation method for material characterization. In particular, pulse-echo method has been extensively utilized as it is not only simple but also effective when only one side of the inspected objects is accessible. However, the conventional technique in this approach measures longitudinal and shear waves individually to obtain their velocities. This produces a set of two data for each measurement. This paper proposes a simultaneous sensing system of longitudinal waves and shear waves for elastic constant measurement. The proposed system senses both these waves simultaneously as a single overlapped signal, which is then analyzed to calculate both the ultrasonic velocities for obtaining elastic constants. Therefore, this system requires just half the number of data to obtain elastic constants compared to the conventional individual measurement. The results of the proposed simultaneous measurement had smaller standard deviations than those in the individual measurement. These results validate that the proposed approach improves the efficiency and reliability of ultrasonic elastic constant measurement by reducing the complexity of the measurement system, its operating procedures, and the number of data.
Guiding of elastic waves in a two-dimensional graded phononic crystal plate
Guo, Yuning; Hettich, Mike; Dekorsy, Thomas
2017-01-01
The guiding of elastic waves in a two-dimensional graded phononic crystal plate is investigated. This effect is induced by the resonance coupling of attachments and matrix in a silicon pillar-substrate system and the resonance frequencies of guided surface modes can be tuned by tailoring the geometry and material properties of the pillars. The resonance frequencies increase with radius and Young’s modulus, and decrease with height and density of the pillars, which provides several possibilities for the guiding of elastic waves. These devices show the capability of spatially selecting different frequencies into designed channels, thus acting as a phononic multi-channel filter.
Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Every
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW and interfacial (IW waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.
Elastic metamaterial-based seismic shield for both Lamb and surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiujiao Du
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Controlling the propagation of seismic waves to protect critical infrastructure via metamaterial is of new topical interest. This approach can be implemented by remote shielding of incoming waves rather than with vibration isolating structures. In this paper, a two-dimensional elastic metamaterial with periodically square concrete-filled steel piles embedded in soil is proposed to achieve a seismic shield for guided Lamb waves and surface waves. Its properties are numerically investigated using the finite element method. For Lamb waves, we first identify complete bandgaps appearing in a periodic composite with cylindrical piles. By comparison, it is found that if the shape of the pile is replaced with the square shape, the bandgaps become wider and shift to the lower frequencies, which is more suitable for practical applications. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a complete low frequency bandgap also exists for surface waves. The vibration modes for both types of waves at the bandgap edges are computed and analyzed to clarify the mechanism of the bandgap generation. The study focuses on realistic structures that can be effective in the frequency ranges for seismic waves. Although we have focused on the geophysical setting, elastic waves are also very important in applications involving acoustic wave devices.
Transient Topology Optimization of Two-Dimensional Elastic Wave Propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matzen, René; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2008-01-01
A tapering device coupling two monomodal waveguides is designed with the topology optimization method based on transient wave propagation. The gradient-based optimization technique is applied to predict the material distribution in the tapering area such that the squared output displacement (a...... measure for transmission) in the taper is maximized. High transmission in a large frequency range is gained by use of incident wave packets. To avoid nondiscrete properties in the design domain a density ﬁltering technique is employed....
Azovtsev, A. V.; Pertsev, N. A.
2017-11-01
Using advanced micromagnetic simulations, we describe the coupled elastic and magnetic dynamics induced in ferromagnet/normal metal bilayers by shear waves generated by the attached piezoelectric transducer. Our approach is based on the numerical solution of a system of differential equations, which comprises the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the elastodynamic equation of motion, both allowing for the magnetoelastic coupling between spins and lattice strains. The simulations have been performed for heterostructures involving a Fe81Ga19 layer with the thickness ranging from 100 to 892 nm and a few-micrometer-thick film of a normal metal (Au). We find that the traveling shear wave induces inhomogeneous magnetic dynamics in the ferromagnetic layer, which generally has an intermediate character between coherent magnetization precession and the pure spin wave. Owing to the magnetoelastic feedback, the magnetization precession generates two additional elastic waves (shear and longitudinal), which propagate into the normal metal. Despite such complex elastic dynamics and reflections of elastic waves at the Fe81Ga19|Au interface, periodic magnetization precession with the excitation frequency settles in the steady-state regime. The results obtained for the magnetization dynamics at the Fe81Ga19|Au interface are used to evaluate the spin current pumped into the Au layer and the accompanying charge current caused by the inverse spin Hall effect. The calculations show that the dc component of the charge current is high enough to be detected experimentally even at small strains ˜10-4 generated by the piezoelectric transducer.
SH wave propagation in joined half-spaces composed of elastic metamaterials
Shi, Xiaona; Shu, Haisheng; Zhou, Haiyong; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Ru; An, Shuowei; Zhu, Jie
2017-12-01
Based on the effective-medium theory, the propagation of a shear horizontal (SH) wave in joined half-spaces composed of elastic metamaterials (EMMs) is investigated. From the dispersion relations, the effects of negative effective-medium parameters on the properties of a SH wave traveling near the interface are analyzed in detail. It is found that a SH wave can always appear and travel along the interface under specific effective-parameter combinations no matter whether the effective transverse wave velocity is imaginary or real. This is significantly different from the classical case (joined half-spaces composed of natural media), and the existence of these SH interfacial wave modes may have important impacts on EMM-based SH wave manipulation, especially wave isolation and object protection.
Elastic metamaterial with simultaneously negative refraction for longitudinal and transverse waves
Wu, Ji-En; Wang, Xiaoyun; Tang, Bing; He, Zhaojian; Deng, Ke; Zhao, Heping
2017-10-01
We present a study of elastic metamaterial that possesses multiple local resonances. We demonstrated that the elastic metamaterial can have simultaneously three negative effective parameters, i.e., negative effective mass, effective bulk modulus and effective shear modulus at a certain frequency range. Through the analysis of the resonant field, it has been elucidated that the three negative parameters are induced by dipolar, monopolar and quadrupolar resonance respectively. The dipolar and monopolar resonances result into the negative band for longitudinal waves, while the dipolar and quadrupolar resonances cause the negative band for transverse waves. The two bands have an overlapping frequency regime. A simultaneously negative refraction for both longitudinal waves and transverse waves has been demonstrated in the system.
Manapuram, Ravi Kiran; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Monediado, Floredes M.; Mashiatulla, Maleeha; Li, Jiasong; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Larin, Kirill V.
2012-10-01
We report a highly sensitive method based on phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) to measure elastic wave propagation in soft tissues in vivo. The waves were introduced using a mechanical stimulus and were assessed using the phase response of the swept source optical coherence tomography signal. The technique was utilized to measure age-related changes in elastic flexural wave velocity and attenuation in mice cornea in vivo. Results demonstrate that the wave velocity increases with animal age, supporting previous observations that stiffness of mice cornea gradually increases with age. Our studies suggest that the PhS-SSOCE technique could potentially be used to obtain biomechanical properties of ocular tissues in vivo.
Elastic metamaterial with simultaneously negative refraction for longitudinal and transverse waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji-En Wu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We present a study of elastic metamaterial that possesses multiple local resonances. We demonstrated that the elastic metamaterial can have simultaneously three negative effective parameters, i.e., negative effective mass, effective bulk modulus and effective shear modulus at a certain frequency range. Through the analysis of the resonant field, it has been elucidated that the three negative parameters are induced by dipolar, monopolar and quadrupolar resonance respectively. The dipolar and monopolar resonances result into the negative band for longitudinal waves, while the dipolar and quadrupolar resonances cause the negative band for transverse waves. The two bands have an overlapping frequency regime. A simultaneously negative refraction for both longitudinal waves and transverse waves has been demonstrated in the system.
Elastic Wave Propagation for Condition Assessment of Steel Bar Embedded in Mortar
Rucka M.; Zima B.
2015-01-01
This study deals with experimental and numerical investigations of elastic wave propagation in steel bars partially embedded in mortar. The bars with different bonding lengths were tested. Two types of damage were considered: damage of the steel bar and damage of the mortar. Longitudinal waves were excited by a piezoelectric actuator and a vibrometer was used to non-contact measurements of velocity signals. Numerical calculations were performed using the finite elements method. As a result, t...
Periodicity effects of axial waves in elastic compound rods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, R. B.; Sorokin, S. V.
2015-01-01
Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase-closure Prin......Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase...
Reflection of spin and spin-elastic waves at the interface of a ferromagnetic half-space
Danoyan, Zaven; Piliposian, Gayane; Hasanyan, Davresh
This paper considers the reflection of pure spin and spin-elastic (or magneto-elastic) waves at the interface of a ferromagnetic half-space and a vacuum. For pure spin waves two cases are considered, with exchange effects, and without. It is shown that when exchange effects are taken into account, volume spin waves in the ferromagnetic half space incident at the boundary with the vacuum generate a reflected volume spin wave, and an accompanying compound surface wave propagating along the boundary and consisting of two partial inhomogeneous spin waves in the ferromagnetic half-space and a partial magneto-static inhomogeneous surface wave in the vacuum. When exchange effects are neglected the incident wave generates only a reflected volume wave in the ferromagnetic half-space. Reflection and transmission of spin-elastic (or magneto-elastic) waves has been considered only in the case of the absence of exchange effects. An incident volume wave generates a volume spin-elastic reflected wave and one inhomogeneous magneto-static accompanying surface wave. Excitations of the magnetic field are not transmitted into the vacuum in both cases when the exchange effect is neglected. In all cases the reflection of a spin wave has the character of a full internal reflection.
Converted-wave guided imaging condition for elastic reverse time migration with wavefield separation
Choi, Hyungwook; Seol, Soon Jee; Byun, Joongmoo
2017-01-01
Elastic reverse time migration (ERTM), which is capable of using multicomponent seismic data, provides not only an improvement of the P-P image compared to the one derived from acoustic RTM, but also more opportunities to understand the subsurface through converted wave images (P-S, S-P, and S-S images). However, the polarity reversals in P-S and S-P images and cross-talk noises generated in S-P and S-S images degrade the converted wave images of ERTM. To overcome these problems, we derive a new P-S converted wave imaging condition for 2D ERTM based on wavefield separation techniques. The proposed imaging condition, called converted-wave guided (CWG) imaging condition, incorporates an extra term that represents the sign and wavelength of S-waves converted from source wavefields into the zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition for P-S imaging. The extra term compensates for the polarity reversal of separated S-waves from receiver wavefields because the converted S-waves from source wavefields also have the change in polarity. In addition, since this CWG imaging condition produces images where P- and S-waves from source wavefields and S-waves from receiver wavefields coincide, image resolution is enhanced without generating spurious events. Our approach is motivated by the specific feature of ERTM that generates converted waves at the reflection points (conventional imaging points) when proper elastic models are used. Through a numerical experiment with a simple elastic model, we demonstrate that the proposed CWG imaging condition successfully corrects the polarity reversal and provides higher image resolution. We also test our migration algorithm on a synthetic ocean bottom cable (OBC) dataset created using the Marmousi-II model. The P-S image obtained from CWG imaging condition shows continuous events and improved image resolution.
Shi, P; Chen, C Q; Zou, W N
2015-01-01
Coupled shear (SH) elastic and electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating oblique to a one dimensional periodic piezoelectric and piezomagnetic composite are investigated using the transfer matrix method. Closed-form expression of the dispersion relations is derived. We find that the band structures of the periodic composite show simultaneously the features of phononic and photonic crystals. Strong interaction between the elastic and EM waves near the center of the Brillouin zone (i.e., phonon-polariton) is revealed. It is shown the elastic branch of the band structures is more sensitive to the piezoelectric effect while the phonon-polariton is more sensitive to the piezomagnetic effect of the composite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Shiguang; Oldenburg, Amy L.
2011-03-01
The detection of tumors in soft tissues, such as breast cancer, is important to achieve at the earliest stages of the disease to improve patient outcome. Tumors often exhibit a greater elastic modulus compared to normal tissues. In this paper, we report our first study to measure elastic properties of soft tissues by mapping the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with image plane digital holography. The experimental results show that the SAW velocity is proportional to the square root of elastic modulus over a range from 3.7-122kPa in homogeneous tissue phantoms, consistent with Rayleigh wave theory. This technique also permits detection of the interface of two-layer phantoms 10mm deep under surface and the interface depth by quantifying the SAW dispersion.
Excitation of waves in elastic waveguides by piezoelectric patch actuators
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Loveday, PW
2006-01-01
Full Text Available to be an infinite waveguide. The excitation of waves in waveguides may be analysed in the time domain using conventional finite element methods. This analysis is computationally very demanding as the model must be a number of wavelengths long to avoid the influence...
Shear waves in a fluid saturated elastic plate
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
MS received 25 February 2002. Abstract. In the present context, we consider the propagation of shear waves in the transverse isotropic fluid saturated porous plate. The frequency spectrum for SH-modes in the plate has been studied. It is observed that the frequency of the propagation is damped due to the two-phase ...
Predicting phase shift of elastic waves in pipes due to fluid flow and imperfections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel; Dahl, Jonas; Fuglede, Niels
2009-01-01
. This is relevant for understanding wave propagation in elastic media in general, and for the design and trouble-shooting of phase-shift measuring devices such as Coriolis mass flowmeters in particular. A multiple time scaling perturbation analysis is employed for a simple model of a fluid-conveying pipe...
Reflection of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The reflection phenomena of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid with thermodiffusion is considered. The boundary conditions are solved to obtain a system of four non- homogeneous equations for reflection coefficients. These reflection coefficients are found to depend upon the angle of incidence of P and ...
Elastic precursor wave decay in shock-compressed aluminum over a wide range of temperature
Austin, Ryan A.
2018-01-01
The effect of temperature on the dynamic flow behavior of aluminum is considered in the context of precursor wave decay measurements and simulations. In this regard, a dislocation-based model of high-rate metal plasticity is brought into agreement with previous measurements of evolving wave profiles at 300 to 933 K, wherein the amplification of the precursor structure with temperature arises naturally from the dislocation mechanics treatment. The model suggests that the kinetics of inelastic flow and stress relaxation are governed primarily by phonon scattering and radiative damping (sound wave emission from dislocation cores), both of which intensify with temperature. The manifestation of these drag effects is linked to low dislocation density ahead of the precursor wave and the high mobility of dislocations in the face-centered cubic lattice. Simulations performed using other typical models of shock wave plasticity do not reproduce the observed temperature-dependence of elastic/plastic wave structure.
Highly Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Elastic Woodpile Periodic Structures
2016-08-03
called a nanopteron, is not only motivated theoretically and numerically, but are also visualized experimentally by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer...This system can also be useful for manipulating stress waves at will, for example, to achieve strong attenuation and modulation of high-amplitude...electromagnetic counterpart – called woodpile photonic crystals – that successfully demon- strated their efficacy and versatility in manipulating elec
Self-bending elastic waves and obstacle circumventing in wireless power transfer
Tol, S.; Xia, Y.; Ruzzene, M.; Erturk, A.
2017-04-01
We demonstrate self-bending of elastic waves along convex trajectories by means of geometric and phased arrays. Potential applications include ultrasonic imaging and manipulation, wave focusing, and wireless power transfer around obstacles. The basic concept is illustrated through a geometric array, which is designed to implement a phase delay profile among the array elements that leads to self-bending along a specified circular trajectory. Experimental validation is conducted for the lowest asymmetric Lamb wave mode in a thin plate over a range of frequencies to investigate the bandwidth of the approach. Experiments also illustrate the functionality of the array as a transmitter to deliver elastic wave energy to a receiver/harvester located behind a large obstacle for electrical power extraction. It is shown that the trajectory is not distorted by the presence of the obstacle and circumventing is achieved. A linear phased array counterpart of the geometric array is then constructed to illustrate the concept by imposing proper time delays to the array elements, which allows the generation of different trajectories using the same line source. This capability is demonstrated by tailoring the path diameter in the phased array setting, which offers the flexibility and versatility to induce a variety of convex trajectories for self-bending elastic waves.
A new elastic-wave-based imaging method for scanning the defects inside the structure.
Tong, Jian-Hua; Liao, Shu-Tao; Lin, Chao-Ching
2007-01-01
In this paper, a new nondestructive testing method using elastic waves for imaging possible voids or defects in concrete structures is proposed. This method integrates the point-source/point receiver scheme with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) process to achieve the effect like scanning with a phase array system. This method also is equipped with large functioning depth because of the high-energy feature that elastic waves usually possess over traditional ultrasound. Both numerical simulations and experimental tests were carried out to explore the capabilities of this method in revealing single or multiple defects implied in a matrix material. The results from numerical simulations indicate that this method can clearly reveal the number of the voids or defects, their locations, and front-end profiles. The influence of the accuracy of the wave velocity determination on the resultant image also was evaluated in this study. Furthermore, the effects of the types of the responses to be recorded and the wavelength of the introduced waves also were evaluated so that very good resultant images may be obtained. Both the results from the numerical simulations and the experimental tests indicate that this elastic-wave-based method exhibits high potential in inspecting the defects of in-situ concrete structures by imaging.
Diffraction of Elastic Waves in Fluid-Layered Solid Interfaces by an Integral Formulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. E. Basaldúa-Sánchez
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the present communication, scattering of elastic waves in fluid-layered solid interfaces is studied. The indirect boundary element method is used to deal with this wave propagation phenomenon in 2D fluid-layered solid models. The source is represented by Hankel’s function of second kind and this is always applied in the fluid. Our method is an approximate boundary integral technique which is based upon an integral representation for scattered elastic waves using single-layer boundary sources. This approach is typically called indirect because the sources’ strengths are calculated as an intermediate step. In addition, this formulation is regarded as a realization of Huygens’ principle. The results are presented in frequency and time domains. Various aspects related to the different wave types that emerge from this kind of problems are emphasized. A near interface pulse generates changes in the pressure field and can be registered by receivers located in the fluid. In order to show the accuracy of our method, we validated the results with those obtained by the discrete wave number applied to a fluid-solid interface joining two half-spaces, one fluid and the other an elastic solid.
Simplified description of out-of-plane waves in thin annular elastic plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey
2013-01-01
Dispersion relations are derived for the out-of-plane wave propagation in planar elastic plates with constant curvature using the classical Kirchhoff thin plate theory. The dispersion diagrams and the mode shapes are compared with their counterparts for a straight plate strip and the role...... of curvature is assessed for plates with unconstrained edges. Elementary Bernoulli–Euler theory for a beam of rectangular cross-section with the circular shape of its axis is also employed to analyze the wave guide properties of this structure in its out-of-plane deformation. The applicability range...... of the elementary beam theory is validated. The wave finite element method in the formulation of the three-dimensional elasticity theory is used to ensure that the comparison of dispersion diagrams is performed in the frequency range, where the classical thin plate theory is valid. Thus, the paper summarizes...
An energy absorbing far-field boundary condition for the elastic wave equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B
2008-07-15
The authors present an energy absorbing non-reflecting boundary condition of Clayton-Engquist type for the elastic wave equation together with a discretization which is stable for any ratio of compressional to shear wave speed. They prove stability for a second order accurate finite-difference discretization of the elastic wave equation in three space dimensions together with a discretization of the proposed non-reflecting boundary condition. The stability proof is based on a discrete energy estimate and is valid for heterogeneous materials. The proof includes all six boundaries of the computational domain where special discretizations are needed at the edges and corners. The stability proof holds also when a free surface boundary condition is imposed on some sides of the computational domain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yujie Ying
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present and demonstrate a low complexity elastic wave signaling and reception method to achieve high data rate communication on dispersive solid elastic media, such as metal pipes, using piezoelectric transducers of PZT (lead zirconate titanate. Data communication is realized using pulse position modulation (PPM as the signaling method and the elastic medium as the communication channel. The communication system first transmits a small number of training pulses to probe the dispersive medium. The time-reversed probe signals are then utilized as the information carrying waveforms. Rapid timing acquisition of transmitted waveforms for demodulation over elastic medium is made possible by exploring the reciprocity property of guided elastic waves. The experimental tests were conducted using a National Instrument PXI system for waveform excitation and data acquisition. Data telemetry bit rates of 10 kbps, 20 kbps, 50 kbps and 100 kbps with the average bit error rates of 0, 5.75 × 10−4, 1.09 × 10−2 and 5.01 × 10−2, respectively, out of a total of 40, 000 transmitted bits were obtained when transmitting at the center frequency of 250 kHz and a 500 kHz bandwidth on steel pipe specimens. To emphasize the influence of time reversal, no complex processing techniques, such as adaptive channel equalization or error correction coding, were employed.
Reduced Patellar Tendon Elasticity with Aging: In Vivo Assessment by Shear Wave Elastography.
Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Wen-Shian; Wang, Tyng-Guey
2015-11-01
How aging affects the elasticity of tendons has long been debated, partly because of the limited methods for in vivo evaluation, which differ vastly from those for in vitro animal studies. In this study, we tested the reliability of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the evaluation of patellar tendons and their change in elasticity with age. We recruited 62 healthy participants in three age groups: 20-30 years (group 1), 40-50 years (group 2) and 60-70 years (group 3). Shear wave velocity and elastic modulus were measured at the proximal, middle and distal areas of the patellar tendon. Reliability was excellent at the middle area and fair to good at both ends. Compared with the other groups, group 3 had significantly decreased elastic modulus and shear wave velocity values (p ≤ 0.001 vs. group 1 or 2), with significant increased side-to-side differences. SWE may be valuable in detecting aging tendons before visible abnormalities are observed on B-mode ultrasonography. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elastic Wave Measurement Using a MEMS AE Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takahiro Omori
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In recent years, with the continuing progress of aging social infrastructures such as bridges and tunnels, there has been high demand for the assessment of deterioration of their performance and conditions. Since current inspection methods for those structures have mainly relied on human resources, it is important to reduce their increasing maintenance cost. One of the key methods for achieving effective maintenance without expensive human costs is to use sensors to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy conditions. In this paper, a MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems wideband frequency sensor, which is referred to as a super acoustic (SA sensor, is evaluated through the pencil lead break (PLB test. Due to its wideband frequency characteristics, the SA sensor is expected to be a promising alternative to the existing vibration sensors, including acoustic emission (AE sensors. Several PLB signals were generated on an aluminum plate (5 mm thick, and propagating Lamb waves were detected by both AE and SA sensors. SA sensors were able to identify the location of PLB sources on the plate by measuring time differences between each sensor. By comparing the wave spectrums of both the AE and SA sensors analyzed by wavelet transform, the applicability of SA sensor for AE measurement is verified.
Employing pre-stress to generate finite cloaks for antiplane elastic waves
Parnell, William J.; Norris, Andrew N.; Shearer, Tom
2012-04-01
It is shown that nonlinear elastic pre-stress of neo-Hookean hyperelastic materials can be used as a mechanism to generate finite cloaks and thus render objects near-invisible to incoming antiplane elastic waves. This approach appears to negate the requirement for special cloaking metamaterials with inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties in this case. These properties are induced naturally by virtue of the pre-stress. This appears to provide a mechanism for broadband cloaking since dispersive effects due to metamaterial microstructure will not arise.
Employing pre-stress to generate finite cloaks for antiplane elastic waves
Parnell, William J; Shearer, Tom
2012-01-01
It is shown that nonlinear elastic pre-stress of neo-Hookean hyperelastic materials can be used as a mechanism to generate finite cloaks and thus render objects near-invisible to incoming antiplane elastic waves. This approach appears to negate the requirement for special cloaking metamaterials with inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties in this case. These properties are induced naturally by virtue of the pre-stress. This appears to provide a mechanism for broadband cloaking since dispersive effects due to metamaterial microstructure will not arise.
Cheng, Jiubing
2016-03-15
In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decoupled into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images. Conventionally, mode decoupling in anisotropic media is costly because the operators involved are dependent on the velocity, and thus they are not stationary. We have developed an efficient pseudospectral approach to directly extrapolate the decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators on the basis of the elastic displacement wave equation. We have applied k-space adjustment to the pseudospectral solution to allow for a relatively large extrapolation time step. The low-rank approximation was, thus, applied to the spectral operators that simultaneously extrapolate and decompose the elastic wavefields. Synthetic examples on transversely isotropic and orthorhombic models showed that our approach has the potential to efficiently and accurately simulate the propagations of the decoupled quasi-P and quasi-S modes as well as the total wavefields for elastic wave modeling, imaging, and inversion.
Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza
2014-01-01
The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Structurally embedded reflectors and mirrors for elastic wave focusing and energy harvesting
Tol, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Erturk, A.
2017-10-01
The harvesting of elastic waves propagating in structures can be enhanced dramatically via spatial focusing using mirror and lens concepts. Recent efforts on the mirror design have employed cylindrical stubs that form elliptical and parabolic geometries to focus structure-borne waves originating from a point source and incident plane waves, respectively. In those first-generation heuristic efforts, bulky cylindrical attachments served as effective reflectors while drastically altering thin host structures. Enabling structurally embedded mirror (SEM) configurations that avoid substantial modification of the host system requires a thorough understanding of the elastic mirror dynamics. This work presents a detailed investigation of SEM design, analysis, and experimental validation for enhanced elastic wave energy harvesting, among other applications that can benefit from spatially focused wave intensity. The SEM concept proposed in this effort uses metallic spheres (e.g., tungsten, lead, and steel) inserted into blind holes in a flat aluminum plate domain. The results show that, while SEM performance improves with property mismatch between the inclusion and the host materials, transmission resonances of the inclusions are detrimental to reflection performance and have to be avoided. A relationship between elastic mirror geometry and wavelength is unveiled to minimize the energy concentration in the side lobes around the intended focus, enabling small-sized and simple harvester design. These basic concepts and principles, demonstrated through finite-element simulations, are validated experimentally over a range of frequencies. Dramatic enhancement of the harvested power (by an order of magnitude) is also demonstrated using an elliptical SEM made from spherical tungsten inclusions in an aluminum plate. The case of a perforated mirror is also addressed briefly.
Variable-order rotated staggered-grid method for elastic-wave forward modeling
Wang, Wei-Zhong; Hu, Tian-Yue; Lu, Xue-Mei; Qin, Zhen; Li, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Yan
2015-09-01
Numerical simulations of a seismic wavefield are important to analyze seismic wave propagation. Elastic-wave equations are used in data simulation for modeling migration and imaging. In elastic wavefield numerical modeling, the rotated staggered-grid method (RSM) is a modification of the standard staggered-grid method (SSM). The variable-order method is based on the method of variable-length spatial operators and wavefield propagation, and it calculates the real dispersion error by adapting different finite-difference orders to different velocities. In this study, the variable-order rotated staggered-grid method (VRSM) is developed after applying the variable-order method to RSM to solve the numerical dispersion problem of RSM in low-velocity regions and reduce the computation cost. Moreover, based on theoretical dispersion and the real dispersion error of wave propagation calculated with the wave separation method, the application of the original method is extended from acoustic to shear waves, and the calculation is modified from theoretical to time-varying values. A layered model and an overthrust model are used to demonstrate the applicability of VRSM. We also evaluate the order distribution, wave propagation, and computation time. The results suggest that the VRSM order distribution is reasonable and VRSM produces high-precision results with a minimal computation cost.
Modeling and analysis of waves in a heat conducting thermo-elastic plate of elliptical shape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Selvamani
Full Text Available Wave propagation in heat conducting thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-section is studied using the Fourier expansion collocation method based on Suhubi's generalized theory. The equations of motion based on two-dimensional theory of elasticity is applied under the plane strain assumption of generalized thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-sections composed of homogeneous isotropic material. The frequency equations are obtained by using the boundary conditions along outer and inner surface of elliptical cross-sectional plate using Fourier expansion collocation method. The computed non-dimensional frequency, velocity and quality factor are plotted in dispersion curves for longitudinal and flexural (symmetric and antisymmetric modes of vibrations.
Modeling of Distributed Sensing of Elastic Waves by Fiber-Optic Interferometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Just Agbodjan Prince
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the transduction of strain accompanying elastic waves in solids by firmly attached optical fibers. Stretching sections of optical fibers changes the time required by guided light to pass such sections. Exploiting interferometric techniques, highly sensitive fiber-optic strain transducers are feasible based on this fiber-intrinsic effect. The impact on the actual strain conversion of the fiber segment’s shape and size, as well as its inclination to the elastic wavefront is studied. FEM analyses show that severe distortions of the interferometric response occur when the attached fiber length spans a noticeable fraction of the elastic wavelength. Analytical models of strain transduction are presented for typical transducer shapes. They are used to compute input-output relationships for the transduction of narrow-band strain pulses as a function of the mechanical wavelength. The described approach applies to many transducers depending on the distributed interaction with the investigated object.
Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dae Woo Park
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.
Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.
Park, Dae Woo
2015-01-01
Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.
Elastic precursor shock waves in tantalum at very high strain rates
Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Gates, Sean; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph
2015-06-01
We have obtained data from micron-thick tantalum films using our ultrafast laser shock platform. By measuring free surface velocity time histories at breakout, and shock wave arrival times at different film thicknesses, we have been able to estimate the dependence of particle and shock velocities on propagation distances and strain rates. We will show how elastic precursor shock waves depend on strain rate in the regime up to and above 109 s-1. We find that while elastic amplitudes are very large at very early times decay occurs rapidly as propagation distance increases. Finally we will consider the prospects for using these data to obtain the dynamic strength of tantalum at these very high strain rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 with Laboratory directed Research and Development funding (12ERD042).
Effect of strong elastic contrasts on the propagation of seismic wave in hard-rock environments
Saleh, R.; Zheng, L.; Liu, Q.; Milkereit, B.
2013-12-01
Understanding the propagation of seismic waves in a presence of strong elastic contrasts, such as topography, tunnels and ore-bodies is still a challenge. Safety in mining is a major concern and seismic monitoring is the main tool here. For engineering purposes, amplitudes (peak particle velocity/acceleration) and travel times of seismic events (mostly blasts or microseismic events) are critical parameters that have to be determined at various locations in a mine. These parameters are useful in preparing risk maps or to better understand the process of spatial and temporal stress distributions in a mine. Simple constant velocity models used for monitoring studies in mining, cannot explain the observed complexities in scattered seismic waves. In hard-rock environments modeling of elastic seismic wavefield require detailed 3D petrophysical, infrastructure and topographical data to simulate the propagation of seismic wave with a frequencies up to few kilohertz. With the development of efficient numerical techniques, and parallel computation facilities, a solution for such a problem is achievable. In this study, the effects of strong elastic contrasts such as ore-bodies, rough topography and tunnels will be illustrated using 3D modeling method. The main tools here are finite difference code (SOFI3D)[1] that has been benchmarked for engineering studies, and spectral element code (SPECFEM) [2], which was, developed for global seismology problems. The modeling results show locally enhanced peak particle velocity due to presence of strong elastic contrast and topography in models. [1] Bohlen, T. Parallel 3-D viscoelastic finite difference seismic modeling. Computers & Geosciences 28 (2002) 887-899 [2] Komatitsch, D., and J. Tromp, Introduction to the spectral-element method for 3-D seismic wave propagation, Geophys. J. Int., 139, 806-822, 1999.
Guiding of elastic waves in a two-dimensional graded phononic crystal plate
Guo, Yuning; Hettich, Mike; Dekorsy, Thomas
2017-01-01
The guiding of elastic waves in a two-dimensional graded phononic crystal plate is investigated. This effect is induced by the resonance coupling of attachments and matrix in a silicon pillar-substrate system and the resonance frequencies of guided surface modes can be tuned by tailoring the geometry and material properties of the pillars. The resonance frequencies increase with radius and Young's modulus, and decrease with height and density of the pillars, which provides several possibiliti...
Rzymski, Pawe?; Sk?rzewska, Agnieszka; Skibi?ska-Zieli?ska, Myriam; Opala, Tomasz
2011-01-01
Introduction Many physiological changes of breast elasticity depend on the age, hormonal status, menstrual cycle and many others. The aim of this study was to evaluate viscoelastic properties of normal breast tissues in a large group of women and to search for factors which play a role in its mechanical properties. Material and methods 101 women aged 18-74 years who underwent B-mode sonography and additionally sonoelastography. We measured viscoelasticity in 8 quadrants by a share wave ultras...
Research on assessment of bolted joint state using elastic wave propagation
Kędra, R.; Rucka, M.
2015-07-01
The work contains results of experimental investigation of elastic wave propagation in a bolted single-lap joint. Tests were carried out for the excitation perpendicular to the connection plane. In experimental studies, PZT transducers were used for both excitation and registration of ultrasonic waves. The analyses took into account varying contact conditions between the elements of the connection depending on the value of the prestressing force. The influence of loosening/tightening of bolts on the energy dissipation was analysed. The experimental results proved the influence of bolt torque on quantitative characteristics of the signals. To improve the diagnostic possibilities only the initial parts of signals were analysed.
Measurement of elastic modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity by piezoelectric resonator
Erhart, Jiří
2015-01-01
A piezoelectric ceramic resonator is used for the ‘electrical’ measurement of elastic properties, i.e. Young’s modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity in metallic materials. Piezoelectric response is precisely calculated for the piezoelectric ceramic ring fixed at the end of a metallic rod. The piezoelectric ring serves as both an actuator as well as a sensor. The experimental setup and method of measurement using higher overtones is explained in detail and practically demonstrated for a set of different metallic materials. Young’s moduli and ultrasonic wave velocities are measured within 3% relative error. The presented method is suitable for an advanced engineering class or physics laboratory training.
Sound radiation from an infinite elastic cylinder with dual-wave propagation-intensity distributions
Fuller, C. R.
1988-01-01
The radiation of sound from an elastic cylindrical shell filled with fluid and supporting multiwave propagation is studied analytically. Combinations of supersonic and subsonic shell waves are considered. The radiated field is mapped by using acoustic intensity vectors evaluated at various locations. Both time averaged and instantaneous intensity are investigated. The acoustic intensity is seen to vary markedly with axial distance down the cylinder. The effect is shown to be associated with cross terms in the intensity relations, and its magnitude and location to depend upon the relative phase and amplitudes of individual waves. Subsonic shell waves are demonstrated to interact strongly with supersonic shell waves to cause a large modification in the radiated intensity distributions near the shell surface.
Born reflection kernel analysis and wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion in elastic media
Wang, Tengfei
2017-08-17
Elastic reflection waveform inversion (ERWI) utilize the reflections to update the low and intermediate wavenumbers in the deeper part of model. However, ERWI suffers from the cycle-skipping problem due to the objective function of waveform residual. Since traveltime information relates to the background model more linearly, we use the traveltime residuals as objective function to update background velocity model using wave equation reflected traveltime inversion (WERTI). The reflection kernel analysis shows that mode decomposition can suppress the artifacts in gradient calculation. We design a two-step inversion strategy, in which PP reflections are firstly used to invert P wave velocity (Vp), followed by S wave velocity (Vs) inversion with PS reflections. P/S separation of multi-component seismograms and spatial wave mode decomposition can reduce the nonlinearity of inversion effectively by selecting suitable P or S wave subsets for hierarchical inversion. Numerical example of Sigsbee2A model validates the effectiveness of the algorithms and strategies for elastic WERTI (E-WERTI).
Elastic waves in particulate glass-rubber mixture: experimental and numerical investigations/studies
Taghizadeh, Kianoosh; Steeb, Holger; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan
2017-06-01
In this paper we study by wave propagation the elastic response of granular mixtures made of soft and stiff particles subjected under hydrostatic pressure/stress. This allows inferring fundamental properties of granular materials such as elastic moduli and dissipation mechanisms. We compare physical experiments in a triaxial cell equipped with piezoelectric wave transducers and Discrete Element Method simulations (DEM). In the experimental part, dense, static packings made of monodisperse glass and rubber beads are prepared at various levels of hydrostatic stress and species fractions. Small perturbations are generated on one side and the time of flight through the glass-rubber mixtures are measured to quantify the effect of the mixture composition on the elastic moduli. Interestingly, the experiments show that the behavior is non-linear and nonmonotonic with increasing percentage of rubber particles. Wave velocity and modulus remain fairly constant when increasing the fraction of rubber to 30%, while they experience a sudden drop between 30% and 60%, to become again constant between 60% to 100%. DEM simulations offer deeper insights into the micromechanics in and at the transition between the glass- and rubber-dominated regimes. The simplest analysis with Hertzian spherical particles of different stiffness is performed as a preliminary step. The behavior of mixtures with high glass content is very well captured by the simulations, without need of any additional calibration, whereas the complex interaction between rubber and glass leave open questions for further study.
Elastic waves in particulate glass-rubber mixture: experimental and numerical investigations/studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taghizadeh Kianoosh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study by wave propagation the elastic response of granular mixtures made of soft and stiff particles subjected under hydrostatic pressure/stress. This allows inferring fundamental properties of granular materials such as elastic moduli and dissipation mechanisms. We compare physical experiments in a triaxial cell equipped with piezoelectric wave transducers and Discrete Element Method simulations (DEM. In the experimental part, dense, static packings made of monodisperse glass and rubber beads are prepared at various levels of hydrostatic stress and species fractions. Small perturbations are generated on one side and the time of flight through the glass-rubber mixtures are measured to quantify the effect of the mixture composition on the elastic moduli. Interestingly, the experiments show that the behavior is non-linear and nonmonotonic with increasing percentage of rubber particles. Wave velocity and modulus remain fairly constant when increasing the fraction of rubber to 30%, while they experience a sudden drop between 30% and 60%, to become again constant between 60% to 100%. DEM simulations offer deeper insights into the micromechanics in and at the transition between the glass- and rubber-dominated regimes. The simplest analysis with Hertzian spherical particles of different stiffness is performed as a preliminary step. The behavior of mixtures with high glass content is very well captured by the simulations, without need of any additional calibration, whereas the complex interaction between rubber and glass leave open questions for further study.
Elastic wavelets and their application to problems of solitary wave propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cattani, Carlo
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The paper can be referred to that direction in the wavelet theory, which was called by Kaiser "the physical wavelets". He developed the analysis of first two kinds of physical wavelets - electromagnetic (optic and acoustic wavelets. Newland developed the technique of application of harmonic wavelets especially for studying the harmonic vibrations. Recently Cattani and Rushchitsky proposed the 4th kind of physical wavelets - elastic wavelets. This proposal was based on three main elements: 1. Kaiser's idea of constructing the physical wavelets on the base of specially chosen (admissible solutions of wave equations. 2. Developed by one of authors theory of solitary waves (with profiles in the form of Chebyshov-Hermite functions propagated in elastic dispersive media. 3. The theory and practice of using the wavelet "Mexican Hat" system, the mother and farther wavelets (and their Fourier transforms of which are analytically represented as the Chebyshov-Hermite functions of different indexes. An application of elastic wavelets to studying the evolution of solitary waves of different shape during their propagation through composite materials is shown on many examples.
Standing Waves in an Elastic Spring: A Systematic Study by Video Analysis
Ventura, Daniel Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Dias, Marco Adriano
2017-04-01
The word "wave" is part of the daily language of every student. However, the physical understanding of the concept demands a high level of abstract thought. In physics, waves are oscillating variations of a physical quantity that involve the transfer of energy from one point to another, without displacement of matter. A wave can be formed by an elastic deformation, a variation of pressure, changes in the intensity of electric or magnetic fields, a propagation of a temperature variation, or other disturbances. Moreover, a wave can be categorized as pulsed or periodic. Most importantly, conditions can be set such that waves interfere with one another, resulting in standing waves. These have many applications in technology, although they are not always readily identified and/or understood by all students. In this work, we use a simple setup including a low-cost constant spring, such as a Slinky, and the free software Tracker for video analysis. We show they can be very useful for the teaching of mechanical wave propagation and the analysis of harmonics in standing waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1993-11-01
Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.
Finite-Difference Algorithm for 3D Orthorhombic Elastic Wave Propagation
Jensen, R.; Preston, L. A.; Aldridge, D. F.
2016-12-01
Many geophysicists concur that an orthorhombic elastic medium, characterized by three mutually orthogonal symmetry planes, constitutes a realistic representation of seismic anisotropy in shallow crustal rocks. This symmetry condition typically arises via a dense system of vertically-aligned microfractures superimposed on a finely-layered horizontal geology. Mathematically, the elastic stress-strain constitutive relations for an orthorhombic body contain nine independent moduli. In turn, these moduli can be determined by observing (or prescribing) nine independent P-wave and S-wave phase speeds along different propagation directions. We are developing an explicit time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm for simulating 3D elastic wave propagation in a heterogeneous orthorhombic medium. The components of the particle velocity vector and the stress tensor are governed by a set of nine, coupled, first-order, linear, partial differential equations (PDEs) called the velocity-stress system. All time and space derivatives are discretized with centered and staggered FD operators possessing second- and fourth-order numerical accuracy, respectively. Simplified FD updating formulae (with significantly reduced operation counts) for stress components are obtained by restricting the principle axes of the modulus tensor to be parallel to the global rectangular coordinate axes. Moreover, restriction to a piecewise homogeneous earth model reduces computational memory demand for storing the ten (including mass density) model parameters. These restrictions will be relaxed in the future. Novel perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions, specifically designed for orthorhombic media, effectively suppress grid boundary reflections. Initial modeling results reveal the well-established anisotropic seismic phenomena of complex wavefront shapes, split (fast and slow) S-waves, and shear waves generated by a spherically-symmetric explosion in a homogeneous body.
Bu, Q. T.; Hu, G. W.; Ye, Y. G.; Liu, C. L.; Li, C. F.; Best, A. I.; Wang, J. S.
2017-06-01
Knowledge of the elastic wave velocities of hydrate-bearing sediments is important for geophysical exploration and resource evaluation. Methane gas migration processes play an important role in geological hydrate accumulation systems, whether on the seafloor or in terrestrial permafrost regions, and their impact on elastic wave velocities in sediments needs further study. Hence, a high-pressure laboratory apparatus was developed to simulate natural continuous vertical migration of methane gas through sediments. Hydrate saturation (S h) and ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities (V p and V s) were measured synchronously by time domain reflectometry (TDR) and by ultrasonic transmission methods respectively during gas hydrate formation in sediments. The results were compared to previously published laboratory data obtained in a static closed system. This indicated that the velocities of hydrate-bearing sediments in vertical gas migration systems are slightly lower than those in closed systems during hydrate formation. While velocities increase at a constant rate with hydrate saturation in the closed system, P-wave velocities show a fast-slow-fast variation with increasing hydrate saturation in the vertical gas migration system. The observed velocities are well described by an effective-medium velocity model, from which changing hydrate morphology was inferred to cause the fast-slow-fast velocity response in the gas migration system. Hydrate forms firstly at the grain contacts as cement, then grows within the pore space (floating), then finally grows into contact with the pore walls again. We conclude that hydrate morphology is the key factor that influences the elastic wave velocity response of methane gas hydrate formation in vertical gas migration systems.
Mehrab Madhoushi; Soheila Daneshvar
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper was to evaluate relationship between dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEd) in healthy standing trees of Populus deltoides and static modulus of elasticity (MOEs) of sawn lumber from the same standing trees, using nondestructive stress wave testing (NDT). For this purpose, NDT stress wave technique was used. The study was performed on 10 healthy standing trees of Populus deltoides. The diameter of trees at the breast height was selected at two categories, namely 25-30 cm a...
Size Effects on Surface Elastic Waves in a Semi-Infinite Medium with Atomic Defect Generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Mirzade
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates small-scale effects on the Rayleigh-type surface wave propagation in an isotopic elastic half-space upon laser irradiation. Based on Eringen’s theory of nonlocal continuum mechanics, the basic equations of wave motion and laser-induced atomic defect dynamics are derived. Dispersion equation that governs the Rayleigh surface waves in the considered medium is derived and analyzed. Explicit expressions for phase velocity and attenuation (amplification coefficients which characterize surface waves are obtained. It is shown that if the generation rate is above the critical value, due to concentration-elastic instability, nanometer sized ordered concentration-strain structures on the surface or volume of solids arise. The spatial scale of these structures is proportional to the characteristic length of defect-atom interaction and increases with the increase of the temperature of the medium. The critical value of the pump parameter is directly proportional to recombination rate and inversely proportional to deformational potentials of defects.
Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave for Empirical Elastic Design of Anchored Foundations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. E. Chen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Helical anchors are vital support components for power transmission lines. Failure of a single anchor can lead to the loss of an entire transmission line structure which results in the loss of power for downstream community. Despite being important, it is not practical to use conventional borehole method of subsurface exploration, which is labor intensive and costly, for estimating soil properties and anchor holding capacity. This paper describes the use of an empirical and elasticity-based design technique coupled with the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW technique to provide subsurface information for anchor foundation designs. Based on small-strain wave propagation, SASW determines shear wave velocity profile which is then correlated to anchor holding capacity. A pilot project involving over 400 anchor installations has been performed and demonstrated that such technique is reliable and can be implemented into transmission line structure designs.
Condition Assessment of PC Tendon Duct Filling by Elastic Wave Velocity Mapping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kit Fook Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Imaging techniques are high in demand for modern nondestructive evaluation of large-scale concrete structures. The travel-time tomography (TTT technique, which is based on the principle of mapping the change of propagation velocity of transient elastic waves in a measured object, has found increasing application for assessing in situ concrete structures. The primary aim of this technique is to detect defects that exist in a structure. The TTT technique can offer an effective means for assessing tendon duct filling of prestressed concrete (PC elements. This study is aimed at clarifying some of the issues pertaining to the reliability of the technique for this purpose, such as sensor arrangement, model, meshing, type of tendon sheath, thickness of sheath, and material type as well as the scale of inhomogeneity. The work involved 2D simulations of wave motions, signal processing to extract travel time of waves, and tomography reconstruction computation for velocity mapping of defect in tendon duct.
Effect of curvature and thickness on elastic wave velocity in cornea-like structures by FEM and OCE
Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.
2016-03-01
Wave models, which have been utilized in the past to reconstruct corneal biomechanical properties based on the propagation of an elastic wave, were often developed assuming a thin-plate geometry. However, the curvature and thickness of the cornea are not considered when utilizing these models. In this work, optical coherence elastography (OCE) experiments were conducted on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms and contact lenses along with finite element (FE) modeling of four kinds of cornea-like structures to understand the effects of curvature and thickness on the group velocity of an elastic wave. As the radius of curvature increased from 19.1 to 47.7 mm, the group velocity of the elastic wave obtained by both FE and OCE from a spherical shell section model decreased from ~2.8 m/s to ~2.2 m/s. When the thickness of the agar phantom increased from 1.9 mm to 5.6 mm, the elastic wave velocity increased from ~3.0 m/s to ~4.1 m/s. Both the FE and OCE results show that the group velocity of the elastic wave decreased with radius of curvature but increased with thickness. Therefore, the curvature and thickness must be considered when developing accurate wave models for quantifying biomechanical properties of the cornea.
Duru, Kenneth
2014-12-01
© 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.
On elastic waves in an thinly-layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stress
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P. Pal Roy
1988-01-01
Full Text Available The present work is concerned with a simple transformation rule in finding out the composite elastic coefficients of a thinly layered laminated medium whose bulk properties are strongly anisotropic with a microelastic bending rigidity. These elastic coefficients which were not known completely for a layered laminated structure, are obtained suitably in terms of initial stress components and Lame's constants λi, μi of initially isotropic solids. The explicit solutions of the dynamical equations for a prestressed thinly layered laminated medium under horizontal compression in a gravity field are derived. The results are discussed specifying the effects of hydrostatic, deviatoric and couple stresses upon the characteristic propagation velocities of shear and compression wave modes.
Topologically protected elastic waves in one-dimensional phononic crystals of continuous media
Kim, Ingi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2018-01-01
We report the design of silica-based 1D phononic crystals (PnCs) with topologically distinct complete phononic bandgaps (PnBGs) and the observation of a topologically protected state of elastic waves at their interface. By choosing different structural parameters of unit cells, two PnCs can possess a common PnBG with different topological natures. At the interface between the two PnCs, a topological interface mode with a quality factor of ∼5,650 is observed in the PnBG. Spatial confinement of the interface mode is also confirmed by the photoelastic imaging technique. Such topologically protected elastic states are potentially applicable in the construction of novel phononic devices.
Combined shape-material sensitivity approach for elastic-wave identification of penetrable obstacles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonnet, Marc [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Solides (UMR CNRS 7649), Ecole Poly technique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Guzina, Bojan B [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)], E-mail: bonnet@lms.polytechnique.fr, E-mail: guzina@wave.ce.umn.edu
2008-11-01
This study deals with elastic-wave identification of heterogeneities (inclusions) in an otherwise homogeneous 'reference' solid from limited-aperture measurements taken on its surface. On adopting the boundary integral equation (BIE) framework for elastodynamic scattering, the inverse query is cast as a minimization problem involving experimental observations and their simulations for a trial inclusion defined through its boundary, elastic moduli, and mass density. Expressions for the shape and material sensitivities of the misfit functional are obtained via the adjoint field approach and direct differentiation of the governing BIE's, respectively. A constrained nonlinear optimization framework based on the direct BIE method and an augmented Lagrangian is implemented. Numerical results for the reconstruction of an ellipsoidal defect in a semi-infinite solid show the effectiveness of the proposed shape-material sensitivity formulation, which constitutes an essential computational component.
Mechanical circulator for elastic waves by using the nonreciprocity of flexible rotating rings
Beli, Danilo; Silva, Priscilla Brandão; Arruda, José Roberto de França
2018-01-01
Circulators have a wide range of applications in wave manipulation. They provide a nonreciprocal response by breaking the time-reversal symmetry. In the mechanical field, nonlinear isolators and ferromagnetic circulators can be used for this objective. However, they require high power and high volumes. Herein, a flexible rotating ring is used to break the time-reversal symmetry as a result of the combined effect of Coriolis acceleration and material damping. Complete asymmetry of oscillating and evanescent components of wavenumbers is achieved. The elastic ring produces a nonreciprocal response that is used to design a three port mechanical circulator. The rotational speed for maximum transmission in one port and isolation in the other one is determined using analytical equations. A spectral element formulation is used to compute the complex dispersion diagrams and the forced response. Waveguides that support longitudinal and flexural waves are investigated. In this case, the ring nonreciprocity is modulated by the waveguide reciprocal response and the transmission coefficients can be affected. The proposed device is compact, nonferromagnetic, and may open new directions for elastic wave manipulation.
Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky; James P. Armstrong
2008-01-01
Moisture content has a significant impact on mechanical properties of wood. In recent years, stress wave velocity has been used as an in situ and non-destructive method for determining the stiffness of wooden elements. The objective of this study was to determine what effect moisture content has on stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Results...
Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger Karl
2008-01-01
Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve
Spatial Parallelism of a 3D Finite Difference, Velocity-Stress Elastic Wave Propagation Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MINKOFF,SUSAN E.
1999-12-09
Finite difference methods for solving the wave equation more accurately capture the physics of waves propagating through the earth than asymptotic solution methods. Unfortunately. finite difference simulations for 3D elastic wave propagation are expensive. We model waves in a 3D isotropic elastic earth. The wave equation solution consists of three velocity components and six stresses. The partial derivatives are discretized using 2nd-order in time and 4th-order in space staggered finite difference operators. Staggered schemes allow one to obtain additional accuracy (via centered finite differences) without requiring additional storage. The serial code is most unique in its ability to model a number of different types of seismic sources. The parallel implementation uses the MP1 library, thus allowing for portability between platforms. Spatial parallelism provides a highly efficient strategy for parallelizing finite difference simulations. In this implementation, one can decompose the global problem domain into one-, two-, and three-dimensional processor decompositions with 3D decompositions generally producing the best parallel speed up. Because i/o is handled largely outside of the time-step loop (the most expensive part of the simulation) we have opted for straight-forward broadcast and reduce operations to handle i/o. The majority of the communication in the code consists of passing subdomain face information to neighboring processors for use as ''ghost cells''. When this communication is balanced against computation by allocating subdomains of reasonable size, we observe excellent scaled speed up. Allocating subdomains of size 25 x 25 x 25 on each node, we achieve efficiencies of 94% on 128 processors. Numerical examples for both a layered earth model and a homogeneous medium with a high-velocity blocky inclusion illustrate the accuracy of the parallel code.
Palabiyik, Figen Bakirtas; Inci, Ercan; Turkay, Rustu; Bas, Derya
2017-10-01
Elasticity measurements of tissues can be valuable in the diagnosis and management of various diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the elasticity values for normal liver, kidney, and spleen of healthy newborns and infants using shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging. A total of 50 healthy term newborns and infants (19 girls and 31 boys; mean age 20.1 days, range 1 to 70 days) were examined by an experienced pediatric radiologist using SWE. None of them had any liver, kidney or spleen disease, or any other systemic disease that could affect these organs secondarily. All newborns and infants had a normal abdominal ultrasound scan. Age, sex, weight, height, and body mass index had no significant effects on shear wave velocity (SWV) values of liver and spleen. The SWV values of both kidneys decreased with age, weight, height, and body mass index. The mean SWV values were 1.70 m/s (range: 1.23-2.43 m/s) for the liver, 1.69 m/s (range: 0.8-2.40 m/s) for the right kidney, 1.70 m/s (range: 0.9-2.49 m/s) for the left kidney, and 2.03 m/s (range: 1.28-2.48 m/s) for the spleen. Shear wave elastography can be used to measure liver, kidney, and spleen elasticity in newborns and infants. The standard values for abdominal organs allow differentiation of healthy versus pathological tissue. We measured the normal values of SWE in healthy newborns and infants as reference data. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Zhang, Shunzu; Gao, Yuanwen
2017-11-01
A theoretical model is established to study the size-dependent performance of flexural wave propagation in magneto-elastic phononic crystal (PC) nanobeam with surface effect based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Gurtin-Murdoch theory. Considering the magneto-mechanical coupling constitutive relation of magnetostrictive material, the influence of surface effect on band structure is calculated by the plane wave expansion method for PC nanobeam subjected to pre-stress and magnetic field loadings. Through the example of an epoxy/Terfenol-D PC nanobeam, it can be observed that the characteristics of flexural wave band structures are size-dependent, and remarkably affected by surface effect when the dimension of the PC beam reduces to the nanoscale. The edges and width of the band gap with surface effect are higher than those without surface effect, especially for high frequency region. And surface effect gradually reduces with the increasing of bulk layer-to-surface layer thickness ratio until the band gap descends to a constant for the conventional one in the absence of surface effect. The effects of surface elasticity and piezomagneticity on band gap are more prominent than the residual surface stress. In addition, a distinctly nonlinear variation of band gap appears under the combined effects of pre-stress and magnetic field. Moreover, with the varying of filling fraction, multi-peaks of the width of the band gap are obtained and discussed. These results could be helpful for the intelligent regulation of magneto-elastic PC nanobeam and the design of nanobeam-based devices.
Biryukov, V. A.; Miryakha, V. A.; Petrov, I. B.; Khokhlov, N. I.
2016-06-01
For wave propagation in heterogeneous media, we compare numerical results produced by grid-characteristic methods on structured rectangular and unstructured triangular meshes and by a discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured triangular meshes as applied to the linear system of elasticity equations in the context of direct seismic exploration with an anticlinal trap model. It is shown that the resulting synthetic seismograms are in reasonable quantitative agreement. The grid-characteristic method on structured meshes requires more nodes for approximating curved boundaries, but it has a higher computation speed, which makes it preferable for the given class of problems.
B-spline based finite element method in one-dimensional discontinuous elastic wave propagation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolman, Radek; Okrouhlík, Miloslav; Berezovski, A.; Gabriel, Dušan; Kopačka, Ján; Plešek, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 46, June (2017), s. 382-395 ISSN 0307-904X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : discontinuous elastic wave propagation * B-spline finite element method * isogeometric analysis * implicit and explicit time integration * dispersion * spurious oscillations Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X17300835
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
divided into groups of three and each group was saturated either with deionized water, calcite equilibrated water, or sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride solutions of the same ionic strength. Saturation with solutions that contain divalent ions caused major shifts in the distribution...... of the relaxation time. Core samples saturated with calcium chloride solution relaxed slower and those saturated with magnesium chloride solution relaxed faster than the rest of the samples. Along with the changes in relaxation the samples experienced smaller velocities of elastic waves when saturated with MgCl2...
The effects of frequency on the elastic wave velocity in rocks at high temperatures under pressure
Matsushima, S.
1986-04-01
P- and S-wave velocities in nepheline basalt, Hamada, as well as diabase, Maryland, were measured experimentally to 1000°C and 2.5 GPa. A remarkable frequency dependence of large velocity-decrease was observed for both P- and S-waves at temperatures above 500°C. Remarkable velocity-characteristics, which cannot be explained by the existing theories, were: (1) Velocities were decreased considerably at 1-3 MHz. Above 3 MHz, samples showed elastic behavior like that of a perfect solid, and below 1 MHz, velocity-decrease decayed gradually. (2) Both P- and S-wave velocities decreased in the same way and almost to the same degree. (3) The higher the temperature, the more remarkably velocities decreased, at least up to the experimental limit temperature. A hypothesis of the relaxation of stress waves by the fluid-flow in the inclusions is proposed. Examples of geophysical applications are given for the attenuation and travel-time anomalies in the volcanic region and the P- and S-wave velocity-decrease in the upper mantle beneath continents.
Aero-hydro-elastic simulation platform for wave energy systems and floating wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kallesoee, B.S.
2011-01-15
This report present results from the PSO project 2008-1-10092 entitled Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines that deals with measurements, modelling and simulations of the world's first combined wave and wind energy platform. The floating energy conversion platform, Poseidon, is owned and operated by Floating Power Plant A/S. The platform has been operating for two test periods; one period where it was operating as a wave energy conversion platform only and one period where the three turbines was mounted and the platform operated as a combined wind and wave energy platform. The PSO project has equipped the platform with comprehensive measurements equipment for measuring platform motion, wave and wind conditions and turbine loads. Data from the first test period has been used for determine if the turbine could be mounted on the platform. Preliminary analysis of data from the second test period indicates that the platform is suitable as wind turbine foundation and that the turbines reduce the platform motion. (Author)
The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube.
Painter, Page R
2008-07-29
The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV). The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC) for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for more than fifty years is analyzed and shown to yield
The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Painter Page R
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV. The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. Methods An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. Results For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for
Analysis of microscopic degradation and nonlinear elastic wave in nuclear structural materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jhang, Kyung Young; Lee, Tae Hun; Choi, Ik Hwang; Baek, Seung Hyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2010-02-15
- Semi-automatic system configuration evaluating nonlinear characteristics of elastic wave by measuring the magnitude of higher harmonics generated after transmission of narrow band tone burst wave - Maximizing the stability of repeat measurement by finding condition of optimum pressure and induced voltage able to minimize additional nonlinearity caused by unstable contact between transducer and specimen - Establishing solution and investigation of minimizing nonlinearity depending on the system - System improvement of ultrasonic transmission and receiving - Configuration of nonlinear parameters with fatigue damage (rotary bending fatigue of SUS316L) - Configuration of nonlinear parameters with fatigue damage (tension fatigue of plate type specimen) - Experiment of nonlinear parameter with respect to microscopic degradation (grain size and precipitate volume) through various heat treatment of SA508 Gr. 3
Low-frequency wave propagation in an elastic plate loaded by a two-layer fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Indeitsev, Dmitrij; Sorokin, Sergey
2012-01-01
In several technical applications, for example, in the Arctic off-shore oil industry, it is necessary to predict waveguide properties of floating elastic plates in contact with a relatively thin layer of water, which has a non-uniform density distribution across its depth. The issue of particular...... of salty water. The former one produces fluid loading at the plate, whereas the latter one is bounded by the sea bottom. We employ classical asymptotic methods to identify significant regimes of wave motion in the compound three-component waveguide. The roles of parameters involved in the problem...... concern is propagation of low-frequency waves in such a coupled waveguide. In the present paper, we assume that an inhomogeneous fluid may be modelled as two homogeneous, inviscid and incompressible layers with slightly different densities. The lighter layer of fresh water lies on top of the heavier layer...
Elastic wave propagation study in copper poly-grain sample using FEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudhakar Matle
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents Voronoi based micro-structure modeling through elastic wave propagation in a poly-crystalline copper using finite element method. The micro-structural parameters studied here are; the grain size and the grain orientation. The poly-crystalline copper is modeled as a randomly oriented Voronoi cells in a fixed 2D computational domain. Tone burst 3-cycle pulse of 1 MHz frequency is used as the line source or point source for testing. Welded contact conditions are used at the interface boundaries of any two mutual cells of the domain. It is reported that wave scattering independent of the shape when the size of the scatterer less than the wavelength. Also, It is concluded that transmission efficiency increases as the cell size decreases.
Seismic wave propagation in non-homogeneous elastic media by boundary elements
Manolis, George D; Rangelov, Tsviatko V; Wuttke, Frank
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the mathematical potential and computational efficiency of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) for modeling seismic wave propagation in either continuous or discrete inhomogeneous elastic/viscoelastic, isotropic/anisotropic media containing multiple cavities, cracks, inclusions and surface topography. BEM models may take into account the entire seismic wave path from the seismic source through the geological deposits all the way up to the local site under consideration. The general presentation of the theoretical basis of elastodynamics for inhomogeneous and heterogeneous continua in the first part is followed by the analytical derivation of fundamental solutions and Green's functions for the governing field equations by the usage of Fourier and Radon transforms. The numerical implementation of the BEM is for antiplane in the second part as well as for plane strain boundary value problems in the third part. Verification studies and parametric analysis appear throughout the book, as do both ...
Effects of an elastic membrane on tube waves in permeable formations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, H.; Johnson, D.
1996-10-01
In this paper, the modified properties were calculated for tube wave propagation in a fluid-filled borehole penetrating a permeable rock due to the presence of a mudcake which forms on the borehole wall. The mudcake was characterized by an impermeable elastic layer. The mudcake partial sealing mechanism was simulated using a finite membrane stiffness. Consequently, it was shown that the mudcake can reduce, but not eliminate, the permeability effects on the tube wave slowness and attenuation. Moreover, this paper discusses a variety of values for the relevant parameters especially the mudcake thickness and membrane stiffness. The important combinations of mudcake parameters were clarified by using an analytic expression for the low-frequency limit.
An IBEM solution to the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space
Liu, Zhongxian; Liu, Lei
2015-02-01
The indirect boundary element method (IBEM) is developed to solve the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space. According to the theory of single-layer potential, the scattered-wave field can be constructed by applying virtual uniform loads on the surface of lined tunnel and the nearby wedge surface. The densities of virtual loads can be solved by establishing equations through the continuity conditions on the interface and zero-traction conditions on free surfaces. The total wave field is obtained by the superposition of free field and scattered-wave field in elastic wedge space. Numerical results indicate that the IBEM can solve the diffraction of elastic wave in elastic wedge space accurately and efficiently. The wave motion feature strongly depends on the wedge angle, the angle of incidence, incident frequency, the location of lined tunnel, and material parameters. The waves interference and amplification effect around the tunnel in wedge space is more significant, causing the dynamic stress concentration factor on rigid tunnel and the displacement amplitude of flexible tunnel up to 50.0 and 17.0, respectively, more than double that of the case of half-space. Hence, considerable attention should be paid to seismic resistant or anti-explosion design of the tunnel built on a slope or hillside.
Simulation of wave propagation in boreholes and radial profiling of formation elastic parameters
Chi, Shihong
Modern acoustic logging tools measure in-situ elastic wave velocities of rock formations. These velocities provide ground truth for time-depth conversions in seismic exploration. They are also widely used to quantify the mechanical strength of formations for applications such as wellbore stability analysis and sand production prevention. Despite continued improvements in acoustic logging technology and interpretation methods that take advantage of full waveform data, acoustic logs processed with current industry standard methods often remain influenced by formation damage and mud-filtrate invasion. This dissertation develops an efficient and accurate algorithm for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in fluid-filled boreholes in the presence of complex, near-wellbore damaged zones. The algorithm is based on the generalized reflection and transmission matrices method. Assessment of mud-filtrate invasion effects on borehole acoustic measurements is performed through simulation of time-lapse logging in the presence of complex radial invasion zones. The validity of log corrections performed with the Biot-Gassmann fluid substitution model is assessed by comparing the velocities estimated from array waveform data simulated for homogeneous and radially heterogeneous formations that sustain mud-filtrate invasion. The proposed inversion algorithm uses array waveform data to estimate radial profiles of formation elastic parameters. These elastic parameters can be used to construct more realistic near-wellbore petrophysical models for applications in seismic exploration, geo-mechanics, and production. Frequency-domain, normalized amplitude and phase information contained in array waveform data are input to the nonlinear Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Validation of both numerical simulation and inversion is performed against previously published results based on the Thomson-Haskell method and travel time tomography, respectively. This exercise indicates that the
Liu, Yan-Lin; Li, Guo-Yang; He, Ping; Mao, Ze-Qi; Cao, Yanping
2017-01-01
Determining the mechanical properties of brain tissues is essential in such cases as the surgery planning and surgical training using virtual reality based simulators, trauma research and the diagnosis of some diseases that alter the elastic properties of brain tissues. Here, we suggest a protocol to measure the temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues in physiological saline using the shear wave elastography method. Experiments have been conducted on six porcine brains. Our results show that the shear moduli of brain tissues decrease approximately linearly with a slope of -0.041±0.006kPa/°C when the temperature T increases from room temperature (~23°C) to body temperature (~37°C). A case study has been further conducted which shows that the shear moduli are insensitive to the temperature variation when T is in the range of 37 to 43°C and will increase when T is higher than 43°C. With the present experimental setup, temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues can be measured in a simulated physiological environment and a non-destructive manner. Thus the method suggested here offers a unique tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissues with potential applications in brain biomechanics research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis and Computation of Acoustic and Elastic Wave Equations in Random Media
Motamed, Mohammad
2014-01-06
We propose stochastic collocation methods for solving the second order acoustic and elastic wave equations in heterogeneous random media and subject to deterministic boundary and initial conditions [1, 4]. We assume that the medium consists of non-overlapping sub-domains with smooth interfaces. In each sub-domain, the materials coefficients are smooth and given or approximated by a finite number of random variable. One important example is wave propagation in multi-layered media with smooth interfaces. The numerical scheme consists of a finite difference or finite element method in the physical space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate different types of convergence of the probability error with respect to the number of collocation points under some regularity assumptions on the data. In particular, we show that, unlike in elliptic and parabolic problems [2, 3], the solution to hyperbolic problems is not in general analytic with respect to the random variables. Therefore, the rate of convergence is only algebraic. A fast spectral rate of convergence is still possible for some quantities of interest and for the wave solutions with particular types of data. We also show that the semi-discrete solution is analytic with respect to the random variables with the radius of analyticity proportional to the grid/mesh size h. We therefore obtain an exponential rate of convergence which deteriorates as the quantity h p gets smaller, with p representing the polynomial degree in the stochastic space. We have shown that analytical results and numerical examples are consistent and that the stochastic collocation method may be a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo method. Here we focus on the stochastic acoustic wave equation. Similar results are obtained for stochastic elastic equations.
Super-Grid Modeling of the Elastic Wave Equation in Semi-Bounded Domains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersson, N. Anders; Sjögreen, Björn
2014-10-01
We develop a super-grid modeling technique for solving the elastic wave equation in semi-bounded two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. In this method, waves are slowed down and dissipated in sponge layers near the far-field boundaries. Mathematically, this is equivalent to a coordinate mapping that transforms a very large physical domain to a significantly smaller computational domain, where the elastic wave equation is solved numerically on a regular grid. To damp out waves that become poorly resolved because of the coordinate mapping, a high order artificial dissipation operator is added in layers near the boundaries of the computational domain. We prove by energy estimates that the super-grid modeling leads to a stable numerical method with decreasing energy, which is valid for heterogeneous material properties and a free surface boundary condition on one side of the domain. Our spatial discretization is based on a fourth order accurate finite difference method, which satisfies the principle of summation by parts. We show that the discrete energy estimate holds also when a centered finite difference stencil is combined with homogeneous Dirichlet conditions at several ghost points outside of the far-field boundaries. Therefore, the coefficients in the finite difference stencils need only be boundary modified near the free surface. This allows for improved computational efficiency and significant simplifications of the implementation of the proposed method in multi-dimensional domains. Numerical experiments in three space dimensions show that the modeling error from truncating the domain can be made very small by choosing a sufficiently wide super-grid damping layer. The numerical accuracy is first evaluated against analytical solutions of Lamb’s problem, where fourth order accuracy is observed with a sixth order artificial dissipation. We then use successive grid refinements to study the numerical accuracy in the more
Non-invasive evaluation of skin tension lines with elastic waves
Deroy, Claire; Alinden, Aidan Mc; Annaidh, Aisling Ni
2016-01-01
Background: Since their discovery by Karl Langer in the 19th Century, Skin Tension Lines (STLs) have been used by surgeons to decide the location and orientation of an incision. Although these lines are patient-specific, most surgeons rely on generic maps to determine their orientation. Beyond the imprecise pinch test, there remains no accepted method for determining STLs in vivo. Methods: (i) The speed of an elastic motion travelling radially on the skin of canine cadavers was measured with a commercial device called the Reviscometer. (ii) Similar to the original experiments conducted by Karl Langer, circular excisions were made on the skin and the geometric changes to the resulting wounds and excised samples were used to determine the orientation of STLs. Results: A marked anisotropy in the speed of the elastic wave travelling radially was observed. The orientation of the fastest wave was found to correlate with the orientation of the elongated wound (P<0.001, R^2 = 74%). Similarly, the orientation of fa...
Analysis and computation of the elastic wave equation with random coefficients
Motamed, Mohammad
2015-10-21
We consider the stochastic initial-boundary value problem for the elastic wave equation with random coefficients and deterministic data. We propose a stochastic collocation method for computing statistical moments of the solution or statistics of some given quantities of interest. We study the convergence rate of the error in the stochastic collocation method. In particular, we show that, the rate of convergence depends on the regularity of the solution or the quantity of interest in the stochastic space, which is in turn related to the regularity of the deterministic data in the physical space and the type of the quantity of interest. We demonstrate that a fast rate of convergence is possible in two cases: for the elastic wave solutions with high regular data; and for some high regular quantities of interest even in the presence of low regular data. We perform numerical examples, including a simplified earthquake, which confirm the analysis and show that the collocation method is a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo sampling method for approximating quantities with high stochastic regularity.
Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna@xmu.edu.cn [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo, E-mail: qhliu@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States)
2016-12-15
Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.
Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain
Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei; Liu, Na; Liu, Qing Huo
2016-12-01
Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.
ACOUSTIC WAVES EMISSION IN THE TWO-COMPONENT HEREDITARY-ELASTIC MEDIUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Polenov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Summary. On the dynamics of two-component media a number of papers, which address the elastic waves in a homogeneous, unbounded fluid-saturated porous medium. In other studies address issues of dissipative processes in harmonic deformation hereditary elastic medium. In the article the dissipative processes of the viscoelastic porous medium, which hereditary properties are described by the core relaxation fractional exponential function U.N. Rabotnova integro-differential Boltzmann-Volterr ratio, harmonic deformation by the straining saturated incompressible liquid are investigated. Speed of wave propagation, absorption coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, logarithmic decrement, depending on fractional parameter γ, determining formulas received. The frequency logarithm and temperature graph dependences with the goal fractional parameter are constructed. Shows the dependences velocity and attenuation coefficient of the tangent of the phase angle of the logarithm of the temperature, and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient of the logarithm of the frequency. Dependencies the speed and the tangent of the phase angle of the frequency identical function of the logarithm of temperature.
Applications of elastic full waveform inversion to shallow seismic surface waves
Bohlen, Thomas; Forbriger, Thomas; Groos, Lisa; Schäfer, Martin; Metz, Tilman
2015-04-01
Shallow-seismic Rayleigh waves are attractive for geotechnical site investigations. They exhibit a high signal to noise ratio in field data recordings and have a high sensitivity to the S-wave velocity, an important lithological and geotechnical parameter to characterize the very shallow subsurface. Established inversion methods assume (local) 1-D subsurface models, and allow the reconstruction of the S-wave velocity as a function of depth by inverting the dispersion properties of the Rayleigh waves. These classical methods, however, fail if significant lateral variations of medium properties are present. Then the full waveform inversion (FWI) of the elastic wave field seems to be the only solution. Moreover, FWI may have the potential to recover multi-parameter models of seismic wave velocities, attenuation and eventually mass density. Our 2-D elastic FWI is a conjugate-gradient method where the gradient of the misfit function is calculated by the time-domain adjoint method. The viscoelastic forward modelling is performed with a classical staggered-grid 2-D finite-difference forward solver. Viscoelastic damping is implemented in the time-domain by a generalized standard linear solid. We use a multi-scale inversion approach by applying frequency filtering in the inversion. We start with the lowest frequency oft the field data and increase the upper corner frequency sequentially. Our modelling and FWI software is freely available under the terms of GNU GPL on www.opentoast.de. In recent years we studied the applicability of two-dimensional elastic FWI using numerous synthetic reconstruction tests and several field data examples. Important pre-processing steps for the application of 2-D elastic FWI to shallow-seismic field data are the 3D to 2D correction of geometrical spreading and the estimation of a priori Q-values that must be used as a passive medium parameter during the FWI. Furthermore, a source-wavelet correction filter should be applied during the FWI
WAVE SCATTERING AT A TAPERED FREE END OF AN ELASTIC PLATE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yagoub Nassar Al-Nassar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available 0 0 1 169 965 International Islamic University 8 2 1132 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} This paper focuses on the interaction of SH elastic waves in a plate with a tapered free end. The plate is modeled as a semi-infinite elastic structure, which was assumed to have traction-free surfaces. The results of the analysis based on mode matching are presented for various combinations of normalized frequencies and angles of free end inclination. The reported observations form important guidelines for the interpretation of experimental data when using horizontally polarized wave as a mean for nondestructive evaluation of elastic plates. ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini adalah khusus berkenaan interaksi gelombang anjal SH di dalam plat yang mempunyai hujung bebas yang tirus. Plat ini dimodelkan sebagai satu struktur elastik separa tak terhingga, yang diandaikan mempunyai permukaan nirgeseran. Keputusan analisis berdasarkan mod pemadanan dibentangkan untuk pelbagai kombinasi frekuensi ternormal dan sudut kecondongan hujung bebas. Pemerhatian yang dibentangkan memberi panduan penting dalam menginterpretasi data eksperimental penggunaan gelombang berkutub mendatar sebagai satu kaedah penilaian tanpa musnah plat anjal.
Youk, Ji Hyun; Gweon, Hye Mi; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Jeong, Joon
2013-02-01
To compare the mean elasticity value, as measured by shear-wave elastography (SWE), with immunohistochemical profile of invasive breast cancer. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study, with a waiver of informed consent. A total of 166 invasive breast cancers in 152 women undergoing preoperative SWE and surgery were included. Quantitative mean elasticity values in kPa were measured for each lesion by using SWE. Medical records were reviewed to determine palpability, invasive size, lymphovascular invasion, histologic grade, and axillary lymph node status. Based on the immunohistochemical profiles, tumor subtypes were categorized as triple-negative (TN), luminal A and B, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched cancer. The mean elasticity value was correlated with clinicopathological features using univariate regression models and multivariate linear regression analysis. Palpability (P elasticity value. For the immunohistochemical profiles and tumor subtypes, the estrogen receptor (P = 0.015), progesterone receptor (P = 0.002), Ki-67 (P = 0.009), and the TN (P = 0.009) tumor subtype were correlated with the mean elasticity value. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the following variables were significantly associated with the mean elasticity value: palpable abnormality, histologic grade, and lymphovascular invasion. No immunohistochemical profile of the cancers was independently correlated with the mean elasticity value. For invasive breast cancers, clinicopathological features of poor prognosis showed higher mean elasticity values than those of good prognosis. However, the immunohistochemical profile showed no independent association with the mean elasticity value.
The Propagation of Seismic Waves in the Presence of Strong Elastic Property Contrasts
Saleh, R.; Jeyaraj, R.; Milkereit, B.; Liu, Q.; Valley, B.
2012-12-01
In an active underground mine there are many seismic activities taking place, such as seismic noises, blasts, tremors and microseismic events. In between the activities, the microseismic events are mainly used for monitoring purposes. The frequency content of microseismic events can be up to few KHz, which can result in wavelengths on the order of a few meters in hard rock environment. In an underground mine, considering the presence of both small wavelength and strong elastic contrasts, the simulation of seismic wave propagation is a challenge. With the recent availability of detailed 3D rock property models of mines, in addition to the development of efficient numerical techniques (such as Spectral Element Method (SEM)), and parallel computation facilities, a solution for such a problem is achievable. Most seismic wave scattering studies focus on large scales (>1 km) and weak elastic contrasts (velocity perturbations less than 10%). However, scattering in the presence of small-scale heterogeneities and large elastic contrasts is an area of ongoing research. In a mine environment, the presence of strong contrast discontinuities such as massive ore bodies, tunnels and infrastructure lead to discontinuities of displacement and/or stress tensor components, and have significant impact on the propagation of seismic waves. In order to obtain an accurate image of wave propagation in such a complex media, it is necessary to consider the presence of these discontinuities in numerical models. In this study, the effects of such a contrast are illustrated with 2D/3D modeling and compared with real broadband 3-component seismic data. The real broadband 3-component seismic data will be obtained in one of the Canadian underground mines in Ontario. One of the possible scenarios investigated in this study that may explain the observed complexity in seismic wavefield pattern in hard rock environments is the effect of near field displacements rather than far field. Considering the
Laser-based linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves at surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D).
Hess, Peter; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Mayer, Andreas P
2014-01-01
The characteristic features and applications of linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves propagating along surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D) are discussed. Laser-based excitation, detection, or contact-free analysis of these guided waves with pump-probe methods are reviewed. Determination of material parameters by broadband surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other applications in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are considered. The realization of nonlinear SAWs in the form of solitary waves and as shock waves, used for the determination of the fracture strength, is described. The unique properties of dispersion-free wedge waves (WWs) propagating along homogeneous wedges and of dispersive wedge waves observed in the presence of wedge modifications such as tip truncation or coatings are outlined. Theoretical and experimental results on nonlinear wedge waves in isotropic and anisotropic solids are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reproducibility of real-time shear wave elastography in the evaluation of liver elasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferraioli, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.ferraioli@unipv.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Tinelli, Carmine, E-mail: ctinelli@smatteo.pv.it [Clinical Epidemiology and Biometric Unit, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, Viale Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Zicchetti, Mabel, E-mail: mabel.zicchetti@unipv.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Above, Elisabetta, E-mail: betta.above@gmail.com [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Poma, Gianluigi, E-mail: gigi.poma@libero.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Di Gregorio, Marta, E-mail: martadigregorio@virgilio.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Filice, Carlo, E-mail: carfil@unipv.it [Ultrasound Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 5, 27100 Pavia (Italy)
2012-11-15
Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of real-time shear wave elastography in assessing liver elasticity in healthy volunteers. Methods: Forty-two volunteers were studied in day 1. Shear wave elastography studies were performed by using the ultrasound system Aixplorer Trade-Mark-Sign (SuperSonic Imagine S.A., Aix-en-Provence, France) with a convex broadband probe. Measurements were carried by two operators, an expert (operator 1) and a novice (operator 2). Examinations were performed on the right lobe of the liver. Each operator performed 10 consecutive measurements in each volunteer. In a subset of volunteers (n = 18) measurements were performed twice on two different days (day 1 and day 2). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Intraobserver agreement between measurements performed in the same subject in the same day (day 1 or day 2) showed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.98) and 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.90-0.96) for operator 1 and operator 2, respectively. Intraobserver agreement between measurements performed in the same subject in different days showed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.98) and 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.91) for operator 1 and operator 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.94). Conclusions: The results of this study show that shear wave elastography is a reliable and reproducible noninvasive method for the assessment of liver elasticity. Expert operator had higher reproducibility of measurements over time than novice operator.
Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping
2015-10-01
We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.
Elastic-microplastic nature of wave propagation in the weakly consolidated rock
Mashinskii, E. I.
2014-02-01
Microplasticity effects caused by seismic wave from two sources of opposite polarity on frequencies about 300 Hz and 1000 Hz are detected in the borehole-to-borehole measurements in loam. For both sources, microplasticity manifestations on seismic records are presented in the form of the ladder-like changes in amplitude course. The stress plateaus on seismic trace interrupt the amplitude course, transform wavefront, and shift the arrival time and amplitude maximum along the time axis. Transformation character depends on the initial deformation type (compression or tension) that generates the source with positive or negative polarity. For the opposite-polarity sources, the arrival time and wave form appreciably differ from each other. Increase in strain amplitude leads to wavefront microplasticity increase and the significant arrival time difference on records with the positive and negative polarity. The combined elastic-microplastic process forms the wavefront steepness and its duration. This contribution to wave propagation physics can be useful in solving the applied problems in material science, seismic prospecting, diagnostics etc.
Hybrid Theory of P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering
Bhatia, Anand
2012-01-01
We report on a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a combination of a modified method of polarized orbitals and the optical potential formalism. The calculation is restricted to P waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions are of Hylleraas type. It is found that the phase shifts are not significantly affected by the modification of the target function by a method similar to the method of polarized orbitals and they are close to the phase shifts calculated earlier by Bhatia. This indicates that the correlation function is general enough to include the target distortion (polarization) in the presence of the incident electron. The important fact is that in the present calculation, to obtain similar results only 35-term correlation function is needed in the wave function compared to the 220-term wave function required in the above-mentioned previous calculation. Results for the phase shifts, obtained in the present hybrid formalism, are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts.
Anisotropic propagation imaging of elastic waves in oriented columnar thin films
Coffy, E.; Dodane, G.; Euphrasie, S.; Mosset, A.; Vairac, P.; Martin, N.; Baida, H.; Rampnoux, J. M.; Dilhaire, S.
2017-12-01
We report on the observation of strongly anisotropic surface acoustic wave propagation on nanostructured thin films. Two kinds of tungsten samples were prepared by sputtering on a silicon substrate: a conventional thin film with columns normal to the substrate surface, and an oriented columnar architecture using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process. Pseudo-Rayleigh waves (PRWs) were imaged as a function of time in x and y directions for both films thanks to a femtosecond heterodyne pump-probe setup. A strong anisotropic propagation as well as a high velocity reduction of the PRWs were exhibited for the GLAD sample. For the wavevector k/2π = 3 × 105 m‑1 the measured group velocities v x and v y equal 2220 m s‑1 for the sample prepared with conventional sputtering, whereas a strong anisotropy appears (v x = 1600 m s‑1 and v y = 870 m s‑1) for the sample prepared with the GLAD process. Using the finite element method, the anisotropy is related to the structural anisotropy of the thin film’s architecture. The drop of PRWs group velocities is mainly assigned to the porous microstructure, especially favored by atomic shadowing effects which appear during the growth of the inclined columns. Such GLAD thin films constitute a new tool for the control of the propagation of surface elastic waves and for the design of new devices with useful properties.
Hatta, Taku; Giambini, Hugo; Uehara, Kosuke; Okamoto, Seiji; Chen, Shigao; Sperling, John W; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan
2015-11-05
Ultrasound imaging has been used to evaluate various shoulder pathologies, whereas, quantification of the rotator cuff muscle stiffness using shear wave elastography (SWE) has not been verified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of SWE measurements for the quantification of supraspinatus (SSP) muscle elasticity. Thirty cadaveric shoulders (18 intact and 12 with torn rotator cuff) were used. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated on an established SWE technique for measuring the SSP muscle elasticity. To assess the effect of overlying soft tissues above the SSP muscle, SWE values were measured with the transducer placed on the skin, on the subcutaneous fat after removing the skin, on the trapezius muscle after removing the subcutaneous fat, and directly on the SSP muscle. In addition, SWE measurements on 4 shoulder positions (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° abduction) were compared in those with/without rotator cuff tears. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of SWE measurements were excellent for all regions in SSP muscle. Also, removing the overlying soft tissue showed no significant difference on SWE values measured in the SSP muscle. The SSP muscle with 0° abduction showed large SWE values, whereas, shoulders with large-massive tear showed smaller variation throughout the adduction-abduction positions. SWE is a reliable and feasible tool for quantitatively assessing the SSP muscle elasticity. This study also presented SWE measurements on the SSP muscle under various shoulder abduction positions which might help characterize patterns in accordance to the size of rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Generalized linear sampling method for elastic-wave sensing of heterogeneous fractures
Pourahmadian, Fatemeh; Haddar, Houssem
2016-01-01
A theoretical foundation is developed for active seismic reconstruction of fractures endowed with spatially-varying interfacial condition (e.g.~partially-closed fractures, hydraulic fractures). The proposed indicator functional carries a superior localization property with no significant sensitivity to the fracture's contact condition, measurement errors, and illumination frequency. This is accomplished through the paradigm of the $F_\\sharp$-factorization technique and the recently developed Generalized Linear Sampling Method (GLSM) applied to elastodynamics. The direct scattering problem is formulated in the frequency domain where the fracture surface is illuminated by a set of incident plane waves, while monitoring the induced scattered field in the form of (elastic) far-field patterns. The analysis of the well-posedness of the forward problem leads to an admissibility condition on the fracture's (linearized) contact parameters. This in turn contributes toward establishing the applicability of the $F_\\sharp...
Variational integrators for the dynamics of thermo-elastic solids with finite speed thermal waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mata, Pablo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4040 (United States); Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Conicyt Regional/CIEP R10C1003, Universidad Austral de Chile, Ignacio Serrrano 509, Coyhaique (Chile); Lew, Adrian J., E-mail: lewa@stanford.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4040 (United States)
2014-01-15
This paper formulates variational integrators for finite element discretizations of deformable bodies with heat conduction in the form of finite speed thermal waves. The cornerstone of the construction consists in taking advantage of the fact that the Green–Naghdi theory of type II for thermo-elastic solids has a Hamiltonian structure. Thus, standard techniques to construct variational integrators can be applied to finite element discretizations of the problem. The resulting discrete-in-time trajectories are then consistent with the laws of thermodynamics for these systems: for an isolated system, they exactly conserve the total entropy, and nearly exactly conserve the total energy over exponentially long periods of time. Moreover, linear and angular momenta are also exactly conserved whenever the exact system does. For definiteness, we construct an explicit second-order accurate algorithm for affine tetrahedral elements in two and three dimensions, and demonstrate its performance with numerical examples.
A Stochastic Multiscale Method for the Elastic Wave Equations Arising from Fiber Composites
Babuska, Ivo
2016-01-06
We present a stochastic multilevel global-local algorithm [1] for computing elastic waves propagating in fiber-reinforced polymer composites, where the material properties and the size and distribution of fibers in the polymer matrix may be random. The method aims at approximating statistical moments of some given quantities of interest, such as stresses, in regions of relatively small size, e.g. hot spots or zones that are deemed vulnerable to failure. For a fiber-reinforced cross-plied laminate, we introduce three problems: 1) macro; 2) meso; and 3) micro problems, corresponding to the three natural length scales: 1) the sizes of plate; 2) the tickles of plies; and 3) and the diameter of fibers. The algorithm uses a homogenized global solution to construct a local approximation that captures the microscale features of the problem. We perform numerical experiments to show the applicability and efficiency of the method.
Magnetostrictive elastic wave-type linear motion with Terfenol-D
Kottamasu, Vishnu
1997-05-01
Magnetostriction means change of shape of material in the presence of a magnetic field, with the degree of this change proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. The magnetostrictive TERFENOL-D expands in length and contracts diametrically, thereby conserving the volume of an essentially incompressible material. The magnetostrictive effect generates the elastic forces in accordance with a generalized Hooke's law. The principle of magnetostriction of TERFENOL-D can be used in the development of linear motion devices. In an elastic wave type linear motion, the `smart material' TERFENOL-D is enclosed with an interference fit in a stator tube which is enclosed in a series of coils that generate the magnetic field when power is applied. The pattern of activation of these fields is controlled by a digital controller which will enable the TERFENOL-D `smart material' to move inside the stator tube like a worm. During this motion, the TERFENOL-D rod can push and pull loads. When power is turned off this device will lock itself in the stator tube without any slippage. Some of the important applications are nano positioning, aircraft wing warping, airplane/helicopter flap/tab positioning and control, automobile brakes, controlled delivery of fluids, and space applications.
Measurement of tissue-radiation dosage using a thermal steady-state elastic shear wave.
Chang, Sheng-Yi; Hsieh, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Ru; Chen, Jin-Chung; Chou, Chien
2017-08-01
A biodosimeter based on thermal-induced elastic shear wave (TIESW) in silicone acellular porcine dermis (SAPD) at thermal steady state has been proposed and demonstrated. A square slab SAPD treated with ionizing radiation was tested. The SAPD becomes a continuous homogeneous and isotropic viscoelastic medium due to the generation of randomly coiled collagen fibers formed from their bundle-like structure in the dermis. A harmonic TIESW then propagates on the surface of the SAPD as measured by a nanometer-scaled strain-stress response under thermal equilibrium conditions at room temperature. TIESW oscillation frequency was noninvasively measured in real time by monitoring the transverse displacement of the TIESW on the SAPD surface. Because the elastic shear modulus is highly sensitive to absorbed doses of ionizing radiation, this proposed biodosimeter can become a highly sensitive and noninvasive method for quantitatively determining tissue-absorbed dosage in terms of TIESW’s oscillation frequency. Detection sensitivity at 1 cGy and dynamic ranges covering 1 to 40 cGy and 80 to 500 cGy were demonstrated.
Unstructured mesh based elastic wave modelling on GPU: a double-mesh grid method
Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jianfeng; Gao, Hongwei
2017-11-01
We present an unstructured mesh based numerical technique for modelling elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous media with complex geometrical settings. The scheme is developed by adapting the so-called grid method with a double-mesh implementation. The double-mesh is generated by subdividing each triangular grid of the first-level mesh into a group of congruent smaller grids with equally dividing each edge of the triangle. The resulting double-mesh grid method incorporates the advantages of structured- and unstructured-mesh schemes. The irregular, unstructured first-level mesh, which is generated by centroidal Voronoi tessellation based on Delaunay triangulation with a velocity-dependent density function, can accurately describe the surface topography and interfaces, and the size of the grid cells can vary according to local velocities. Congruent smaller grids within each grid cell of the first-level mesh greatly reduce the memory requirement of geometrical coefficients compared to a whole irregular, unstructured mesh. Applying the double-mesh approach can also alleviate the discontinuity of memory accessing mainly caused by adoption of fully unstructured mesh. As a result, the GPU implementation of the proposed scheme can obtain a high speedup rate. Numerical examples demonstrate the good behaviour of the double-mesh elastic grid method.
Chino, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hideyuki
2016-04-01
Passive joint stiffness is an important quantitative measure of flexibility, but is affected by muscle volume and all of the anatomical structures located within and over the joint. Shear wave elastography can assess muscle elasticity independent of the influences of muscle volume and the other nearby anatomical structures. We determined how muscle elasticity, as measured using shear wave elastography, is associated with passive joint stiffness and patient sex. Twenty-six healthy men (24.4 ± 5.9 years) and 26 healthy women (25.2 ± 4.8 years) participated in this study. The passive ankle joint stiffness and tissue elasticity of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) were quantified with the ankle in 30° plantar flexion (PF), a neutral anatomical position (NE), and 20° dorsiflexion (DF). No significant difference in passive joint stiffness by sex was observed with the ankle in PF, but significantly greater passive ankle joint stiffness in men than in women was observed in NE and DF. The MG elasticity was not significantly associated with joint stiffness in PF or NE, but it was significantly associated with joint stiffness in DF. There were no significant differences in MG elasticity by sex at any ankle position. Muscle elasticity, measured independent of the confounding effects of muscle volume and the other nearby anatomical structures, is associated with passive joint stiffness in the joint position where the muscle is sufficiently lengthened, but does not vary by sex in any joint position tested.
Stojadinović, Bojana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Rajković, Nemanja; Milošević, Nebojša; Lazović, Biljana; Žikić, Dejan
2015-11-26
The velocity by which the disturbance travels through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is one of the main parameters in hemodynamics. The study of wave propagation through the fluid-fill elastic tube is of great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through of cardiovascular system. The effect of viscosity on the pulse wave velocity is generally ignored. In this paper we present the results of experimental measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) of compression and expansion waves in elastic tube. The solutions with different density and viscosity were used in the experiment. Biophysical model of the circulatory flow is designed to perform measurements. Experimental results show that the PWV of the expansion waves is higher than the compression waves during the same experimental conditions. It was found that the change in viscosity causes a change of PWV for both waves. We found a relationship between PWV, fluid density and viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acoustic formulation of elastic guided wave propagation and scattering in curved tubular structures.
Brath, Alex J; Simonetti, Francesco; Nagy, Peter B; Instanes, Geir
2014-05-01
Recently, the use of guided wave technology in conjunction with tomographic techniques has provided the possibility of obtaining point-by-point maps of corrosion or erosion depth over the entire volume of a pipeline section between two ring arrays of ultrasonic transducers. However, current research has focused on straight pipes and little work has been done on pipe bends and other curved tubular structures which are also the most susceptible to developing damage. Tomography of curved tubes is challenging because of the complexity and computational cost of the 3-D elastic model required to accurately describe guided wave propagation. Based on the definition of travel-time-preserving orthogonal parametric representations of curved tubes, this paper demonstrates that guided wave propagation and scattering can be approximated by an equivalent 2-D acoustic model which is inhomogeneous and elliptically anisotropic. Numerical methods to solve the full wave equation and predict ray paths and travel times are introduced and applied to the case of a bend. Particular emphasis is given to the shortest-path ray tracing method, which is applied to the 2-D model to compute ray paths and predict travel times of the fundamental flexural mode, A0, propagating across a curved pipe. Good agreement is found between predictions and experiments performed on a 220-mm-diameter (8-in-diameter) (D) pipe with 1.5D bend radius. The 2-D model also reveals the existence of an acoustic lensing effect which leads to a focusing phenomenon also confirmed by the experiments. The computational efficiency of the 2-D model makes it ideally suited for tomographic algorithms.
Propagation of acoustic-gravity waves in arctic zones with elastic ice-sheets
Kadri, Usama; Abdolali, Ali; Kirby, James T.
2017-04-01
We present an analytical solution of the boundary value problem of propagating acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean by earthquakes or ice-quakes in arctic zones. At the surface, we assume elastic ice-sheets of a variable thickness, and show that the propagating acoustic-gravity modes have different mode shape than originally derived by Ref. [1] for a rigid ice-sheet settings. Computationally, we couple the ice-sheet problem with the free surface model by Ref. [2] representing shrinking ice blocks in realistic sea state, where the randomly oriented ice-sheets cause inter modal transition at the edges and multidirectional reflections. We then derive a depth-integrated equation valid for spatially slowly varying thickness of ice-sheet and water depth. Surprisingly, and unlike the free-surface setting, here it is found that the higher acoustic-gravity modes exhibit a larger contribution. These modes travel at the speed of sound in water carrying information on their source, e.g. ice-sheet motion or submarine earthquake, providing various implications for ocean monitoring and detection of quakes. In addition, we found that the propagating acoustic-gravity modes can result in orbital displacements of fluid parcels sufficiently high that may contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation, as postulated by Refs. [1, 3]. References [1] U. Kadri, 2016. Generation of Hydroacoustic Waves by an Oscillating Ice Block in Arctic Zones. Advances in Acoustics and Vibration, 2016, Article ID 8076108, 7 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8076108 [2] A. Abdolali, J. T. Kirby and G. Bellotti, 2015, Depth-integrated equation for hydro-acoustic waves with bottom damping, J. Fluid Mech., 766, R1 doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.37 [3] U. Kadri, 2014. Deep ocean water transportation by acoustic?gravity waves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/ 2014JC010234
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Mirzade, Fikret Kh. [Institute on Laser and Information Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Svyatizerskaya Ul. 1, Shatura 140700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: fmirzade@rambler.ru
2005-11-01
The propagation of longitudinal strain wave in a plate with quadratic nonlinearity of elastic continuum was studied in the context of a model that takes into account the joint dynamics of elastic displacements in the medium and the concentration of the nonequilibrium laser-induced point defects. The input equations of the problem are reformulated in terms of only the total displacements of the medium points. In this case, the presence of structural defects manifests itself in the emergence of a delayed response of the system to the propagation of the strain-related perturbations, which is characteristic of media with relaxation or memory. The model equations describing the nonlinear displacement wave were derived with allowance made for the values of the relaxation parameter. The influence of the generation and relaxation of lattice defects on the propagation of this wave was analyzed. It is shown that, for short relaxation times of defects, the strain can propagate in the form of shock fronts. In the case of longer relaxation times, shock waves do not form and the strain wave propagates only in the form of solitary waves or a train of solitons. The contributions of the finiteness of the defect-recombination rate to linear and nonlinear elastic modulus, and spatial dispersion are determined.
Equivalent pore radius and velocity of elastic waves in shale. Skjold Flank-1 Well, Danish North Sea
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Oji, Collins O.
2013-01-01
logging data.We used cuttings samples and available well logs to characterize Cenozoic, Cretaceous and Jurassic shale sections in the Skjold Flank-1 well of Danish North Sea. Logging data and well reports were used to select 31 shale cuttings samples and experimental data for porosity, grain density...... relationships were used to calculate equivalent pore radius for the Cenozoic, Cretaceous and Jurassic shale sections in Skjold Flank-1 well from elastic moduli. Elastic moduli were calculated from sonic velocity and density logs. The calculated equivalent pore radius logs vary from 27nm at 500m to 13nm at 2000m...... experiments on cuttings or core samples. In this study we demonstrate that elastic moduli as calculated from bulk density and velocity of elastic waves relate to equivalent pore radius of the studied shale intervals. This relationship establishes the possibility of calculating equivalent pore radius from...
Rzymski, Pawel Tomasz; Wilczak, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz
2012-01-01
The physiology of breast depends on age, hormonal status, menstrual cycle, lactation, and others. The aim of our study was to evaluate correlations between hormonal status and breast glandular and fat tissue elasticity in healthy women. We examined 77 women aged 20-55 with shear wave sonoelastography and estimated their hormonal levels. There were no important correlations between breast elasticity, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen, prolactine, and thyroid hormones (p > 0.05). Androgens negatively influenced glandular to fat elasticity ratio (Rs = -0.25, p elasticity, especially in outer-upper quadrant (Rs = 0.24, p = 0.003).
Chu, Chunlei
2009-01-01
We present two Lax‐Wendroff type high‐order time stepping schemes and apply them to solving the 3D elastic wave equation. The proposed schemes have the same format as the Taylor series expansion based schemes, only with modified temporal extrapolation coefficients. We demonstrate by both theoretical analysis and numerical examples that the modified schemes significantly improve the stability conditions.
Chino, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hideyuki
2015-12-01
Passive joint stiffness is associated with various tissues, including muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules. The specific elasticity of muscles or tendons can be measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography. To examine the association of muscle and tendon elasticity with passive joint stiffness, in vivo measurements of muscle and tendon elasticity were performed using ultrasound shear wave elastography. In 25 subjects, passive ankle joint stiffness was determined using the joint angle-passive torque relationship. The stiffness index of the muscle belly of the medial gastrocnemius (MG)--influenced by the muscle fascicles, its aponeuroses, and the proximal tendon--was quantified by the displacement of the muscle-tendon junction, which was visualized using B-mode ultrasonography during passive dorsiflexion. The stiffness index of the Achilles tendon--influenced by the tendon and the ligaments and joint capsule of the ankle--was similarly determined. The MG and Achilles tendon elasticity was measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Simple regression indicated a significant correlation between passive joint stiffness and stiffness index of the MG muscle belly (r=0.80) and Achilles tendon (r=0.60), but no correlation with elasticity of the MG (r=-0.37) or Achilles tendon (r=-0.39). Individual variations in the elasticity of either the MG or Achilles tendon are not associated with variations in passive ankle joint stiffness; however, variations in the elasticity of other tissues, including MG aponeuroses or the ligaments and joint capsule of the ankle, would be associated with the variations in joint stiffness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sawayama, Kazuki; Kitamura, Keigo; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro
2017-04-01
The estimation of water saturation under the ground is essential in geothermal fields, particularly for EGS (enhanced geothermal system). To estimate water saturation, recently, electromagnetic exploration using Magnetotelluric (MT) method has been applied in the geothermal fields. However, the relationship between electrical impedance obtained from this method and water saturation in the reservoir rock has not been well known. Our goal is to elucidate this basic relationship by fluid-flow experiments. As our first step to this goal, we developed the technique to measure and analyze the electrical impedance of the cracked rock in the geothermal reservoir. The fluid-flow test has been conducted as following procedures. At first, reservoir rock sample (pyroxene andesite, Makizono lava formation, Japan) was filled with nitrogen gas (Pp = 10 MPa) under 20 MPa of confining pressure. This nitrogen gas imitates the overheated steam in the geothermal fields. Then, brine (1wt.%-KCl, 1.75 S/m) which imitates the artificial recharge to the reservoir was injected to the samples. After flow rate of drainage fluid becomes stable, injection pressure was increased (11, 12, 14, 16, 18 MPa) and decreased (18, 16, 14, 12, 11 MPa) to vary the water saturation in the samples. During the test, water saturation, permeability, electrical impedance (10-2-105 Hz of frequency) and elastic wave velocity were measured. As a result of andesite, electrical impedance dramatically decreased from 105 to 103 Ω and P-wave velocity increased by 2% due to the brine injection. This remarkable change of the electrical impedance could be due to the replacement of pre-filled nitrogen gas to the brine. After the brine injection, electrical impedance decreased with injection pressure (small change of water saturation) by up to 40% while P-wave velocity was almost constant (less than 1%). This decrease of electrical impedance with injection pressure could be related to the flow to the narrow path (microcrack
Low frequency energy scavenging using sub-wave length scale acousto-elastic metamaterial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riaz U. Ahmed
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This letter presents the possibility of energy scavenging (ES utilizing the physics of acousto-elastic metamaterial (AEMM at low frequencies (<∼3KHz. It is proposed to use the AEMM in a dual mode (Acoustic Filter and Energy Harvester, simultaneously. AEMM’s are typically reported for filtering acoustic waves by trapping or guiding the acoustic energy, whereas this letter shows that the dynamic energy trapped inside the soft constituent (matrix of metamaterials can be significantly harvested by strategically embedding piezoelectric wafers in the matrix. With unit cell AEMM model, we experimentally asserted that at lower acoustic frequencies (< ∼3 KHz, maximum power in the micro Watts (∼35µW range can be generated, whereas, recently reported phononic crystal based metamaterials harvested only nano Watt (∼30nW power against 10KΩ resistive load. Efficient energy scavengers at low acoustic frequencies are almost absent due to large required size relevant to the acoustic wavelength. Here we report sub wave length scale energy scavengers utilizing the coupled physics of local, structural and matrix resonances. Upon validation of the argument through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, a multi-frequency energy scavenger (ES with multi-cell model is designed with varying geometrical properties capable of scavenging energy (power output from ∼10µW – ∼90µW between 0.2 KHz and 1.5 KHz acoustic frequencies.
Boyd, O.S.
2006-01-01
We have created a second-order finite-difference solution to the anisotropic elastic wave equation in three dimensions and implemented the solution as an efficient Matlab script. This program allows the user to generate synthetic seismograms for three-dimensional anisotropic earth structure. The code was written for teleseismic wave propagation in the 1-0.1 Hz frequency range but is of general utility and can be used at all scales of space and time. This program was created to help distinguish among various types of lithospheric structure given the uneven distribution of sources and receivers commonly utilized in passive source seismology. Several successful implementations have resulted in a better appreciation for subduction zone structure, the fate of a transform fault with depth, lithospheric delamination, and the effects of wavefield focusing and defocusing on attenuation. Companion scripts are provided which help the user prepare input to the finite-difference solution. Boundary conditions including specification of the initial wavefield, absorption and two types of reflection are available. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanson Huang
1996-01-01
Full Text Available A detailed solution to the transient interaction of plane acoustic waves with a spherical elastic shell was obtained more than a quarter of a century ago based on the classical separation of variables, series expansion, and Laplace transform techniques. An eight-term summation of the time history series was sufficient for the convergence of the shell deflection and strain, and to a lesser degree, the shell velocity. Since then, the results have been used routinely for validation of solution techniques and computer methods for the evaluation of underwater explosion response of submerged structures. By utilizing modern algorithms and exploiting recent advances of computer capacities and floating point mathematics, sufficient terms of the inverse Laplace transform series solution can now be accurately computed. Together with the application of the Cesaro summation using up to 70 terms of the series, two primary deficiencies of the previous solution are now remedied: meaningful time histories of higher time derivative data such as acceleration and pressure are now generated using a sufficient number of terms in the series; and uniform convergence around the discontinuous step wave front is now obtained, completely eradicating spurious oscillations due to the Gibbs' phenomenon. New results of time histories of response items of interest are presented.
Fatigue crack detection and identification by the elastic wave propagation method
Stawiarski, Adam; Barski, Marek; Pająk, Piotr
2017-05-01
In this paper the elastic wave propagation phenomenon was used to detect the initiation of the fatigue damage in isotropic plate with a circular hole. The safety and reliability of structures mostly depend on the effectiveness of the monitoring methods. The Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system based on the active pitch-catch measurement technique was proposed. The piezoelectric (PZT) elements was used as an actuators and sensors in the multipoint measuring system. The comparison of the intact and defected structures has been used by damage detection algorithm. One part of the SHM system has been responsible for detection of the fatigue crack initiation. The second part observed the evolution of the damage growth and assess the size of the defect. The numerical results of the wave propagation phenomenon has been used to present the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. The preliminary experimental analysis has been carried out during the tension test of the aluminum plate with a circular hole to determine the efficiency of the measurement technique.
A generalized multiscale finite element method for elastic wave propagation in fractured media
Chung, Eric T.
2016-02-26
In this paper, we consider elastic wave propagation in fractured media applying a linear-slip model to represent the effects of fractures on the wavefield. Fractured media, typically, are highly heterogeneous due to multiple length scales. Direct numerical simulations for wave propagation in highly heterogeneous fractured media can be computationally expensive and require some type of model reduction. We develop a multiscale model reduction technique that captures the complex nature of the media (heterogeneities and fractures) in the coarse scale system. The proposed method is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method, where the multiscale basis functions are constructed to capture the fine-scale information of the heterogeneous, fractured media and effectively reduce the degrees of freedom. These multiscale basis functions are coupled via the interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method, which provides a block-diagonal mass matrix. The latter is needed for fast computation in an explicit time discretization, which is used in our simulations. Numerical results are presented to show the performance of the presented multiscale method for fractured media. We consider several cases where fractured media contain fractures of multiple lengths. Our numerical results show that the proposed reduced-order models can provide accurate approximations for the fine-scale solution.
Fu, Shuai; Cui, Ligang; He, Xiaoxi; Sun, Yang
2016-09-01
To assess the elastic properties of the normal Achilles tendon in different age groups by Virtual Touch imaging quantification (VTIQ; Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA) shear wave elastography. A total of 326 healthy volunteers older than 18 years were divided into different groups by sex and age. The thickness, shear wave velocity (SWV) in sagittal and axial sections, and anisotropic coefficient of the Achilles tendon in a state of relaxation were obtained by conventional sonography and Virtual Touch imaging quantification elastography. These parameters were compared in different age and sex groups, and their correlations with age were evaluated. The thickness of the Achilles tendon in men and women increased gradually with age, and it was larger in men than in women in each age group (P tendon in the sagittal section decreased slightly with age, but the sagittal and axial SWVs and anisotropic coefficient had no significant differences among different age groups (P > .05), and they also had no significant differences between men and women within any group (P > .05). The SWVs in the sagittal and axial sections and anisotropic coefficient had no correlation with age. Intraclass correlation coefficients for sagittal and axial SWVs obtained by 2 independent observers were 0.923 and 0.870, respectively. The thickness of the Achilles tendon increased gradually with age. We confirmed that tendinous elastographic anisotropy and the stiffness of the tendon had no significant correlation with age.
Non-contact rapid optical coherence elastography by high-speed 4D imaging of elastic waves
Song, Shaozhen; Yoon, Soon Joon; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Pelivanov, Ivan; Li, David; Gao, Liang; Shen, Tueng T.; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.
2017-02-01
Shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) uses an OCT system to track propagating mechanical waves, providing the information needed to map the elasticity of the target sample. In this study we demonstrate high speed, 4D imaging to capture transient mechanical wave propagation. Using a high-speed Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system operating at 1.62 MHz A-line rate, the equivalent volume rate of mechanical wave imaging is 16 kvps (kilo-volumes per second), and total imaging time for a 6 x 6 x 3 mm volume is only 0.32 s. With a displacement sensitivity of 10 nanometers, the proposed 4D imaging technique provides sufficient temporal and spatial resolution for real-time optical coherence elastography (OCE). Combined with a new air-coupled, high-frequency focused ultrasound stimulator requiring no contact or coupling media, this near real-time system can provide quantitative information on localized viscoelastic properties. SW-OCE measurements are demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine cornea under various intra-ocular pressures. In addition, elasticity anisotropy in the cornea is observed. Images of the mechanical wave group velocity, which correlates with tissue elasticity, show velocities ranging from 4-20 m/s depending on pressure and propagation direction. These initial results strong suggest that 4D imaging for real-time OCE may enable high-resolution quantitative mapping of tissue biomechanical properties in clinical applications.
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Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering
1994-07-20
A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.
Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Li, Sinan; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K.
2012-05-01
The combined use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) is useful to evaluate the elasticity of layered biological tissues, such as normal skin. However, the pathological tissue is often originated locally, leading to the alternation of mechanical properties along both axial and lateral directions. We present a feasibility study on whether the SAW technique is sensitive to detect the alternation of mechanical property along the lateral direction within tissue, which is important for clinical utility of this technique to localize diseased tissue. Experiments are carried out on purposely designed tissue phantoms and ex vivo chicken breast samples, simulating the localized change of elasticity. A PhS-OCT system is employed not only to provide the ultra-high sensitive measurement of the generated surface waves on the tissue surface, but also to provide the real time imaging of the tissue to assist the elasticity evaluation of the heterogeneous tissue. The experimental results demonstrate that with PhS-OCT used as a pressure sensor, the SAW is highly sensitive to the elasticity change of the specimen in both vertical and lateral directions with a sensing depth of ˜5 mm with our current system setup, thus promising its useful clinical applications where the quantitative elasticity of localized skin diseases is needed to aid in diagnosis and treatment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrab Madhoushi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate relationship between dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEd in healthy standing trees of Populus deltoides and static modulus of elasticity (MOEs of sawn lumber from the same standing trees, using nondestructive stress wave testing (NDT. For this purpose, NDT stress wave technique was used. The study was performed on 10 healthy standing trees of Populus deltoides. The diameter of trees at the breast height was selected at two categories, namely 25-30 cm and 30-35 cm. Measurement of wave velocity in standing trees were done transversely in radial direction at two geographical directions as North-South and East-West at the breast height, namely 130 cm and longitudinal measurements were done on the height between 80 and 180 cm. Then, standing trees were cut following by measurements of wave velocity in their logs. Logs were kept for two months after cutting in order to reduce moisture content. Then, they were cut into the clear specimens for statistical bending test and their MOE were evaluated according to ASTM standard. The results showed that the stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity in longitudinal direction of standing trees and logs were more than those in transverse directions. Also, stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity of the logs were higher than those in their standing trees at both directions. Finally, regression analysis indicated that the correlation coefficient between MOEd in standing trees and logs at diameter 30-35 cm is (r= 0.94, which is statistically significant.
Brum, J.; Bernal, M.; Gennisson, J. L.; Tanter, M.
2014-02-01
Non-invasive evaluation of the Achilles tendon elastic properties may enhance diagnosis of tendon injury and the assessment of recovery treatments. Shear wave elastography has shown to be a powerful tool to estimate tissue mechanical properties. However, its applicability to quantitatively evaluate tendon stiffness is limited by the understanding of the physics on the shear wave propagation in such a complex medium. First, tendon tissue is transverse isotropic. Second, tendons are characterized by a marked stiffness in the 400 to 1300 kPa range (i.e. fast shear waves). Hence, the shear wavelengths are greater than the tendon thickness leading to guided wave propagation. Thus, to better understand shear wave propagation in tendons and consequently to properly estimate its mechanical properties, a dispersion analysis is required. In this study, shear wave velocity dispersion was measured in vivo in ten Achilles tendons parallel and perpendicular to the tendon fibre orientation. By modelling the tendon as a transverse isotropic viscoelastic plate immersed in fluid it was possible to fully describe the experimental data (deviation<1.4%). We show that parallel to fibres the shear wave velocity dispersion is not influenced by viscosity, while it is perpendicularly to fibres. Elasticity (found to be in the range from 473 to 1537 kPa) and viscosity (found to be in the range from 1.7 to 4 Pa.s) values were retrieved from the model in good agreement with reported results.
Propagation of elastic waves in an anisotropic functionally graded hollow cylinder in vacuum.
Baron, Cécile
2011-02-01
As a non-destructive, non-invasive and non-ionizing evaluation technique for heterogeneous media, the ultrasonic method is of major interest in industrial applications but especially in biomedical fields. Among the unidirectionally heterogeneous media, the continuously varying media are a particular but widespread case in natural materials. The first studies on laterally varying media were carried out by geophysicists on the Ocean, the atmosphere or the Earth, but the teeth, the bone, the shells and the insects wings are also functionally graded media. Some of them can be modeled as planar structures but a lot of them are curved media and need to be modeled as cylinders instead of plates. The present paper investigates the influence of the tubular geometry of a waveguide on the propagation of elastic waves. In this paper, the studied structure is an anisotropic hollow cylinder with elastic properties (stiffness coefficients c(ij) and mass density ρ) functionally varying in the radial direction. An original method is proposed to find the eigenmodes of this waveguide without using a multilayered model for the cylinder. This method is based on the sextic Stroh's formalism and an analytical solution, the matricant, explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. This approach has already been validated for the study of an anisotropic laterally-graded plate (Baron et al., 2007; Baron and Naili, 2010) [6,5]. The dispersion curves obtained for the radially-graded cylinder are compared to the dispersion curves of a corresponding laterally-graded plate to evaluate the influence of the curvature. Preliminary results are presented for a tube of bone in vacuum modelling the in vitro conditions of bone strength evaluation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kashchenko, M. P.; Chashchina, V. G.
2017-11-01
The possibility of inheritance of the elastic field in the zone of appearance of the initial excited state by the wave process controlling growth of the martensite crystal is shown. The case when the wave vectors of the control waves belong to plane {110}c of the original cubic phase is analyzed. Implementability of such inheritance is demonstrated with the use of elastic moduli for single-crystal bcc titanium, which advances the predictive capacity of the dynamic theory.
Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baud, Patrick
2017-04-01
Rock undergoes fluctuations in temperature in various settings in Earth's crust, including areas of volcanic or geothermal activity, or industrial environments such as hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs. Changes in temperature can cause thermal stresses that can result in the formation of microcracks, which affect the mechanical, physical, and transport properties of rocks. Of the affected physical properties, the elastic wave velocity of rock is particularly sensitive to microcracking. Monitoring the evolution of elastic wave velocity during the thermal stressing of rock therefore provides valuable insight into thermal cracking processes. One monitoring technique is Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), which infers high-resolution changes in the medium from changes in multiple-scattered elastic waves. We have designed a new experimental setup to perform CWI whilst cyclically heating and cooling samples of granite (cylinders of 20 mm diameter and 40 mm length). In our setup, the samples are held between two pistons within a tube furnace and are heated and cooled at a rate of 1 °C/min to temperatures of up to 300 °C. Two high temperature piezo-transducers are each in contact with an opposing face of the rock sample. The servo-controlled uniaxial press compensates for the thermal expansion and contraction of the pistons and the sample, keeping the coupling between the transducers and the sample, and the axial force acting on the sample, constant throughout. Our setup is designed for simultaneous acoustic emission monitoring (AE is commonly used as a proxy for microcracking), and so we can follow thermal microcracking precisely by combining the AE and CWI techniques. We find that during the first heating/cooling cycle, the onset of thermal microcracking occurs at a relatively low temperature of around 65 °C. The CWI shows that elastic wave velocity decreases with increasing temperature and increases during cooling. Upon cooling, back to room temperature, there is an
Jiang, Jian-jun; Li, He-ping; Dai, Li-dong; Hu, Hai-ying; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chao-shuai
2015-09-01
In-situ experimental results on the elastic wave velocity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature in combination with data from seismic observation can help to inverse the chemical composition, state and migration of materials in Earth's interior, providing an important approach to explore information of deep earth. Applying the Brillouin scattering into the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) to obtain the in situ elastic wave velocities of minerals, is the important approach to investigate elastic properties of Earth's Interior. With the development of DAC technology, on the one hand, the high temperature and high pressure experimental environment to simulate different layers of the earth can be achieved; on the other hand, the optical properties of DAC made many kinds of optical analysis and test methods have been widely applied in this research field. In order to gain the elastic wave velocity under high temperature and high pressure, the accurate experimental pressure and heating temperature of the sample in the cavity should be measured and calibrated first, then the scattering signal needs to dealt with, using the Brillouin frequency shift to calculate the velocity in the sample. Combined with the lattice constants obtained from X ray technique, by a solid elastic theory, all the elastic parameters of minerals can be solved. In this paper, firstly, application of methods based on optical spectrum such as Brillouin and Raman scattering in elasticity study on materials in Earth's interior, and the basic principle and research progress of them in the velocity measurement, pressure and temperature calibration are described in detail. Secondly, principle and scope of application of two common methods of spectral pressure calibration (fluorescence and Raman spectral pressure standard) are analyzed, in addition with introduce of the application of two conventional means of temperature calibration (blackbody radiation and Raman temperature scale) in
Creep of porous rocks and measurements of elastic wave velocities under different hydrous conditions
Eslami, J.; Grgic, D.; Hoxha, D.
2009-04-01
The long-term mechanical behavior of rocks is of prime importance for many geological hazards (e.g., landslides, rock falls, and volcanoes) as well as for the stability of man-made structures (underground mines, road cuts, and open pits). In some shallow environments, rocks exist in partially saturated conditions which can evolve with time according to variations in the relative humidity hr of the atmosphere (e.g., natural slopes, open cut excavations). In underground mines, rocks are also partially saturated because of artificial ventilation. These variations in liquid saturation may have a large impact on mechanical behavior since they imply variations in capillary pressure and, depending on the porosity and on the shape of the porous network, variations in the effective stresses. Therefore, knowledge of static fatigue under saturated and partially saturated conditions is important for estimating the long-term stability of such rock structures. Many studies have already shown that time-dependent weakening is much more important for a saturated rock than for a dry one and that the time to failure may decrease by several orders of magnitude for saturated rocks as compared to dry rocks. In addition, the weakening effect of water is more significant in long-term experiments than in short-term ones (instantaneous loading). A physical explanation for these results may be the enhancement of subcritical crack growth by stress corrosion at crack tips which is often considered to be the main cause of time-dependent behavior of rocks. The failure of brittle rocks during compression tests is preceded by the formation, growth, and coalescence of microcracks. Elastic wave velocities are reduced due to the presence of open microcraks and fractures and may be used to monitor the progressive damage of rocks. The specific experimental setup available in our lab allows the simultaneous measurement of five velocities (with different polarizations and directions) and two directions
Hayashi, Takahiro; Ishihara, Ken
2017-05-01
Pulsed laser equipment can be used to generate elastic waves through the instantaneous reaction of thermal expansion or ablation of the material; however, we cannot control the waveform generated by the laser in the same manner that we can when piezoelectric transducers are used as exciters. This study investigates the generation of narrowband tone-burst waves using a fiber laser of the type that is widely used in laser beam machining. Fiber lasers can emit laser pulses with a high repetition rate on the order of MHz, and the laser pulses can be modulated to a burst train by external signals. As a consequence of the burst laser emission, a narrowband tone-burst elastic wave is generated. We experimentally confirmed that the elastic waves agreed well with the modulation signals in time domain waveforms and their frequency spectra, and that waveforms can be controlled by the generation technique. We also apply the generation technique to defect imaging with a scanning laser source. In the experiments, with small laser emission energy, we were not able to obtain defect images from the signal amplitude due to low signal-to-noise ratio, whereas using frequency spectrum peaks of the tone-burst signals gave clear defect images, which indicates that the signal-to-noise ratio is improved in the frequency domain by using this technique for the generation of narrowband elastic waves. Moreover, even for defect imaging at a single receiving point, defect images were enhanced by taking an average of distributions of frequency spectrum peaks at different frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, Kohei; Pisano, F.; Jeremi, Boris
2016-01-01
Presented here is a numerical investigation that (re-)appraises standard rules for space/time discretization in seismic wave propagation analyses. Although the issue is almost off the table of research, situations are often encountered where (established) discretization criteria are not observed and
Thermal elastic-wave attenuation in low-dimensional SiNx bars at low temperatures
Withington, S.; Williams, E.; Goldie, D. J.; Thomas, C. N.; Schneiderman, M.
2017-08-01
At low temperatures, mK, the thermal flux through low-dimensional amorphous dielectric bars, 400 μm, it is known that the conductance scales as 1/L, where L is the length, but for short bars, 1 μm ultra-low-noise superconducting Transition Edge Sensors to measure the heat flux through a set of SiNx bars to establish the characteristic scale size of the ballistic to diffusive transition. For bars supporting 6 to 7 modes, we measure a thermal elastic-wave attenuation length of 20 μm. The measurement is important because it sheds light on the scattering processes, which in turn are closely related to the generation of thermal fluctuation noise. Our own interest lies in creating patterned phononic filters for controlling heat flow and thermal noise in ultra-low-noise devices, but the work will be of interest to others trying to isolate devices from their environments and studying loss mechanisms in micro-mechanical resonators.
Analysis of a finite PML approximation to the three dimensional elastic wave scattering problem
Bramble, James H.
2010-01-01
We consider the application of a perfectly matched layer (PML) technique to approximate solutions to the elastic wave scattering problem in the frequency domain. The PML is viewed as a complex coordinate shift in spherical coordinates which leads to a variable complex coefficient equation for the displacement vector posed on an infinite domain (the complement of the scatterer). The rapid decay of the PML solution suggests truncation to a bounded domain with a convenient outer boundary condition and subsequent finite element approximation (for the truncated problem). We prove existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the infinite domain and truncated domain PML equations (provided that the truncated domain is sufficiently large). We also show exponential convergence of the solution of the truncated PML problem to the solution of the original scattering problem in the region of interest. We then analyze a Galerkin numerical approximation to the truncated PML problem and prove that it is well posed provided that the PML damping parameter and mesh size are small enough. Finally, computational results illustrating the efficiency of the finite element PML approximation are presented. © 2010 American Mathematical Society.
Hybrid multicore/vectorisation technique applied to the elastic wave equation on a staggered grid
Titarenko, Sofya; Hildyard, Mark
2017-07-01
In modern physics it has become common to find the solution of a problem by solving numerically a set of PDEs. Whether solving them on a finite difference grid or by a finite element approach, the main calculations are often applied to a stencil structure. In the last decade it has become usual to work with so called big data problems where calculations are very heavy and accelerators and modern architectures are widely used. Although CPU and GPU clusters are often used to solve such problems, parallelisation of any calculation ideally starts from a single processor optimisation. Unfortunately, it is impossible to vectorise a stencil structured loop with high level instructions. In this paper we suggest a new approach to rearranging the data structure which makes it possible to apply high level vectorisation instructions to a stencil loop and which results in significant acceleration. The suggested method allows further acceleration if shared memory APIs are used. We show the effectiveness of the method by applying it to an elastic wave propagation problem on a finite difference grid. We have chosen Intel architecture for the test problem and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) since they are extensively used in many applications.
Control of propagation characteristics of spin wave pulses via elastic and thermal effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gómez-Arista, Ivan [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Kolokoltsev, O., E-mail: oleg.kolokoltsev@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Acevedo, A.; Qureshi, N. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Ordóñez-Romero, César L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico)
2017-05-01
A study of the magnetoelastic (ME) and thermal effects governing the phase (φ) and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides is presented. The ME effects were studied in a flexural configuration, under punctual mechanical force (F). Thermally induced ME and demagnetization phenomena were controlled by optically injected thermal power P{sub th}. It was determined that in an unclamped Ga:YIG waveguide, the force F that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the P{sub th} at which Δφ=π decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm{sup 3} to nm{sup 3}. For nano-volume waveguides the ME control energy (E{sub me}) can be of order of aJ, and the thermal control energy (ΔE{sub th}) can be as small as 50 fJ. The response time of these effects lies in the ns time scale. Both the mechanical and the thermo-magnetic forces provide an effective control of MSSW pulse amplitude, in addition to its phase shift. The thermo-magnetic effect allows one to realize variable delays of a MSSW pulse. - Highlights: • The Magneto-elastic (ME) and optically induced thermal effects governing the phase and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides are presented. • A mechanical force that causes phase shift Δφ=π for spin waves in the waveguides decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the optical power that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm{sup 3} to nm{sup 3}. • The response time of these effects can lie in the ns time scale.
Attenuation of elastic waves in bentonite and monitoring of radioactive waste repositories
Biryukov, A.; Tisato, N.; Grasselli, G.
2016-04-01
Deep geological repositories, isolated from the geosphere by an engineered bentonite barrier, are currently considered the safest solution for high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) disposal. As the physical conditions and properties of the bentonite barrier are anticipated to change with time, seismic tomography was suggested as a viable technique to monitor the physical state and integrity of the barrier and to timely detect any unforeseen failure. To do so, the seismic monitoring system needs to be optimized, and this can be achieved by conducting numerical simulations of wave propagation in the repository geometry. Previous studies treated bentonite as an elastic medium, whereas recent experimental investigations indicate its pronounced viscoelastic behaviour. The aims of this contribution are (i) to numerically estimate the effective attenuation of bentonite as a function of temperature T and water content Wc, so that synthetic data can accurately reproduce experimental traces and (ii) assess the feasibility and limitation of the HLRW repository monitoring by simulating the propagation of sonic waves in a realistic repository geometry. A finite difference method was utilized to simulate the wave propagation in experimental and repository setups. First, the input of the viscoelastic model was varied to achieve a match between experimental and numerical traces. The routine was repeated for several values of Wc and T, so that quality factors Qp(Wc, T) and Qs(Wc, T) were obtained. Then, the full-scale monitoring procedure was simulated for six scenarios, representing the evolution of bentonite's physical state. The estimated Qp and Qs exhibited a minimum at Wc = 20 per cent and higher sensitivity to Wc, rather than T, suggesting that pronounced inelasticity of the clay has to be taken into account in geophysical modelling and analysis. The repository-model traces confirm that active seismic monitoring is, in principle, capable of depicting physical changes in the
Gao, Longfei
2018-02-22
We consider numerical simulation of the isotropic elastic wave equations arising from seismic applications with non-trivial land topography. The more flexible finite element method is applied to the shallow region of the simulation domain to account for the topography, and combined with the more efficient finite difference method that is applied to the deep region of the simulation domain. We demonstrate that these two discretization methods, albeit starting from different formulations of the elastic wave equation, can be joined together smoothly via weakly imposed interface conditions. Discrete energy analysis is employed to derive the proper interface treatment, leading to an overall discretization that is energy-conserving. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed interface treatment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Selvamani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Wave propagation in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic solid bar immersed in an inviscid fluid is discussed within the frame work of linearized three dimensional theory of elasticity. Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion, electric and magnetic induction. The frequency equations that include the interaction between the solid bar and fluid are obtained by the perfect slip boundary conditions using the Bessel functions. The numerical calculations are carried out for the non-dimensional frequency, phase velocity and attenuation coefficient by fixing wave number and are plotted as the dispersion curves. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple and can be applied to other bar of different cross section by using proper geometric relation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Vladislav
2016-01-01
The paper concerns determining frequency band-gaps for longitudinal wave motion in a periodic waveguide. The waveguide may be considered either as an elastic layer with variable thickness or as a rod with variable cross section. As a result, widths and locations of all frequency band......, harmonic in the corrugation series. The revealed insights into the mechanism of band-gap formation can be used to predict locations and widths of all frequency band-gaps featured by any corrugation shape. These insights are general and can be valid also for other types of wave motion in periodic structures...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bui Dinh, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Gora, ul. Prof. A. Szafrana 4a, 65-516 Zielona Gora (Poland); Vinh University, 182 Duong Le Duan, Nghe An (Viet Nam); Long, V. Cao [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Gora, ul. Prof. A. Szafrana 4a, 65-516 Zielona Gora (Poland); Xuan, K. Dinh [Vinh University, 182 Duong Le Duan, Nghe An (Viet Nam); Wojciechowski, K.W. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland)
2012-07-15
Results of numerical simulations are presented for propagation of solitary waves in an elastic rod of positive or negative Poisson's ratio, i.e. of a common or auxetic material. Splitting of various initial pulses during propagation into a sequence of solitary waves is considered in frames of a model which contains both quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms. The obtained results are compared with some exact analytic solutions, called solitons, what leads to the conclusion that the solitons describe well the more complicated wave fields which are obtained by numerical simulations. This is because the analytic solutions reflect complete balance between various orders of nonlinearity and dispersion. Collisions between some obtained solitary waves are also presented. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Manapuram, Ravi Kiran; Singh, Manmohan; Menodiado, Floredes M.; Aglyamov, Salavat; Emelianov, Stanislav; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.
2013-12-01
We demonstrate the use of phase-stabilized swept-source optical coherence tomography to assess the propagation of low-amplitude (micron-level) waves induced by a focused air-pulse system in tissue-mimicking phantoms, a contact lens, a silicone eye model, and the mouse cornea in vivo. The results show that the wave velocity can be quantified from the analysis of wave propagation, thereby enabling the estimation of the sample elasticity using the model of surface wave propagation for the tissue-mimicking phantoms. This noninvasive, noncontact measurement technique involves low-force methods of tissue excitation that can be potentially used to assess the biomechanical properties of ocular and other delicate tissues in vivo.
Xiao, Yang; Zeng, Jie; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong
2013-01-01
For shear-wave elastography (SWE) images, the most common site of tumor-associated stiffness is generally in the surrounding stroma rather than the tumor itself. The aim of this study is to assess the value of the peri-tumor tissue elasticity in the classification of breast tumors. SWE images of 106 breast tumors (65 benign, 41 malignant) were collected from 82 consecutive patients. By applying the image processing method, 5 elastographic features of the peri-tumor area (elasticity modulus mean, maximum, standard deviation, hardness degree and elasticity ratio) were computed to represent peri-tumor tissue elasticity. B-mode Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) were used for comparing the diagnostic performances between the grayscale US and color SWE images. Histopathologic results were used as the reference standard. The t-test, point biserial correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for statistical analysis. As a result, the Az values (area under ROC curve) were 0.92, 0.95, 0.94, 0.91, and 0.98 for the classifiers using the five elastographic features respectively, and 0.91 for BI-RADS assessment. The results showed that the peri-tumor tissue elasticity could provide valuable information for breast tumor classification.
Rzymski, Pawel; Wysocki, Piotr J.; Kycler, Witold; Opala, Tomasz
2011-01-01
Introduction Recent studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between obesity, insulin resistance, increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor levels and the risk of breast cancer. Our study was aimed at exploring correlations between glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, obesity and quantitatively estimated breast elasticity in healthy women. Material and methods The pilot study included 37 premenopausal women aged 22-45 years who underwent B-mode sonography and real-time shear wave elastography. Blood was collected for fasting insulin and glucose, and HOMA insulin resistance index was calculated. Results The mean elasticity of glandular and fatty tissue measured in both breasts was 12.5 ±3.5 kPa and 10.9 ±3.7 kPa respectively. Insulin levels did not correlate with glandular tissue elasticity (Rs=–0.23, p=0.15), but nearly correlated with fat tissue elasticity (Rs=–0.30, p=0.06), in outer quadrants significantly (Rs=–0.38, p=0.02). Interestingly, a strong correlation of insulin and insulin resistance with elasticity heterogeneity was found in fatty tissue (Rs=–0.59, pelasticity also correlated with body mass index. Conclusions Insulin levels and insulin resistance correlate with breast fat tissue heterogeneity, but their role in breast pathology remains unclear. PMID:22328885
Rzymski, Pawel; Wysocki, Piotr J; Kycler, Witold; Opala, Tomasz
2011-12-31
Recent studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between obesity, insulin resistance, increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor levels and the risk of breast cancer. Our study was aimed at exploring correlations between glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, obesity and quantitatively estimated breast elasticity in healthy women. The pilot study included 37 premenopausal women aged 22-45 years who underwent B-mode sonography and real-time shear wave elastography. Blood was collected for fasting insulin and glucose, and HOMA insulin resistance index was calculated. The mean elasticity of glandular and fatty tissue measured in both breasts was 12.5 ±3.5 kPa and 10.9 ±3.7 kPa respectively. Insulin levels did not correlate with glandular tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.23, p=0.15), but nearly correlated with fat tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.30, p=0.06), in outer quadrants significantly (Rs=-0.38, p=0.02). Interestingly, a strong correlation of insulin and insulin resistance with elasticity heterogeneity was found in fatty tissue (Rs=-0.59, pelasticity also correlated with body mass index. Insulin levels and insulin resistance correlate with breast fat tissue heterogeneity, but their role in breast pathology remains unclear.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaona Liu
Full Text Available We aimed to observe the relationship between the pathological components of a deep venous thrombus (DVT, which was divided into three parts, and the findings on quantitative ultrasonic shear wave elastography (SWE to increase the accuracy of thrombus staging in a rabbit model.A flow stenosis-induced vein thrombosis model was used, and the thrombus was divided into three parts (head, body and tail, which were associated with corresponding observation points. Elasticity was quantified in vivo using SWE over a 2-week period. A quantitative pathologic image analysis (QPIA was performed to obtain the relative percentages of the components of the main clots.DVT maturity occurred at 2 weeks, and the elasticity of the whole thrombus and the three parts (head, body and tail showed an increasing trend, with the Young's modulus values varying from 2.36 ± 0.41 kPa to 13.24 ± 1.71 kPa; 2.01 ± 0.28 kPa to 13.29 ± 1.48 kPa; 3.27 ± 0.57 kPa to 15.91 ± 2.05 kPa; and 1.79 ± 0.36 kPa to 10.51 ± 1.61 kPa, respectively. Significant increases occurred on different days for the different parts: the head showed significant increases on days 4 and 6; the body showed significant increases on days 4 and 7; and the tail showed significant increases on days 3 and 6. The QPIA showed that the thrombus composition changed dynamically as the thrombus matured, with the fibrin and calcium salt deposition gradually increasing and the red blood cells (RBCs and platelet trabecula gradually decreasing. Significant changes were observed on days 4 and 7, which may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi. Significant heterogeneity was observed between and within the thrombi.Variations in the thrombus components were generally consistent between the SWE and QPIA. Days 4 and 7 after thrombus induction may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi in rabbit models. A dynamic examination of the same part of the thrombus
3D elastic full waveform inversion using P-wave excitation amplitude: Application to OBC field data
Oh, Juwon
2017-12-05
We propose an efficient elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) based on the P-wave excitation amplitude (maximum energy arrival) approximation in the source wavefields. Because, based on the P-wave excitation approximation (ExA), the gradient direction is approximated by the cross-correlation of source and receiver wavefields at only excitation time, it estimates the gradient direction faster than its conventional counterpart. In addition to this computational speedup, the P-wave excitation approximation automatically ignores SP and SS correlations in the approximated gradient direction. In elastic FWI for ocean bottom cable (OBC) data, the descent direction for the S-wave velocity is often degraded by undesired long-wavelength features from the SS correlation. For this reason, the P-wave excitation approach increases the convergence rate of multi-parameter FWI compared to the conventional approach. The modified 2D Marmousi model with OBC acquisition is used to verify the differences between the conventional method and ExA. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated on a real OBC data from North Sea.
Kvashnin, G M; Sorokin, B P; Novoselov, A S
2017-10-25
Finite Element Modeling of the peculiarities of the trapping energy phenomenon in application to the piezoelectric layered structure (PLS) "Al/(0 0 1) AlN/Mo/(1 0 0) diamond" has been fulfilled. The resonant properties of longitudinal bulk acoustic waves (BAW) as well as frequency dependence of impedance within the 1 - 6 GHz band have been studied. The investigation of distribution of elastic energy flow and elastic displacements in a PLS cross-section allowed us to obtain an important information on energy trapping (ET) in PLS. Experimentally and as a result of modeling, it has been found that Q minimums are observed in PLS at quarter-wave resonance in the thin-film piezoelectric transducer (TFPT). Maximal Q value was observed at half-wave resonance in TFPT. It has been established that the ET-effect depends considerably on the mutual location of the n-th overtone's antiresonant frequency fa,n and cut-off frequencies of substrate fs,n-k-1 and fs,n-k where fs,n-k-1waves to be stowed on the thickness of TFPT. The total violation of the ET-effect will be arisen at the condition f >fs,n-k, when the BAW energy excites the symmetrical or antisymmetrical Lamb waves. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Fleming, Simon; Lee, Yung-Chun; Law, Susan; Swain, Michael; Xue, Jing
2009-09-01
Laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been proposed to replace conventional in vivo dental clinical diagnosis tools that are either destructive or incapable of quantifying the elasticity of human dental enamel. In this work, a laser NDE system that can perform remote measurements on samples of small dimensions is presented. A focused laser line source is used to generate broadband surface acoustic wave impulses that are detected with a simplified optical fiber interferometer. The measured surface wave velocity dispersion spectrum is in turn used to characterize the elasticity of the specimen. The NDE system and the analysis technique are validated with measurements of different metal structures and then applied to evaluate human dental enamel. Artificial lesions are prepared on the samples to simulate different states of enamel elasticity. Measurement results for both sound and lesioned regions, as well as lesions of different severity, are clearly distinguishable from each other and fit well with physical expectations and theoretical value. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that a laser-based surface wave velocity dispersion technique is successfully applied on human dental enamel, demonstrating the potential for noncontact, nondestructive in vivo detection of the development of carious lesions.
Ultrasonic measurements of the elastic wave velocities of peridotite KLB-1 at mantle P and T
Wang, X.; Liu, W.; Herzberg, C. T.; Li, B.
2012-12-01
In situ measurements of sound velocities and densities on individual phases of Earth minerals at high pressure and temperature have provided important data to interpret the seismic structure at depths. When using these data to test compositional models of the mantle (e.g., pyrolite and piclogite), seismic properties of the mineralogical aggregates have to be calculated by using averaging schemes based on the proportion and elasticity of each phase. More importantly, the chemical interactions among various mantle phases are difficult to be accurately included. Since the composition of peridotite KLB-1 closely matches the composition of pyrolite, measurement of it's velocities at relevant mantle conditions will provide the most direct comparison with seismic data. In this study, well-sintered KLB-1 aggregates suitable for ultrasonic measurements were hot-pressed at various P-T conditions up to those of the transition zone. The recovered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to be uniform in grain size (around 10 micron), free of macrocracks and to have bulk densities close to theoretical values (small amount of pores/microcracks observable in SEM scale). P and S wave velocities have been accurately measured up to 7 GPa and 800°C using a combined ultrasonic and X-radiation technique with direct measurement of sample length at high P and T. The success of this experiment makes it possible to extend these measurements to the conditions of the transition zone on aggregate samples to directly discriminate the composition of the Earth's mantle.
Gao, Kai
2015-04-14
It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both boundaries and the interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.
Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Rouze, Ned C; Haystead, Clare M; Nightingale, Kathryn R
2018-02-01
Harmonic imaging techniques have been applied in ultrasonic elasticity imaging to obtain higher-quality tissue motion tracking data. However, harmonic tracking can be signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth limited during clinical imaging, resulting in decreased yield of successful shear wave speed measurements. A logical approach is to increase the source pressure, but the in situ pressures used in diagnostic ultrasound have been subject to a de facto upper limit based on the Food and Drug Administration guideline for the mechanical index (MI harmonic motion tracking for hepatic shear wave elasticity imaging. The studies indicate that high-MI harmonic tracking increased shear wave speed estimation yield by 27% at a focal depth of 5 cm, with larger yield increase in more difficult-to-image patients. High-MI tracking improved harmonic tracking data quality by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and decreasing jitter in the tissue motion data. We conclude that there is clinical benefit to use of elevated acoustic output in shear wave tracking, particularly in difficult-to-image patients. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Torrado
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. An altered endothelial function (EF could be associated with preeclampsia (PE. However, more specific and complementary analyses are required to confirm this topic. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD, low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC, and hyperemic-related changes in carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr offer complementary information about “recruitability” of EF. Objectives. To evaluate, in healthy and hypertensive pregnant women (with and without PE, central arterial parameters in conjunction with “basal and recruitable” EF. Methods. Nonhypertensive (HP and hypertensive pregnant women (gestational hypertension, GH; preeclampsia, PE were included. Aortic blood pressure (BP, wave reflection parameters (AIx@75, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVcf and PWVcr, and brachial and common carotid stiffness and intima-media thickness were measured. Brachial FMD and L-FMC and hyperemic-related change in PWVcr were measured. Results. Aortic BP and AIx@75 were elevated in PE. PE showed stiffer elastic but not muscular arteries. After cuff deflation, PWVcr decreased in HP, while GH showed a blunted PWVcr response and PE showed a tendency to increase. Maximal FMD and L-FMC were observed in HP followed by GH; PE did not reach significant arterial constriction. Conclusion. Aortic BP and wave reflections as well as elastic arteries stiffness are increased in PE. PE showed both “resting and recruitable” endothelial dysfunctions.
Wang, Jian; Meng, Xiaohong; Zheng, Wanqiu
2017-10-01
The elastic-wave reverse-time migration of inhomogeneous anisotropic media is becoming the hotspot of research today. In order to ensure the accuracy of the migration, it is necessary to separate the wave mode into P-wave and S-wave before migration. For inhomogeneous media, the Kelvin-Christoffel equation can be solved in the wave-number domain by using the anisotropic parameters of the mesh nodes, and the polarization vector of the P-wave and S-wave at each node can be calculated and transformed into the space domain to obtain the quasi-differential operators. However, this method is computationally expensive, especially for the process of quasi-differential operators. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the wave-mode separation of mixed domain can be realized on the basis of a reference model in the wave-number domain. But conventional interpolation methods and reference model selection methods reduce the separation accuracy. In order to further improve the separation effect, this paper introduces an inverse-distance interpolation method involving position shading and uses the reference model selection method of random points scheme. This method adds the spatial weight coefficient K, which reflects the orientation of the reference point on the conventional IDW algorithm, and the interpolation process takes into account the combined effects of the distance and azimuth of the reference points. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed method can separate the wave mode more accurately using fewer reference models and has better practical value.
Rao, Chengping; Zhang, Youlin; Wan, Decheng
2017-12-01
Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) caused by fluid impacting onto a flexible structure commonly occurs in naval architecture and ocean engineering. Research on the problem of wave-structure interaction is important to ensure the safety of offshore structures. This paper presents the Moving Particle Semi-implicit and Finite Element Coupled Method (MPS-FEM) to simulate FSI problems. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is used to calculate the fluid domain, while the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to address the structure domain. The scheme for the coupling of MPS and FEM is introduced first. Then, numerical validation and convergent study are performed to verify the accuracy of the solver for solitary wave generation and FSI problems. The interaction between the solitary wave and an elastic structure is investigated by using the MPS-FEM coupled method.
Cho, Eun Yoon; Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Rock Bum; Cho, Sooyoun; Choi, Ji Soo; Hahn, Soo Yeon
2016-05-01
Further information is needed regarding whether histopathological characteristics affect breast tumor elasticity. To determine whether maximum elasticity values vary according to tumor-stroma ratio, dominant stroma type, or presence of fibrosis in invasive breast cancer. This study included 71 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC NOS) who underwent breast shear-wave elastography (SWE). Maximum elasticity (Emax) values were retrospectively correlated with pathological findings that included tumor-stroma ratio, dominant stroma type (collagen, fibroblast, lymphocyte), and fibrosis. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine variables independently associated with Emax. High histologic grade was significantly correlated with higher Emax (P = 0.042). Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression negatively correlated with high elasticity values (P = 0.013 and P = 0.03, respectively). Breast cancers that exhibited higher cellularity demonstrated a greater level of stiffness that was not statistically significant (ρ = 0.153; P = 0.193). While dominant stroma type and fibrosis did not affect Emax (P = 0.197 and P = 0.598, respectively), lesion size was significantly associated with Emax (ρ = 0.474, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only lesion size was significantly associated with Emax (P < 0.001). The composition of tumors did not affect their Emax. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.
Accelerating 3D Elastic Wave Equations on Knights Landing based Intel Xeon Phi processors
Sourouri, Mohammed; Birger Raknes, Espen
2017-04-01
In advanced imaging methods like reverse-time migration (RTM) and full waveform inversion (FWI) the elastic wave equation (EWE) is numerically solved many times to create the seismic image or the elastic parameter model update. Thus, it is essential to optimize the solution time for solving the EWE as this will have a major impact on the total computational cost in running RTM or FWI. From a computational point of view applications implementing EWEs are associated with two major challenges. The first challenge is the amount of memory-bound computations involved, while the second challenge is the execution of such computations over very large datasets. So far, multi-core processors have not been able to tackle these two challenges, which eventually led to the adoption of accelerators such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Compared to conventional CPUs, GPUs are densely populated with many floating-point units and fast memory, a type of architecture that has proven to map well to many scientific computations. Despite its architectural advantages, full-scale adoption of accelerators has yet to materialize. First, accelerators require a significant programming effort imposed by programming models such as CUDA or OpenCL. Second, accelerators come with a limited amount of memory, which also require explicit data transfers between the CPU and the accelerator over the slow PCI bus. The second generation of the Xeon Phi processor based on the Knights Landing (KNL) architecture, promises the computational capabilities of an accelerator but require the same programming effort as traditional multi-core processors. The high computational performance is realized through many integrated cores (number of cores and tiles and memory varies with the model) organized in tiles that are connected via a 2D mesh based interconnect. In contrary to accelerators, KNL is a self-hosted system, meaning explicit data transfers over the PCI bus are no longer required. However, like most
Nobili, Andrea; Radi, Enrico; Lanzoni, Luca
2017-08-01
The problem of a rectilinear crack propagating at constant speed in an elastically supported thin plate and acted upon by an equally moving load is considered. The full-field solution is obtained and the spotlight is set on flexural edge wave generation. Below the critical speed for the appearance of travelling waves, a threshold speed is met which marks the transformation of decaying edge waves into edge waves propagating along the crack and dying away from it. Yet, besides these, and for any propagation speed, a pair of localized edge waves, which rapidly decay behind the crack tip, is also shown to exist. These waves are characterized by a novel dispersion relation and fade off from the crack line in an oscillatory manner, whence they play an important role in the far field behaviour. Dynamic stress intensity factors are obtained and, for speed close to the critical speed, they show a resonant behaviour which expresses the most efficient way to channel external work into the crack. Indeed, this behaviour is justified through energy considerations regarding the work of the applied load and the energy release rate. Results might be useful in a wide array of applications, ranging from fracturing and machining to acoustic emission and defect detection.
Nobili, Andrea; Radi, Enrico; Lanzoni, Luca
2017-08-01
The problem of a rectilinear crack propagating at constant speed in an elastically supported thin plate and acted upon by an equally moving load is considered. The full-field solution is obtained and the spotlight is set on flexural edge wave generation. Below the critical speed for the appearance of travelling waves, a threshold speed is met which marks the transformation of decaying edge waves into edge waves propagating along the crack and dying away from it. Yet, besides these, and for any propagation speed, a pair of localized edge waves, which rapidly decay behind the crack tip, is also shown to exist. These waves are characterized by a novel dispersion relation and fade off from the crack line in an oscillatory manner, whence they play an important role in the far field behaviour. Dynamic stress intensity factors are obtained and, for speed close to the critical speed, they show a resonant behaviour which expresses the most efficient way to channel external work into the crack. Indeed, this behaviour is justified through energy considerations regarding the work of the applied load and the energy release rate. Results might be useful in a wide array of applications, ranging from fracturing and machining to acoustic emission and defect detection.
Nonlinear coda wave analysis of hysteretic elastic behavior in strongly scattering media
Ouarabi, M. Ait; Boubenider, F.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Scalerandi, M.
2016-10-01
Strongly scattering elastic media, such as consolidated granular materials, respond to ultrasonic pulse excitations with a long response signal with peculiar properties. The portion of the signal at late times, termed coda, is due to multiple scattering. It contains information about the elastic properties of the material, and it has been proven to be very sensitive to small variations in the modulus. Here we propose a technique based on a nonlinear analysis of the coda of a signal, which might be applied to quantify the nonlinear elastic response in consolidated granular media exhibiting a hysteretic elastic behavior. The method proposed allows for an intrinsic definition of the reference signal which is normally needed for applying coda-based methods.
Shi, Fan; Lowe, Mike; Craster, Richard
2017-06-01
Elastic waves scattered by random rough interfaces separating two distinct media play an important role in modeling phonon scattering and impact upon thermal transport models, and are also integral to ultrasonic inspection. We introduce theoretical formulas for the diffuse field of elastic waves scattered by, and transmitted across, random rough solid-solid interfaces using the elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation. The new formulas are validated by comparison with numerical Monte Carlo simulations, for a wide range of roughness (rms σ ≤λ /3 , correlation length λ0≥ wavelength λ ), demonstrating a significant improvement over the widely used small-perturbation approach, which is valid only for surfaces with small rms values. Physical analysis using the theoretical formulas derived here demonstrates that increasing the rms value leads to a considerable change of the scattering patterns for each mode. The roughness has different effects on the reflection and the transmission, with a strong dependence on the material properties. In the special case of a perfect match of the wave speed of the two solid media, the transmission is the same as the case for a flat interface. We pay particular attention to scattering in the specular direction, often used as an observable quantity, in terms of the roughness parameters, showing a peak at an intermediate value of rms; this rms value coincides with that predicted by the Rayleigh parameter.
Li, Fengming; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Liu, Chunchuan
2017-04-01
A novel strategy is proposed to actively tune the vibration and wave propagation properties in elastic beams. By periodically placing the piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs along the beam axis, an active periodic beam structure which exhibits special vibration and wave propagation properties such as the frequency pass-bands and stop-bands (or band-gaps) is developed. Hamilton's principle is applied to establish the equations of motion of the sub-beam elements i.e. the unit-cells, bonded by the piezoelectric patches. A negative proportional feedback control strategy is employed to design the controllers which can provide a positive active stiffness to the beam for a positive feedback control gain, which can increase the stability of the structural system. By means of the added positive active stiffness, the periodicity or the band-gap property of the beam with periodically placed piezoelectric patches can be actively tuned. From the investigation, it is shown that better band-gap characteristics can be achieved by using the negative proportional feedback control. The band-gaps can be obviously broadened by properly increasing the control gain, and they can also be greatly enlarged by appropriately designing the structural sizes of the controllers. The control voltages applied on the piezoelectric actuators are in reasonable and controllable ranges, especially, they are very low in the band-gaps. Thus, the vibration and wave propagation behaviors of the elastic beam can be actively controlled by the periodically placed piezoelectric patches.
Brujan, E.-A.
2005-01-01
The dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by short laser pulses in water and elastic-plastic media were investigated theoretically in order to get a better understanding of their role in short-pulsed laser surgery. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which include the elastic-plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble, compressibility, viscosity, density and surface tension. Breakdown in water produces a monopolar acoustic signal characterized by a compressive wave. Breakdown in an elastic-plastic medium produces a bipolar acoustic signal, with a leading positive compression wave and a trailing negative tensile wave. The calculations revealed that consideration of the tissue elasticity is essential to describe the bipolar shape of the shock wave emitted during optical breakdown. The elastic-plastic response of the medium surrounding the bubble leads to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and pressure amplitude of the shock wave emitted during bubble collapse, and shortening of the oscillation period of the bubble. The results are discussed with respect to collateral damage in short-pulsed laser surgery.
Chu, Chunlei
2009-01-01
We analyze the dispersion properties and stability conditions of the high‐order convolutional finite difference operators and compare them with the conventional finite difference schemes. We observe that the convolutional finite difference method has better dispersion properties and becomes more efficient than the conventional finite difference method with the increasing order of accuracy. This makes the high‐order convolutional operator a good choice for anisotropic elastic wave simulations on rotated staggered grids since its enhanced dispersion properties can help to suppress the numerical dispersion error that is inherent in the rotated staggered grid structure and its efficiency can help us tackle 3D problems cost‐effectively.
Standing Waves in an Elastic Spring: A Systematic Study by Video Analysis
Rodrigues Ventura, Daniel; Simeão de Carvalho, Paulo; Adriano Dias, Marco
2017-01-01
The word "wave" is part of the daily language of every student. However, the physical understanding of the concept demands a high level of abstract thought. In physics, waves are oscillating variations of a physical quantity that involve the transfer of energy from one point to another, without displacement of matter. A wave can be…
Viscothermal wave propagation including acousto-elastic interaction, part I: theory
Beltman, W.M.
1999-01-01
This research deals with pressure waves in a gas trapped in thin layers or narrow tubes. In these cases viscous and thermal effects can have a significant effect on the propagation of waves. This so-called viscothermal wave propagation is governed by a number of dimensionless parameters. The two
Wave-Breaking Phenomena and Existence of Peakons for a Generalized Compressible Elastic-Rod Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolian Ai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Consideration in this paper is the Cauchy problem of a generalized hyperelastic-rod wave equation. We first derive a wave-breaking mechanism for strong solutions, which occurs in finite time for certain initial profiles. In addition, we determine the existence of some new peaked solitary wave solutions.
Li, Zhaojun; Du, Lianfang; Wang, Feng; Luo, Xianghong
2016-06-01
Arterial wall elasticity including the circumferential and longitudinal modulus is a measure of sub-clinical cardiovascular disease; the circumferential modulus is increased in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). There are still no reports of non-invasive measurement of longitudinal elastic modulus of arterial wall and its prospect of clinical application. In this study, the longitudinal elastic modulus of the arterial wall was assessed using real-time shear wave elastography in patients with AIS. The technique's feasibility and its related factors were studied initially. In this study 179 patients with AIS and 168 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the bilateral carotid arteries was measured using radio frequency ultrasound technology. The 20 areas of superficial walls of bilateral carotid artery were analyzed by real-time shear wave elastography (SWE), and the average values of longitudinal average elastic modulus (ME-mean), maximum elastic modulus (ME-max), minimum elastic modulus (ME-min), and elastic modulus standard deviation (MESD) were measured. The PWV, ME-mean, ME-max and ME-sp of the carotid artery in patients with AIS were greater than those in the control group. Age, systolic blood pressure, PWV, and low-density lipoprotein were positively related to ME-mean and ME-max (r=0.221and r=0.248, r=0.174 and r=0.176, r=0.776 and r=0.716, r=0.173 and r=0.200, pelastic modulus of the arterial wall and evaluate the arterial stiffness. It was equivalent to the PWV which showed circular elastic modulus of arterial wall on evaluating AIS. Age, systolic blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and low-density lipoprotein were independent risk factors for longitudinal elastic modulus. SWE may be effective in the assessment of arterial stiffness and offer a potential clinical benefit.
3D elastic full-waveform inversion for OBC data using the P-wave excitation amplitude
Oh, Juwon
2017-08-17
We suggest a fast and efficient 3D elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) algorithm based on the excitation amplitude (maximum energy arrival) of the P-wave in the source wavefield. It evaluates the gradient direction significantly faster than its conventional counterpart. In addition, it removes the long-wavelength artifacts from the gradient, which are often originated from SS correlation process. From these advantages, the excitation approach offers faster convergence not only for the S wave velocity, but also for the entire process of multi-parameter inversion, compared to the conventional FWI. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated through the synthetic Marmousi and a real OBC data from North Sea.
Marín-Moreno, H.; Sahoo, S. K.; Best, A. I.
2017-03-01
The majority of presently exploitable marine methane hydrate reservoirs are likely to host hydrate in disseminated form in coarse grain sediments. For hydrate concentrations below 25-40%, disseminated or pore-filling hydrate does not increase elastic frame moduli, thus making impotent traditional seismic velocity-based methods. Here, we present a theoretical model to calculate frequency-dependent P and S wave velocity and attenuation of an effective porous medium composed of solid mineral grains, methane hydrate, methane gas, and water. The model considers elastic wave energy losses caused by local viscous flow both (i) between fluid inclusions in hydrate and pores and (ii) between different aspect ratio pores (created when hydrate grows); the inertial motion of the frame with respect to the pore fluid (Biot's type fluid flow); and gas bubble damping. The sole presence of pore-filling hydrate in the sediment reduces the available porosity and intrinsic permeability of the sediment affecting Biot's type attenuation at high frequencies. Our model shows that attenuation maxima due to fluid inclusions in hydrate are possible over the entire frequency range of interest to exploration seismology (1-106 Hz), depending on the aspect ratio of the inclusions, whereas maxima due to different aspect ratio pores occur only at sonic to ultrasound frequencies (104-106 Hz). This frequency response imposes further constraints on possible hydrate saturations able to reproduce broadband elastic measurements of velocity and attenuation. Our results provide a physical basis for detecting the presence and amount of pore-filling hydrate in seafloor sediments using conventional seismic surveys.
Li, Xiang; Wang, Jian-Nan; Fan, Zhi-Ying; Kang, Shu; Liu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Xia; Wang, Xue-Mei
2015-12-01
We examined breast tissue elasticity during the menstrual cycle using real-time shear wave elastography (RT-SWE), a recent technique developed for soft tissue imaging. Written informed consent for RT-SWE was obtained from all eligible patients, who were healthy women aged between 19 and 52 y. Young's moduli of the breast tissue in the early follicular, late phase and luteal phase were compared. There were no significant differences in the mean, maximum and minimum elasticity values (Emean, Emax and Emin) and standard deviation (ESD). RT-SWE of glandular tissue revealed that ESD was increased in the early follicular phase compared with the luteal phase. Means ± SD of Emin, Emax and Emean in glandular tissue were 5.174 ± 2.138, 8.308 ± 3.166 and 6.593 ± 2.510, respectively, and in adipose tissue, 3.589 ± 2.083, 6.733 ± 3.522 and 4.857 ± 2.564, respectively. There were no significant differences in stiffness between glandular and adipose tissues throughout the menstrual cycle, but glandular tissue stiffness was lower in the luteal phase than in the early follicular phase. On the basis of these observations in normal healthy women, we believe we have obtained sufficient information to establish the baseline changes in human breast elasticity during the menstrual cycle. In the future, we intend to compare the elasticity values of healthy breast tissue with those of breast tissue affected by various pathologies. Our results reveal the significant potential of RT-SWE in the rapid and non-invasive clinical diagnosis of breast diseases, such as breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Zhongxian; Wang, Yirui; Liang, Jianwen
2016-06-01
The scattering of plane harmonic P and SV waves by a pair of vertically overlapping lined tunnels buried in an elastic half space is solved using a semi-analytic indirect boundary integration equation method. Then the effect of the distance between the two tunnels, the stiffness and density of the lining material, and the incident frequency on the seismic response of the tunnels is investigated. Numerical results demonstrate that the dynamic interaction between the twin tunnels cannot be ignored and the lower tunnel has a significant shielding effect on the upper tunnel for high-frequency incident waves, resulting in great decrease of the dynamic hoop stress in the upper tunnel; for the low-frequency incident waves, in contrast, the lower tunnel can lead to amplification effect on the upper tunnel. It also reveals that the frequency-spectrum characteristics of dynamic stress of the lower tunnel are significantly different from those of the upper tunnel. In addition, for incident P waves in low-frequency region, the soft lining tunnels have significant amplification effect on the surface displacement amplitude, which is slightly larger than that of the corresponding single tunnel.
Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Larin, Kirill V.
2015-06-01
Wave models that have been used to extract the biomechanical properties of the cornea from the propagation of an elastic wave are based on an assumption of thin-plate geometry. However, this assumption does not account for the effects of corneal curvature and thickness. This study conducts finite element (FE) simulations on four types of cornea-like structures as well as optical coherence elastography (OCE) experiments on contact lenses and tissue-mimicking phantoms to investigate the effects of curvature and thickness on the group velocity of an elastic wave. The elastic wave velocity as determined by FE simulations and OCE of a spherical shell section decreased from ˜2.8 m/s to ˜2.2 m/s as the radius of curvature increased from 19.1 mm to 47.7 mm and increased from ˜3.0 m/s to ˜4.1 m/s as the thickness of the agar phantom increased from 1.9 mm to 5.6 mm. Both the FE simulation and OCE results confirm that the group velocity of the elastic wave decreases with radius of curvature but increases with thickness. These results demonstrate that the effects of the curvature and thickness must be considered in the further development of accurate wave models for reconstructing biomechanical properties of the cornea.
Qian, Zheng-Hua; Hirose, Sohichi
2012-03-01
In this paper, we analytically study the dispersion behavior of transverse surface waves in a piezoelectric coupled solid consisting of a transversely isotropic piezoelectric ceramic layer and an isotropic metal or dielectric substrate. This study is a revisit to the stiffened Love wave propagation done previously. Closed-form dispersion equations are obtained in a very simple mathematical form for both electrically open and shorted cases. From the viewpoint of physical situation, two transverse surface waves (i.e., the stiffened Love wave and the FDLW-type wave) are separately found in a PZT-4/steel system and a PZT-4/zinc system. All the observed dispersion curves are theoretically validated through the discussion on the limit values of phase velocity using the obtained dispersion equations. Those validation and discussion give rise to a deeper understanding on the existence of transverse surface waves in such piezoelectric coupled structures. The results can be used as a benchmark for the study of the wave propagation in the piezoelectric coupled structures and are significant in the design of wave propagation in the piezoelectric coupled structures as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.
2013-12-01
Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure
Kang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin You; Lee, Nam Kyung; Lee, Ji Won; Song, You Seon; Park, Shin Young; Shin, Jong Ki
2017-10-12
To explore associations between prognostic factors and subtypes of invasive breast cancer (IBC) and elasticity values using three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) shear-wave elastography (SWE). Mean elasticity values (kPa) of 121 IBCs were measured using both 3D and 2D SWE. Associations between these values and prognostic factors and subtypes were analyzed using linear regression model. In both 3D and 2D SWE, larger size and presence of lymphovascular invasion were independent factors influencing higher mean elasticity on multivariate analyses (all p valueselasticity values are associated with poor prognostic factors of IBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Numerical simulation of solitary blood waves in an elastic tube subjected to a localised deformation
Ntchantcho, R.; Noubissie, S.; Woafo, P.
2007-12-01
In order to well apprehend what really happens in a locally deformed elastic tube, a numerical analysis of the liquid flow in such a media has been undertaken. A cylindrical tube with constant rigidity subjected to a localised dilatation is first considered and results obtained help to understand the behaviour and the developing process of aneurysm. The analysis of the effects of stenoses on blood flow is also done.
A comparative study of strain and shear-wave elastography in an elasticity phantom.
Carlsen, Jonathan F; Pedersen, Malene R; Ewertsen, Caroline; Săftoiu, Adrian; Lönn, Lars; Rafaelsen, Søren R; Nielsen, Michael B
2015-03-01
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of strain and shear-wave elastography for determining targets of varying stiffness in a phantom. The effect of target diameter on elastographic assessments and the effect of depth on shear-wave velocity were also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We examined 20 targets of varying diameters (2.5-16.7 mm) and stiffnesses (8, 14, 45, and 80 kPa) with a 4-9-MHz linear-array transducer. Targets were evaluated 10 times with three different methods-shear-wave elastography, strain ratio, and strain histogram analysis-yielding 600 evaluations. AUCs were calculated for data divided between different stiffnesses. A 1.5-6-MHz curved-array transducer was used to assess the effect of depth (3.5 vs 6 cm) on shear-wave elastography in 80 scans. Mixed model analysis was performed to assess the effect of target diameter and depth. RESULTS. Strain ratio and strain histogram AUCs were higher than the shear-wave velocity AUC (p < 0.001) in data divided as 80 versus 45, 14, and 8 kPa. In data divided as 80 and 45 versus 14 and 8 kPa, the methods were equal (p = 0.959 and p = 1.000, respectively). Strain ratios were superior (p = 0.030), whereas strain histograms were not significantly better (p = 0.083) than shear-wave elastography in data divided as 80, 45, and 14 versus 8 kPa. Target diameter had an effect on all three methods (p = 0.001). Depth had an effect on shear-wave velocity (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION. The ability to discern different target stiffnesses varies between shear-wave and strain elastography. Target diameter affected all methods. Shear-wave elastography is affected by target depth.
Estimation of the p-wave velocity profile of elastic real data based on surface wave inversion
Ponomarenko, A.V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Troyan, V.N.; Mulder, W.A.
2013-01-01
Recently, we proposed an analytical approach to invert for a smoothly varying near-surface P-wave velocity profile that has a squared slowness linearly decreasing with depth. The exact solution for such a velocity profile in the acoustic approximation can be expressed in terms of Airy functions and
A comparative study of strain and shear-wave elastography in an elasticity phantom
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carlsen, Jonathan F.; Pedersen, Malene R; Ewertsen, Caroline
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of strain and shear-wave elastography for determining targets of varying stiffness in a phantom. The effect of target diameter on elastographic assessments and the effect of depth on shear-wave velocity were also...... investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We examined 20 targets of varying diameters (2.5-16.7 mm) and stiffnesses (8, 14, 45, and 80 kPa) with a 4-9-MHz linear-array transducer. Targets were evaluated 10 times with three different methods-shear-wave elastography, strain ratio, and strain histogram analysis....... RESULTS. Strain ratio and strain histogram AUCs were higher than the shear-wave velocity AUC (p Strain ratios were superior (p = 0...
Comparison of classical and modern theories of longitudinal wave propagation in elastic rods
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, M
2011-01-01
Full Text Available considered. The principles of construction of the multimode theories, corresponding equations and orthogonality conditions are considered. Dispersion curves, representing the eigenvalues versus real and imaginary values of the wave number, of these models...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wu, R
1998-01-01
... those with small-scale random heterogeneities and random rough interfaces of sedimentary layers. Synthetic seismograms and snapshots are shown to facilitate the study of path effects of Lg waves...
Tabaru, Marie; Azuma, Takashi; Hashiba, Kunio
2010-07-01
Acoustic radiation force (ARF) imaging has been developed as a novel elastography technology to diagnose hepatic disease and breast cancer. The accuracy of shear wave speed estimation, which is one of the applications of ARF elastography, is studied. The Young's moduli of pig liver and foie gras samples estimated from the shear wave speed were compared with those measured the static Young's modulus measurement. The difference in the two methods was 8%. Distance attenuation characteristics of the shear wave were also studied using finite element method (FEM) analysis. We found that the differences in the axial and lateral beam widths in pressure and ARF are 16 and 9% at F-number=0.9. We studied the relationship between two branch points in distance attenuation characteristics and the shape of ARF. We found that the maximum measurable length to estimate shear wave speed for one ARF excitation was 8 mm.
Zou, Peng
2017-05-10
Staggering grid is a very effective way to reduce the Nyquist errors and to suppress the non-causal ringing artefacts in the pseudo-spectral solution of first-order elastic wave equations. However, the straightforward use of a staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method is problematic for simulating wave propagation when the anisotropy level is greater than orthorhombic or when the anisotropic symmetries are not aligned with the computational grids. Inspired by the idea of rotated staggered-grid finite-difference method, we propose a modified pseudo-spectral method for wave propagation in arbitrary anisotropic media. Compared with an existing remedy of staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method based on stiffness matrix decomposition and a possible alternative using the Lebedev grids, the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method possesses the best balance between the mitigation of artefacts and efficiency. A 2D example on a transversely isotropic model with tilted symmetry axis verifies its effectiveness to suppress the ringing artefacts. Two 3D examples of increasing anisotropy levels demonstrate that the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method can successfully simulate complex wavefields in such anisotropic formations.
Brandow, Heather P.; Lee, Vincent
2017-07-01
Scattering and Diffraction of elastic in-plane P- and SV- waves by a surface topography such as an elastic canyon at the surface of a half-space is a classical problem which has been studied by earthquake engineers and strong-motion seismologists for over forty years. The case of out-of-plane SH waves on the same elastic canyon that is semi-circular in shape on the half-space surface is the first such problem that was solved by analytic closed form solutions over forty years ago by Trifunac. The corresponding case of in-plane P- and SV-waves on the same circular canyon is a much more complicated problem because, the in-plane P- and SV- scattered waves have different wave speeds and together they must have zero normal and shear stresses at the half-space surface. It is not until recently in 2014 that analytic solution for such problem is found by the author in the work of Lee and Liu. This paper uses the technique of Lee and Liu of defining these stress-free scattered waves to solve the problem of the scattered and diffraction of these in-plane waves on an almost-circular surface canyon that is arbitrary in shape.
Sadovskaya, Oxana; Sadovskii, Vladimir
2017-04-01
Under modeling the wave propagation processes in geomaterials (granular and porous media, soils and rocks) it is necessary to take into account the structural inhomogeneity of these materials. Parallel program systems for numerical solution of 2D and 3D problems of the dynamics of deformable media with constitutive relationships of rather general form on the basis of universal mathematical model describing small strains of elastic, elastic-plastic, granular and porous materials are worked out. In the case of an elastic material, the model is reduced to the system of equations, hyperbolic by Friedrichs, written in terms of velocities and stresses in a symmetric form. In the case of an elastic-plastic material, the model is a special formulation of the Prandtl-Reuss theory in the form of variational inequality with one-sided constraints on the stress tensor. Generalization of the model to describe granularity and the collapse of pores is obtained by means of the rheological approach, taking into account different resistance of materials to tension and compression. Rotational motion of particles in the material microstructure is considered within the framework of a mathematical model of the Cosserat continuum. Computational domain may have a blocky structure, composed of an arbitrary number of layers, strips in a layer and blocks in a strip from different materials with self-consistent curvilinear interfaces. At the external boundaries of computational domain the main types of dissipative boundary conditions in terms of velocities, stresses or mixed boundary conditions can be given. Shock-capturing algorithm is proposed for implementation of the model on supercomputers with cluster architecture. It is based on the two-cyclic splitting method with respect to spatial variables and the special procedures of the stresses correction to take into account plasticity, granularity or porosity of a material. An explicit monotone ENO-scheme is applied for solving one
Design of a ship model for hydro-elastic experiments in waves
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Marón Adolfo
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Large size ships have a very flexible construction resulting in low resonance frequencies of the structural eigen-modes. This feature increases the dynamic response of the structure on short period waves (springing and on impulsive wave loads (whipping. This dynamic response in its turn increases both the fatigue damage and the ultimate load on the structure; these aspects illustrate the importance of including the dynamic response into the design loads for these ship types. Experiments have been carried out using a segmented scaled model of a container ship in a Seakeeping Basin. This paper describes the development of the model for these experiments; the choice was made to divide the hull into six rigid segments connected with a flexible beam. In order to model the typical feature of the open structure of the containership that the shear center is well below the keel line of the vessel, the beam was built into the model as low as possible. The model was instrumented with accelerometers and rotation rate gyroscopes on each segment, relative wave height meters and pressure gauges in the bow area. The beam was instrumented with strain gauges to measure the internal loads at the position of each of the cuts. Experiments have been carried out in regular waves at different amplitudes for the same wave period and in long crested irregular waves for a matrix of wave heights and periods. The results of the experiments are compared to results of calculations with a linear model based on potential flow theory that includes the effects of the flexural modes. Some of the tests were repeated with additional links between the segments to increase the model rigidity by several orders of magnitude, in order to compare the loads between a rigid and a flexible model.
Design of a ship model for hydro-elastic experiments in waves
Marón, Adolfo; Kapsenberg, Geert
2014-12-01
Large size ships have a very flexible construction resulting in low resonance frequencies of the structural eigen-modes. This feature increases the dynamic response of the structure on short period waves (springing) and on impulsive wave loads (whipping). This dynamic response in its turn increases both the fatigue damage and the ultimate load on the structure; these aspects illustrate the importance of including the dynamic response into the design loads for these ship types. Experiments have been carried out using a segmented scaled model of a container ship in a Seakeeping Basin. This paper describes the development of the model for these experiments; the choice was made to divide the hull into six rigid segments connected with a flexible beam. In order to model the typical feature of the open structure of the containership that the shear center is well below the keel line of the vessel, the beam was built into the model as low as possible. The model was instrumented with accelerometers and rotation rate gyroscopes on each segment, relative wave height meters and pressure gauges in the bow area. The beam was instrumented with strain gauges to measure the internal loads at the position of each of the cuts. Experiments have been carried out in regular waves at different amplitudes for the same wave period and in long crested irregular waves for a matrix of wave heights and periods. The results of the experiments are compared to results of calculations with a linear model based on potential flow theory that includes the effects of the flexural modes. Some of the tests were repeated with additional links between the segments to increase the model rigidity by several orders of magnitude, in order to compare the loads between a rigid and a flexible model.
Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Yang; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Congzhi; Zheng, Hairong
2015-02-01
Ultrasound shear-wave elastography (SWE) has become a valuable tool for diagnosis of breast tumors. The purpose of this study was to quantify the elastic heterogeneity of breast tumors in SWE by using contourlet-based texture features and evaluating their diagnostic performance for classification of benign and malignant breast tumors, with pathologic results as the gold standard. A total of 161 breast tumors in 125 women who underwent B-mode and SWE ultrasonography before biopsy were included. Five quantitative texture features in SWE images were extracted from the directional subbands after the contourlet transform, including the mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax), median (Tmed), third quartile (Tqt), and standard deviation (Tsd) of the subbands. Diagnostic performance of the texture features and the classic features was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the leave-one-out cross validation with Fisher classifier. The feature Tmean achieved the highest AUC (0.968) among all features and it yielded a sensitivity of 89.1%, a specificity of 94.3% and an accuracy of 92.5% for differentiation between benign and malignant tumors via the leave-one-out cross validation. Compared with the best classic feature, i.e., the maximum elasticity, Tmean improved the AUC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy by 3.5%, 12.7%, 2.8% and 6.2%, respectively. The Tmed, Tqt and Tsd were also superior to the classic features in terms of the AUC and accuracy. The results demonstrated that the contourlet-based texture features captured the tumor's elastic heterogeneity and improved diagnostic performance contrasted with the classic features. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Xiaobing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
1996-12-31
A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.
Gravenkamp, Hauke
2018-01-01
This paper presents an approach to model transmission and reflection phenomena of elastic guided waves in plates. The formulation is applied to plate structures containing notches, inclined edges, delaminations or (adhesive) joints. For these cases, only the thickness direction of the structure needs to be discretized at several locations, while the direction of propagation is described analytically. Consequently, the number of degrees of freedom is very small. Semi-infinite domains can be modeled, in which case the radiation condition is fulfilled exactly. Traction boundary conditions are introduced on the plate surface without requiring a mesh along the surface. Results are validated against conventional finite element implementations, showing the accuracy of the proposed approach and a reduction of the computational costs by typically 2-3 orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Santoni, Andrea; Schoenwald, Stefan; Van Damme, Bart; Fausti, Patrizio
2017-07-01
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an engineered wood with good structural properties and it is also economically competitive with the traditional building construction materials. However, due to its low volume density combined with its high stiffness, it does not provide sufficient sound insulation, thus it is necessary to develop specific acoustic treatments in order to increase the noise reduction performance. The material's mechanical properties are required as input data to perform the vibro-acoustic analyses necessary during the design process. In this paper the elastic constants of a CLT plate are derived by fitting the real component of the experimental flexural wave velocity with Mindlin's dispersion relation for thick plates, neglecting the influence of the plate's size and boundary conditions. Furthermore, its apparent elastic and stiffness properties are derived from the same set of experimental data, for the plate considered to be thin. Under this latter assumption the orthotropic behaviour of an equivalent thin CLT plate is described by using an elliptic model and verified with experimental results.
De Basabe, Jonás D.
2010-04-01
We investigate the stability of some high-order finite element methods, namely the spectral element method and the interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (IP-DGM), for acoustic or elastic wave propagation that have become increasingly popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM allows for a time step 73 per cent larger than that of the leap-frog method; the computational cost is approximately double per time step, but the larger time step partially compensates for this additional cost. Necessary, but not sufficient, stability conditions are given for the mentioned methods for orders up to 10 in space and time. The stability conditions for IP-DGM are approximately 20 and 60 per cent more restrictive than those for SEM in the acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.
Enhancement of elastic wave energy harvesting using adaptive piezo-lens
Yi, K.; Collet, M.; Chesne, S.; Monteil, M.
2017-09-01
This paper exploits an adaptive piezo-lens to improve the harvested power (energy) from traveling waves. The piezo-lens comprises a host plate and piezoelectric patches bonded on the plate surfaces. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance (NC) circuits. The spatial variation of the refractive index inside the piezo-lens domain is designed to fulfill a hyperbolic secant function by tuning the NC values. This design allows the piezo-lens to continuously bend the incident waves toward a designed focal point, resulting in an energy concentration zone with a high level of energy density. This energy concentration effect may be exploited to improve the harvested power from waves. In addition, the piezo-lens is tunable - the waves can be focused at different locations by designing the NC values. This tunability may make the harvesting systems incorporating a piezo-lens be adaptable to environment changes. The above expected practical interests of the piezo-lens for wave energy harvesting are discussed and verified in the paper. Fully coupled numerical models are developed to predict the dynamical responses of the piezoelectric systems.
Fuji, N.; Kawai, K.; Geller, R. J.
2007-12-01
Inversion of body-wave waveform data for elastic and anelastic transition-zone structure in and around Japan Nobuaki Fuji, Kenji Kawai and Robert J. Geller We have developed new methods to invert seismic waveform data for localized seismic structure. We use these methods to invert for the fine structure of the mantle transition zone in and around Japan using broadband data from regional arrays. Our methods use tools we have developed for performing 'static corrections' for the complex crustal structure in and around Japan. We conduct static correction by making a time shift which gives the best correlation coefficient for the first arrival S phase. We also have used other methods for time shifting such as onset pick time shift, but we found that the results of the inversion do not greatly differ. In order to stabilize the inversion we use automated data selection criteria, which limit the amplitude ratio of the synthetic seismogram to the observed seismogram to be between 0.3 and 3.0, and require a value above 0.5 for the correlation coefficient. The amplitude ratios (synthetic/observed) are systematically large for the initial (PREM) anelasticity model, so we invert simultaneously for both Q and elastic structure. We invert the transverse components of long-period (20-200 s) body-wave data from the NIED F-net array. The target regions lie beneath Hokkaido and the Philippines Sea at depths between 200 km and 700 km. The dataset used in this study consists mainly of triplication S phases that sample the mantle transition zone. It is difficult to analyze such data using previous methods, but our methods can handle such data. Models from studies of this type should contribute to improving our knowledge of the thermal state and proportion of water present in the upper mantle.
Dillman, Jonathan R.; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S.; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W.; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L.
2014-01-01
Background There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. Purpose To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three different imaging methods, two different ultrasound systems, and multiple operators. Methods and Materials Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution #1 used an Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) and three different shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution #2 used an Aixplorer ultrasound system (Supersonic Imagine) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student’s t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single measure intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. Results For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (p=0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (p>0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5–6.8%), and inter-operator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth
Wang, Dan; He, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Bo-Ji; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Fu, Hui-Jun; Wei, Qing; Xu, Hui-Xiong
2017-02-21
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new technique of shear wave speed (SWS) imaging for the diagnosis of thyroid nodule with elasticity modulus and SWS measurement. 322 thyroid nodules in 322 patients (216 benign nodules, 106 malignant nodules) were included in this study. All the nodules received conventional ultrasound (US) and SWS imaging (Aplio500, Toshiba Medical Systems, Japan) before fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and/or surgery. The values of E-max and E-mean with elastic modulus (61.27 ± 36.31 kPa and 31.89 ± 19.11 kPa) or SWS (4.45 ± 1.49 m/s and 3.26 ± 2.71 m/s) in malignant nodules were significantly higher than those in benign lesions (29.18 ± 18.62 kPa and 15.85 ± 6.96 kPa, or 2.98 ± 0.85 m/s and 2.19 ± 0.42 m/s, all P 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, E-max (m/s) with SWS was identified to be the strongest independent predictor for malignant nodules (odds ratio [OR] = 16.760), followed by poorly-defined margin (OR = 7.792), taller-than-wide shape (OR = 3.160), micro-calcification (OR = 2.422), and E-max (kPa) with elastic modulus (OR = 0.914). The AUC was 0.813 for E-max with SWS (m/s) and 0.796 for E-max with elastic modulus (kPa). With cut-off SWS value of 3.52 m/s in E-max, sensitivity of 69.8%, specificity of 81.5%, and accuracy of 77.6% were achieved. SWS imaging is a valuable tool in predicting thyroid malignancy. E-max with SWS measurement is the strongest independent predictor for thyroid malignancy.
Cheng, Jiubing
2014-08-05
In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decomposed into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images, which characterize reflectivity of different reflection types. Conventionally, wavefield decomposition in anisotropic media is costly as the operators involved is dependent on the velocity, and thus not stationary. In this abstract, we propose an efficient approach to directly extrapolate the decomposed elastic waves using lowrank approximate mixed space/wavenumber domain integral operators for heterogeneous transverse isotropic (TI) media. The low-rank approximation is, thus, applied to the pseudospectral extrapolation and decomposition at the same time. The pseudo-spectral implementation also allows for relatively large time steps in which the low-rank approximation is applied. Synthetic examples show that it can yield dispersionfree extrapolation of the decomposed quasi-P (qP) and quasi- SV (qSV) modes, which can be used for imaging, as well as the total elastic wavefields.
Elastic precursor wave decay in shock-compressed aluminum over a wide range of temperature
Austin, Ryan
2017-06-01
As a part of broader efforts to understand the dynamic strength of metals, precursor wave decay measurements are well-situated to probe time-dependent flow behavior at relatively high strain rates and low strain levels. Such measurements provide crucial data to help constrain models of underlying deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution under shock wave loading. In previous work, wave structures were measured in aluminum plate impact experiments performed at temperatures ranging from 300 K to just below the ambient melting point (933 K). These measurements serve as a basis for evaluating and refining a dislocation-based model of high-rate metal plasticity. In the experiments, the precursor wave amplitudes were observed to increase with temperature. This effect is usually explained in terms of the temperature dependence of dislocation phonon scattering (i.e., the linear regime of damped dislocation mobility). However, the model predicts that phonon radiation provides a somewhat stronger damping effect at all temperatures, given the high speeds attained by the dislocations. The combined effects of phonon scattering and radiation then seem to be responsible for the measured precursor amplifications. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL-ABS-724488).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esteban Flores-Mendez
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This work is focused on studying interface waves for three canonical models, that is, interfaces formed by vacuum-solid, solid-solid, and liquid-solid. These interfaces excited by dynamic loads cause the emergence of Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's waves, respectively. To perform the study, the indirect boundary element method is used, which has proved to be a powerful tool for numerical modeling of problems in elastodynamics. In essence, the method expresses the diffracted wave field of stresses, pressures, and displacements by a boundary integral, also known as single-layer representation, whose shape can be regarded as a Fredholm's integral representation of second kind and zero order. This representation can be considered as an exemplification of Huygens' principle, which is equivalent to Somigliana's representation theorem. Results in frequency domain for the three types of interfaces are presented; then, using the fourier discrete transform, we derive the results in time domain, where the emergence of interface waves is highlighted.
Fast Iterative Solution of the Time-Harmonic Elastic Wave Equation at Multiple Frequencies
Baumann, M.M.
2018-01-01
Seismic Full-Waveform Inversion is an imaging technique to better understand the earth's subsurface. Therefore, the reflection intensity of sound waves is measured in a field experiment and is matched with the results from a computer simulation in a least-squares sense. From a computational
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Christian Walther; Bulava, John; Hörz, Ben
2018-01-01
We present the first direct determination of meson-baryon resonance parameters from a scattering amplitude calculated using lattice QCD. In particular, we calculate the elastic I=3/2, p-wave nucleon-pion amplitude on a single ensemble of Nf=2+1 Wilson-clover fermions with mπ=280 MeV and mK=460 Me...
Scattering of elastic waves from media with fracture-induced anisotropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haugen, Geir Ultveit
1996-12-31
To characterize oil reservoirs, one must know the fracture systems even at large distances from the reservoir and this knowledge comes from seismic data. This thesis models and analyses wave propagation in fractured rocks. It uses effective medium theory to include the fracturing and obtains closed form solutions for the resulting stiffness coefficients for several geometries. A linearized expression provides a simple way of calculating the first-order effects of the fracturing. For isotropic media with one set of embedded fractures, their effect upon the directional velocities is quantified. Compact formulas are given for the plane-wave scattering matrix for amplitudes and for vertical energy flux. When the norm of the relative difference in the eigenvector matrices is assumed to be small, this enables a weak-contrast/weak-anisotropy approximation of the scattering matrix in anisotropic media to be found. To obtain this, a simple formula is derived for the inverse of the eigenvector matrix regardless of the normalization. The new formalism is used to derive a new analytical approximation of the P-wave reflection coefficient in the crack-strike and the crack-normal plane for a model consisting of shale over vertically fractured sandstone. These approximations show how the fracture information can be obtained from the azimuthal AVO response. Next, the impact of the fracturing on the properties of the sandstone layer is quantified. Finally, using a linear slip boundary condition to model the non-weldedness, it is shown that a fracture or fault may be thought of as having a set of characteristic widths, which roughly specify the wavelength range of acoustic energy that interacts with the fracture. Compact plane wave scattering coefficients are derived. These show that observation of reflected signals can provide significant information on the physical properties of the fracture, such as texture and the nature of the in filling fluids. 75 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.
Transformation seismology: composite soil lenses for steering surface elastic Rayleigh waves.
Colombi, Andrea; Guenneau, Sebastien; Roux, Philippe; Craster, Richard V
2016-04-29
Metamaterials are artificially structured media that exibit properties beyond those usually encountered in nature. Typically they are developed for electromagnetic waves at millimetric down to nanometric scales, or for acoustics, at centimeter scales. By applying ideas from transformation optics we can steer Rayleigh-surface waves that are solutions of the vector Navier equations of elastodynamics. As a paradigm of the conformal geophysics that we are creating, we design a square arrangement of Luneburg lenses to reroute Rayleigh waves around a building with the dual aim of protection and minimizing the effect on the wavefront (cloaking). To show that this is practically realisable we deliberately choose to use material parameters readily available and this metalens consists of a composite soil structured with buried pillars made of softer material. The regular lattice of inclusions is homogenized to give an effective material with a radially varying velocity profile and hence varying the refractive index of the lens. We develop the theory and then use full 3D numerical simulations to conclusively demonstrate, at frequencies of seismological relevance 3-10 Hz, and for low-speed sedimentary soil (vs: 300-500 m/s), that the vibration of a structure is reduced by up to 6 dB at its resonance frequency.
Rayleigh wave behavior in functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic material
Ezzin, Hamdi; Mkaoir, Mohamed; Amor, Morched Ben
2017-12-01
Piezoelectric-piezomagnetic functionally graded materials, with a gradual change of the mechanical and electromagnetic properties have greatly applying promises. Based on the ordinary differential equation and stiffness matrix methods, a dynamic solution is presented for the propagation of the wave on a semi-infinite piezomagnetic substrate covered with a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer. The materials properties are assumed to vary in the direction of the thickness according to a known variation law. The phase and group velocity of the Rayleigh wave is numerically calculated for the magneto-electrically open and short cases, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on the phase velocity, group velocity, coupled magneto-electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the magnetic potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the hetero-structure PZT-5A/CoFe2O4; the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Rayleigh wave propagation behavior.
Wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic multilayered plates with nonlocal effect
Chen, Jiangyi; Guo, Junhong; Pan, Ernian
2017-07-01
In this paper, analytical solutions for propagation of time-harmonic waves in three-dimensional, transversely isotropic, magnetoelectroelastic and multilayered plates with nonlocal effect are derived. We first convert the time-harmonic wave problem into a linear eigenvalue system, from which we obtain the general solutions of the extended displacements and stresses. The solutions are then employed to derive the propagator matrix which connects the field variables at the upper and lower interfaces of each layer. Making use of the continuity conditions of the physical quantities across the interface, the global propagator relation is assembled by propagating the solutions in each layer from the bottom to the top of the layered plate. From the global propagator matrix, the dispersion equation is obtained by imposing the traction-free boundary conditions on both the top and bottom surfaces of the layered plate. Dispersion curves and mode shapes in layered plates made of piezoelectric BaTiO3 and magnetostrictive CoFe2O4 materials are presented to show the influence of the nonlocal parameter, stacking sequence, as well as the orientation of incident wave on the time-harmonic field response.
Surface phenomena in elasticity
Zak, M.
1981-01-01
Problems of elasticity associated with the behavior of free surfaces of elastic bodies are reviewed with particular reference to the propagation of characteristic waves and the criteria of wrinkling of free surfaces. All transformations are given for the case when a free surface of an elastic body is streamlined by the flow of inviscid fluid. The wrinkling phenomenon is illustrated by example.
Delrue, Steven; Aleshin, Vladislav; Truyaert, Kevin; Bou Matar, Olivier; Van Den Abeele, Koen
2018-01-01
Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns an in-depth description of a constitutive model for realistic contacts or cracks that takes into account the roughness of the contact faces and the associated effects of friction and hysteresis. In the crack model, three different contact states can be recognized: contact loss, total sliding and partial slip. Normal (clapping) interactions between the crack faces are implemented using a quadratic stress-displacement relation, whereas tangential (friction) interactions were introduced using the Coulomb friction law for the total sliding case, and the Method of Memory Diagrams (MMD) in case of partial slip. In the present part of the paper, we integrate the developed crack model into finite element software in order to simulate elastic wave propagation in a solid material containing internal contacts or cracks. We therefore implemented the comprehensive crack model in MATLAB® and introduced it in the Structural Mechanics Module of COMSOL Multiphysics®. The potential of the approach for ultrasound based inspection of solids with cracks showing acoustic nonlinearity is demonstrated by means of an example of shear wave propagation in an aluminum sample containing a single crack with rough surfaces and friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boehm, Katharina; Salomon, Georg; Beyer, Burkhard; Schiffmann, Jonas; Simonis, Kathrin; Graefen, Markus; Budaeus, Lars
2015-03-01
Shear wave elastography allows the detection of cancer by using focused ultrasound pulses for locally deforming tissue. The differences in tissue elasticity and stiffness have been used increasingly in breast cancer imaging and help detect potential tumor lesions in the prostate. In this study we localized prostate cancer lesions using shear wave elastography before radical prostatectomy and assessed the examiner independent elasticity threshold for cancer foci detection. Shear wave elastography scanning of the whole prostate was performed before radical prostatectomy in 60 consecutive patients with high, intermediate and low risk disease. Localization of suspected lesions and density threshold (kPa) were recorded in up to 12 areas and resulted in 703 different fields. Shear wave elastography findings were correlated with final pathology. Initially 381 areas were used to establish shear wave elastography cutoffs (development cohort 32 patients). Subsequently these cutoffs were validated in 322 areas (validation cohort 28 patients). Using shear wave elastography significant differences were recorded for the elasticity of benign tissue vs prostate cancer nodules at 42 kPa (range 29 to 71.3) vs 88 kPa (range 54 to 132) (all p <0.001). Median cancer lesion diameter was 26 mm (range 18 to 41). Applying the most informative cutoff of 50 kPa to the validation cohort resulted in 80.9% and 69.1% sensitivity and specificity, respectively, and 74.2% accuracy for detecting cancer nodules based on final pathological finding. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 67.1% and 82.2%, respectively. Shear wave elastography allows the identification of cancer foci based on shear wave elastography differences. Moreover, reliable cutoffs for this approach can be established, allowing examiner independent localization of prostate cancer foci. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Moreau, Ludovic; Lachaud, Cédric; Théry, Romain; Predoi, Mihai V; Marsan, David; Larose, Eric; Weiss, Jérôme; Montagnat, Maurine
2017-11-01
The decline of Arctic sea ice extent is one of the most spectacular signatures of global warming, and studies converge to show that this decline has been accelerating over the last four decades, with a rate that is not reproduced by climate models. To improve these models, relying on comprehensive and accurate field data is essential. While sea ice extent and concentration are accurately monitored from microwave imagery, an accurate measure of its thickness is still lacking. Moreover, measuring observables related to the mechanical behavior of the ice (such as Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, etc.) could provide better insights in the understanding of sea ice decline, by completing current knowledge so far acquired mostly from radar and sonar data. This paper aims at demonstrating on the laboratory scale that these can all be estimated simultaneously by measuring seismic waves guided in the ice layer. The experiment consisted of leaving a water tank in a cold room in order to grow an ice layer at its surface. While its thickness was increasing, ultrasonic guided waves were generated with a piezoelectric source, and measurements were subsequently inverted to infer the thickness and mechanical properties of the ice with very good accuracy.
EVALUATION OF IRIDOCILIARY AND LENTICULAR ELASTICITY USING SHEAR-WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY IN RABBIT EYES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Efstathios T. Detorakis
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Methods: Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and anterior chamber depth were taken with the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France with the SuperLinear™ SL 15-4 transducer in both eyes at baseline as well as after pilocarpine and atropine instillation. The IOP was also measured with the TonoPen tonometer. Results: Changes in rigidity in the examined areas following atropine instillation were statistically not significant. Ciliary body rigidity was significantly increased whereas lens and total ocular rigidity were significantly reduced following pilocarpine instillation. The decrease in lens rigidity following pilocarpine was significantly associated with the respective increase in ciliary body rigidity. Conclusions: Shear-wave ultrasound elastography can detect in vivo rigidity changes in the anterior segment of the rabbit eye model and may potentially be applied in human eyes, providing useful clinical information on conditions in which rigidity changes play an important role, such as glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome or presbyopia.
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Borgne, H.
2004-12-01
Seismic imaging is an important tool for ail exploration. From the filtered seismic traces and a subsurface velocity model, migration allows to localize the reflectors and to estimate physical properties of these interfaces. The subsurface is split up into a reference medium, corresponding to the low spatial frequencies (a smooth medium), and a perturbation medium, corresponding to the high spatial frequencies. The propagation of elastic waves in the medium of reference is modelled by the ray theory. The association of this theory with a principle of diffraction or reflection allows to take into account the high spatial frequencies: the Kirchhoff approach represents so the medium of perturbations with continuous surfaces, characterized by reflection coefficients. The target of the quantitative migration is to reconstruct this reflection coefficient, notably its behaviour according to the incidence angle. These information will open the way to seismic characterization of the reservoir domain, with. a stratigraphic inversion for instance. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative migration results, one of the current challenges is to take into account the anisotropy of the subsurface. Taking into account rocks anisotropy in the imaging process of seismic data requires two improvements from the isotropic case. The first one roughly concerns the modelling aspect: an anisotropic propagator should be used to avoid a mis-positioning or bad focusing of the imaged reflectors. The second correction concerns the migration aspect: as anisotropy affects the reflectivity of subsurface, a specific anisotropic imaging formula should be applied in the migration kernel, in order to recover the correct A V A behavior of the subsurface reflectors, If the first correction is DOW made in most so-called anisotropic imaging algorithms, the second one is currently ignored. The first part of my work concerns theoretical aspects. 1 study first the preservation of amplitudes in the
Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.
2010-12-01
-Fourier domain we had developed 3D code for full-wave field simulation in the elastic media which take into account nonlinearity introduced by free-surface effects. Our approach is based on the velocity-stress formulation. In the contrast to conventional formulation we defined the material properties such as density and Lame constants not at nodal points but within cells. This second order finite differences method formulated in the cell-based grid, generate numerical solutions compatible with analytical ones within the range errors determinate by dispersion analysis. Our simulator will be embedded in an inversion scheme for joint seismic- electromagnetic imaging. It also offers possibilities for preconditioning the seismic wave propagation problems in the frequency domain. References. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. (2009), Waveform inversion in the Laplace-Fourier domain, Geophys. J. Int. 177(3), 1067- 1079. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. H. (2008), Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain, Geophys. J. Int. 173(3), 922-931. Commer, M. & Newman, G. (2008), New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion, Geophys. J. Int. 172(2), 513-535. Newman, G. A., Commer, M. & Carazzone, J. J. (2010), Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy, Geophysics, in press.
Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.
2016-03-01
Air-pulse optical coherence elastography (OCE) is a promising technique for quantifying biomechanical properties of the cornea. This technique typically involves imaging and analysis of the propagation of the air-pulse induced elastic waves to reconstruct corneal biomechanical properties using an analytical model. However, the effect of the fluid-structure interface (FSI) at the corneal posterior surface on the elastic wave velocity is not accounted for in many models. In this study, we examined the effect of the FSI with OCE experiments on contact lenses with and without fluid in the posterior gap. Finite element models (FEM), also with and without the FSI, were constructed to simulate the elastic wave propagation based on the OCE measurements. The FEM and OCE results were in good agreement demonstrating the feasibility of the method. To further investigate the effect of the FSI, OCE experiments and subsequent FEM simulations were conducted on in situ rabbit corneas before and after rose bengal/green light corneal collagen cross-linking (RGX). Both the OCE experiments and the FE simulations demonstrated that the FSI significantly reduced the group velocity of the elastic wave, and thus, should be considered when determining corneal biomechanical properties from an appropriate mechanical model. By matching the FEM-calculated velocity to the OCE-measured velocity, the corneal elasticity was quantified. The Young’s modulus of the rabbit cornea before RGX was E = 65 ± 10 kPa at a controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15 mmHg. After RGX, the Young’s modulus increased to E = 102 ± 7 kPa at the same IOP.
Lamb and Love wave propagalion in an infinite micropolar elastic plate
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E. BOSCHI
1973-06-01
Full Text Available This puper is eOlwerne,l with mon(lehl'Omatie W;lve
propagation in an illfillit.e humogenmlUH lllicropolai' elnsti .. plnte ](unde,l
by two purnllcl free llunes. Two kiJl(1s of lropagation are ,lis('nsse,l; Lamh
an,] Love waveR. Ye fin,l t.hat a (Iisplaeement field (n" n" O uwl n minoI"
otution neld (O, 0, 'l'a le((1;; to Lnmb';; waye;;, while a ,Iisplueellwnt fiel,l
(O, 0, n, an(1 a minol'obtion Del(1 (lo!> lo., O 1ca(18 t.o Love'H wnves.
Retrieval of Green's functions of elastic waves from thermal fluctuations of fluid-solid systems.
Godin, Oleg A
2009-04-01
Fluctuation-dissipation and flow reversal theorems are used to study long-range correlation of thermal phonons in a stationary heterogeneous mechanical system comprised of arbitrary inhomogeneous fluid flow and anisotropic solid. At thermal equilibrium, with an appropriate choice of physical observables to characterize thermal fluctuations within the fluid and within the solid, the general integral expression for the two-point correlation function of the fluctuations reduces to a linear combination of deterministic Green's functions, which describe wave propagation in opposite directions between the two points. It is demonstrated that the cross-correlation of thermal noise contains as much information about the environment as can be obtained in active reciprocal transmission experiments with transceivers placed at the two points. These findings suggest a possible application of ambient noise cross-correlation to passive acoustic characterization of inhomogeneous flows in fluid-solid systems in laboratory and geophysical settings.
Analysis of sports related mTBI injuries caused by elastic wave propagation through brain tissue
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D Case
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Repetitive concussions and sub-concussions suffered by athletes have been linked to a series of sequelae ranging from traumatic encephalopathy to dementia pugilistica. A detailed finite element model of the human head was developed based on standard libraries of medical imaging. The model includes realistic material properties for the brain tissue, bone, soft tissue, and CSF, as well as the structure and properties of a protective helmet. Various impact scenarios were studied, with a focus on the strains/stresses and pressure gradients and concentrations created in the brain tissue due to propagation of waves produced by the impact through the complex internal structure of the human head. This approach has the potential to expand our understanding of the mechanism of brain injury, and to better assess the risk of delayed neurological disorders for tens of thousands of young athletes throughout the world.
Lam, A C L; Pang, S W A; Ahuja, A T; Bhatia, K S S
2016-08-01
To investigate the influence of variations in resting pressure (precompression) on thyroid ultrasound supersonic shear wave elastography (SWE). Thirty-five normal thyroid glands (Norm), 55 benign hyperplastic nodules (BHN), and 17 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) in 96 subjects underwent thyroid SWE. Four precompression levels were applied manually by the operator, ranging from A (baseline, 0 % strain) to D (high, 22-30 % strain). SWE results at each precompression level were compared using ANOVA tests with P < 0.05 indicating significance. SWE indices were highest in PTC, followed by BHN and Norm at each precompression level (P < 0.05). All tissue types showed successive increases in SWE results as precompression increased, although the rate was higher for PTC than BHN and Norm (Ps < 0.05). SWE values (kPa) of Norm, BHN, and PTC at baseline precompression (A) were 10.3 ± 3.3, 17.7 ± 7.6, and 22.2 ± 11.9 compared with 21.1 ± 4.2, 42.3 ± 16.0, and 97.6 ± 46.8 at high precompression (D). SWE index differences between precompression levels A and D were 10.8 kPa for Norm, 24.6 kPa for BHN, and 75.4 kPa for PTC. PTCs show greater SWE stiffening than BHN as precompression rises. Precompression effects on thyroid nodules are not negligible and may account for wide discrepancies in published SWE discriminatory performance results for thyroid malignancy. • Increases in resting pressure (precompression) applied by the operator increases thyroid stiffness. • Papillary cancers show greater increases in stiffness (strain hardening) than benign nodules. • Precompression may affect the diagnostic performance of shearwave elastography for thyroid malignancy.
Bhatia, A. K.
2014-01-01
In previous papers [A. K. Bhatia, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052708 (2012); 86, 032709 (2012); 87, 042705 (2013)] electron-H, -He+, and -Li2+ P-wave scattering phase shifts were calculated using the variational polarized orbital theory. This method is now extended to the singlet and triplet D-wave scattering in the elastic region. The long-range correlations are included in the Schrodinger equation by using the method of polarized orbitals variationally. Phase shifts are compared to those obtained by other methods. The present calculation provides results which are rigorous lower bonds to the exact phase shifts. Using the presently calculated D-wave and previously calculated S-wave continuum functions, photoionization of singlet and triplet P states of He and Li+ are also calculated, along with the radiative recombination rate coefficients at various electron temperatures.
Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Aubry, Jean-François; Touboul, David; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickael
2012-08-31
Keratoconus disease or post-LASIK corneal ectasia are increasingly treated using UV-A/riboflavin-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). However, this treatment suffers from a lack of techniques to provide an assessment in real-time of the CXL effects. Here, we investigated the potential interest of corneal elasticity as a biomarker of the efficacy of this treatment. For this purpose, supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) was performed both ex vivo and in vivo on porcine eyes before and after CXL. Based on ultrasonic scanners providing ultrafast frame rates (~30 kHz), the SSI technique generates and tracks the propagation of shear waves in tissues. It provides two- and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) quantitative maps of the corneal elasticity. After CXL, quantitative maps of corneal stiffness clearly depicted the cross-linked area with a typical 200-μm lateral resolution. The CXL resulted in a 56% ± 15% increase of the shear wave speed for corneas treated in vivo (n = 4). The in vivo CXL experiments performed on pigs demonstrated that the quantitative estimation of local stiffness and the 2-D elastic maps of the corneal surface provide an efficient way to monitor the local efficacy of corneal cross-linking.
Vassiliev, Dmitri
2017-04-01
We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833
Ganau, Sergi; Andreu, Francisco Javier; Escribano, Fernanda; Martín, Amaya; Tortajada, Lidia; Villajos, Maite; Baré, Marisa; Teixidó, Milagros; Ribé, Judit; Sentís, Melcior
2015-04-01
To evaluate the correlations of maximum stiffness (Emax) and mean stiffness (Emean) of invasive carcinomas on shear-wave elastography (SWE) with St. Gallen consensus tumor phenotypes. We used an ultrasound system with SWE capabilities to prospectively study 190 women with 216 histologically confirmed invasive breast cancers. We obtained one elastogram for each lesion. We correlated Emax and Emean with tumor size, histologic type and grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2 expression, the Ki67 proliferation index, and the five St. Gallen molecular subtypes: luminal A, luminal B without HER2 overexpression (luminal B HER2-), luminal B with HER2 overexpression (luminal B HER2+), HER2, and triple negative. Lesions larger than 20 mm had significantly higher Emax (148.04 kPa) and Emean (118.32 kPa) (P=0.005) than smaller lesions. We found no statistically significant correlations between elasticity parameters and histologic type and grade or molecular subtypes, although tumors with HER2 overexpression regardless whether they expressed hormone receptors (luminal B HER2+ and HER2 phenotypes) and triple-negative tumors had lower Emax and Emean than the others. We assessed the B-mode ultrasound findings of the lesions with some of the Emax or Emean values less than or equal to 80 kPa; only four of these had ultrasound findings suggestive of a benign lesion (two with luminal A phenotype and two with HER2 phenotype). We were unable to demonstrate statistically significant differences among the subtypes of invasive tumors, although there appears to be a trend toward lower Emax and Emean in the aggressive phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Ganau, Sergi, E-mail: sganau@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Andreu, Francisco Javier, E-mail: xandreu@tauli.cat [Pathology Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Escribano, Fernanda, E-mail: fescribano@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Martín, Amaya, E-mail: amartino@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Tortajada, Lidia, E-mail: ltortajada@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); Villajos, Maite, E-mail: mvillajos@tauli.cat [Women' s Imaging Department, UDIAT-Centre Diagnòstic, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí – UAB, Parc Taulí, 1, 08205 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain); and others
2015-04-15
Highlights: •Shear wave elastography provides a quantitative assessment of the hardness of breast lesions. •The hardness of breast lesions correlates with lesion size: larger lesions are harder than smaller ones. •Histologic type and grade do not correlate clearly with elastography parameters. •HER2, luminal B HER2+, and triple-negative tumors have lower maximum hardness and mean hardness than other tumor types. •Half the tumors classified as BI-RADS 3 were luminal A and half were HER2. -- Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the correlations of maximum stiffness (Emax) and mean stiffness (Emean) of invasive carcinomas on shear-wave elastography (SWE) with St. Gallen consensus tumor phenotypes. Methods: We used an ultrasound system with SWE capabilities to prospectively study 190 women with 216 histologically confirmed invasive breast cancers. We obtained one elastogram for each lesion. We correlated Emax and Emean with tumor size, histologic type and grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2 expression, the Ki67 proliferation index, and the five St. Gallen molecular subtypes: luminal A, luminal B without HER2 overexpression (luminal B HER2−), luminal B with HER2 overexpression (luminal B HER2+), HER2, and triple negative. Results: Lesions larger than 20 mm had significantly higher Emax (148.04 kPa) and Emean (118.32 kPa) (P = 0.005) than smaller lesions. We found no statistically significant correlations between elasticity parameters and histologic type and grade or molecular subtypes, although tumors with HER2 overexpression regardless whether they expressed hormone receptors (luminal B HER2+ and HER2 phenotypes) and triple-negative tumors had lower Emax and Emean than the others. We assessed the B-mode ultrasound findings of the lesions with some of the Emax or Emean values less than or equal to 80 kPa; only four of these had ultrasound findings suggestive of a benign lesion (two with luminal A phenotype and two with HER2 phenotype). Conclusions: We
Windisch, T.; Schubert, F.; Köhler, B.; Spörl, E.
2010-03-01
The age-related changes in the visco-elastic properties of the human lens are discussed with respect to presbyopia for a long time. All known measurement techniques are based on extracted lenses or are damaging the tissue. Hence, in vivo studies of lens hardness are not possible at the moment. To close this gap in lens diagnostics this project deals with an approach for a non-contact laser-acoustic characterization technique. Laser-generated wave fronts are reflected by the tissue interfaces and are also affected by the visco-elastic properties of the lens tissue. After propagating through the eye, these waves are recorded as corneal vibrations by laser vibrometry. A systematic analysis of amplitude and phase of these signals and the wave generation process shall give information about the interface locations and the tissues viscoelastic properties. Our recent studies on extracted porcine eyes proved that laser-acoustic sources can be systematically used for non-contacting generation and recording of ultrasound inside the human eye. Furthermore, a specific numerical model provides important contributions to the understanding of the complex wave propagation process. Measurements of the acoustic sources support this approach. Future investigations are scheduled to answer the question, whether this novel technique can be directly used during a laser surgery for monitoring purposes and if a purely diagnostic approach, e.g. by excitation in the aqueous humor, is also possible. In both cases, this technique offers a promising approach for non-contact ultrasound based eye diagnostics.
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Rajneesh Kumar
Full Text Available The problem of reflection and refraction phenomenon due to plane waves incident obliquely at a plane interface between uniform elastic solid half-space and microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space has been studied. It is found that the amplitude ratios of various reflected and refracted waves are functions of angle of incidence, frequency of incident wave and are influenced by the microstretch thermoelastic diffusion properties of the media. The expressions of amplitude ratios and energy ratios are obtained in closed form. The energy ratios have been computed numerically for a particular model. The variations of energy ratios with angle of incidence are shown for thermoelastic diffusion media in the context of Lord-Shulman (L-S (1967 and Green-Lindsay (G-L (1972 theories. The conservation of energy at the interface is verified. Some particular cases are also deduced from the present investigation.
Zhang, Li-ning; Wan, Wen-bo; Wang, Yue-xiang; Jiao, Zi-yu; Zhang, Li-hai; Luo, Yu-kun; Tang, Pei-fu
2016-04-09
BACKGROUND There has been no published report assessing the mechanical properties of a repaired Achilles tendon after surgery using shear wave elastography (SWE). The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in mechanical properties of the healing Achilles tendon after surgical repair of a tendon rupture using ultrasound SWE and how these changes correlate with tendon function. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-six patients who underwent surgical repair for Achilles tendon rupture were examined with ultrasound SWE coupled with a linear array transducer (4-15 MHz). The elasticity values of the repaired Achilles tendon in a longitudinal view were measured at 12, 24, and 48 weeks postoperatively. Functional outcomes were assessed with the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) rating system at 12, 24, and 48 weeks postoperatively. General linear regression analysis and correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationship between elasticity and the AOFAS score. RESULTS There were significant differences with respect to the mean elasticity values and functional scores of the repaired Achilles tendon at 12, 24, and 48 weeks postoperatively (all PTendon function was positively correlated with the elasticity of the repaired Achilles tendon (P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that SWE can provide biomechanical information for evaluating the mechanical properties of healing Achilles tendon and predict Achilles tendon function.
Martin, R.
2001-12-01
In many volcanoes like the Popocatepetl, it is not well known if seismicity induces explosive eruptions, or inversely if the dynamics induces seismicity, or how both mechanisms trigger each other. In order to understand this mechanisms we numerically simulate, at greater scales than in laboratory, the behaviour of highly viscous magmas submitted to an incoming PSV wave involving high stresses. For that purpose we use a finite volume scheme of second order with a semi implicit algorithm in time for the fluid and a classical velocity/stress formulation at the second order to describe the elastic waves. The magma is considered as compressible and consists in a high viscous fluid and volatile gases. The gas fractions are computed following a power state law of the pressure. The disturbance of the fluid by the wave causes the pressure to increase and the gas to exsolve. The magma is then submitted to a convection behaviour and can arise through the conduit till reaching a certain depth which defines the location of fragmentation of the mixture. These simulations allow us to conclude that, depending on the magnitude of the wave, a viscous compressible fluid like a magma can be highly disturbed and differ strongly then from the quasistatic and acoustic behaviour classically taken into account in classical modelling of waves travelling through acoustic fluid/elastic solid structures. Depending on the Reynolds number, from laminar to turbulent, the fluid can not any longer be assumed incompressible, irrotational and non viscous. Inversely, when the magma has reached the fragmentation depth in the conduit, the fluid becomes multiphasic with specific exit velocities, pressures, temperatures, particle fractions. It is modelled with one particle phase and one gas phase interacting with drag forces and heat exchange terms. With a similar algorithm as described before, we show that the flow can be expelled at shock speeds and produce travelling elastic waves in the ground through
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Nishizawa, O.; Sato, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Lei, X. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-05-01
In the study of seismic wave propagation, a model experimenting technique has been developed using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) as the sensor. This technique, not dependent on conventional piezoelectric devices, only irradiates the specimen with laser to measure the velocity amplitude on the target surface, eliminating the need for close contact between the specimen and sensor. In the experiment, elastic penetration waves with their noise levels approximately 0.05mm/s were observed upon application of vibration of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 5}Hz. The specimen was stainless steel or rock, and waveforms caught by the LDV and piezoelectric device were compared. As the result, it was found that the LDV is a powerful tool for effectively explaining elastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. The piezoelectric device fails to reproduce accurately the waves to follow the initial one while the LDV detect the velocity amplitude on the specimen surface in a wide frequency range encouraging the discussion over the quantification of observed waveforms. 10 refs., 7 figs.
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Anne-Christine Hladky-Hennion
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Negative refraction properties of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC, made of a triangular lattice of steel rods embedded in epoxy are investigated both experimentally and numerically. First, experiments have been carried out on a prism shaped PC immersed in water. Then, for focusing purposes, a flat lens is considered and the construction of the image of a point source is analyzed in details, when indices are matched between the PC and the surrounding fluid medium, whereas acoustic impedances are mismatched. Optimal conditions for focusing longitudinal elastic waves by such PC flat lens are then discussed.
Andersen, Christian Walther; Bulava, John; Hörz, Ben; Morningstar, Colin
2018-01-01
We present the first direct determination of meson-baryon resonance parameters from a scattering amplitude calculated using lattice QCD. In particular, we calculate the elastic I =3 /2 , p -wave nucleon-pion amplitude on a single ensemble of Nf=2 +1 Wilson-clover fermions with mπ=280 MeV and mK=460 MeV . At these quark masses, the Δ (1232 ) resonance pole is found close to the N -π threshold and a Breit-Wigner fit to the amplitude gives gΔN π BW=19.0 (4.7 ) in agreement with phenomenological determinations.
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Rajeev Ghatuary
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Rayleigh wave propagation in an isotropic homogeneous initially stressed thermoelastic half-space under the effect of magnetic field has been studied using Green–Lindsay (GL theory of generalized thermoelasticity. The frequency equation has been obtained for Rayleigh waves. The Rayleigh wave velocity is computed numerically for different values of initial stress parameter, magnetic pressure number, thermoelastic coupling parameter, and wave number for aluminium material, and the results obtained are compared graphically.
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Petersson, A
2009-01-29
The LDRD project 'A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media' developed several improvements to the traditional finite difference technique for seismic wave propagation, including a summation-by-parts discretization which is provably stable for arbitrary heterogeneous materials, an accurate treatment of non-planar topography, local mesh refinement, and stable outflow boundary conditions. This project also implemented these techniques in a parallel open source computer code called WPP, and participated in several seismic modeling efforts to simulate ground motion due to earthquakes in Northern California. This research has been documented in six individual publications which are summarized in this report. Of these publications, four are published refereed journal articles, one is an accepted refereed journal article which has not yet been published, and one is a non-refereed software manual. The report concludes with a discussion of future research directions and exit plan.
Shokouhi, Parisa; Rivière, Jacques; Lake, Colton R; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T J
2017-11-01
The use of nonlinear acoustic techniques in solids consists in measuring wave distortion arising from compliant features such as cracks, soft intergrain bonds and dislocations. As such, they provide very powerful nondestructive tools to monitor the onset of damage within materials. In particular, a recent technique called dynamic acousto-elasticity testing (DAET) gives unprecedented details on the nonlinear elastic response of materials (classical and non-classical nonlinear features including hysteresis, transient elastic softening and slow relaxation). Here, we provide a comprehensive set of linear and nonlinear acoustic responses on two prismatic concrete specimens; one intact and one pre-compressed to about 70% of its ultimate strength. The two linear techniques used are Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) and Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), while the nonlinear ones include DAET (fast and slow dynamics) as well as Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS). In addition, the DAET results correspond to a configuration where the (incoherent) coda portion of the ultrasonic record is used to probe the samples, as opposed to a (coherent) first arrival wave in standard DAET tests. We find that the two visually identical specimens are indistinguishable based on parameters measured by linear techniques (UPV and RUS). On the contrary, the extracted nonlinear parameters from NRUS and DAET are consistent and orders of magnitude greater for the damaged specimen than those for the intact one. This compiled set of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic testing data including the most advanced technique (DAET) provides a benchmark comparison for their use in the field of material characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah
2015-01-01
To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio) was affected by the location of the reference fat. For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI) in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin). Mean (Emean) and maximum (Emax) elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat) independently associated with false results. Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (Pelasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001). ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives. Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of artifacts.
Lai, Yun
2011-06-26
Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Radostin, Andrey V.; Dyskin, Arcady V.; Pasternak, Elena
2017-04-01
We report results of analysis of literature data on P- and S-wave velocities of rocks subjected to variable hydrostatic pressure. Out of about 90 examined samples, in more than 40% of the samples the reconstructed Poisson's ratios are negative for lowest confining pressure with gradual transition to the conventional positive values at higher pressure. The portion of rocks exhibiting negative Poisson's ratio appeared to be unexpectedly high. To understand the mechanism of negative Poisson's ratio, pressure dependences of P- and S-wave velocities were analyzed using the effective medium model in which the reduction in the elastic moduli due to cracks is described in terms of compliances with respect to shear and normal loading that are imparted to the rock by the presence of cracks. This is in contrast to widely used descriptions of effective cracked medium based on a specific crack model (e.g., penny-shape crack) in which the ratio between normal and shear compliances of such a crack is strictly predetermined. The analysis of pressure-dependences of the elastic wave velocities makes it possible to reveal the ratio between pure normal and shear compliances (called q-ratio below) for real defects and quantify their integral content in the rock. The examination performed demonstrates that a significant portion (over 50%) of cracks exhibit q-ratio several times higher than that assumed for the conventional penny-shape cracks. This leads to faster reduction of the Poisson's ratio with increasing the crack concentration. Samples with negative Poisson's ratio are characterized by elevated q-ratio and simultaneously crack concentration. Our results clearly indicate that the traditional crack model is not adequate for a significant portion of rocks and that the interaction between the opposite crack faces leading to domination of the normal compliance and reduced shear displacement discontinuity can play an important role in the mechanical behavior of rocks.
Käser, Martin; Dumbser, Michael
2006-08-01
We present a new numerical approach to solve the elastic wave equation in heterogeneous media in the presence of externally given source terms with arbitrary high-order accuracy in space and time on unstructured triangular meshes. We combine a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method with the ideas of the ADER time integration approach using Arbitrary high-order DERivatives. The time integration is performed via the so-called Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure using repeatedly the governing partial differential equation itself. In contrast to classical finite element methods we allow for discontinuities of the piecewise polynomial approximation of the solution at element interfaces. This way, we can use the well-established theory of fluxes across element interfaces based on the solution of Riemann problems as developed in the finite volume framework. In particular, we replace time derivatives in the Taylor expansion of the time integration procedure by space derivatives to obtain a numerical scheme of the same high order in space and time using only one single explicit step to evolve the solution from one time level to another. The method is specially suited for linear hyperbolic systems such as the heterogeneous elastic wave equations and allows an efficient implementation. We consider continuous sources in space and time and point sources characterized by a Delta distribution in space and some continuous source time function. Hereby, the method is able to deal with point sources at any position in the computational domain that does not necessarily need to coincide with a mesh point. Interpolation is automatically performed by evaluation of test functions at the source locations. The convergence analysis demonstrates that very high accuracy is retained even on strongly irregular meshes and by increasing the order of the ADER-DG schemes computational time and storage space can be reduced remarkably. Applications of the proposed method to Lamb's Problem, a problem of strong
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Hyun Youk
Full Text Available To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio was affected by the location of the reference fat.For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin. Mean (Emean and maximum (Emax elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC. False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat independently associated with false results.Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001. Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax. Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001. ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives.Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of
Helgerud, M.B.; Waite, W.F.; Kirby, S.H.; Nur, A.
2009-01-01
We used ultrasonic pulse transmission to measure compressional, P, and shear, S, wave speeds in laboratory-formed polycrystalline ice Ih, si methane hydrate, and sll methane-ethane hydrate. From the wave speed's linear dependence on temperature and pressure and from the sample's calculated density, we derived expressions for bulk, shear, and compressional wave moduli and Poisson's ratio from -20 to 15??C and 22.4 to 32.8 MPa for ice Ih, -20 to 15??C and 30.5 to 97.7 MPa for si methane hydrate, and -20 to 10??C and 30.5 to 91.6 MPa for sll methane-ethane hydrate. All three materials had comparable P and S wave speeds and decreasing shear wave speeds with increasing applied pressure. Each material also showed evidence of rapid intergranular bonding, with a corresponding increase in wave speed, in response to pauses in sample deformation. There were also key differences. Resistance to uniaxial compaction, indicated by the pressure required to compact initially porous samples, was significantly lower for ice Ih than for either hydrate. The ice Ih shear modulus decreased with increasing pressure, in contrast to the increase measured in both hydrates ?? 2009.
Nosikov, I. A.; Klimenko, M. V.; Bessarab, P. F.; Zhbankov, G. A.
2017-07-01
Point-to-point ray tracing is an important problem in many fields of science. While direct variational methods where some trajectory is transformed to an optimal one are routinely used in calculations of pathways of seismic waves, chemical reactions, diffusion processes, etc., this approach is not widely known in ionospheric point-to-point ray tracing. We apply the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method to a radio wave propagation problem. In the NEB method, a chain of points which gives a discrete representation of the radio wave ray is adjusted iteratively to an optimal configuration satisfying the Fermat's principle, while the endpoints of the trajectory are kept fixed according to the boundary conditions. Transverse displacements define the radio ray trajectory, while springs between the points control their distribution along the ray. The method is applied to a study of point-to-point ionospheric ray tracing, where the propagation medium is obtained with the International Reference Ionosphere model taking into account traveling ionospheric disturbances. A 2-dimensional representation of the optical path functional is developed and used to gain insight into the fundamental difference between high and low rays. We conclude that high and low rays are minima and saddle points of the optical path functional, respectively.
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Jezzine, K
2006-11-15
Tools for simulating nondestructive tests by elastic guided waves are developed. Two overall formulations based on modal formalism and reciprocity are derived depending on whether transmission and reception are separated or not. They relate phenomena of guided wave radiation by a transducer, their propagation, their scattering by a non-uniformity of the guide or a defect and their reception. Receiver electrical output is expressed as a product of terms relating to each phenomenon that can be computed separately. Their computation uses developments based on the semi-analytical finite elements method, dealing with guides of arbitrary cross-section and cracks normal to the guide axis. Simulation tools are used to study means for selecting a single mode using a transducer positioned on the guide section, such a selection making easier the interpretation of the results of testing by guided waves. Two methods of mode selection are proposed, based on the use of two specific frequencies (which existence depends on guide geometry and mode symmetry). Mimicking the normal stress distribution of the mode at one of these two frequencies or the other makes it possible to radiate solely or predominantly the mode chosen. Examinations are simulated in configurations using a single or two separated transducers positioned on the section of various guide geometries and cracks of various shapes. The interest and performances of the two methods of mode selection are studied in these configurations. (author)
Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel
2016-10-01
In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.
Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Peyrat, S.; Arriaza, R.; Chi, R. K.; Baeza, S.
2015-12-01
Partly in anticipation of an imminent megathrust earthquake, a significant amount of seismic data has been collected over the past several years in northern Chile by local deployments of seismometers. In this study we generate elastic wavespeed images of the crust and upper mantle using a combination of body wave arrival times and surface wave dispersion curves. The body wave data set consists of 130000 P and 108000 S wave arrival times generated by 12000 earthquakes recorded locally over a period of 25 years by networks comprising about 360 stations. The surface wave data set consists of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves determined from ambient noise recorded by 60 broad band stations from three different networks over a period of three years. Transit time biases due to an uneven distribution of noise were estimated using a technique based on that of Yao and van der Hilst (2009) and found to be as high as 5% for some station pairs. We jointly invert the body and surface wave observations to both improve the overall resolution of the crustal images and reduce the trade-off between shallow and deep structures in the images of the subducted slab. Of particular interest in these images are three regions of anomalous Vp/Vs: (1) An extensive zone of low Vp/Vs (1.68) correlates with trench-parallel magmatic belts emplaced in the upper continental crust. In the region of the coast and continental slope, low Vp/Vs corresponds to batholithic structures in the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc. Between the central depression and Domeyko Cordillera, low Vp/Vs correlates with the distribution of magmatic arcs of Paleocene-Oligocene and Eocene-Oligocene age. Low Vp/Vs also correlates with the location of the Mejillones Peninsula. (2) A region of high Vp/Vs occurs in what is most likely the serpentinized wedge of the subduction zone. (3) An additional zone of low Vp/Vs is located in the middle of the double seismic zone at depths of 90-110 km. This region may exist all along the
Imai, Yasuharu; Taira, Jun-Ichi; Okada, Mayumi; Ando, Mayumi; Sano, Takatomo; Miyata, Yuhki; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Nakamura, Ikuo; Moriyasu, Fuminori
2015-07-01
Some patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CH-C). The aim of this study was to examine the linkage between liver elasticity and the presence/absence of HCC in patients after SVR. We enrolled 42 patients who underwent real-time mapping shear wave elastography (SWE) after SVR to interferon therapy for CH-C. Of the 42 patients, six had HCC and 36 did not. We retrospectively compared the elasticity modulus and other clinical parameters between patients with and without HCC. Elasticity modulus measured by SWE, age, and serum albumin was significantly different between patients with and without HCC. Age, Fibrosis-4 index, serum gamma-globulin, total protein, and albumin levels were significantly correlated with the elasticity modulus. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves of elasticity modulus, gamma-globulin, and age for the presence of HCC were 0.963, 0.888, and 0.778, respectively. In patients with an elasticity modulus ≥6.5 kPa, both sensitivity and specificity for the presence of HCC were 83.3 %. The study demonstrated the close linkage between the elasticity modulus measured by SWE and the presence of HCC in patients after SVR.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Renaud, G; Rivière, J; Le Bas, P.‐Y; Johnson, P.A
2013-01-01
... ). The approach, termed dynamic acousto‐elasticity, is the dynamic analog of static acousto‐elasticity where the wave speed is measured as a function of the applied static load. Dynamic acousto‐elasticity uses low...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sidler, Rolf, E-mail: rsidler@gmail.com [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Carcione, José M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy); Holliger, Klaus [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2013-02-15
We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Şener CERYAN
2007-02-01
Full Text Available A great number of landslides occurred in weathered granites outcropped the area in which Kurtun Dams with reservoirs and Gümüshane-Giresun highways pass trough. For this, weathering effect on the rock materials of the Kurtun granodiorite was investigated. In this study, both physical and mineralogical changes on the granitic materials due to weathering are described separately using P- wave velocity in rocks materials. Mineralogical Change Parameter and Physical Parameter defined based on P- wave velocity in rocks materials are applied on the samples from the selected weathering profiles, for the estimation of the effects of weathering on the physicomechanical properties of rock materials. The relative variation of mechanical properties and these indices display a statistically significant correlation. Besides, it is shown that P wave velocity in the solid parts of the samples. and Quantitative Weathering index originally defined Ceryan (1999a as based on slake-durability index, Mineralogical Change Parameter and Physical Parameter can be used together to evaluate the effect of weathering on the mechanical behavior of rocks material from Kürtün granodiorite.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhmadaliev, C.
2004-12-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the acoustic wave generation by pulsed and periodically modulated ion beams in different solid materials depending on the beam parameters and to demonstrate the possibility to apply an intensity modulated focused ion beam (FIB) for acoustic emission and for nondestructive investigation of the internal structure of materials on a microscopic scale. The combination of a FIB and an ultrasound microscope in one device can provide the opportunity of nondestructive investigation, production and modification of micro- and nanostructures simultaneously. This work consists of the two main experimental parts. In the first part the process of elastic wave generation during the irradiation of metallic samples by a pulsed beam of energetic ions was investigated in an energy range from 1.5 to 10 MeV and pulse durations of 0.5-5 {mu}s, applying ions with different masses, e.g. oxygen, silicon and gold, in charge states from 1{sup +} to 4{sup +}. The acoustic amplitude dependence on the ion beam parameters like the ion mass and energy, the ion charge state, the beam spot size and the pulse duration were of interest. This work deals with ultrasound transmitted in a solid, i.e. bulk waves, because of their importance for acoustic transmission microscopy and nondestructive inspection of internal structure of a sample. The second part of this work was carried out using the IMSA-100 FIB system operating in an energy range from 30 to 70 keV. The scanning ion acoustic microscope based on this FIB system was developed and tested. (orig.)
Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Knight, Kimberly; Zaug, Joseph; Behymer, Elaine
2011-06-01
We characterize the deformation of pure aluminum in the first few hundred picoseconds subsequent to a dynamic load, at peak stresses up to 44 GPa and strain rates of in excess of 1010 s-1. For strong shocks we obtain stresses, strain rates and plastic rise times. At peak stresses below 30 GPa, prior to the onset of plasticity we observe elastic stresses that are nearly ten times larger than those observed in traditional (longer time scale) shock compression experiments. We show that in the strong shock regime plastic rise times are very short (< ~ 30 ps) and spatial rises are less than ~300 nm. We show that our data are consistent with a simple power law dependence of strain rate on shock stress established at much lower strain rates; thus verifying this dependence over an additional 3 orders of magnitude in the strain rate. Together with the consistency of our strong shock data with the known shock adiabat of aluminum we conclude that the dynamic behavior of even very thin films (~ 1 μm) is indistinguishable from the bulk material, but below the strong shock threshold, time and hence length scale become critically important. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
PAGOSA Sample Problem. Elastic Precursor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weseloh, Wayne N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clancy, Sean Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-02-03
A PAGOSA simulation of a flyer plate impact which produces an elastic precursor wave is examined. The simulation is compared to an analytic theory for the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and an elastic-perfectly-plastic strength model.
Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.
1962-01-01
The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bommaraju
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical methods are extremely useful in solving real-life problems with complex materials and geometries. However, numerical methods in the time domain suffer from artificial numerical dispersion. Standard numerical techniques which are second-order in space and time, like the conventional Finite Difference 3-point (FD3 method, Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method, and Finite Integration Technique (FIT provide estimates of the error of discretized numerical operators rather than the error of the numerical solutions computed using these operators. Here optimally accurate time-domain FD operators which are second-order in time as well as in space are derived. Optimal accuracy means the greatest attainable accuracy for a particular type of scheme, e.g., second-order FD, for some particular grid spacing. The modified operators lead to an implicit scheme. Using the first order Born approximation, this implicit scheme is transformed into a two step explicit scheme, namely predictor-corrector scheme. The stability condition (maximum time step for a given spatial grid interval for the various modified schemes is roughly equal to that for the corresponding conventional scheme. The modified FD scheme (FDM attains reduction of numerical dispersion almost by a factor of 40 in 1-D case, compared to the FD3, FDTD, and FIT. The CPU time for the FDM scheme is twice of that required by the FD3 method. The simulated synthetic data for a 2-D P-SV (elastodynamics problem computed using the modified scheme are 30 times more accurate than synthetics computed using a conventional scheme, at a cost of only 3.5 times as much CPU time. The FDM is of particular interest in the modeling of large scale (spatial dimension is more or equal to one thousand wave lengths or observation time interval is very high compared to reference time step wave propagation and scattering problems, for instance, in ultrasonic antenna and synthetic scattering data modeling for Non
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Fauqueux, S.
2003-02-01
We consider the propagation of elastic waves in unbounded domains. A new formulation of the linear elasticity system as an H (div) - L{sup 2} system enables us to use the 'mixed spectral finite element method', This new method is based on the definition of new spaces of approximation and the use of mass-lumping. It leads to an explicit scheme with reduced storage and provides the same solution as the spectral finite element method. Then, we model unbounded domains by using Perfectly Matched Layers. Instabilities in the PML in the case of particular 2D elastic media are pointed out and investigated. The numerical method is validated and tested in the case of acoustic and elastic realistic models. A plane wave analysis gives results about numerical dispersion and shows that meshes adapted to the physical and geometrical properties of the media are more accurate than the others. Then, an extension of the method to fluid-solid coupling is introduced for 2D seismic propagation. (author)
Nagai, Y; Fleg, J L; Kemper, M K; Rywik, T M; Earley, C J; Metter, E J
1999-02-01
Common carotid arterial (CCA) stiffness can be assessed during carotid ultrasonography, but its association with aortic stiffness, a well-defined cardiovascular risk factor, has not been clarified. This study examines the relationship between CCA and aortic stiffness. CCA pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep) and aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV) were evaluated in 110 healthy volunteers (age 56.2 +/- 14.6 y) by B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. CCA Ep increased linearly with age and was higher in men than in women (model r2 = 0.50, p < 0.001). APWV increased quadratically with age (model r2 = 0.54, p < 0.001), similarly for women and men. Both CCA Ep and APWV were linearly associated with systolic blood pressure (BP) (r = 0.53 and 0.46, respectively) but not with diastolic BP. A linear relationship was found between CCA Ep and APWV (APWV = 194.7 + 5.67 x Ep [model r2 = 0.42, p < 0.001]). CCA Ep was associated with APWV (p < 0.001) independent of age, gender, and BP (model r2 = 0.62, p < 0.001), and the most parsimonious model to explain APWV included CCA Ep and age (APWV = 601.73 - 15.64 x age + 0.223 x age2 + 2.69 x Ep [model r2 = 0.60, p < 0.001]). Thus, CCA Ep is moderately associated with APWV. CCA stiffness as assessed by B-mode may be useful as a surrogate for aortic stiffness.
The Eigen Theory of Waves in Piezoelectric Solids
Guo, Shaohua
2010-01-01
In the first place, we analyzed here the elastic waves and electromagnetic waves in anisotropic solids. The calculation shows that the propagation of elastic waves in anisotropic solids consist of the incomplete dilation type and the incomplete shear type except for the pure longitudinal or pure transverse waves in isotropic solids. Several novel results for elastic waves were obtained, for example, there are two elastic waves in isotropic solids, which are the P-wave and the S-wave. There ar...
Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids
1992-06-01
2VN VNi +A2 V n +Vn H )+A I_--U A2 N j1 N, 2 k2 12 1- UN1,j+4I) At 2(1 3 u)( (116) 2L kT3 37 2. Application of the Stress Free Boundary Condition for...ij) is a2 1 - - _~ + DXDfl (139) p277 Thus -x---y at that node in Figure 12 is represented by 1 [ 2vn ’, + vn"~ v+ 0v -v7 _v,~~ n] 2h2 [ ij +l 1 + - v,j...l) + d(2)*rlv2(2:jl-1)... +d(3)*(rlvl(3:jl) + rlvl(l~jl-2)) ... +d(4)*(rlu2Cl:jl-2) - rlu2(3:jl)) ... - td (5)*(rlul(3:jl)- rlul(1:-jl )) ; yr = d(l
Elasticity of Flowing Soap films
Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas
2016-11-01
The robustness of soap films and bubbles manifests their mechanical stability. The single most important factor underlying the mechanical stability of soap films is its elasticity. Non-destructive measurement of the elasticity in these films has been cumbersome, because of its flowing nature. Here we provide a convenient, reproducible, and non-destructive method for measuring the elasticity by generating and inspecting Marangoni waves. Our method is based on generating an oblique shock by inserting a thin cylindrical obstacle in the flowing film, and converting the measured the shock angle to elasticity. Using this method, we find a constant value for the elasticity of 22 dyne/cm in the commonly used range of film widths, thicknesses or flow rates, implying that the surface of the film is chemically saturated with soap molecules.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara
2011-01-01
While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots
Introduction to linear elasticity
Gould, Phillip L
2013-01-01
Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also: Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...
Zhong Yang; Zhehui Jiang; Chung Y. Hse; Ru Liu
2017-01-01
Small wood specimens selected from six slash pine (Pinus elliottii) trees were inoculated with brown-rot and white-rot fungi and then evaluated for static modulus of elasticity (MOE) and dynamic MOE (MOEsw). The experimental variables studied included a brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and a white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) for six exposure periods (2, 4,...
Elastic least-squares reverse time migration
Feng, Zongcai
2017-03-08
We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.
Polarization bandgaps and fluid-like elasticity in fully solid elastic metamaterials.
Ma, Guancong; Fu, Caixing; Wang, Guanghao; Del Hougne, Philipp; Christensen, Johan; Lai, Yun; Sheng, Ping
2016-11-21
Elastic waves exhibit rich polarization characteristics absent in acoustic and electromagnetic waves. By designing a solid elastic metamaterial based on three-dimensional anisotropic locally resonant units, here we experimentally demonstrate polarization bandgaps together with exotic properties such as 'fluid-like' elasticity. We construct elastic rods with unusual vibrational properties, which we denote as 'meta-rods'. By measuring the vibrational responses under flexural, longitudinal and torsional excitations, we find that each vibration mode can be selectively suppressed. In particular, we observe in a finite frequency regime that all flexural vibrations are forbidden, whereas longitudinal vibration is allowed-a unique property of fluids. In another case, the torsional vibration can be suppressed significantly. The experimental results are well interpreted by band structure analysis, as well as effective media with indefinite mass density and negative moment of inertia. Our work opens an approach to efficiently separate and control elastic waves of different polarizations in fully solid structures.
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Tattersall, Wade [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Chiari, Luca [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia); Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); White, Ron D. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Buckman, Stephen J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, Gustavo [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2014-01-28
Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.
Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.
2001-05-01
This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katika, Konstantina; Addassi, Mouadh; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul
2015-01-01
The effects of divalent ions on the elasticity and the pore collapse of chalk were studied through rock-mechanical testing and low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements. Chalk samples saturated with deionized water and brines containing sodium, magnesium, calcium and sulfate ions were...... rich in magnesium and calcium ions softens the contact among the mineral grains. Pore collapse strength is deteriorating after the saturation of chalk with water rich in divalent ions. The presence of calcium and sulfate ions in the saturating fluid results in pore collapse at lower stresses than...... in the case when samples are saturated with deionized water or sodium chloride solution. Low field NMR spectrometry revealed precipitation of crystals in the pore space of chalk saturated with Mg-rich brine. The precipitation of Mg-carbonates was not used to explain the deteriorating pore collapse strength...
Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals
Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.
2012-12-01
The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are
Estimation of In vivo Cancellous Bone Elasticity
Otani, Takahiko; Mano, Isao; Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tadahito; Teshima, Ryota; Naka, Hiroshi
2009-07-01
The effect of decreasing bone density (a symptom of osteoporosis) is greater for cancellous bone than for dense cortical bone, because cancellous bone is metabolically more active. Therefore, the bone density or bone mineral density of cancellous bone is generally used to estimate the onset of osteoporosis. Elasticity or elastic constant is a fundamental mechanical parameter and is directly related to the mechanical strength of bone. Accordingly, elasticity is a preferable parameter for assessing fracture risk. A novel ultrasonic bone densitometer LD-100 has been developed to determine the mass density and elasticity of cancellous bone with a spatial resolution comparable to that of peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone density and bone elasticity are evaluated using ultrasonic parameters based on fast and slow waves in cancellous bone by modeling the ultrasonic wave propagation path. Elasticity is deduced from the measured bone density and the propagation speed of the fast wave. Thus, the elasticity of cancellous bone is approximately expressed by a cubic equation of bone density.
Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness
Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.
2016-02-01
We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.
Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, Wei [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Zhengyue [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Xiaole [School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lai, Yun [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)
2016-02-07
We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matzen, René
2011-01-01
convolution update scheme of second‐order accuracy is employed such that highly stable, effective time integration with the Newmark‐beta (implicit and explicit with mass lumping) method is achieved. The implementation requires minor modifications of existing displacement‐based finite element software......, and the stability and efficiency of the proposed formulation is verified by relevant two‐dimensional benchmarks that accommodate bulk and surface waves. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munikoti, V.K.
2001-03-01
In this work the propagation behaviour of ultrasound in austenitic weld metal has been analyzed by the time-harmonic plane wave approach. Bounded beam and pulse propagation as occurring in ultrasonic testing can be sufficiently dealt with by this approach. More sophisticated approaches principally do not offer any improvements in the results of plane wave modeling except for diffraction and aperture effects and, therefore, the subject matter of this work has been limited to plane wave propagation in the bulk of the medium and at different types of interfaces. Inspite of the fact, that the individual columnar grains of the weld metal have cubic symmetry, the austenitic weld metal as a whole exhibits cylinder-symmetrical texture, as substantiated by metallurgical examination, and therefore has been treated as an anisotropic poly-crystalline medium with transverse isotropic symmetry. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die Ultraschallausbreitung in akustisch anisotropen, homogenen Werkstoffen mit stengelkristalliner Textur wie austenitischen Plattierungen und Schweissverbindungen, austenitischem Guss oder geschweissten Komponenten aus austenitischem Guss modelliert. Wie die in dieser Arbeit referierten metallurgischen Untersuchungen gezeigt haben, koennen austenitisches Schweissgut und stengelkristallin erstarrter austenitischer Guss makroskopisch als polykristallines Medium mit zylindersymmetrischer Textur behandelt werden, also als Medium mit transversal isotroper Symmetrie, obwohl mikroskopisch die einzelnen Stengelkristallite kubische Symmetrie aufweisen. Die Schallausbreitung wird mit Hilfe des Ansatzes ebener Wellen modelliert. Obwohl bei der Ultraschallpruefung gepulste und begrenzte Schallbuendel verwendet werden, liefert dieser Ansatz die bei der Ultraschallpruefung beobachteten Wellenarten mit Geschwindigkeiten und Polarisationen, Schallbuendelablenkung und Reflexion und Brechnung nach Richtung und Amplitude, so dass ueber das Modell der ebenen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bellew, Sarah; Yde, Anders; Verelst, David Robert
2014-01-01
numerical models, which can combine the aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, structural exibility and mooring components. Very little oshore data exists, however, in order to validate these numerical models. Floating Power Plant are the developers of a oating, hybrid wind- and wave-energy device. The device uses...... full-scale prototype, the P80, which has a width of 80 m. As part of the development, Floating Power Plant have completed 4 oshore test-phases (totalling over 2 years oshore operation) on a 37 m wide scaled test device, the P37. This paper focuses on the comparison of one of the leading numerical...
Zhao, Xin
2013-05-01
Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Contreras Lopez, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1995-12-31
Departing from the analysis of a data base on the velocities of the compression waves (V{sub p}) and the transverse waves (V{sub s}) in a group of 97 specimens of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, the existence of four types of empirical correlation very well entailed between the dynamic elastic constants and the velocities V{sub p} and V{sub s}. These correlation allow the estimation with a very close approximation the elastic dynamic constants without the need of having available of the complete set of data (V{sub p}, V{sub s} and total density) that is normally required for its determination. The identified correlation is mathematically expressed by means of adjustment equations that reproduce in all of the cases the experimental values with a standard error of estimation within 10%, for the universe of rocks studied and with much less error for different specific lithological groups. The application methodologies of the correlation found for different cases of practical interest, are described. [Espanol] A partir del analisis de una base de datos experimentales sobre la velocidad de las ondas compresionales (V{sub p}) y de las ondas transversales (V{sub s}) de un conjunto de 97 especimenes de rocas sedimentarias, igneas y metamorficas, se identifica la existencia de cuatro tipos de correlaciones empiricas muy bien comportadas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades V{sub p} y V{sub s}. Estas correlaciones permiten estimar con muy buena aproximacion las constantes elasticas dinamicas de las rocas sin tener que disponer del conjunto completo de datos (V{sub p}, V{sub s} y densidad total) que normalmente se requieren para su determinacion. Las correlaciones identificadas se expresan matematicamente mediante ecuaciones de ajuste que reproducen en todos los casos los valores experimentales con un error estandar de estimacion dentro de 10% para el universo de las rocas estudiadas, y con mucho menor error para diferentes grupos litologicos
Sai, H; Iguchi, G; Tobimatsu, T; Takahashi, K; Otani, T; Horii, K; Mano, I; Nagai, I; Iio, H; Fujita, T; Yoh, K; Baba, H
2010-10-01
A reference database for trabecular bone density, cortical thickness, and elastic modulus of trabecular bone for a novel ultrasonic bone densitometry system (LD-100) based on two longitudinal waves (fast and slow) was determined over a wide age range in a normal Japanese population. A novel ultrasonic bone densitometry system (LD-100 system) was applied to create a reference database for trabecular bone density (TBD), cortical thickness (CoTh), and elastic modulus of trabecular bone (EMTb) for this device over a wide age range in a normal Japanese population. In a comparative study between LD-100 and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) systems, 52 individuals were examined by both systems at the same radius simultaneously. To create a reference database, a total of 2,380 healthy subjects (1,179 men, 1,201 women), ages 18-99 years, were examined using the LD-100 system. Highly significant correlations between the LD-100 and pQCT systems were found in TBD (r = 0.877, p < 0.001) and CoTh (r = 0.723, p < 0.001). For the reference database, peak values of TBD, CoTh, and EMTb were observed at 30-34 years (255.09 mg/cm(3)), 20-24 years (5.23 mm), and 20-24 years (4.09 GPa) in men, and at 25-29 years (209.24 mg/cm(3)), 25-29 years (3.98 mm), and 20-24 years (3.33 GPa) in women, respectively. The TBD fell significantly (p < 0.05) beginning at 55-59 years in both sexes, with a relatively rapid decrease in women. The CoTh showed a significant decrease beginning at 40-44 years in men and 50-54 years in women. The EMTb showed a significant decrease beginning at 40-44 years in men and 55-59 years in women. The LD-100 system is a useful bone densitometry device and the database of age-related changes in TBD, CoTh, and EMTb established in this study will provide fundamental data for future studies related to bone status.
WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emelianov, S [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hall, T [University of WI-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bouchard, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and UTHSC at Houston Graduate School of Biomed, Houston, TX (United States)
2014-06-15
Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement
Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density
Li, Yuanyuan
2017-08-17
Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Fagertun, Jens; Larsen, Rasmus
2011-01-01
This paper presents a fusion of the active appearance model (AAM) and the Riemannian elasticity framework which yields a non-linear shape model and a linear texture model – the active elastic appearance model (EAM). The non-linear elasticity shape model is more flexible than the usual linear...
Some Debye temperatures from single-crystal elastic constant data
Robie, R.A.; Edwards, J.L.
1966-01-01
The mean velocity of sound has been calculated for 14 crystalline solids by using the best recent values of their single-crystal elastic stiffness constants. These mean sound velocities have been used to obtain the elastic Debye temperatures ??De for these materials. Models of the three wave velocity surfaces for calcite are illustrated. ?? 1966 The American Institute of Physics.
Instability of a vehicle moving on an elastic structure
Veritchev, S.N.
2002-01-01
Vibrations of a vehicle that moves on a long elastic structure can become unstable because of elastic waves that the vehicle generates in the structure. A typical example of the vehicle that can experience such instability is a high-speed train. Moving with a sufficiently high speed, this train
Adaptation of generalized Hill inequalities to anisotropic elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Science Reports of the Research Institutes Tohoku University A- Physics Chemistry and. Metallurgy, Vol.19, pp.172. Mehrabadi, M.M., Cowin, S.C., 1995. Anisotropic symmetries of linear elasticity. Appl. Mech. Rev., Vol.48, pp.247-285. Pace, N.G. and Saunders G.A.,1971. Elastic wave propagation in group-VB semimetals.
On boundary damping for elastic structures
Akkaya, T.
2018-01-01
Many mathematical models, which describe oscillations in elastic structures such as suspension bridges, conveyor belts and elevator cables, can be formulated as initial-boundary value problems for string (wave) equations, or for beam equations. In order to build more durable, elegant and lighter
Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.
Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J
2013-03-01
Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.
Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak
Min Kyung Lee; Yoon Young Kim
2016-01-01
Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We ...
Fluid-like elasticity induced by anisotropic effective mass density
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Guancong; Fu, Caixing; Wang, Guanghao
shows the systems can have distinctive responses to waves with each polarization. In particular, we demonstrate that only longitudinal wave can propagate within a finite frequency regime, whereas transverse (flexural) waves meet a bandgap — a property conventionally found only in fluids. Effective......We present a three-dimensional anisotropic elastic metamaterial, which can generate dipolar resonances. Repeating these subwavelength units can lead to one-dimensional arrays, which are essentially elastic rods that can withstand both longitudinal, and flexural vibrations. Band structure analysis...... scenarios such as civil engineering and seismic wave control....
Kaliski, S
2013-01-01
This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth
Experiments on Elastic Cloaking in Thin Plates
Stenger, Nicolas; Wilhelm, Manfred; Wegener, Martin
2012-01-01
Following a theoretical proposal [M. Farhat , Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.024301], we design, fabricate, and characterize a cloaking structure for elastic waves in 1 mm thin structured polymer plates. The cloak consists of 20 concentric rings of 16 different metamaterials, each being a tailored composite of polyvinyl chloride and polydimethylsiloxane. By using stroboscopic imaging with a camera from the direction normal to the plate, we record movies of the elastic waves for monochromatic plane-wave excitation. We observe good cloaking behavior for carrier frequencies in the range from 200 to 400 Hz (one octave), in good agreement with a complete continuum-mechanics numerical treatment. This system is thus ideally suited for demonstration experiments conveying the ideas of transformation optics.
Interaction of Elastic Waves with Corrosion Damage
2010-08-01
plate and interact with the damaged areas which is described next. LDV data collection is performed using a Polytec High Frequency PSV -400- 3D-M...Scanning Vibrometer system designed for full-field vibration measurements for frequencies up to 1 MHz. The system consists of a motorized PSV -A-T31...tripod, supporting three separate PSV -I-400 sensor heads, as well as a high- resolution camera that provides the capability to make precise corrections to
Energy trapping in power transmission through an elastic plate by finite piezoelectric transducers.
Yang, Zengtao; Yang, Jiashi; Hu, Yuantai
2008-11-01
We study transmission of electric energy through an elastic plate by acoustic wave propagation and piezoelectric transducers. Our mechanics model consists of an elastic plate with finite piezoelectric patches on both sides of the plate. A theoretical analysis using the equations of elasticity and piezoelectricity is performed. Energy trapping that describes the confinement and localization of the vibration energy is examined.
Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.
2005-12-01
Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are
Paro, Alberto
2013-01-01
Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java
Spin wave generation by surface acoustic waves
Li, Xu; Labanowski, Dominic; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Lynch, Christopher S.
2017-07-01
Surface acoustic waves (SAW) on piezoelectric substrates can excite spin wave resonance (SWR) in magnetostrictive films through magnetoelastic coupling. This acoustically driven SWR enables the excitation of a single spin wave mode with an in-plane wave vector k matched to the magnetoelastic wave vector. A 2D frequency domain finite element model is presented that fully couples elastodynamics, micromagnetics, and piezoelectricity with interface spin pumping effects taken into account. It is used to simulate SAW driven SWR on a ferromagnetic and piezoelectric heterostructure device with an interdigital transducer configuration. These results, for the first time, present the spatial distribution of magnetization components that, together with elastic wave, exponentially decays along the propagation direction due to magnetic damping. The results also show that the system transmission rate S21(dB) can be tuned by both an external bias field and the SAW wavevector. Acoustic spin pumping at magnetic film/normal metal interface leads to damping enhancement in magnetic films that decreases the energy absorption rate from elastic energy. This weakened interaction between the magnetic energy and elastic energy leads to a lower evanescence rate of the SAW that results in a longer distance propagation. With strong magnetoelastic coupling, the SAW driven spin wave is able to propagate up to 1200 μm. The results give a quantitative indication of the acoustic spin pumping contribution to linewidth broadening.
Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using integral method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
В.І. Токарев
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using integral method The influence of boundary conditions on sound wave propagation, radiation and transmission through thin elastic plate is investigated. Necessary for that numerical model was found using the Helmholtz equation and equation of oscilated plate by means of integral formulation of the solution for acoustic fields near to elastic thin plate and for bending waves of small amplitudes.
Paro, Alberto
2015-01-01
If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.
Environmentally Adjusted Elasticity Measures
Shaik, Saleem
2005-01-01
Here, using input, output and nitrogen pollution data related to one state, we propose to extend the elasticity concept to include environmental pollution treated as undesirable output to provide the environmentally adjusted elasticity measures for the period, 1936-1997 in a two-step procedure.
Topology optimization of wave-propagation problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2006-01-01
Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures.......Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures....
Topology optimization of anisotropic broadband double-negative elastic metamaterials
Dong, Hao-Wen; Zhao, Sheng-Dong; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2017-08-01
As the counterpart of electromagnetic and acoustic metamaterials, elastic metamaterials are artificial periodic elastic composite materials offering the possibility to manipulate elastic wave propagation in the subwavelength scale through different mechanisms. For the promising superlensing in the medical ultrasonic detection, double-negative metamaterials possessing the negative effective mass density and elastic modulus simultaneously can be utilized as the ideal superlens for breaking the diffraction limit. In this paper, we present a topology optimization scheme to design the two-dimensional (2D) single-phase anisotropic elastic metamaterials with broadband double-negative effective material properties and demonstrate the superlensing effect at the deep-subwavelength scale. We also discuss the impact of several design parameters adopted in the objective function and constraints on the optimized results. Unlike all previously reported mechanisms, the present optimized structures exhibit the novel quadrupolar or multipolar resonances for the negative effective mass density and negative effective elastic modulus. In addition, negative refraction of the transverse waves in a single-phase material is observed. Most optimized structures in this paper can serve as the anisotropic zero-index metamaterials for the longitudinal or transverse waves at a certain frequency. The cloaking effect is demonstrated for both the longitudinal and transverse waves. Moreover, with the particular constraints in the optimization procedure, a super-anisotropic metamaterial exhibiting the double-negative and hyperbolic dispersions in two principal directions within two different frequency ranges is obtained. The developed optimization scheme provides a robust computational tool for negative-index engineering of elastic metamaterials and may guide the design and optimization of other types of metamaterials, including the electromagnetic and acoustic metamaterials. The unusual properties
Transformation method and wave control
Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Geng-Kai
2010-12-01
Transformation method provides an efficient way to control wave propagation by materials. The transformed relations for field and material during a transformation are essential to fulfill this method. We propose a systematic method to derive the transformed relations for a general physic process, the constraint conditions are obtained by considering geometrical and physical constraint during a mapping. The proposed method is applied to Navier's equation for elastodynamics, Helmholtz's equation for acoustic wave and Maxwell's equation for electromagnetic wave, the corresponding transformed relations are derived, which can be used in the framework of transformation method for wave control. We show that contrary to electromagnetic wave, the transformed relations are not uniquely determined for elastic wave and acoustic wave, so we have a freedom to choose them differently. Using the obtained transformed relations, we also provide some examples for device design, a concentrator for elastic wave, devices for illusion acoustic and illusion optics are conceived and validated by numerical simulations.
Elastic Vector Solitons in Soft Architected Materials
Deng, B.; Raney, J. R.; Tournat, V.; Bertoldi, K.
2017-05-01
We demonstrate experimentally, numerically, and analytically that soft architected materials can support the propagation of elastic vector solitons. More specifically, we focus on structures comprising a network of squares connected by thin and highly deformable ligaments and investigate the propagation of planar nonlinear elastic waves. We find that for sufficiently large amplitudes two components—one translational and one rotational—are coupled together and copropagate without dispersion. Our results not only show that soft architected materials offer a new and rich platform to study the propagation of nonlinear waves, but also open avenues for the design of a new generation of smart systems that take advantage of nonlinearities to control and manipulate the propagation of large amplitude vibrations.
Elastic scattering phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?
Parker, K. J.
2017-09-01
Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.
Statistical mechanics of elasticity
Weiner, JH
2012-01-01
Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.
Fundamentals of elasticity for Fe-bearing forsterite
Nunez Valdez, M.; Umemoto, K.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.
2009-12-01
We examine the influence of iron in forsterite, the end member of olivine, a major constituent of the Earth's upper mantle. We calculate the elastic properties of Mg2-xFexSiO4, using the plane-wave pseudopotential method for a set of representative upper mantle pressures. We investigate the effect of atomic arrangement and composition on single crystal and poly-crystalline elastic moduli. All nine elastic constants and the isotropic bulk K and shear moduli G are determined under static conditions. We also calculate wave propagation anisotropy in single crystals. Thus a thorough comparison between the elasticity of Fe-bearing and iron-free forsterite is made. Research supported by NSF/ATM 0428774 and EAR 0810272. Computations were performed at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Photoacoustic elastic bending in thin film—Substrate system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todorović, D. M., E-mail: dmtodor@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 33, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade-Zemun (Serbia)
2013-12-07
Theoretical model for optically excited two-layer elastic plate, which includes plasmaelastic, thermoelastic, and thermodiffusion mechanisms, is given in order to study the dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) elastic bending signal on the optical, thermal, and elastic properties of thin film—substrate system. Thin film-semiconductor sample (in our case Silicon) is modeled by simultaneous analysis of the plasma, thermal, and elastic wave equations. Multireflection effects in thin film are included in theoretical model and analyzed. Relations for the amplitude and phase of electronic and thermal elastic bending in the optically excited two-layer mechanically-supported circular plate are derived. Theoretical analysis of the thermodiffusion, plasmaelastic, and thermoelastic effects in a sample-gas-microphone photoacoustic detection configuration is given. Two normalization procedures of the photoacoustic elastic bending signal in function of the modulation frequency of the optical excitation are established. Given theoretical model can be used for various photoacoustic detection configurations, for example, in the study of optical, thermal, and elastic properties of the dielectric-semiconductor or metal-semiconductor structure, etc., Theoretical analysis shows that it is possible to develop new noncontact and nondestructive experimental method—PA elastic bending method for thin film study, with possibility to obtain the optical, thermal, and elastic parameters of the film thinner than 1 μm.
Jayaram, K.,
2013-01-01
Part 2: Cloud Computing; International audience; For distributed applications to take full advantage of cloud computing systems, we need middleware systems that allow developers to build elasticity management components right into the applications.This paper describes the design and implementation of ElasticRMI, a middleware system that (1) enables application developers to dynamically change the number of (server) objects available to handle remote method invocations with respect to the appl...
Kuc, Rafal
2013-01-01
A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexsandro Bayestorff da Cunha
2010-04-01
classification of pieces by means of the dynamic system. The goal of the study was to establish a correlation between the static and dynamic methods of classification of glulam beams. The work was developed with the use of pieces of saw wood of Pinus taeda and adhesive phenol resorcinol formaldehyde. The beam fabrication process concerned the classification of the pieces, correction machining and lamella formation, as well as the assemblage and pressurization of the beams. The assays, nevertheless, involved the determination of the elasticity module by means of the stress wave method and a universal machine of assays. The results were analyzed by means of the regression analysis for the establishment of the equation of adjusting the correlation. The classification system used to select pieces was insufficient to obtain the maximum values of the modulus of elasticity; the correct positioning of lamellas by means of the method of dynamic classification had as a direct consequence the increase of the elasticity module of beam and there was a low correlation between the methods of obtaining the modulus of elasticity of the beams, it is not possible for the development of an appropriate equation of correlation between the methods tested.
Application of Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI) to improve Reservoir Characterization
Gharaee Shahri, Seyed Ali
2013-01-01
The Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI) as a seismic attribute was first introduced by Whitcombe (2002) as a method for fluid and lithology prediction. EEI is the application of angle rotation in the conventional acoustic impedance under certain approximation. It essentially works by projecting intercept and gradient together with different angles which highlights different features. EEI has capability to estimate elastic parameters such as S-wave impedance, Vp/Vs ratio, bulk modulus, shear mod...
Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Kelvin Foam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oh Sukwon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Elastic modulus of 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam of 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fablicate a Kelvin foam plate of 14mm thickness by 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is filled completely with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF method to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity.
Automatic estimation of elasticity parameters in breast tissue
Skerl, Katrin; Cochran, Sandy; Evans, Andrew
2014-03-01
Shear wave elastography (SWE), a novel ultrasound imaging technique, can provide unique information about cancerous tissue. To estimate elasticity parameters, a region of interest (ROI) is manually positioned over the stiffest part of the shear wave image (SWI). The aim of this work is to estimate the elasticity parameters i.e. mean elasticity, maximal elasticity and standard deviation, fully automatically. Ultrasonic SWI of a breast elastography phantom and breast tissue in vivo were acquired using the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France). First, the SWI within the ultrasonic B-mode image was detected using MATLAB then the elasticity values were extracted. The ROI was automatically positioned over the stiffest part of the SWI and the elasticity parameters were calculated. Finally all values were saved in a spreadsheet which also contains the patient's study ID. This spreadsheet is easily available for physicians and clinical staff for further evaluation and so increase efficiency. Therewith the efficiency is increased. This algorithm simplifies the handling, especially for the performance and evaluation of clinical trials. The SWE processing method allows physicians easy access to the elasticity parameters of the examinations from their own and other institutions. This reduces clinical time and effort and simplifies evaluation of data in clinical trials. Furthermore, reproducibility will be improved.
On the bi-orthogonality conditions for multi-modal elastic waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Sergey
2013-01-01
The bi-orthogomality conditions in terms of generalised forces and displacements are derived from the reciprocity relations for a hierarchy of elastic waveguides, which support several travelling and evanescent modes (free waves). In the simple cases of waves in a straight beam and axisymmetric...... waves in a thin elastic cylindrical shell, these conditions are formulated as identities in an explicit form via wavenumbers. The forced vibrations of these waveguides under localised excitation are also considered with these identities being employed. The bi-orthogonality conditions in more advanced...... cases, specifically, for non-axisymmetric waves in an elastic cylindrical shell and for waves in an elastic helical spring, are derived, but not presented in an explicit form via wavenumbers. The results obtained for the hierarchy of waveguides are discussed in view of the classical bi...
Elastic membranes in confinement.
Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H
2016-07-01
An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).
Elastic anisotropy of crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher M. Kube
2016-09-01
Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.
Sewell, Thomas D.; Bedrov, Dmitry; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, Grant D.
2002-07-01
Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for beta-, alpha-, and delta-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for beta-HMX for 0 less-than-or-equal p less-than-or-equal 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K'were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the beta-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of beta-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.
Hwu, Chyanbin
2010-01-01
As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a
Rogozinski, Marek
2014-01-01
This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.
Vector-based excitation amplitude imaging condition for elastic RTM
Zhou, Jinju; Wang, Deli
2017-12-01
In recent years, many studies have focused on elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In response to the problems associated with elastic RTM, we propose a new procedure for 2D elastic multicomponent RTM. In this new method, decomposed P- and S-wave components are obtained from the decoupled propagation of the source and receiver wavefields, which allows the expedient calculation of the Poynting vectors and the incident and reflection angles of the P- and S-waves. In addition, we deduce the vector-based excitation amplitude imaging condition. This process automatically accounts for the particle vibration directions when determining the angle-dependent signed reflection coefficients, and does not require the sign to be determined apart from the value of the reflection coefficients. This concept was further extended to the source-normalized crosscorrelation imaging condition. The reflection coefficient of the layered model test was in agreement with the Zoeppritz theory, the PP and PS wave images of the Marmousi II model were clear, and the PS wave images had higher resolution and richer details. In addition, since the calculated reflection coefficients are angle-dependent, they can be easily used for the extraction of angle-domain common-image gathers. Moreover, the imaging condition avoids the polarization reversal in PS wave images and does not require all of the source wavefield data. Consequently, the computation and storage requirements are significantly reduced, which will facilitate the use of the elastic RTM in practice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rasolofosaon P.
2006-12-01
non-linéarité sous fort confinement, et qui pourraient engendrer un signal résultant d'une interaction onde-onde . Tempérant ce pessimisme, il faut noter qu'un éventuel signal d'interaction non linéaire présenterait l'avantage, quant à sa détection, d'être dans une bande de fréquence différente de celle des ondes utilisées pour l'engendrer. Bien que nous n'ayons pas connaissance d'essais d'application actuels, les perspectives paraissent plus encourageantes dans le domaine du génie civil ou minier. C'est dans le domaine diagraphique, où des distances de propagation sont très faibles, que des applications semblent possibles à moyen terme. Si l'on en juge par le dépôt très récent de plusieurs brevets, les compagnies de logging poursuivraient des recherches dans cette voie. A general and important characteristic of rocks is their elastically nonlinear behavior resulting in significant effects on wave propagation. The nonlinear response of rock is a direct consequence of the compliant nature of rock : the macro-and micro-structure of the material (microcracks, grain-to-grain contacts, etc. . As a result, the material modulus varies as a function of the applied pressure. Interest has grown significantly in the last several years, as illustrated by the increasing number of publications regarding this topic. Here we present a summary of the fundamentals of theory and of experimental observations characteristic of rock, and we address possible applications in geophysics. Two disciplines regarding the nonlinear elasticity of rock have been developed over recent years in tandem :- Acoustoelasticity where wave propagation in statically, prestressed materials is studied. Here one relates the variation in applied pressure to the elastic wavespeed in order to extract the nonlinear coefficients. This area of study includes the topic of stress-induced anisotropy. - Acoustic nonlinearity where we are interested in the temporary and local variation in the elastic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reshak, Ali H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [School of Complex Systems, FFWP, CENAKVA - South Bohemia University CB, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O. Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Jamal, Morteza [School of Complex Systems, FFWP, CENAKVA - South Bohemia University CB, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic)
2012-12-05
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new package for calculating elastic constants of orthorhombic structure is released. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The package called ortho-elastic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is compatible with [FP-(L)APW+lo] method implemented in WIEN2k code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several orthorhombic structure compounds were used to test the new package. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elastic constants calculated using this package show good agreement with experiment. - Abstract: A new package for calculating the elastic constants of orthorhombic structure is released. The package called ortho-elastic. The formalism of calculating the ortho-elastic constants is described in details. The package is compatible with the highly accurate all-electron full-potential (linearized) augmented plane-wave plus local orbital [FP-(L)APW+lo] method implemented in WIEN2k code. Several orthorhombic structure compounds were used to test the new package. We found that the calculated elastic constants using the new package show better agreement with the available experimental data than the previous theoretical results used different methods. In this package the second-order derivative E{sup Double-Prime }({epsilon}) of polynomial fit E=E({epsilon}) of energy vs strains at zero strain ({epsilon}=0), used to calculate the orthorhombic elastic constants.
Determination of the elastic modulus of snow via acoustic measurements
Gerling, Bastian; van Herwijnen, Alec; Löwe, Henning
2016-04-01
The elastic modulus of snow is a key quantity from the viewpoint of avalanche research and forecasting, snow engineering or materials science in general. Since it is a fundamental property, many measurements have been reported in the literature. Due to differences in measurement methods, there is a lot of variation in the reported values. Especially values derived via computer tomography (CT) based numerical calculations using finite element methods are not corresponding to the results of other methods. The central issue is that CT based moduli are purely elastic whereas other methods may include viscoelastic deformation. In order to avoid this discrepancy we derived the elastic modulus of snow via wave propagation measurements and compared our results with CT based calculations. We measured the arrival times of acoustic pulses propagating through the snow samples to determine the P-wave velocity and in turn derive the elastic modulus along the direction of wave propagation. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to derive the P-wave modulus of snow in relation to density. The P-wave modulus ranged from 10 to 280 MPa for a snow density between 150 and 370 kg/m^3;. The moduli derived from the acoustic measurements correlated well with the CT-based values and both exhibited a power law trend over the entire density range. Encouraged by these results we used the acoustic method to investigate the temporal evolution of the elastic modulus. The rate of increase was very close to values mentioned in literature on the sintering rate of snow. Overall, our results are a first but important step towards a new measurement method to attain the elastic properties of snow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eryi Hu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The ultrasonic nondestructive method is introduced into the elastic constants measurement of metal material. The extraction principle of Poisson’s ratio, elastic modulus, and shear modulus is deduced from the ultrasonic propagating equations with two kinds of vibration model of the elastic medium named ultrasonic longitudinal wave and transverse wave, respectively. The ultrasonic propagating velocity is measured by using the digital correlation technique between the ultrasonic original signal and the echo signal from the bottom surface, and then the elastic constants of the metal material are calculated. The feasibility of the correlation algorithm is verified by a simulation procedure. Finally, in order to obtain the stability of the elastic properties of different metal materials in a variable engineering application environment, the elastic constants of two kinds of metal materials in different temperature environment are measured by the proposed ultrasonic method.
Hall, Timothy J; Oberait, Assad A; Barbone, Paul E; Sommer, Amy M; Gokhale, Nachiket H; Goenezent, Sevan; Jiang, Jingfeng
2009-01-01
Previous work has demonstrated improved diagnostic performance of highly trained breast radiologists when provided with B-mode plus elastography images over B-mode images alone. In those studies we have observed that elasticity imaging can be difficult to perform if there is substantial motion of tissue out of the image plane. So we are extending our methods to 3D/4D elasticity imaging with 2D arrays. Further, we have also documented the fact that some breast tumors change contrast with increasing deformation and those observations are consistent with in vitro tissue measurements. Hence, we are investigating imaging tissue stress-strain nonlinearity. These studies will require relatively large tissue deformations (e.g., > 20%) which will induce out of plane motion further justifying 3D/4D motion tracking. To further enhance our efforts, we have begun testing the ability to perform modulus reconstructions (absolute elastic parameter) imaging of in vivo breast tissues. The reconstructions are based on high quality 2D displacement estimates from strain imaging. Piecewise linear (secant) modulus reconstructions demonstrate the changes in elasticity image contrast seen in strain images but, unlike the strain images, the contrast in the modulus images approximates the absolute modulus contrast. Nonlinear reconstructions assume a reasonable approximation to the underlying constitutive relations for the tissue and provide images of the (near) zero-strain shear modulus and a nonlinearity parameter that describes the rate of tissue stiffening with increased deformation. Limited data from clinical trials are consistent with in vitro measurements of elastic properties of tissue samples and suggest that the nonlinearity of invasive ductal carcinoma exceeds that of fibroadenoma and might be useful for improving diagnostic specificity. This work is being extended to 3D.
Elastic passive source localization using rotational motion
Li, Zhenhua; van der Baan, Mirko
2017-11-01
As a complement to traditional particle velocity recordings, rotational motion provides information on the spatial gradient of particle displacement motion which aids in imaging passive sources using elastic waves. Event localization is for instance important in earthquake seismology and detection of microseismic events during hydraulic fracturing treatments of hydrocarbon reservoirs or injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) in depleted reservoirs. We propose an elastic reverse time extrapolation technique for passive event localization incorporating a new representation-theorem-based expression that explicitly uses recordings from rotational and particle velocity sensors either simultaneously or separately, leading to enhanced imaging results. We also introduce a novel focusing criterion based on the energy flux which is insensitive to polarity reversals due to non-isotropic source mechanisms. Energy flux combined with the Hough transform leads to a convenient and stable criterion for automatically detecting both event locations and origin times.
Non-linear elastic deformations
Ogden, R W
1997-01-01
Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.
Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure.
Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chujie; Lin, Jung-Fu
2016-04-21
Determination of the full elastic constants (cij) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases' compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.
Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Liu, Chujie [Laboratory of Seismology and Physics of Earth’s Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, Jung-Fu, E-mail: afu@jsg.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Advanced Technology Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)
2016-04-21
Determination of the full elastic constants (c{sub ij}) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases′ compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.
Direct and inverse scattering by an elastic inclusion
Pelekanos, George
1997-11-01
The problem of two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves by an elastic inclusion can be formulated in terms of a domain integral equation, in which the grad-div operator acts on a vector potential. The vector potential is the spatial convolution of a Green's function with the product of the density and the displacement over the domain of interest. The first part of the thesis treats the numerical solution of the direct problem. Following similar work done in electromagnetics we employ a Galerkin approximation using a weak form of the integral equation and rooftop functions, as both expansion and test functions. The determination of the approximate elastic field is thus reduced to an algebraic problem. We present some numerical results for coaxially coated cylinders with constant Lame coefficients and variable densities. The numerical results are compared with existing analytical solutions. The second part of the thesis is concerned with the inverse problem of determining the density of an elastic inclusion from a knowledge of how the inclusion scatters known incident elastic waves. A modified gradient method which is based on the integral representation of the field is used for the solution of the inverse problem. The algorithm employed is an extension of the Kleinman- Van den Berg method to elasticity, and involves an iterative determination of both the unknown density and the shape of the inclusion. The synthetic data used in the inversion algorithm is obtained using the numerical solution of the direct problem developed in the first part of the dissertation.
Xue, Xiaowei; Li, Junlai; Wan, Wenbo; Shi, Xianquan; Zheng, Yiqiong
2017-01-01
This study investigated the relationship between quantitative parameters of shear wave elastography (SWE, maximum elasticity [Emax], minimum elasticity [Emin], mean elasticity [Emean]), collagen intensity and Kindlin-2 expression in benign and malignant breast nodules, and if Kindlin-2 expression is related with lymph node metastasis. A total of 102 breast nodules from 102 patients were included in our study who underwent ultrasound elastography before surgery or core needle biopsy. There was...
Dynamic measurements of the elastic constants of glass wool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarnow, Viggo
2005-01-01
The sound wave in the air between the fibers of glass wool exerts an oscillatory viscous drag on the fibers and excites a mechanical wave in the fiber skeleton. Accurate calculations of sound attenuation in glass wool must take the mechanical wave in the fiber skeleton into account......, and this requires knowledge of the dynamic elastic constants of the fiber skeleton. The mechanical properties of glass wool are highly anisotropic. Previously only one of the elastic constants has been measured dynamically, but here all the elastic constants are reported. The measurement method is well known...... formula. The elastic constants were measured in the frequency range 20–160 Hz for glass wool of mass density 30 kg/m3. The elastic constant C11 depended on the frequency; at 20 Hz it was 1.5+0.01i MPa, and at 160 Hz it was 2.6+0.06i MPa. The constant C33=12+0.6i kPa did not depend on frequency. The shear...
Ultrafast imaging of cell elasticity with optical microelastography.
Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Zorgani, Ali; Nakagawa, Shoma; Bernard, Simon; Paim, Lia Gomes; Fitzharris, Greg; Catheline, Stefan; Cloutier, Guy
2018-01-30
Elasticity is a fundamental cellular property that is related to the anatomy, functionality, and pathological state of cells and tissues. However, current techniques based on cell deformation, atomic force microscopy, or Brillouin scattering are rather slow and do not always accurately represent cell elasticity. Here, we have developed an alternative technique by applying shear wave elastography to the micrometer scale. Elastic waves were mechanically induced in live mammalian oocytes using a vibrating micropipette. These audible frequency waves were observed optically at 200,000 frames per second and tracked with an optical flow algorithm. Whole-cell elasticity was then mapped using an elastography method inspired by the seismology field. Using this approach we show that the elasticity of mouse oocytes is decreased when the oocyte cytoskeleton is disrupted with cytochalasin B. The technique is fast (less than 1 ms for data acquisition), precise (spatial resolution of a few micrometers), able to map internal cell structures, and robust and thus represents a tractable option for interrogating biomechanical properties of diverse cell types. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Acoustic approximations of elastic media with fast variations
Cance, P.; Capdeville, Y.
2013-12-01
Imaging the Earth using seismic waveforms is an intensive computational problem. Reducing numerical cost of the forward problem is therefore an important objective. At the exploration seismic imaging scale, a common practical method relies on using only P-waves information. In such case, an acoustic approximation of the elastic forward problem is often used, which reduces drastically the numerical cost, not only because the problem is smaller but mainly because the expense of correctly sampling slow S-waves is not present anymore. If this approximation is valid for slowly varying isotropic media, this is not the case in general. The present work focuses on acoustic approaches of heterogeneous elastic media with heterogeneity sizes much smaller than the propagating wavelength as well as acoustic anisotropy. A useful tool to study those rapidly varying heterogeneous media is the non periodic homogenization for waves (Capdeville et al. 2009;2010). This homogenization procedure has been adapted and applied to acoustic media. While upscaling the elastic wave equation induces elastic apparent anisotropy, we show that in the acoustic case, it is the density that becomes anisotropic. Unfortunately the induced anisotropy is not of the same nature between elastic cases and acoustic cases (in the acoustic case it proves to remain only an elliptic anisotropy) which prevent to use acoustic anisotropy to mimic elastic anisotropy. If building the acoustic media from the elastic one is obvious for slowly varying isotropic media, it is not the case anymore for rapidly varying media nor for anisotropic media. To check if these difficulties can be overcome and if at least P-waves first arrivals can be correctly reproduced we propose here two methods for building the acoustic media from the elastic one. We will refer to the first method as the 'physical method' as it tends to keep track of the physical parameters of the original medium, and to the second method as the 'mathematical
Ab initio elastic constants for the lonsdaleite phases of C, Si and Ge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, S Q [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ye, H Q [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)
2003-08-06
The elastic constants of lonsdaleite C, Si and Ge are calculated by using the plane-wave pseudopotential method in the scheme of density functional theory and the local density approximation. For comparison, the elastic constants of the cubic diamond phases of these elements, zincblende SiC and 6H-SiC, are also calculated.
Ab initio elastic constants for the lonsdaleite phases of C, Si and Ge
Wang, S. Q.; Ye, H. Q.
2003-08-01
The elastic constants of lonsdaleite C, Si and Ge are calculated by using the plane-wave pseudopotential method in the scheme of density functional theory and the local density approximation. For comparison, the elastic constants of the cubic diamond phases of these elements, zincblende SiC and 6H-SiC, are also calculated.
Elastic and piezoelectric properties, sound velocity and Debye ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pseudopotential plane-wave method (PP–PW) based on density functional theory (DFT) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) within the Teter and Pade exchangecorrelation functional form of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) is applied to study the effect of pressure on the elastic and piezoelectric ...
Generalizations of Karp's theorem to elastic scattering theory
Tuong, Ha-Duong
Karp's theorem states that if the far field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle in R2 is invariant under the group of rotations, then the scatterer is a circle. The theorem is generalized to the elastic scattering problems and the axisymmetric scatterers in R3.
Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach
Guo, Qiang
2017-08-16
Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.
Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we present the results obtained from first-principles calculations of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the strucural, elastic and electronic properties of (B3) boron phosphide, using the pseudopotential plane-wave method (PP-PW) based on density functional theory within the Teter and Pade ...
Arterial elasticity, strength, fatigue, and endurance in older women.
Hunter, Gary R; Neumeier, William H; Bickel, C Scott; McCarthy, John P; Fisher, Gordon; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Glasser, Stephen P
2014-01-01
Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation). Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.
Arterial Elasticity, Strength, Fatigue, and Endurance in Older Women
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gary R. Hunter
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation. Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P<0.01 and treadmill endurance (P<0.02 after adjusting for VO2 max and knee extension strength. Subjective fatigue at rest was related to large artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (<0.02. Strength was significantly related to small artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.
Intrinsically polarized elastic metamaterial
Bilal, Osama; Suesstrunk, Roman; Huber, Sebastian; Daraio, Chiara
Mechanical metamaterials, with periodically repeating basic building blocks in space, expand the envelope of possible properties of matter. Metamaterials harness their effective properties through structure rather than chemical composition. Successful implementations of such materials enabled the realization of ultrastiff-utralight materials, negative Poisson ratio materials, and fluid-like solids. In this work, we theoretically analyze and experimentally implement a new design principle for mechanical metamaterials. By combining states of self-stress, topological invariants and additive manufacturing techniques, we realize a new class of three-dimensional mechanical metamaterials with polar elasticity. The fabricated specimens show, at two of its opposing faces along the same axis, an asymmetric elastic response (i.e., soft on one face and harder on the other). We design our lattice to retain angular dependency to a perpendicular load, providing a direct experimental observation of nodal Weyl lines.
Propagation of Rayleigh surface waves with small wavelengths in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
MS received 23 November 2001. Abstract. This paper investigates Rayleigh waves, propagating on the surface of a visco-elastic solid under the linear theory of nonlocal elasticity. Dispersion relations are obtained. It is observed that the waves are dispersive in nature for small wavelengths. Numerical calculations and ...
3D printed metamaterial design to focus wave energy in thin plates
Kabir, Minoo; Allen, Margaret G.; Ozevin, Didem
2017-04-01
Acoustic metamaterials are periodic and composite structures that can block, direct and strengthen propagating elastic waves. They are periodic elastic composites made of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The periodic structure can exhibit certain band gaps that are used to manipulate wave field. In this research, the periodic and composite structure is made of aluminum plate and rubber cylinders manufactured using 3D printing. The ability to block and redirect elastic waves is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. Wave field focusing reduces the wave attenuation, which allows increasing the distance of acoustic sensors for damage detection in large-scale structures.
Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization
Oh, Juwon
2016-09-15
The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth\\'s surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry
Investigation into stress wave propagation in metal foams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Lang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate stress wave propagation in metal foams under high-speed impact loading. Three-dimensional Voronoi model is established to represent real closed-cell foam. Based on the one-dimensional stress wave theory and Voronoi model, a numerical model is developed to calculate the velocity of elastic wave and shock wave in metal foam. The effects of impact velocity and relative density of metal foam on the stress wave propagation in metal foams are explored respectively. The results show that both elastic wave and shock wave propagate faster in metal foams with larger relative density; with increasing the impact velocity, the shock wave propagation velocity increase, but the elastic wave propagation is not sensitive to the impact velocity.
Nonlinear localized elastoplastic waves in a rod
Erofeev, V. I.; Leonteva, A. V.; Malkhanov, A. O.
2017-11-01
It has been shown that longitudinal nonlinear stationary elastic-plastic waves can be formed in a rod. Waves can be both periodic and solitary (solitons), which is determined by the index of strain hardening of the material.The velocity of propagation of such waves is less than the speed of the elastic shear wave. Along with classical solitons, so-called “embedded solitons” can be formed, that is, double solitons, one of which with a smaller amplitude and widthis located inside the other with a larger amplitude and width.
Huygens-Fresnel picture for electron-molecule elastic scattering★
Baltenkov, Arkadiy S.; Msezane, Alfred Z.
2017-11-01
The elastic scattering cross sections for a slow electron by C2 and H2 molecules have been calculated within the framework of the non-overlapping atomic potential model. For the amplitudes of the multiple electron scattering by a target the wave function of the molecular continuum is represented as a combination of a plane wave and two spherical waves generated by the centers of atomic spheres. This wave function obeys the Huygens-Fresnel principle according to which the electron wave scattering by a system of two centers is accompanied by generation of two spherical waves; their interaction creates a diffraction pattern far from the target. Each of the Huygens waves, in turn, is a superposition of the partial spherical waves with different orbital angular momenta l and their projections m. The amplitudes of these partial waves are defined by the corresponding phases of electron elastic scattering by an isolated atomic potential. In numerical calculations the s- and p-phase shifts are taken into account. So the number of interfering electron waves is equal to eight: two of which are the s-type waves and the remaining six waves are of the p-type with different m values. The calculation of the scattering amplitudes in closed form (rather than in the form of S-matrix expansion) is reduced to solving a system of eight inhomogeneous algebraic equations. The differential and total cross sections of electron scattering by fixed-in-space molecules and randomly oriented ones have been calculated as well. We conclude by discussing the special features of the S-matrix method for the case of arbitrary non-spherical potentials. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low energy positron and electron interactions", edited by James Sullivan, Ron White, Michael Bromley, Ilya Fabrikant, and David Cassidy.
Least-squares reverse time migration in elastic media
Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.
2017-02-01
Elastic reverse time migration (RTM) can yield accurate subsurface information (e.g. PP and PS reflectivity) by imaging the multicomponent seismic data. However, the existing RTM methods are still insufficient to provide satisfactory results because of the finite recording aperture, limited bandwidth and imperfect illumination. Besides, the P- and S-wave separation and the polarity reversal correction are indispensable in conventional elastic RTM. Here, we propose an iterative elastic least-squares RTM (LSRTM) method, in which the imaging accuracy is improved gradually with iteration. We first use the Born approximation to formulate the elastic de-migration operator, and employ the Lagrange multiplier method to derive the adjoint equations and gradients with respect to reflectivity. Then, an efficient inversion workflow (only four forward computations needed in each iteration) is introduced to update the reflectivity. Synthetic and field data examples reveal that the proposed LSRTM method can obtain higher-quality images than the conventional elastic RTM. We also analyse the influence of model parametrizations and misfit functions in elastic LSRTM. We observe that Lamé parameters, velocity and impedance parametrizations have similar and plausible migration results when the structures of different models are correlated. For an uncorrelated subsurface model, velocity and impedance parametrizations produce fewer artefacts caused by parameter crosstalk than the Lamé coefficient parametrization. Correlation- and convolution-type misfit functions are effective when amplitude errors are involved and the source wavelet is unknown, respectively. Finally, we discuss the dependence of elastic LSRTM on migration velocities and its antinoise ability. Imaging results determine that the new elastic LSRTM method performs well as long as the low-frequency components of migration velocities are correct. The quality of images of elastic LSRTM degrades with increasing noise.
Form finding in elastic gridshells.
Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O; Jawed, Mohammad K; Reis, Pedro M
2017-12-18
Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zel, I. Yu.; Ivankina, T. I., E-mail: ivangreat2009@gmail.com [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Levin, D. M. [Tula State University (Russian Federation); Lokajicek, T. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Geology (Czech Republic)
2015-07-15
The velocities of elastic waves with quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse polarizations in a spherical rock sample have been measured. The experimental values of velocities are used to calculate 21 elastic moduli of the sample. For comparison, the effective elastic properties of the sample are simulated based on the data on the crystallographic textures of rock-forming minerals obtained by neutron diffraction. It is shown that the largest discrepancy between the model predictions and experimental velocity values is observed for transversely polarized waves.
Mathematical foundations of elasticity
Marsden, Jerrold E
1994-01-01
This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con
Thermally Driven Elastic Micromachines
Hosaka, Yuto; Yasuda, Kento; Sou, Isamu; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki
2017-11-01
We discuss the directional motion of an elastic three-sphere micromachine in which the spheres are in equilibrium with independent heat baths having different temperatures. Even in the absence of prescribed motion of springs, such a micromachine can gain net motion purely because of thermal fluctuations. A relation connecting the average velocity and the temperatures of the spheres is analytically obtained. This velocity can also be expressed in terms of the average heat flows in the steady state. Our model suggests a new mechanism for the locomotion of micromachines in nonequilibrium biological systems.
Measurement of third-order elastic constants and applications to loaded structural materials.
Takahashi, Sennosuke; Motegi, Ryohei
2015-01-01
The objective of this study is to obtain the propagation velocity of an elastic wave in a loaded isotropic solid and to show the usefulness of the third-order elastic constant in determining properties of practical materials. As is well known, the infinitesimal elastic theory is unable to express the influence of stress on elastic wave propagating in loaded materials. To solve this problem, the authors derive an equation of motion for elastic wave in a finitely deformed state and use the Lagrangian description where the state before deformation is used as a reference, and Murnaghans finite deformation theory for the unidirectional deformed isotropic solid. Ordinary derivatives were used for the mathematical treatment and although the formulas are long the content is simple. The theory is applied to the measurement of the third-order elastic constants of common steels containing carbon of 0.22 and 0.32 wt%. Care is taken in preparing specimens to precise dimensions, in properly adhering of transducer to the surface of the specimen, and in having good temperature control during the measurements to obtain precise data. As a result, the stress at various sites in the structural materials could be estimated by measuring the elastic wave propagation times. The results obtained are graphed for illustration.
Hardrock Elastic Physical Properties: Birch's Seismic Parameter Revisited
Wu, M.; Milkereit, B.
2014-12-01
Identifying rock composition and properties is imperative in a variety of fields including geotechnical engineering, mining, and petroleum exploration, in order to accurately make any petrophysical calculations. Density is, in particular, an important parameter that allows us to differentiate between lithologies and estimate or calculate other petrophysical properties. It is well established that compressional and shear wave velocities of common crystalline rocks increase with increasing densities (i.e. the Birch and Nafe-Drake relationships). Conventional empirical relations do not take into account S-wave velocity. Physical properties of Fe-oxides and massive sulfides, however, differ significantly from the empirical velocity-density relationships. Currently, acquiring in-situ density data is challenging and problematic, and therefore, developing an approximation for density based on seismic wave velocity and elastic moduli would be beneficial. With the goal of finding other possible or better relationships between density and the elastic moduli, a database of density, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio was compiled based on a multitude of lab samples. The database is comprised of isotropic, non-porous metamorphic rock. Multi-parameter cross plots of the various elastic parameters have been analyzed in order to find a suitable parameter combination that reduces high density outliers. As expected, the P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity ratios show no correlation with density. However, Birch's seismic parameter, along with the bulk modulus, shows promise in providing a link between observed compressional and shear wave velocities and rock densities, including massive sulfides and Fe-oxides.
Harbert, W.; Delaney, D.; Mur, A. J.; Purcell, C.; Zorn, E.; Soong, Y.; Crandall, D.; Haljasmaa, I.
2016-12-01
To better understand the petrophysical response at ultrasonic frequencies in rhyolite and carbonate (relevant to CO2 storage and CO2 enhanced oil recovery) lithologies we conducted core analysis incorporating variation in temperature, effective pressure and pore filling fluid. Ultrasonic compressive and shear wave (VP, VS1 and VS2) velocities were measured allowing calculation of the Bulk modulus (K), Young's modulus (E), Lamè's first parameter (λ), Shear modulus (G), Poisson's ratio (ν), and P-wave modulus (M). In addition, from the ultrasonic waveform data collected, we employed the spectral ratio method to estimate the quality factor. Carbonate samples were tested dry, using atmospheric gas as the pore phase, and with deionized water, oil, and supercritical CO2. We observed that Qp was directly proportional to effective pressure in our rhyolite samples. In addition, we observed effects of core anisotropy on Qp, however this was not apparent in higher porosity samples. Increasing effective pressure seems to decrease the effects of ultrasonic P-wave anisotropy. Qp was inversely proportional to temperature, however this was not observed for higher porosity samples. Qp was highly dependent on the rock porosity. Higher porosity samples displayed significantly lower values of Qp. In our experiments we observed that ultrasonic wave scattering due to heterogeneities in the carbonate samples was dominant. Although we observed lower μρ values, trends in our data strongly agreed with the model proposed workers interpreting AVO trends in a LMR cross plot space. We found that μρ was proportional to temperature while λρ was temperature independent and that λρ-μρ trends were extremely dependent on porosity. Higher porosity results in lower values for both λρ and μρ. The presence of fluids causes a distinct shift in λρ values, an observation which could provide insight into subsurface exploration using amplitude variation with offset (AVO) classification. We
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.
1988-12-01
Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.
Asymmetric Vibrations of a Circular Elastic Plate on an Elastic Half Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, H.; Krenk, Steen
1982-01-01
The asymmetric problem of a vibrating circular elastic plate in frictionless contact with an elastic half space is solved by an integral equation method, where the contact stress appears as the unknown function. By a trigonometric expansion, the problem is reduced to a number of uncoupled two......-dimensional problems. The radial variations of contact stresses and surface displacements are represented by polynomials, the coefficients of which are directly related by an infinite matrix that is a function of the vibration frequency. The results include a parametric study of the power input as a function...... of the vibration frequency of various plate stiffnesses and the normal component of the surface displacement field for simple excitation of the plate and passage of a plane Rayleigh wave....
Elasticity of polymeric nanocolloidal particles
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Riest, Jonas; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Egorov, Sergei A; Likos, Christos N; Ziherl, Primož
2015-01-01
.... Elasticity of individual particles directly controls their swelling, wetting, and adsorption behaviour, their aggregation and self-assembly as well as structural and rheological properties of suspensions...
Medical Ultrasonic Elasticity Imaging Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Mok Keun [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-10-15
Breast and prostate tumors or cancers tend to be stiffer than the surrounding normal tissue. However, the difference in echogenicity between cancerous and normal tissues is not clearly distinguishable in ultrasound B-mode imaging. Thus, imaging the stiffness contrast between the two different tissue types helps to diagnose lesions quantitatively, and such a method of imaging the elasticity of human tissue is termed ultrasound elasticity imaging. Recently, elasticity imaging has become an effective complementary diagnostic modality along with ultrasound B-mode imaging. This paper presents various elasticity imaging methods that have been reported up to now and describes their characteristics and principles of operation.
Elastic scattering of positronium: Application of the confined variational method
Zhang, Junyi
2012-08-01
We demonstrate for the first time that the phase shift in elastic positronium-atom scattering can be precisely determined by the confined variational method, in spite of the fact that the Hamiltonian includes an unphysical confining potential acting on the center of mass of the positron and one of the atomic electrons. As an example, we study the S-wave elastic scattering for the positronium-hydrogen scattering system, where the existing 4% discrepancy between the Kohn variational calculation and the R-matrix calculation is resolved. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.
Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2012-01-01
Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.
Dey, Mohar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sharma, Ashutosh; Qian, Shizhi; Joo, Sang Woo
2012-10-01
We explore the electric-field-induced interfacial instabilities of a trilayer composed of a thin elastic film confined between two viscous layers. A linear stability analysis (LSA) is performed to uncover the growth rate and length scale of the different unstable modes. Application of a normal external electric field on such a configuration can deform the two coupled elastic-viscous interfaces either by an in-phase bending or an antiphase squeezing mode. The bending mode has a long-wave nature, and is present even at a vanishingly small destabilizing field. In contrast, the squeezing mode has finite wave-number characteristics and originates only beyond a threshold strength of the electric field. This is in contrast to the instabilities of the viscous films with multiple interfaces where both modes are found to possess long-wave characteristics. The elastic film is unstable by bending mode when the stabilizing forces due to the in-plane curvature and the elastic stiffness are strong and the destabilizing electric field is relatively weak. In comparison, as the electric field increases, a subdominant squeezing mode can also appear beyond a threshold destabilizing field. A dominant squeezing mode is observed when the destabilizing field is significantly strong and the elastic films are relatively softer with lower elastic modulus. In the absence of liquid layers, a free elastic film is also found to be unstable by long-wave bending and finite wave-number squeezing modes. The LSA asymptotically recovers the results obtained by the previous formulations where the membrane bending elasticity is approximately incorporated as a correction term in the normal stress boundary condition. Interestingly, the presence of a very weak stabilizing influence due to a smaller interfacial tension at the elastic-viscous interfaces opens up the possibility of fabricating submicron patterns exploiting the instabilities of a trilayer.
Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan
Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.
Interaction of acoustic beam with elastic structures
Zhang, Han
This thesis describes experiments and calculations performed on the interaction of acoustic beams in water and air with planar and cylindrical elastic structures. Ultrasonic reflection measurements have been used to elucidate the phenomena of guided wave generation and reradiation by selecting beam incidence at, or near, phase-matching conditions. Under these circumstances reasonant mode conversion of accoustic wave to guided wave mode energy can occur. This interaction has been studied in rubber-coated steel, aluminum, plexiglas, and graphite-epoxy composite. The acoustic coupling media used in these experiments has been either water or air. Some theoretical modeling has also been undertaken to explain these results. The calculations performed here exploit an efficient analytical tool that simplifies the construction of finite acoustic beams. The method relies on the interesting mathematical fact that displacing a real point source into the couplex plane, converts the source into a quasi Gaussian beam. The free-space Green's function, which satisfies the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation, is converted to a complex Green's function that describes the interaction of two beams, one from the source and the other at the observation point. The interaction with elastic structures is treated by spectral decomposition of the incident and reflected beams weighted by the plane wave reflection or transmission coefficient. The resulting spectral integral is evaluated either asymptotically along a steepest descent path, keeping track of the reflection/transmission coefficient pole contributions or numerically. In the first problem the interaction of acoustic beams with steel layered cylindrical shells is studied. The difficulty introduced by the high damping in the rubber is resolved and its influence on the signal is analyzed. The bond rigidity between the rubber and steel are accounted for in the model calculation by the so-called spring model. It is found that disbonds in the
Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.
Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young
2016-02-10
Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.
Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak
Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young
2016-02-01
Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.
Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak
Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young
2016-01-01
Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896
Scattering of Airy elastic sheets by a cylindrical cavity in a solid.
Mitri, F G
2017-11-01
The prediction of the elastic scattering by voids (and cracks) in materials is an important process in structural health monitoring, phononic crystals, metamaterials and non-destructive evaluation/imaging to name a few examples. Earlier analytical theories and numerical computations considered the elastic scattering by voids in plane waves of infinite extent. However, current research suggesting the use of (limited-diffracting, accelerating and self-healing) Airy acoustical-sheet beams for non-destructive evaluation or imaging applications in elastic solids requires the development of an improved analytical formalism to predict the scattering efficiency used as a priori information in quantitative material characterization. Based on the definition of the time-averaged scattered power flow density, an analytical expression for the scattering efficiency of a cylindrical empty cavity (i.e., void) encased in an elastic medium is derived for compressional and normally-polarized shear-wave Airy beams. The multipole expansion method using cylindrical wave functions is utilized. Numerical computations for the scattering energy efficiency factors for compressional and shear waves illustrate the analysis with particular emphasis on the Airy beam parameters and the non-dimensional frequency, for various elastic materials surrounding the cavity. The ratio of the compressional to the shear wave speed stimulates the generation of elastic resonances, which are manifested as a series of peaks in the scattering efficiency plots. The present analysis provides an improved method for the computations of the scattering energy efficiency factors using compressional and shear-wave Airy beams in elastic materials as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.
2010-12-15
Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.
Effects of Condylar Elastic Properties to Temporomandibular Joint Stress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Zhang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Mandibular condyle plays an important role in the growth and reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. We aimed to obtain orthotropic elastic parameters of the condyle using a continuous-wave ultrasonic technique and to observe the effects of condylar elastic parameters on stress distribution of the TMJ using finite element analysis (FEA. Using the ultrasonic technique, all nine elastic parameters were obtained, which showed that the mandibular condyle was orthotropic. With the condyle defined as orthotropic, the occlusal stress was transferred fluently and uniformly from the mandible to the TMJ. The stress distribution in the isotropic model showed stepped variation among different anatomical structures with higher stress values in the cartilage and condyle than in the orthotropic model. We conclude that anisotropy has subtle yet significant effects on stress distribution of the TMJ and could improve the reality of simulations.
Burial stress and elastic strain of carbonate rocks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2014-01-01
strain multiplied by the rock frame modulus. We cannot measure the strain directly in the subsurface, but from the data on bulk density and P‐wave velocity, we can estimate the rock frame modulus and Biot's coefficient and then calculate the “effective vertical stress” as the total vertical stress minus......Burial stress on a sediment or sedimentary rock is relevant for predicting compaction or failure caused by changes in, e.g., pore pressure in the subsurface. For this purpose, the stress is conventionally expressed in terms of its effect: “the effective stress” defined as the consequent elastic...... the product of pore pressure and Biot's coefficient. We can now calculate the elastic strain by dividing “effective stress” with the rock frame modulus. By this procedure, the degree of elastic deformation at a given time and depth can be directly expressed. This facilitates the discussion of the deformation...
Wave Propagation in Smart Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Michael
1999-01-01
In this paper we deal with the behavior of solutions to hyperbolic equations such as the wave equation: \\begin{equation}\\label{waveeq1} \\frac{\\partial^2}{\\partial t^2}u-\\Delta u=f, \\end{equation} or the equations of linear elasticity for an isotropic medium: \\begin{equation}\\label{elasteq1} \\frac...
Wave Propagation in Smart Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Michael
1999-01-01
In this paper we deal with the behavior of solutions to hyperbolicequations such as the wave equation:\\begin{equation}\\label{waveeq1}\\frac{\\partial^2}{\\partial t^2}u-\\Delta u=f,\\end{equation}or the equations of linear elasticity for an isotropic medium:\\begin{equation}\\label{elasteq1}\\frac...
Ullemeyer, Klaus; Lokajíček, Tomás; Vasin, Roman N.; Keppler, Ruth; Behrmann, Jan H.
2018-02-01
In this study elastic moduli of three different rock types of simple (calcite marble) and more complex (amphibolite, micaschist) mineralogical compositions were determined by modeling of elastic moduli using texture (crystallographic preferred orientation; CPO) data, experimental investigation and extrapolation. 3D models were calculated using single crystal elastic moduli, and CPO measured using time-of-flight neutron diffraction at the SKAT diffractometer in Dubna (Russia) and subsequently analyzed using Rietveld Texture Analysis. To define extrinsic factors influencing elastic behaviour, P-wave and S-wave velocity anisotropies were experimentally determined at 200, 400 and 600 MPa confining pressure. Functions describing variations of the elastic moduli with confining pressure were then used to predict elastic properties at 1000 MPa, revealing anisotropies in a supposedly crack-free medium. In the calcite marble elastic anisotropy is dominated by the CPO. Velocities continuously increase, while anisotropies decrease from measured, over extrapolated to CPO derived data. Differences in velocity patterns with sample orientation suggest that the foliation forms an important mechanical anisotropy. The amphibolite sample shows similar magnitudes of extrapolated and CPO derived velocities, however the pattern of CPO derived velocity is closer to that measured at 200 MPa. Anisotropy decreases from the extrapolated to the CPO derived data. In the micaschist, velocities are higher and anisotropies are lower in the extrapolated data, in comparison to the data from measurements at lower pressures. Generally our results show that predictions for the elastic behavior of rocks at great depths are possible based on experimental data and those computed from CPO. The elastic properties of the lower crust can, thus, be characterized with an improved degree of confidence using extrapolations. Anisotropically distributed spherical micro-pores are likely to be preserved, affecting
Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion
Li, Jing
2016-09-06
We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.
On Characterization of Elasticity Parameters in Context of Measurement Errors
Slawinski, M. A.
2007-12-01
them and are characterized by ranges of parameters. Such an approach takes advantage of similarities among several eigenproperties that distinguish a given group from the others. Furthermore, we might not require to measure the traveltime of the three waves --- the quasishear wave being more difficult to observe. Also, we might not require to measure polarizations, which, in general, exhibit a larger measurement error than do the traveltimes. (To obtain a complete elasticity tensor we need both polarizations and traveltimes for the three waves [3].) 1. Bóna, A., Bucataru, I., Slawinski, M.A. (2007) Elasticity parameters from traveltime and polarization measurements. Journal of Applied Geophysics (accepted) 2. Bóna, A., Bucataru, I., Slawinski, M.A. (2007) Coordinate-free characterization of elasticity tensor. Journal of Elasticity 87(2-3), 109--132 3. Bóna, A., Bucataru, I., Slawinski, M.A. (2007) Material symmetries versus wavefront symmetries. Q. Jl Mech. appl. Math 60(2), 73--8 4. Bóna, A., Slawinski, M.A. (2007) Comparison of two inversions for elasticity tensor. Journal of Applied Geophysics (submitted) 5. Dewangan, P., Grechka, V. (2003) Inversion of multicomponent, multiazimuth, walkaway VSP data for the stiffness tensor. Geophysics 68(3), 1022--1031 6. Ting, T.C.T. (2003) Generalized Cowin-Mehrabadi theorems and a direct proof that the number of linear elastic symmetries is eight. Internat. J. of Solids and Structures 40, 7129--7142
Facile measurement of single-crystal elastic constants from polycrystalline samples
Du, Xinpeng; Zhao, Ji-Cheng
2017-04-01
Elastic constants are among the most fundamental properties of materials. Simulations of microstructural evolution and constitutive/micro-mechanistic modeling of materials properties require elastic constants that are predominately measured from single crystals that are labor intensive to grow. A facile technique is developed to measure elastic constants from polycrystalline samples. The technique is based upon measurements of the surface acoustic wave velocities with the help of a polydimethylsiloxane film grating that is placed on a polished surface of a polycrystalline sample to confine surface acoustic waves that are induced by a femtosecond laser and measured using pump-probe time-domain thermoreflectance. Electron backscatter diffraction is employed to measure the crystallographic orientation along which the surface acoustic wave propagates in each grain (perpendicular to the polydimethylsiloxane grating). Such measurements are performed on several grains. A robust mathematical solution was developed to compute the surface acoustic wave velocity along any crystallographic orientation of any crystal structure with given elastic constants and density. By inputting various starting values of elastic constants to compute the surface acoustic wave velocities to match experimental measurements in several distinct crystallographic orientations using an optimization algorithm, accurate elastic constant values have been obtained from seven polycrystalline metal samples to be within 6.8% of single-crystal measurements. This new technique can help change the current scenario that experimentally measured elastic constants are available for only about 1% of the estimated 160,000 distinct solid compounds, not to mention the significant need for elastic constants of various solid solution compositions that are the base of structural materials.
Understanding the Earth's Mantle Through Advanced Elasticity Measurements
Marquardt, Hauke; Schulze, Kirsten; Kurnosov, Alexander; Buchen, Johannes; Frost, Daniel; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Marquardt, Katharina; Kawazoe, Takaaki
2017-04-01
Constraints on the inner structure, chemical and mineralogical composition as well as dynamics of Earth's mantle can be derived through comparison of laboratory elasticity data to seismological observables. A quantitative knowledge of the elastic properties of mantle minerals, and their variations with chemical composition, at pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's mantle is key to construct reliable synthetic mineral physics-based seismic velocity models to be compared to seismic observables. We will discuss results of single-crystal elasticity measurements on Earth mantle minerals that have been conducted using the combined Brillouin scattering and x-ray diffraction (XRD) system at BGI Bayreuth in combination with advanced sample preparation using the focused ion beam (FIB) technique [1] that allows for tailoring sizes and shapes of tiny single-crystals. In our experiments, multiple FIB-prepared single-crystals were loaded in a single sample chamber of a resistively-heated diamond-anvil cell (DAC). The possiblity to measure simultaneously acoustic wave velocities and density (unit-cell parameters) in the DAC in combination with the multi-sample approach facilitates direct quantification of the effects of chemical substitution on the elasticity and seismic wave velocities at non-ambient conditions. Our experimental approach eliminates uncertainties arising from the combination of data collected under (potentially) different conditions in several DAC runs, in different laboratories and/or from using different pressure-temperature sensors. We will present our recent experiments on the elasticity of single-crystal Fe-Al-bearing bridgmanite in the lower mantle and discuss implications for the composition and oxidation state of Earth's lower mantle. We will further discuss our laboratory data on the effects of 'water' and iron on the seismic wave velocities of ringwoodite in Earth's transition zone and outline implications for mapping 'water' in the transition
Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava
2006-07-31
The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.
On Elasticity Measurement in Cloud Computing
Wei Ai; Kenli Li; Shenglin Lan; Fan Zhang; Jing Mei; Keqin Li; Rajkumar Buyya
2016-01-01
Elasticity is the foundation of cloud performance and can be considered as a great advantage and a key benefit of cloud computing. However, there is no clear, concise, and formal definition of elasticity measurement, and thus no effective approach to elasticity quantification has been developed so far. Existing work on elasticity lack of solid and technical way of defining elasticity measurement and definitions of elasticity metrics have not been accurate enough to capture the essence of elas...
Seismic metasurfaces: Sub-wavelength resonators and Rayleigh wave interaction
Colquitt, D J; Craster, R V; Roux, P; Guenneau, S R L
2016-01-01
We consider the canonical problem of an array of rods, which act as resonators, placed on an elastic substrate; the substrate being either a thin elastic plate or an elastic half-space. In both cases the flexural plate, or Rayleigh surface, waves in the substrate interact with the resonators to create interesting effects such as effective band-gaps for surface waves or filters that transform surface waves into bulk waves; these effects have parallels in the field of optics where such sub-wavelength resonators create metamaterials, and metasurfaces, in the bulk and at the surface respectively. Here we carefully analyse this canonical problem by extracting the dispersion relations analytically thereby examining the influence of both the flexural and compressional resonances on the propagating wave. For an array of resonators atop an elastic half-space we augment the analysis with numerical simulations. Amongst other effects, we demonstrate the striking effect of a dispersion curve that transitions from Rayleigh...
Acoustic and elastic multiple scattering and radiation from cylindrical structures
Amirkulova, Feruza Abdukadirovna
Multiple scattering (MS) and radiation of waves by a system of scatterers is of great theoretical and practical importance and is required in a wide variety of physical contexts such as the implementation of "invisibility" cloaks, the effective parameter characterization, and the fabrication of dynamically tunable structures, etc. The dissertation develops fast, rapidly convergent iterative techniques to expedite the solution of MS problems. The formulation of MS problems reduces to a system of linear algebraic equations using Graf's theorem and separation of variables. The iterative techniques are developed using Neumann expansion and Block Toeplitz structure of the linear system; they are very general, and suitable for parallel computations and a large number of MS problems, i.e. acoustic, elastic, electromagnetic, etc., and used for the first time to solve MS problems. The theory is implemented in Matlab and FORTRAN, and the theoretical predictions are compared to computations obtained by COMSOL. To formulate the MS problem, the transition matrix is obtained by analyzing an acoustic and an elastic single scattering of incident waves by elastic isotropic and anisotropic solids. The mathematical model of wave scattering from multilayered cylindrical and spherical structures is developed by means of an exact solution of dynamic 3D elasticity theory. The recursive impedance matrix algorithm is derived for radially heterogeneous anisotropic solids. An explicit method for finding the impedance in piecewise uniform, transverse-isotropic material is proposed; the solution is compared to elasticity theory solutions involving Buchwald potentials. Furthermore, active exterior cloaking devices are modeled for acoustic and elastic media using multipole sources. A cloaking device can render an object invisible to some incident waves as seen by some external observer. The active cloak is generated by a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an
Semenova, I. V.; Belashov, A. V.; Garbuzov, F. E.; Samsonov, A. M.; Semenov, A. A.
2017-06-01
We demonstrate an alternative approach to determination of the third order elastic moduli of materials based on registration of nonlinear bulk strain waves in three basic structural waveguides (rod, plate and shell) and further calculation of the Murnaghan moduli from the recorded wave parameters via simple algebra. These elastic moduli are available in literature for a limited number of materials and are measured with considerable errors, that evidences a demand in novel approaches to their determination.
Guided Waves in Structures for SHM The Time - domain Spectral Element Method
Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Krawczuk, Marek; Zak, Arkadiusz
2011-01-01
Presents the state of the art in the modelling, analysis and experimental investigation of elastic wave propagation using a technique of rapidly increasing interest and development Addressing an important issue in the field of guided-wave-based damage identification and structural health monitoring,Guided Waves in Structures for SHM presents the modelling, analysis and experimental investigation of elastic wave propagation in engineering structures made of isotropic or composite materials. The authors begin by summarising present-day knowledge on elastic wave propagation in solids, focusing on
Elastic instability in stratified core annular flow.
Bonhomme, Oriane; Morozov, Alexander; Leng, Jacques; Colin, Annie
2011-06-01
We study experimentally the interfacial instability between a layer of dilute polymer solution and water flowing in a thin capillary. The use of microfluidic devices allows us to observe and quantify in great detail the features of the flow. At low velocities, the flow takes the form of a straight jet, while at high velocities, steady or advected wavy jets are produced. We demonstrate that the transition between these flow regimes is purely elastic--it is caused by the viscoelasticity of the polymer solution only. The linear stability analysis of the flow in the short-wave approximation supplemented with a kinematic criterion captures quantitatively the flow diagram. Surprisingly, unstable flows are observed for strong velocities, whereas convected flows are observed for low velocities. We demonstrate that this instability can be used to measure the rheological properties of dilute polymer solutions that are difficult to assess otherwise.
Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses
Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei
2016-01-01
Dielectric metasurfaces are two-dimensional structures composed of nano-scatterers that manipulate phase and polarization of optical waves with subwavelength spatial resolution, enabling ultra-thin components for free-space optics. While high performance devices with various functionalities, including some that are difficult to achieve using conventional optical setups have been shown, most demonstrated components have a fixed functionality. Here we demonstrate highly tunable metasurface devices based on subwavelength thick silicon nano-posts encapsulated in a thin transparent elastic polymer. As proof of concept, we demonstrate a metasurface microlens operating at 915 nm, with focal distance tuning from 600 $\\mu$m to 1400 $\\mu$m through radial strain, while maintaining a diffraction limited focus and a focusing efficiency above 50$\\%$. The demonstrated tunable metasurface concept is highly versatile for developing ultra-slim, multi-functional and tunable optical devices with widespread applications ranging f...
Elastic metamaterials and dynamic homogenization: a review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ankit Srivastava
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we review the recent advances which have taken place in the understanding and applications of acoustic/elastic metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially created composite materials which exhibit unusual properties that are not found in nature. We begin with presenting arguments from discrete systems which support the case for the existence of unusual material properties such as tensorial and/or negative density. The arguments are then extended to elastic continuums through coherent averaging principles. The resulting coupled and nonlocal homogenized relations, called the Willis relations, are presented as the natural description of inhomogeneous elastodynamics. They are specialized to Bloch waves propagating in periodic composites and we show that the Willis properties display the unusual behavior which is often required in metamaterial applications such as the Veselago lens. We finally present the recent advances in the area of transformation elastodynamics, charting its inspirations from transformation optics, clarifying its particular challenges, and identifying its connection with the constitutive relations of the Willis and the Cosserat types.
Magneto-elastic Oscillations and Magnetar QPOs
Stergioulas, N.; Gabler, M.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Font, J. A.; Müller, E.
2012-07-01
The origin of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the giant flares of soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) remains uncertain. Current models explore the idea that long-term quasi-periodic oscillations are trapped at the turning points of the continuum of torsional magneto-elastic oscillations in the magnetar's interior. After reviewing recent work in this field, we describe our latest efforts using two-dimensional, general-relativistic, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations, coupled to evolutions of shear waves in the solid crust, in order to explore the viability of this model when a purely dipolar magnetic field is assumed. We demonstrate the existence of three different regimes (a) B 1015 G, where magneto-elastic oscillations reach the surface and approach the behavior of purely Alfvén QPOs. Our results do not leave much room for a crustal-mode interpretation of observed QPOs in SGR giant flares, in the case of a purely dipolar magnetic field. On the other hand, the observed QPOs could originate from Alfvén-like, global, turning-point QPOs in models with dipolar magnetic field strengths in the narrow range of 5 × 1015 G ≤ B ≤ 1.4 × 1016 G. To agree with estimates for magnetic field strengths in known magnetars, a more complicated magnetic field structure or superfluidity of the neutrons and superconductivity of the protons should be taken into account.