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Sample records for coconut water cocos

  1. EXPLOITING A BENEFIT OF COCONUT MILK SKIM IN COCONUT OIL PROCESS AS NATA DE COCO SUBSTRATE

    OpenAIRE

    Setiaji, Bambang; Setyopratiwi, Ani; Cahyandaru, Nahar

    2010-01-01

    A research to know influence of mixing concentration of coconut water and sucrose concentration to coconut milk skim as nata de coco substrate has been conducted. The variation was taken from mixing coconut water (0%, 25%, 35% and 50% and 100% as control) and the sucrose concentration (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%). Coconut milk skim boiled before used as substrat, yielded a coconut protein (blondo). The result of research showed that coconut milk skim can be used as nata de coco substrate with mixi...

  2. Carbohydrate measuvements on four brands of coconut water Teores de glicídios em quatro marcas de água de coco

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    Hernete de Jesus Santos Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of water from dry coconuts to produce long-life coconut water, using a 20% mixture of green coconut water in order to reach the quality standard demanded by Brazilian customers, has been done since 2000. That is one more alternative for the by products from Cocos nucifera L. processing industries, introducing marketing advantages like: better storage, longer shelf life, transportation, and visual quality to the customer. Packed with ultrasonic Swedish technology, coconut water has been already commercialized in establishments in Southeastern Brazil. In this work, carbohydrate contents of four coconut water brands and the natural coconut water were comparatively analyzed, and the contents of fructose, glucose, sucrose, total sugars, and reducing sugars were determined. The coconut water used in this research was bought in Lavras, Minas Gerais St., as well as the green coconut water, which was used as a control. The statistical design was completely randomized, and the treatments were five brands with five replicates. The analyses were performed in the Biochemistry laboratory, of UFLA's Chemistry Department. Two out of four commercial brands, brands B and D, did not achieve the quality standards cited in the literature.O aproveitamento da água de coco seco, para a produção de água de coco longa-vida com uma mistura de 20% de água de coco verde, para atingir o padrão de qualidade exigido pelo consumidor brasileiro, vem sendo utilizado desde 2000. Trata-se de mais uma alternativa para as indústrias de processamento dos produtos derivados dos frutos de Cocos nucifera L., apresentando vantagens mercadológicas como: facilidade de estocagem, maior vida de prateleira, transporte e exposição ao consumidor. Embalada com tecnologia sueca ultra-sônica, já está sendo comercializada em estabelecimentos de gêneros alimentícios também na região sudeste do Brasil. Com este trabalho, analisou-se comparativamente o teor de glicídios de

  3. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  4. The genome draft of coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Xu, Pengwei; Fan, Haikuo; Baudouin, Luc; Xia, Wei; Bocs, Stéphanie; Xu, Junyang; Li, Qiong; Guo, Anping; Zhou, Lixia; Li, Jing; Wu, Yi; Ma, Zilong; Armero, Alix; Issali, Auguste Emmanuel; Liu, Na; Peng, Ming; Yang, Yaodong

    2017-11-01

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera,2n = 32), a member of genus Cocos and family Arecaceae (Palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares [1]. Coconut palm is generally classified into 2 main categories: "Tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "Dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years after planting), based on morphological characteristics and breeding habits. This Palmae species has a long growth period before reproductive years, which hinders conventional breeding progress. In spite of initial successes, improvements made by conventional breeding have been very slow. In the present study, we obtained de novo sequences of the Cocos nucifera genome: a major genomic resource that could be used to facilitate molecular breeding in Cocos nucifera and accelerate the breeding process in this important crop. A total of 419.67 gigabases (Gb) of raw reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform using a series of paired-end and mate-pair libraries, covering the predicted Cocos nucifera genome length (2.42 Gb, variety "Hainan Tall") to an estimated ×173.32 read depth. A total scaffold length of 2.20 Gb was generated (N50 = 418 Kb), representing 90.91% of the genome. The coconut genome was predicted to harbor 28 039 protein-coding genes, which is less than in Phoenix dactylifera (PDK30: 28 889), Phoenix dactylifera (DPV01: 41 660), and Elaeis guineensis (EG5: 34 802). BUSCO evaluation demonstrated that the obtained scaffold sequences covered 90.8% of the coconut genome and that the genome annotation was 74.1% complete. Genome annotation results revealed that 72.75% of the coconut genome consisted of transposable elements, of which long-terminal repeat retrotransposons elements (LTRs) accounted for the largest proportion (92.23%). Comparative analysis of the

  5. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.

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    DebMandal, Manisha; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-03-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Produção de nanopartículas de Al2O3 utilizando água de coco maduro (coco seco Production of Al2O3 nanoparticles employing mature coconut water (dried coconut

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    V. K. S. Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propõe o emprego de uma nova rota de produção de nanopartículas para aplicação em indústria cerâmica. Esta rota, conhecida como rota sol-gel proteico, usualmente utiliza água de coco verde para dissolver os sais precursores, em substituição aos alcóxidos metálicos empregados no processo convencional. No entanto, não existem relatos da utilização da água de coco maduro, geralmente descartada pelas indústrias de processamento de coco, para fabricação de nanopartículas. Nanopartículas de Al2O3 foram produzidas através da rota sol-gel proteico utilizando água de coco maduro como fluido precursor molecular e foram caracterizadas por meio de análises termogravimétrica-térmica diferencial, difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de força atômica. Amostras com água de coco verde também foram produzidas e usadas como referência. A fase γ-Al2O3 foi obtida após calcinação a 700 °C, permanecendo estável após calcinação a 1200 °C. Observou-se um aumento no tamanho das partículas à medida que a temperatura de calcinação aumentava, sendo os tamanhos estimados em ~ 400 nm para as amostras calcinadas a 1200 °C.The present work proposes a new preparation route of nanoparticles to be used in the ceramic industry. This new route, known as proteic sol-gel, usually employs green coconut water to dissolve the precursor salts, instead of conventional metal alcoxides. However there are no reports about the employment of water from mature coconut in the preparation of nanoparticles, which is usually disposed in the coconut processing industry. Al2O3 nanoparticles were produced via proteic sol-gel route using mature coconut water and were characterized through DTA/TG and XRD measurements and SEM and AFM images. The γ-Al2O3 phase was obtained after calcination at 700 °C, and was stable even after calcination at 1200 °C. An increase in particle size while the temperature

  7. Analgesic effect of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L liquid smoke on mice

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    Meircurius Dwi C.S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs can be used to eliminate pain by inhibiting the activity of conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. The chemical compositions of coconut shell are cellulose, pentosan, lignin, solvent extraction, uronat anhydrous, nitrogen, and water. One active ingredient in coconut shell is phenyl propanoid (consisting in lignin structure and guaicol. Phenyl propanoid and guaicol are phenolic compounds that can be used as antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and analgesic. Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L contains phenolic compound is believed able to bind a component conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the analgesic effect of liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental research, conducted on 2-3 months old male mice (Mus musculus with 20-30 grams of weight. There were control group and treatment groups each of which had seven mice. Control group was orally given 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of distilled water, after 30 minutes 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of acetic acid 0.6% was delivered via intraperitoneal injection. The treatment groups were given liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100% respectively. The analgesic effect was then determined by decreasing of writhing reflex on mice recorded every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: There were significant differences of writhing reflexes in the treatment groups given liquid smoke of coconut shell with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. The higher concentration of liquid smoke the higher its analgesic effect. Conclusion: Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L has analgesic effect.Latar belakang: Salah satu mekanisme obat yang digunakan untuk menghilangkan rasa nyeri adalah menghambat aktivitas konversi asam arakhidonat menjadi prostaglandin. Komposisi kimia tempurung kelapa terdiri dari

  8. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    P. P. Preetha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight. Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

  9. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

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    Awua, Adolf K; Doe, Edna D; Agyare, Rebecca

    2011-10-27

    Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria

  10. Cultivo de Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae em substratos a base de coco Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae cultivation in coconut-based substrates

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    Adriane Marinho de Assis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os substratos utilizados no cultivo de orquídeas, a fibra de coco vem se destacando como promissor substituto do xaxim, material utilizado por muitos produtores e colecionadores de orquídeas, porém ameaçado de extinção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de coco, no cultivo da orquídea Oncidium baueri. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 50% de luminosidade. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de xaxim desfibrado, coco desfibrado, coco em pó, coco desfibrado + coco em pó, coxim (coco em cubos, coxim + coco em pó e coxim + coco desfibrado. Após dezenove meses, foram avaliadas as variáveis: altura das plantas, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos, comprimento da maior raiz, massa seca das raízes, número de brotações e pH dos substratos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições. Para todas as variáveis avaliadas, os substratos coco em pó e a mistura de coco desfibrado com coco em pó mostraram-se tão eficientes ao desenvolvimento das plantas quanto o xaxim desfibrado, podendo substituí-lo no cultivo de O. baueri.Among the several substrates used in orchid growing, coconut fiber is being considered the most promising substitute for xaxim (tree fern fiber, material highly used by orchid growers and collectors, which has become endangered. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of coconut-based substrates in the cultivation of the Brazilian orchid Oncidium baueri. Seedlings were grown in polypropylene vases kept in a nursery with 50% of lighting. Treatments included: defibered tree fern (control, de-fibered coconut, coconut powder, de-fibered coconut + coconut powder, coxim (diced coconut., coxim + coconut powder and coxim + de-fibered coconut. Plant height, pseudo bulbs diameter, number of buds, root dry matter weight, root length and pH substrate were evaluated 19 months

  11. Germination response of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effects of liquid and solid media in the propagation of coconut (Cocos nucifera) zygotic embryos at initiation stage. Eeuwen's medium supplemented with growth hormones naphthalene acetic acid ( NAA) and indole butyric acid (IBA) at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and ...

  12. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

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    Yong, Jean W H; Ge, Liya; Ng, Yan Fei; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2009-12-09

    Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  13. Germination response of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of liquid and solid media in the propagation of coconut (Cocos nucifera) zygotic embryos at initiation stage. Eeuwen's medium supplemented with growth hormones naphthalene acetic acid ( NAA) and indole butyric acid (IBA) at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5mg/l) were ...

  14. Conservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm at sub-zero temperature.

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    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2012-01-01

    Protocols are proposed for the low (-20 degree C) and ultra-low (-80 degree C) temperature storage of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) embryos. A tissue dehydration step prior to storage, and a rapid warming step upon recovery optimized the protocol. The thermal properties of water located within embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the most efficient version of the protocol, embryos were dehydrated under a sterile air flow in a dehydration solution containing glucose (3.33 M) and glycerol (15 percent) for 16 hours. This protocol decreased the embryo water content from 77 to 29 percent FW and at the same time reduced the amount of freezable water down to 0.03 percent. The dehydrated embryos could be stored for up to 3 weeks at -20 degree C (12 percent producing normal plants upon recovery) or 26 weeks at -80 degree C (28 percent producing normal plants upon recovery). These results indicate that it is possible to store coconut germplasm on a medium term basis using an ultra-deep freezer unit. However for more efficient, long term storage, cryopreservation remains the preferred option.

  15. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L. in the old world tropics.

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    Bee F Gunn

    Full Text Available As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L. played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  16. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the old world tropics.

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    Gunn, Bee F; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  17. Crystal Structure of Cocosin, A Potential Food Allergen from Coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Cao, Min-Jie; Fu, Tong-Jen; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yuzhu

    2017-08-30

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is an important palm tree. Coconut fruit is widely consumed. The most abundant storage protein in coconut fruit is cocosin (a likely food allergen), which belongs to the 11S globulin family. Cocosin was crystallized near a century ago, but its structure remains unknown. By optimizing crystallization conditions and cryoprotectant solutions, we were able to obtain cocosin crystals that diffracted to 1.85 Å. The cocosin gene was cloned from genomic DNA isolated from dry coconut tissue. The protein sequence deduced from the predicted cocosin coding sequence was used to guide model building and structure refinement. The structure of cocosin was determined for the first time, and it revealed a typical 11S globulin feature of a double layer doughnut-shaped hexamer.

  18. Ascensão capilar de água em substratos de coco e de pinus Capillary water rise in coconut and pine bark substrates

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    Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso da irrigação por capilaridade na produção de mudas em viveiros pode trazer vantagens ao uso de água e sua utilização adequada requer o conhecimento da capacidade de ascensão de água no meio de crescimento das raízes, atributo pouco estudado. Para avaliar esta condição fundamental, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a ascensão de água em substratos comerciais de coco e pinus, em dois padrões de tamanho de partículas e em duas condições de umidade, para indicar aquele que possua as melhores características físicas para aplicação na irrigação por capilaridade. Utilizou-se o método de ascensão capilar, com colunas desmontáveis de anéis preenchidas com substratos, avaliando-se os seguintes tempos de contato do fundo da coluna com a lâmina de água: 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 24 horas, com 10 repetições por tempo testado. Pelos resultados, observou-se que a maior ascensão capilar acumulada em 24 horas de ensaio foi obtida para os substratos de textura fina de coco e de pinus. Além disso, a hidrofobia do substrato de coco seco recomenda que as irrigações nesse material devem ter frequências maiores que substratos de pinus, evitando seu secamento. O substrato de pinus, por não apresentar esse comportamento, deve ter turnos de rega mais espaçados, principalmente sob textura fina. Devido à sua maior retenção de água e capacidade de elevação de água quando umedecido, o substrato fino de coco é mais adequado à irrigação por capilaridade em recipientes como tubetes.The capillary irrigation in nursery production could give advantages in water use and its correct application demands knowledge about capillary water rise through root growth media, an attribute poorly studied. This research had as objective to evaluate water capillary rise in commercial pine and coconut substrates for two particle size distributions and two moisture conditions, to indicate the substrate with the best physical

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

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    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  20. Aclimatização de bastão-do-imperador (Etlingera elatior em substratos à base de coco = Ginger flower (Etlingera elatior acclimation in coconut-based substrates

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    Adriane Marinho de Assis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aclimatização é uma etapa da micropropagação que inspira cuidados, pela dificuldade de transferir com sucesso as plântulas in vitro para a casa-de-vegetação. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de coco durante a aclimatização de bastão-do-imperador. As mudas, obtidas de cultivo in vitro, apresentavam,inicialmente, altura média de 6,2 + 0,4 cm. Foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 70% de luminosidade. Os tratamentos foram: areia, coco em pó, coco desfibrado, coco em pó + areia, coco desfibrado + areia e coco em pó + coco desfibrado. Cinco meses após o transplantio avaliaram-se as variáveis proporção desobrevivência, altura da parte aérea, massa fresca, número de brotos, massa seca das raízes e pH dos substratos. Os substratos areia, coco em pó + areia e coco desfibrado + areia proporcionaram os melhores resultados para todas variáveis acima descritas, sendo recomendados para a aclimatização de bastão-do-imperador.Acclimation is a stage in micro-propagation that requires special attention due to the difficult process involving the successful transfer of in vitro plantlets to the greenhouse. The objective of this work was to assess the efficacy of coconut-based substrates in ginger flower acclimation. Seedlings from in vitro cultivation initially presented an average height of 6.2 ± 4 cm. They were grown in polypropylene vases kept in a nursery, with 70% of light. The following treatments were used: sand, coconut powder, de-fiberedcoconut, coconut powder + sand, de-fibered coconut + sand, and coconut powder + defibered coconut. Five months after transplantation, the following variables were analyzed: survival rate, aerial part height, fresh matter, number of seedlings, root dry matter, and substrate pH. Sand, powder coconut + sand and de-fibered coconut + sand showed the best results for all variables analyzed, and they are recommended for ginger

  1. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

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    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  2. Shelf life studies of oil samples of coconut ( Cocos nucifera ) in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two samples A and B of the oil of coconut (Cocos nucifera) were stored for 3 months under ambient conditions (24-28 oC). The changes in the levels of free fatty acid and peroxide values were monitored at monthly intervals in the 3-month period. During this period, the free fatty acid (calculated as lauric acid) rose from 0.2 ...

  3. Antiulcerogenic effects of coconut (Cocos nucifera) extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nneli, R O; Woyike, O A

    2008-07-01

    A warm water crude extract of coconut milk and a coconut water dispersion were investigated for their antiulcerogenic effects in male Wistar albino rats. Ulcers were induced in the male rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg) using standard procedures. The ulcer inhibition rate (UIR) was taken as a measure of the cytoprotection offered by test substances. Coconut milk (2 mL daily oral feeding) produced a stronger percentage (54%) reduction in the mean ulcer area than coconut water (39%). The effect of coconut milk was similar to the effect of sucralfate that reduced the mean ulcer area by 56% in this study. Sucralfate is a conventional cytoprotective agent. The results showed that coconut milk and water via macroscopic observation had protective effects on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. It is concluded that coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.

  4. Complete sequence and comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2013-01-01

    Coconut, a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important trees used by mankind. Despite its diverse morphology, coconut is recognized taxonomically as only a single species (Cocos nucifera L.). There are two major coconut varieties, tall and dwarf, the latter of which displays traits resulting from selection by humans. We report here the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of a dwarf coconut plant, and describe the gene content and organization, inverted repeat fluctuations, repeated sequence structure, and occurrence of RNA editing. Phylogenetic relationships of monocots were inferred based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes. Potential nodes for events of gene duplication and pseudogenization related to inverted repeat fluctuation were mapped onto the tree using parsimony criteria. We compare our findings with those from other palm species for which complete cp genome sequences are available.

  5. Effect of microwave drying and oven drying on the water activity, color, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Cortez-García, Rosa María; Plazola-Jacinto, Carla Patricia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    The coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64.2 mg GAE/g dry wt and significant higher than observed after OD and MD of 35.8 and 45.5 mg GAE/g dry wt, respectively. Ten phenols were identified in fresh and dehydrated coconut husks. The husk MD showed an increase in the content of gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and syringic acids and epicatechin compared with the fresh; while coconut husk OD and MD, showed a decrease in the content of vanillic acid, vanillin, catequin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity decreased after both OD and MD. However, MD resulted in a better antioxidant activity in husk than OD. MD of husk resulted into better retention of preserved color, TPC and TFC than OD.

  6. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coconut Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water because the immature coconuts are green in color. Coconut water is different than coconut milk. Coconut milk is produced from an emulsion of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly ...

  8. Biochemical and nutritional characterization of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) haustorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Arivalagan; Bhardwaj, Rakesh; Padmanabhan, Sugatha; Suneja, Poonam; Hebbar, K B; Kanade, Santosh R

    2018-01-01

    Study was conducted to determine the biochemical constituents in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) haustorium, a spongy tissue formed during coconut germination. Results indicated that 100g of dried coconut haustorium contained 1.05±0.2% ash, 44.2±4.6% soluble sugar, 24.5±3.2% starch, 5.50±0.3% protein, 1.99±0.9% fat, 5.72±0.4% soluble dietary fibre, 20.3±1.9% insoluble dietary fibre, and 146±14.3mg phenolics. Mineral profiling showed that it contained 145±8.6, 104±9.6, 33.9±8.2, 30.9±1.9, 9.45±2.1, 0.292±0.1, 2.53±0.2 and 1.20±0.1mg of K, Mg, Ca, P, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, respectively. Antioxidant activity assay indicated that 100g haustorium was equivalent to 1918±173, 170±20.4, 72.8±14.7 and 860±116mg of Trolox as measured by CUPRAC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Amino acid score indicated that methionine+cysteine (57.6%), phenylalanine+tyrosine (32.6%), leucine (45.7%) and isoleucine (68%) are found less in haustorium. Further studies needed in developing nutritionally balanced formulations using coconut haustorium, which will be useful for lactose intolerant children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial properties of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk: An extrapolation to oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Maji; Cyriac, Maria B; Pai, Vidya; Varghese, Ipe; Shantaram, Manjula

    2014-07-01

    Brushing the teeth with fibrous husk of Cocos nucifera (coconut) is a common oral hygiene practice among people of rural areas of South India. However, the probable antimicrobial properties of this plant material against common oral pathogens have not been proved scientifically. Therefore, the present study was designed. Alcoholic extract of the husk of Cocos nucifera was prepared and the antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like cariogenic bacteria, periodontal pathogens, and candidal organisms were performed by the Agar Well Diffusion Method. The results obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD). The alcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera showed a significant concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity, expressed as a zone of inhibition with respect to all tested organisms except Actinomyces species. The inhibitory effect was more significant, with a majority of cariogenic organisms and Candida, with a zone of inhibition ranging from 4.6 mm to 16.3 mm. However, the effect was lesser with Cocos nucifera compared to chlorhexidine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 50 mg/ml to 75 mg/ml. Cocos nucifera has a significant inhibitory action against common oral pathogens, indicating the presence of highly effective antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, it is proved that its use can contribute to oral health to a great extent. Identification of these active compounds provides the scope for incorporating it into a modern oral care system, so as to control oral diseases.

  10. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Masa, Dina B

    2003-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. The significantly low-GI (cake (GI 51.8 (sem 3.3)), with 200-250 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour/kg had GI ranging from 61.3 to 71.4. Among the test foods, pan de sal (GI 87.2 (sem 5.5)) and multigrain loaf (GI 85.2 (sem 6.8)) gave significantly higher GI with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively (Pflour/kg respectively gave a GI ranging from 62.7 to 71.6 and did not differ significantly from the test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour. In conclusion, the GI of coconut flour-supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of coconut flour and this may be due to its high dietary fibre content. The results of the present study may form a scientific basis for the development of coconut flour as a functional food. However, the fat content of coconut flour-supplemented food should always be considered to optimize the functionality of coconut fibre in the proper control and management of diabetes mellitus.

  11. Development of Young Coconut (Cocos nucifera Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polemer M. Cuarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop wine from young coconut water. This investigated the acceptability of the quality attributes of young coconut wine compared with commercial wine. Using a 5 - point hedonic scale, sensory evaluation test was done by the panelists (N=30 to evaluate the accep tability of the product quality attributes such as color, aroma and taste. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that young coconut wine has a pale light color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Results also showed that panelists choose the color and tast e of the young coconut wine as its desirable attributes. Statistical analysis (p<0.05 showed significant difference in the color and aroma between young coconut wine and commercial wine but no significant difference in terms of taste.

  12. Complete Sequence and Analysis of Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) Mitochondrial Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohi, Hasan Awad; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhao, Yuhui; Zeng, Jingyao; Alamer, Ali; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alawad, Abdullah O; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important crops in tropics, serving as an important source of food, drink, fuel, medicine, and construction material. Here we report an assembly of the coconut (C. nucifera, Oman local Tall cultivar) mitochondrial (mt) genome based on next-generation sequencing data. This genome, 678,653bp in length and 45.5% in GC content, encodes 72 proteins, 9 pseudogenes, 23 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs. Within the assembly, we find that the chloroplast (cp) derived regions account for 5.07% of the total assembly length, including 13 proteins, 2 pseudogenes, and 11 tRNAs. The mt genome has a relatively large fraction of repeat content (17.26%), including both forward (tandem) and inverted (palindromic) repeats. Sequence variation analysis shows that the Ti/Tv ratio of the mt genome is lower as compared to that of the nuclear genome and neutral expectation. By combining public RNA-Seq data for coconut, we identify 734 RNA editing sites supported by at least two datasets. In summary, our data provides the second complete mt genome sequence in the family Arecaceae, essential for further investigations on mitochondrial biology of seed plants.

  13. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M; Aggarwal, M; Puri, S; Singla, S K

    2013-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  14. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  15. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  16. Mudas de melancia produzidas com substrato à base de pó de coco e soluções nutritivas Watermelon seedlings produced with coconut powder and nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria RP Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A escolha do substrato é uma das etapas mais importantes na produção de mudas e deve levar em consideração as exigências nutricionais das espécies cultivadas. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar substratos à base de pó de coco associado a soluções nutritivas para produção de mudas de melancia. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Semiárido em Petrolina (PE, em casa de vegetação em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições e arranjo fatorial 2 x 10 (cultivares de melancia e substratos. As cultivares utilizadas foram: Opara e Top Gun. A fibra de coco foi associada às seguintes soluções nutritivas: T1= testemunha composta de substrato comercial orgânico Plantmax® (SC, T2= pó de coco (PC, T3= pó de coco + solução melão (PC+SM, T4= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 12,5% (PC+SH 12,5%, T5= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 25% (PC+SH 25%, T6= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 50% (PC+SH 50%, T7= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 75% (PC+SH 75%, T8= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 100% (PC+SH 100%, T9= pó de coco + Aminoagro Mol (PC+AM, T10= pó de coco + Aminoagro Raiz (PC+AR. Foram realizadas oito aplicações de 10 mL de solução, iniciada no quarto dia após a semeadura (DAS quando também foi iniciada a avaliação de emergência de plântulas. Aos 24 DAS foram avaliados a massa fresca da parte aérea e da raiz, comprimento do sistema radicular, número de raízes no terço superior e teores de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas. A cv. Top Gun apresentou teores mais elevados de nutrientes, exceto para ferro e cobre. Os tratamentos T6, T7 e T8 permitiram teores de nutrientes nas plantas semelhantes ao substrato comercial Plantmax. De modo geral, as combinações de pó de coco associado à solução nutritiva de Hoagland e Arnon a 50, 75 e 100% e com Aminoagro raiz mostraram-se promissoras para a formação de

  17. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  18. Effect of addition of coconut water (Cocos nucifera) to the freezing media on post-thaw viability of boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini-Luzardo, María; Centurión-Castro, Fernando; Alfaro-Gamboa, Militza; Aké-López, Ricardo; Herrera-Camacho, José

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment were to evaluate the addition of coconut water in natura to the freezing media, compare the effect of deionized water vs filtered water of coconut over the post-thaw seminal characteristics, and evaluate the effect of the deionized water and in natura coconut water on the seminal characteristics of boar sperm at different post-thaw times. Thirty-four ejaculates were used divided in three aliquots which received one of the following treatments (T): T1, LEY (bidistilled water, lactose, and egg yolk) and LEYGO (LEY + glycerol and Orvus ET paste); T2, LEY(A) (coconut deionized water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(A); and T3, LEY(B) (in natura coconut water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(B). Samples of boar semen were frozen according to the Westendorf method, thawed at 38°C, and evaluated at three incubation times (0, 30, and 60 min). Seminal characteristics assessed were motility (Mot), acrosomal integrity (AInt), membrane integrity (MInt), and mitochondrial activity (MAct). T1 showed a higher percentage of viable sperm than T3 (Mot 36.5 vs 5.4 %, AInt 61.8 vs 41.2 %, MInt 50.4 vs 41.3 %, and MAct 56.9 vs 50.5 %). T2 kept a higher percentage of viable sperm at all incubation times. In natura coconut water showed a detrimental effect over the viability of the frozen-thawed boar semen. Deionized coconut water improved the boar semen viability post-thaw, outperforming results of in natura coconut water.

  19. An Overview of Phytoconstituents, Biotechnological Applications, and Nutritive Aspects of Coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Cocos nucifera is one of the highest nutritional and medicinal value plants with various fractions of proteins which play a major role in several biological applications such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-neoplastic, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. This review is focused on several biotechnological, biomedical aspects of various solvent extracts collected from different parts of coconut and the phytochemical constituents which are present in it. The results obtained from this source will facilitate most of the researchers to focus their work toward the process of diagnosing diseases in future.

  20. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola', associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nigel A; Davis, Robert E; Oropeza, Carlos; Helmick, Ericka E; Narváez, María; Eden-Green, Simon; Dollet, Michel; Dickinson, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the taxonomic position and group classification of the phytoplasma associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique were addressed. Pairwise similarity values based on alignment of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (1530 bp) revealed that the Mozambique coconut phytoplasma (LYDM) shared 100% identity with a comparable sequence derived from a phytoplasma strain (LDN) responsible for Awka wilt disease of coconut in Nigeria, and shared 99.0-99.6% identity with 16S rRNA gene sequences from strains associated with Cape St Paul wilt (CSPW) disease of coconut in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Similarity scores further determined that the 16S rRNA gene of the LYDM phytoplasma shared coconut LYDM phytoplasma strains from Mozambique as novel members of established group 16SrXXII, subgroup A (16SrXXII-A). Similarity coefficients of 0.97 were obtained for comparisons between subgroup 16SrXXII-A strains and CSPW phytoplasmas from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. On this basis, the CSPW phytoplasma strains were designated members of a novel subgroup, 16SrXXII-B.

  1. Whole-plant adjustments in coconut (Cocos nucifera) in response to sink-source imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialet-Serra, I; Clement-Vidal, A; Roupsard, O; Jourdan, C; Dingkuhn, M

    2008-08-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial tropical monocotyledon that produces fruit continuously. The physiological function of the large amounts of sucrose stored in coconut stems is unknown. To test the hypothesis that reserve storage and mobilization enable the crop to adjust to variable sink-source relationships at the scale of the whole plant, we investigated the dynamics of dry matter production, yield and yield components, and concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in a coconut plantation on Vanuatu Island in the South Pacific. Two treatments were implemented continuously over 29 months (April 2002 to August 2004): 50% leaf pruning (to reduce the source) and 100% fruit and inflorescence pruning (to reduce the sink). The pruning treatments had little effect on carbohydrate reserves because they affected only petioles, not the main reserve pool in the stem. Both pruning treatments greatly reduced dry matter production of the reproductive compartment, but vegetative growth and development were negligibly affected by treatment and season. Leaf pruning increased radiation-use efficiency (RUE) initially, and fruit pruning greatly reduced RUE throughout the experiment. Changes in RUE were negatively correlated with leaflet soluble sugar concentration, indicating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. We conclude that vegetative development and growth of coconut show little phenotypic plasticity, assimilate demand for growth being largely independent of a fluctuating assimilate supply. The resulting sink-source imbalances were partly compensated for by transitory reserves and, more importantly, by variable RUE in the short term, and by adjustment of fruit load in the long term. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed, as well as modeling concepts that may be applied to coconut and similar tree crops.

  2. Coconut husk meal in diets for tambaqui (“Colossoma macropomum” Farelo de coco em dietas para o tambaqui ("Colossoma macropomum"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igo Gomes Guimarães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate growth performance and economic viability of tambaqui fed different levels of coconut husk meal (0;25;50 and 100. Thus, a 60-day feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels of coconut husk meal on growth performance of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and economic viability. One hundred and twenty tambaqui fingerlings with 7.71±0.17g were randomly assigned to 24 150L-aquaria in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and six replication. Diets were formulated to contain the same content of protein (26% CP, digestible energy (3200kcal DE/kg diet and crude fiber (8.51% differing only on the coconut husk meal replacement levels which were 0% (control diet, 25, 50 and 100%. Although no effect of coconut husk meal inclusion were observed for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and fillet yield, a negative and positive linear regression was significant for hepatossomatic and fat visceral indexes, respectively. The use of coconut husk meal in diets for tambaqui did not affect growth performance and carcass quality parameters. However, it is recommended the replacement of soybean meal to coconut husk meal up to 25% based on the economic evaluation of the diets.Avaliou-se com este trabalho o desempenho produtivo e econômico do tambaqui alimentado com rações que continham 0, 25, 50 e 100% de farelo de coco em substituição ao farelo de soja. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, para avaliar o efeito de dietas com níveis crescentes de farelo de coco sobre o desempenho do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, características de carcaça e na viabilidade econômica. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos com peso médio inicial de 7,71±0,17g distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 aquários de 150L. As dietas formuladas foram isoprot

  3. Proximity to encroaching coconut palm limits native forest water use and persistence on a Pacific atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Duberstein, Jamie A.; Cormier, Nicole; Young, Hillary S.; Hathaway, Stacie A.

    2015-01-01

    Competition for fresh water between native and introduced plants is one important challenge facing native forests as rainfall variability increases. Competition can be especially acute for vegetation on Pacific atolls, which depend upon consistent rainfall to replenish shallow groundwater stores. Patterns of sap flow, water use, and diameter growth of Pisonia grandis trees were investigated on Sand Islet, Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, during a period of low rainfall. Sap flow in the outer sapwood was reduced by 53% for P. grandis trees growing within coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) stands (n = 9) versus away from coconut palm (n = 9). This suggested that water uptake was being limited by coconut palm. Radial patterns of sap flow into the sapwood of P. grandis also differed between stands with and without coconut palm, such that individual tree water use for P. grandis ranged from 14 to 67 L day−1, averaging 47·8 L day−1 without coconut palm and 23·6 L day−1 with coconut palm. Diameter growth of P. grandis was measured from nine islets. In contrast to sap flow, competition with coconut palm increased diameter growth by 89%, equating to an individual tree basal area increment of 5·4 versus 10·3 mm2 day−1. Greater diameter growth countered by lower rates of water use by P. grandis trees growing in competition with coconut palm suggests that stem swell may be associated with water storage when positioned in the understory of coconut palm, and may facilitate survival when water becomes limiting until too much shading overwhelms P. grandis. 

  4. Characterisation of the volatile profile of coconut water from five varieties using an optimised HS-SPME-GC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prades, Alexia; Assa, Rebecca Rachel Ablan; Dornier, Manuel; Pain, Jean-Pierre; Boulanger, Renaud

    2012-09-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water is a refreshing tropical drink whose international market has recently been growing. However, little is yet known about its physicochemical composition, particularly its aroma. This study set out to characterise the volatile profile of water from five coconut varieties. Aroma compounds were characterised by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) analysis. An experimental design was established to optimise SPME conditions, leading to an equilibration time of 10 min followed by an extraction time of 60 min at 50 °C. Accordingly, immature coconut water from WAT (West African Tall), PB121 (MYD × WAT Hybrid), MYD (Malayan Yellow Dwarf), EGD (Equatorial Guinea Green Dwarf) and THD (Thailand Aromatic Green Dwarf) palms was analysed and described. Ketones were mainly present in the Tall and Hybrid varieties, whereas aldehydes were most abundant in the Dwarf palms. Tall coconut water was characterised by a high lactone content. THD exhibited a high ethyl octanoate level. The cluster analysis of the volatile fraction from the five coconut cultivars was found to be related to their genetic classification. The volatile compounds of immature coconut water from five varieties were characterised for the first time. Volatile profile analysis could be a useful tool for the selection of Dwarf coconut varieties, which are mainly consumed as a beverage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions for the improvement of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Thien; Bandupriya, H D Dharshani; López-Villalobos, Arturo; Sisunandar, S; Foale, Mike; Adkins, Steve W

    2015-11-01

    The present review discusses not only advances in coconut tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions but also future research directions toward the resilience of this important palm crop. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is commonly known as the 'tree of life'. Every component of the palm can be used to produce items of value and many can be converted into industrial products. Coconut cultivation faces a number of acute problems that reduce its productivity and competitiveness. These problems include various biotic and abiotic challenges as well as an unstable market for its traditional oil-based products. Around 10 million small-holder farmers cultivate coconut palms worldwide on c. 12 million hectares of land, and many more people own a few coconut palms that contribute to their livelihoods. Inefficiency in the production of seedlings for replanting remains an issue; however, tissue culture and other biotechnological interventions are expected to provide pragmatic solutions. Over the past 60 years, much research has been directed towards developing and improving protocols for (i) embryo culture; (ii) clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis; (iii) homozygote production via anther culture; (iv) germplasm conservation via cryopreservation; and (v) genetic transformation. Recently other advances have revealed possible new ways to improve these protocols. Although effective embryo culture and cryopreservation are now possible, the limited frequency of conversion of somatic embryos to ex vitro seedlings still prevents the large-scale clonal propagation of coconut. This review illustrates how our knowledge of tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions in coconut has so far developed. Further improvement of protocols and their application to a wider range of germplasm will continue to open up new horizons for the collection, conservation, breeding and productivity of coconut.

  6. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola’, a novel taxon associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the taxonomic position and group classification of the phytoplasma associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique were addressed. Pairwise sequence similarity values based on alignment of near full-length 16SrRNA genes (1530 bp) reve...

  7. Estimating the total leaf area of the green dwarf coconut tree (Cocos nucifera L.

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    Sousa Elias Fernandes de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area has significant effect on tree transpiration, and its measurement is important to many study areas. This work aimed at developing a non-destructive, practical, and empirical method to estimate the total leaf area of green dwarf coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. in plantations located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A mathematical model was developed to estimate total leaf area values (TLA as function of the average lengths of the last three leaf raquis (LR3, and of the number of leaves in the canopy (NL. The model has satisfactory degree of accuracy for agricultural engineering purposes.

  8. APROVEITAMENTO DA CASCA DO COCO-VERDE (Cocos nucifera L. PARA PRODUÇÃO DE POLPA CELULÓSICA

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    Mahalia Sojo Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coconut husk is a residue from consumption of coconut water. In coastal cities this residue has already become a big problem, because it is difficult to decompose. The present study aimed to evaluate the husk of the coconut ( Cocos nucifera L. for production of kraft pulp. The raw material was characterized and had its basic density, chemical composition, fiber size and proportion of anatomical elements analyzed. Pulping tests were conducted and one of them was chosen for repetition. In each pulping the alkali charge was variable in order to prepare an alkaline curve. The results from the pulping process show high levels of kappa number, low yields and low rejects content. The following characteristics of the material, low basic density (0.128 g/cm ³, high amount of extractives (33.68% and low proportion of fibers (22.11%, corroborate to these results. Thus, the production of pulp from the coconut husk by the kraft process, it is not an alternative technically feasible.

  9. Single base substitution causing the fragrant phenotype and development of a type-specific marker in aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongvanrungruang, A; Mongkolsiriwatana, C; Boonkaew, T; Sawatdichaikul, O; Srikulnath, K; Peyachoknagul, S

    2016-09-19

    The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2. The ring side chain of proline could destabilize the structure leading to a non-functional enzyme. Badh2 genomic DNA was cloned from exon 1 to 4, and from exon 5 to 15 from the two coconut types, except for intron 4 that was very long. The intron sequences of the two coconut groups were highly homologous. No differences in Badh2 expression were found among the tissues of aromatic coconut or between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The amino acid sequences of BADH2 from coconut and other plants were compared and the genetic relationship was analyzed using MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the Bayesian information criterion consisted of two distinct groups of monocots and dicots. Among the monocots, coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were the most closely related species. A marker for coconut differentiation was developed from one-base substitution site and could be successfully used.

  10. Pó de coco como substrato para produção de mudas de tomateiro Coconut coir fiber as a potting media for tomato seedling production

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    Elineide B. Silveira

    2002-06-01

    , quatro isolados de Pseudomonas fluorescentes, cinco isolados de Bacillus spp. e a mistura dos isolados Trichoderma + Pseudomonas fluorescentes + Bacillus. As suspensões foram adicionadas dois dias antes do plantio, na concentração de 0,52 A e 5 x 10(6 conídios/mL para bactérias e fungos, respectivamente. O incremento da população microbiana dos substratos não promoveu o crescimento das plântulas de tomateiro. Conclui-se que a utilização de pó de coco em mistura com outros substratos, principalmente com o PlantmaxÒ, é viável barateando o custo de produção de mudas de tomateiro.The production of seedlings is very important in the horticultural transplant industry and depends on the substrate utilization. The use of coconut coir fiber alone was evaluated or in combination with other potting media to produce transplants of tomato cv. 'Santa Adélia'. Cococnut coir fiber potting media PlantmaxÒ and earthworm castings were tested separated and in volumetric combinations: PlantmaxÒ + cocunut coir fiber, worm cast + cocunut coir fiber, PlantmaxÒ + earthworm casting and PlantmaxÒ + coconut coir fiber + earthworm casting, evaluating the variables germination 10 days after planting, leaf number, plant height, shoot fresh matter and shoot dry matter at 25 days after planting. The mixed substrates were superior to those from single components mainly PlantmaxÒ + coconut coir fiber + earthworm casting. The indigenous microbial population in each one of the three substrates was quantified in relation to the variables total bacteria, total fungi, fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus and Trichoderma. In coconut coir fiber and earthworm casting the bacterial population surpassed the fungal. Earthworm casting and coconut coir fiber showed respectively higher population of total bacteria (240.56 x 10(4 UFC/g of dry substrate and total fungi (86.98 x 10(4 UFC/g of dry substrate. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were detected in earthworm casting (1.65 x 10(4 UFC/g of dry

  11. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) habitat at Palmyra Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Hathaway, Stacie A; Wegmann, Alex S; Shipley, Frank S; Backlin, Adam R; Helm, Joel; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-02-01

    Black rats ( Rattus rattus ) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59%) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll.

  12. Inactivation kinetics of peroxidase from coconut waterCinética de inativação da peroxidase em água de coco

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    Gabrielle Cardoso Reis Fontan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was study the thermal inactivation kinetics of the peroxidase enzyme (POD present in the green coconut water, being determined the parameters D values, z value and Q10, besides the Arrhenius’ activation energy (Ea to the process. Nine time/temperature binomials for the thermal treatment at three temperatures (75°C, 85°C and 95°C and maintenance times from 1min to 30 min, besides a control sample without thermal treatment. D values were obtained by linear regression, being equals to 833,3 min, 35,6min and 1,63min at 75°C, 85°C and 95°C, respectively, while the z value was equal to 7,4°C. These values demonstrate that POD of coconut water is thermal resistant to inactivation, being such processes strongly affected by temperature. Such fact is also verified by the high values of Ea (332,3 kJ/mol and Q10 (22,7, which indicate that a high amount of energy is required for the POD inactivation and an increase of temperature elevate the inactivation rate.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a cinética de inativação térmica da enzima peroxidase (POD presente na água de coco verde, determinando-se os valores dos parâmetros D, z e Q10, além da energia de ativação (Ea de Arrhenius para o processo. Foram avaliados nove binômios tempo/temperatura para o tratamento térmico em três temperaturas (75°C, 85°C e 95°C e tempos de manutenção variando de 1min a 30min, além da amostra sem tratamento térmico. Os valores de D foram determinados por meio de regressão linear, obtendo-se os valores de 833,3min., 35,6min. e 1,63min., para as temperaturas de 75°C, 85°C e 95°C, respectivamente, enquanto o valor de z foi igual a 7,4°C. Esses valores demonstraram que a POD da água de coco é resistente à inativação térmica, sendo tal processo fortemente afetado pela temperatura utilizada. Tal fato foi reforçado pelos altos valores da Ea (332,3kJ/mol e Q10 (22,7, que indicaram que uma alta quantidade de energia

  13. PENGARUH MEDIUM PERENDAM TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK, MORFOLOGI, DAN KINERJA MEMBRAN NATA DE COCO

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    Senny Widyaningsih

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nata de coco is bacterial cellulose which is produced by Acetobacter xylinum in fermentation process of coconut water. Based on its properties, nata de coco can be used as a membrane. Soaking medium in purification of nata de coco gel can influence structure, morphology, and performance of nata de coco membrane. First medium was NaOCl 0.05% and NaOH 5%, Second medium was ultrasonic. Third medium was NaOH 1% and CH3COOH 1%. Mechanical property were analysized based on its tensile strength. Morphology of membrane was analysized using SEM. Performance of membrane was determined based on its permeability. The result showed that nata de coco membrane which had the best value on mechanical properties, morphology, and performance was membrane in third medium.

  14. Impact of chemical treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut fibre (Cocos nucifera reinforced polypropylene composites

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    Isiaka O. OLADELE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chemically treated coconut fibres were used to reinforce Homopolymer Polypropylene in order to ascertain the effect of the treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites produced. Coconut fibre was first extracted from its husk by soaking it in water and was dried before it was cut into 10 mm lengths. It was then chemically treated in alkali solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH in a shaker water bath. The treated coconut fibres were used as reinforcements in polypropylene matrix to produce composites of varied fibre weight contents; 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.%. Tensile and flexural properties were investigated using universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for 7 days. It was observed from the results that, NaOH treated samples gave the best tensile properties while KOH treated samples gave the best flexural and water repellent properties.

  15. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  16. Batrachedra nuciferae, an inflorescence-feeding moth associated with coconut, Cocos nucifera, and palmiste, Roystonea oleracea, in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Matthew J W

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Batrachedra nuciferae Hodges (Lepidoptera: Batrachedridae) was the first phytophagous insect to be reported from inflorescences of coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), in Trinidad, West Indies. At that time, it was suggested to be an introduced species contributing to decreasing coconut yields on the island and potentially a threat to other palms. In this preliminary study, inflorescences of coconut, seven indigenous palms, and six exotic ornamental palms were surveyed in several areas of Trinidad. Caterpillars of more than 10 species of Lepidoptera were found and reared through to the adult stage. Batrachedra nuciferae was positively identified. It was concluded that the caterpillars of B. nuciferae feed on pollen in the male flowers of coconut and palmiste or royal palm, Roystonea oleracea (Jacquin) O.F. Cook. There was no evidence that B. nuciferae bred on any of the other palms surveyed, but it is not conclusive that they do not do so. A parasitoid, Apanteles (sensu lato) sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), of B. nuciferae was reared. On available information, B. nuciferae is more likely to be an indigenous species that has hitherto been overlooked than an introduced species. In view of what is known about damage-yield relationships and biological control agents, B. nuciferae is unlikely to cause yield losses to coconut, so control measures are not justified.

  17. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-12-01

    Cryopreservation of coconut can be used as a strategy to back up the establishment of living collections which are expensive to maintain and are under constant threat from biotic and abiotic factors. Unfortunately, cryopreservation protocols still need to be developed that are capable of producing a sizeable number of field-grown plants. Therefore, we report on the development of an improved cryopreservation protocol which can be used on a wide range of coconut cultivars. The cryopreservation of zygotic embryos and their recovery to soil-growing plants was achieved through the application of four optimised steps viz.: (i) rapid dehydration; (ii) rapid cooling; (iii) rapid warming and recovery in vitro and (iv) acclimatization and soil-supported growth. The thermal properties of water within the embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to ensure that the freezable component was kept to a minimum. The feasibility of the protocol was assessed using the Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD) cultivar in Australia and then tested on a range of cultivars which were freshly harvested and studied in Indonesia. The most efficient protocol was one based on an 8-h rapid dehydration step followed by rapid cooling step. Best recovery percentages were obtained when a rapid warming step and an optimised in vitro culture step were used. Following this protocol, 20% (when cryopreserved 12 days after harvesting) and 40% (when cryopreserved at the time of harvest) of all MYD embryos cryopreserved could be returned to normal seedlings growing in soil. DSC showed that this protocol induced a drop in embryo fresh weight to 19% and significantly reduced the amount of water remaining that could produce ice crystals (0.1%). Of the 20 cultivars tested, 16 were found to produce between 10% and 40% normal seedlings while four cultivars generated between 0% and 10% normal seedlings after cryopreservation. This new protocol is applicable to a wide range of coconut

  18. Composição química, propriedades mecânicas e térmicas da fibra de frutos de cultivares de coco verde Chemical composition, thermal and mechanical properties for cultivars of immature coconut fibers

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    Elisângela Corradini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo da água de coco verde, in natura ou industrializada, vem gerando um grande problema ambiental, devido ao destino final da casca dos frutos. Aproximadamente 85% do peso bruto do coco verde é constituído pelas cascas, que são acumuladas em lixões ou às margens de estradas. Como a minimização da geração desse resíduo implicaria a redução da atividade produtiva associada, o seu aproveitamento torna-se uma necessidade. Neste sentido, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as características da fibra de coco verde de diversos cultivares em função do ponto de colheita dos frutos, na composição química, nas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas, como forma de contribuir para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação na elaboração de novos materiais. Os resultados mostraram que a variação da composição química em função da cultivar de coco verde foi na faixa de 37,2 ± 0,8% a 43,9±0,7% e de 31,5±0,1% a 37,4±0,5% para os teores de lignina e celulose, respectivamente. A composição química não variou significativamente em função do ponto de maturação para a fibra da cultivar Anão-Verde-de-Jiqui (AVeJ. A fibra de cultivares de coco verde e AVeJ em diferentes pontos de maturação apresentaram propriedades térmicas e mecânicas semelhantes, as quais são próximas das propriedades das fibras de coco maduro, demonstrando, portanto, um potencial equivalente para serem utilizadas como reforço em matrizes poliméricas.The consumption of water of green coconut in natura or industrialized has generated a large amount of residues that are disposed in landfills or in roadside. The husks residues correspond to around 85% of the weight of the fruit and present slow decomposition process. This environmental problem requires alternative solutions. In order to assessing to potential of the immature (green coconut fibers to be used as reinforcement material in polymer matrices, the chemical composition, thermal and mechanical

  19. Determination of pesticides in coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water and pulp using modified QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; Talamini, Viviane; Facco, Janice de Fátima; Rizzetti, Tiele Medianeira; Prestes, Osmar Damian; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan

    2016-12-15

    The use of pesticides is directly linked to improvements in productivity and to the preservation of coconut palms. However pesticide analysis is necessary to determine whether pesticide residues in the food products containing coconut are within the maximum residue limits (MRLs), ensuring the quality of these products. This work aimed to develop a method for multiresidue determination of ten pesticides in coconut water and pulp using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. The method was effective in terms of selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, accuracy and precision, providing LOD of 3μgkg(-1), LOQ of 10μgkg(-1) and recoveries between 70 and 120% with RSD lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to 36 samples in which residues of carbendazim, carbofuran, cyproconazole and thiabendazole were found below the LOQ in coconut water and pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  1. Adsorpsi Karbon Aktif dari Sabut Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera Terhadap Penurunan Fenol

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    Astriah Abdullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coconut coir can be used as an activated carbon for phenol removal, because of carbon element which is containing in Coconut coir make it to own a potency as an activated carbon.  Research on activated carbon adsorption of phenol to the decline of coconut coir (Cocos nucivera has been performed. This study begins with the dehydration and carbonization stage. Coconut coir activated carbon with 3 activator namely sulfuric acid (H2SO4, sodium hydroxide (NaOH and zinc chloride (ZnCl2. Coconut coir activated carbon in this study using a variable dose of 500 mg carbon, 1000 mg and 1500 mg. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of the water content, the adsorption capacity of phenol on activated carbon from coconut husk carbon activation results and determine the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon from coconut husk carbon in the adsorption of phenol. Activators most good at absorbing phenol is sodium hydroxide (NaOH with the absorption efficiency of 93.01% at a mass of 1.5 g.

  2. Physiological and ionic changes in dwarf coconut seedlings irrigated with saline water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of salt-tolerant plants is an important alternative to cope with the problem of salinity in semi-arid regions. The dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) has emerged as a salt-tolerant crop once established. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms that may contribute to t...

  3. Composition, physicochemical properties and thermal inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase from coconut (Cocos nucifera) water obtained from immature, mature and overly-mature coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Rusul, Gulam; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Composition, physicochemical properties and enzyme inactivation kinetics of coconut water were compared between immature (IMC), mature (MC) and overly-mature coconuts (OMC). Among the samples studied, pH, turbidity and mineral contents for OMC water was the highest, whereas water volume, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total phenolics content for OMC water were the lowest. Maturity was found to affect sugar contents. Sucrose content was found to increase with maturity, and the reverse trend was observed for fructose and glucose. Enzyme activity assessment showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in all samples was more heat resistant than peroxidase (POD). Compared to IMC and MC, PPO and POD from OMC water showed the lowest thermal resistance, with D83.3°C=243.9s (z=27.9°C), and D83.3°C=129.9s (z=19.5°C), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulsed electric field processing of functional drink based on tender coconut water (Cococus nucifera L. - nannari (Hemidesmus indicus blended beverage

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    R. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. Nannari extract (Hemidesmus indicus L. ready-to serve (RTS blended beverage were optimised. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the levels of independent variables (levels of tender coconut water, nannari extract and sugar. The responses of pH, ºBrix, CIE colour (L*, a* and b* value and OAA were studied. The data obtained were analysed by multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. The developed blended beverage was processed using pulsed electric field (PEF with electric field 31.2 kV/cm, 20 pulse widths at 100 Hz frequency to minimise nutritional and sensory attributes losses and compared with conventional thermal pasteurization (96 ºC for 360 s with p-value of 8.03. Thermal pasteurization showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in colour value, radical scavenging activity and overall acceptability after treatment and also during storage, when compared to PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage. PEF treatment also achieved a 3.01 ± 0.69 log inactivation, similar to thermal pasteurization of native micro flora. PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage was stable up to 120 days under ambient storage condition (27-30 °C.

  5. Coconut (Cocos nucifera l.) pollen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karun, A; Sjini, K K; Niral, V; Amarnth, C H; Remya, P; Rajesh, M K; Samsudeen, K; Jerard, B A; Engelmann, F

    2014-01-01

    Coconut genetic resources are threatened by pests and pathogens, natural hazards and human activities. Cryopreservation is the only method allowing the safe and cost-effective long-term conservation of recalcitrant seed species such as coconut. The objective of this work was to test the effect of cryopreservation and of cryostorage duration on coconut pollen germination and fertility. Pollen of two coconut varieties (West Coast Tall WWCTW and Chowghat Orange Dwarf CODC) was collected in March-May over three successive years, desiccated to 7.5 % moisture content (FW) and cryopreserved by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Germination and pollen tube length (PTL) of desiccated and cryopreserved pollen were not significantly different for both WCT and COD over the three harvest months of the three consecutive years of study. Pollen germination ranged from 24 to 32 % in desiccated pollen whereas it was between 26 and 29 % in cryopreserved COD pollen. In the case of WCT, germination ranged from 30 to 31 % in desiccated pollen, while it was between 28 and 32 % in cryopreserved pollen. PTL of cryopreserved pollen ranged between 224-390 nm and 226-396 mm for COD and WCT, respectively. Germination of COD pollen varied between 29.0 and 44.1 % after 4 years and 1.0/1.5 years cryostorage, respectively. Germination of WCT pollen did not change significantly between 0 and 6 years cryostorage, being comprised between 32 (24 h) and 40 % (1.5 years). Germination and vigour of cryopreserved pollen were generally higher compared to that of pollen dried in oven and non-cryopreserved. Normal seed set was observed in COD and WCT palms using pollen cryostored for 6 months and 4 years. Cryopreserved pollen of five Tall and five Dwarf accessions displayed 24-31 % and 25-49 % germination, respectively. These results show that it is now possible to establish pollen cryobanks to contribute to coconut germplasm long-term conservation.

  6. Adsorpsi Karbon Aktif dari Sabut Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera) Terhadap Penurunan Fenol

    OpenAIRE

    Astriah Abdullah; Asri Saleh; Iin Novianty

    2013-01-01

    Coconut coir can be used as an activated carbon for phenol removal, because of carbon element which is containing in Coconut coir make it to own a potency as an activated carbon.  Research on activated carbon adsorption of phenol to the decline of coconut coir (Cocos nucivera) has been performed. This study begins with the dehydration and carbonization stage. Coconut coir activated carbon with 3 activator namely sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2). Coconut...

  7. Produção de mudas de tomateiro em substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha Tomato seedlings production using substrates with coconut fiber and rock waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regynaldo A Sampaio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar proporções dos resíduos fibra de coco (FC e pó de rocha de granito (RG como substratos na produção de mudas de tomateiro, cultivar Kada Gigante, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação na UFMG-ICA. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por uma testemunha e seis proporções de fibra de coco (FC e pó de rocha de granito (RG: T1 - Substrato comercial Hortimix®; T2 - 0% FC + 100% RG; T3 - 20% FC + 80% RG; T4 - 40% FC + 60% RG; T5 - 60% FC + 40% RG; T6 - 80% FC + 20% RG; T7 - 100% FC + 0% RG. O cultivo foi feito em bandeja de poliestireno expandido com células de 3,5 x 3,5 x 5,0 cm. Foram avaliados o diâmetro do coleto, a altura da planta, o índice de velocidade de emergência, a percentagem de emergência e a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Em praticamente todas as características avaliadas o substrato comercial foi superior aos substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha. Considerando-se apenas os substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha, as mudas com melhores características foram obtidas com a mistura de aproximadamente 70% em volume de fibra de coco.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the ratio of coconut fiber and rock waste, in the tomato seedling production (cultivar Kada Gigante, in Montes Claros, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with four replicates. The treatments were composed of a control and six ratios of coconut fiber (FC and rock waste (RG: T1 - Commercial Substrate Hortimix®; T2 - 0% FC + 100% RG; T3 - 20% FC + 80% RG; T4 - 40% FC + 60% RG; T5 - 60% FC + 40% RG; T6 - 80% FC + 20% RG; T7 - 100% FC + 0% RG. The cultivation was done in polystyrene trays with cells of 3.5 x 3.5 x 5,0 cm. Stem diameter, seedling height, emergency speed index, emergency percentage, root and aerial part of fresh and dry matter were evaluated. In

  8. Fertilidade de substratos para mudas de mangabeira, contendo fibra de coco e adubados com fósforo = Fertility of substrata for mangabeira seedlings, containing coconut fiber and fertilized with phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi executado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFPB,Areia, Estado da Paraíba, com objetivo de avaliar a fertilidade de substratos compostos por diferentes concentrações de fibra de coco (0 a 40%, esterco bovino (0 a 25%, terra vegetal (25 a 70%, 15% de areia e adubados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g L-1. Houveaumento das características químicas desejáveis do substrato com aumento da concentração de terra vegetal, fibra de coco e dose máxima do superfosfato triplo. A fibra de coco provocou aumento do teor de sódio nos substratos. Recomenda-se utilizar o substratoconstituído de 0 % de esterco, 46% de terra vegetal, 39% de fibra de coco, 15% de areia e 11 g L-1 de superfosfato triplo para obtenção dos máximos valores estimados de matéria orgânica, potássio, magnésio, cálcio e fósforo, e mínimo para H++Al+3 e sódio.This experiment was carried out at Centro de Ciências Agrárias of UFPB, Areia, state of Paraíba, whose objective was to evaluate thefertility of the substrata composed by concentrations of coconut fiber from 0 to 40%, manure bovine from 0 to 25.5%, soil from 25 to 70%, sand 15% and triple superphosphate between 0 and 11 g L-1. There was increase of the desirable chemical characteristics to thesubstratum with the increase of the concentration of soil, coconut fiber and maximum dose of the triple superphosphate. The coconut fiber increased the tenor of sodium in the substrata. It is recommended to use the concentrations of 0% of manure, 46% of soil, 39% of coconut fiber, 15% of sand and 11 g L-1 of triple superphosfate, to obtain the maxima estimated values of organic matter, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus, andminima for H++Al+3 and sodium.

  9. effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed under ... Management of coconut (Cocos nucifera) lethal yellowing disease (CLYD), which has killed about eight million coconut ...... International Journal of Emerging.

  10. Development of a heavy metal sorption system through the P=S functionalization of coconut (Cocos nucifera) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Dayane Almeida; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; da Costa Nogueira, Márcio; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic residues are interesting materials for the production of heavy metal adsorbents for aquatic systems. Whole fibers taken from coconut (Cocos nucifera) husks were functionalized with the thiophosphoryl (P=S) group by means of the direct reaction with Cl(3)PS, (CH(3)O)(2)ClP=S or (CH(3)CH(2)O)(2)ClP=S in order to obtain an adsorptive system for 'soft' metal ions, particularly Cd(2+). These functionalized fibers (FFs) were characterized by means of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and acid-base titration. Adsorption isotherms for Cd(2+) fitted the Langmuir model, with binding capacities of 0.2-5 m mol g(-1) of FF at 25 degrees C.

  11. Transcriptomics-based analysis using RNA-Seq of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) leaf in response to yellow decline phytoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Cahill, David M; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Ziemann, Mark; Rookes, James; Naderali, Neda

    2015-10-01

    Invasive phytoplasmas wreak havoc on coconut palms worldwide, leading to high loss of income, food insecurity and extreme poverty of farmers in producing countries. Phytoplasmas as strictly biotrophic insect-transmitted bacterial pathogens instigate distinct changes in developmental processes and defence responses of the infected plants and manipulate plants to their own advantage; however, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying host-phytoplasma interactions. Further, phytoplasma-mediated transcriptional alterations in coconut palm genes have not yet been identified. This study evaluated the whole transcriptome profiles of naturally infected leaves of Cocos nucifera ecotype Malayan Red Dwarf in response to yellow decline phytoplasma from group 16SrXIV, using RNA-Seq technique. Transcriptomics-based analysis reported here identified genes involved in coconut innate immunity. The number of down-regulated genes in response to phytoplasma infection exceeded the number of genes up-regulated. Of the 39,873 differentially expressed unigenes, 21,860 unigenes were suppressed and 18,013 were induced following infection. Comparative analysis revealed that genes associated with defence signalling against biotic stimuli were significantly overexpressed in phytoplasma-infected leaves versus healthy coconut leaves. Genes involving cell rescue and defence, cellular transport, oxidative stress, hormone stimulus and metabolism, photosynthesis reduction, transcription and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were differentially represented. Our transcriptome analysis unveiled a core set of genes associated with defence of coconut in response to phytoplasma attack, although several novel defence response candidate genes with unknown function have also been identified. This study constitutes valuable sequence resource for uncovering the resistance genes and/or susceptibility genes which can be used as genetic tools in disease resistance breeding.

  12. Pengaruh Variasi Penambahan Sari Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum Betaceum) Hasil Sambung Pucuk Dengan Lancing (Solanum Mauritianum) Pada Pembuatan Nata De Coco Dengan Menggunakan Acetobacter Xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Adilah Wirdhani

    2015-01-01

    One of the benefit from coconut water is making nata de coco through phosphate pentose pathway by using Acetobacter xylinum bacteria. Making its became nata de coco by variation of Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) bud grafting yield with Lancing (Solanum mauritianum) produced red colour of nata de coco that it fermented for 14 days and had good nutrient value. The yield of this product was analyzed with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The variation volume of it used 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ...

  13. Ingestão de alimentos e digestibilidade aparente das frações fibrosas da torta de coco para ovinos = Feed intake and digestibility of fibrous fractions of coconut cake by sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucival de Souza Junior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes de torta de coco (Cocos nucifera L. sobre a ingestão de alimentos e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido. Foram utilizados 16 ovinos não-castrados, com peso corporal médio de 28 kg (± 3,2 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo quatro tratamentos (0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2% PV de inclusão de torta de coco equatro repetições. Houve um período experimental de 21 dias com 14 dias de adaptação e sete dias de coleta de dados, em que se monitorou o fornecimento da dieta e a coleta total de fezes. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente ácido apresentou efeitos lineares e crescentes com a inclusão da torta de coco na dieta (44,9 a 57 e 30,57 a 40,32% para os níveis de 1,2% de inclusão, respectivamente. A fibra em detergente neutro apresentou comportamento quadrático, e o melhor nível de inclusão ocorreu com 0,89% e digestibilidade máxima da FDN de 59,39%. A torta de coco é uma excelente fonte de suplementação alimentar e pode contribuir no atendimento das demandas nutricionais para produção de carne e leite na Amazônia Oriental. This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of coconut cake (Cocos nucifera L. on feed intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. We used 16 non-castrated sheep with mean body weight of 28 kg (± 3.2 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2% BW of inclusion of coconut pie and four replications. There was a trial period of 21 days with 14 days of adaptation and 7 days of data collection, which monitored the supply of diet and total fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and acid detergent fiber effects were linear and increasing with the inclusion of coconut cake in the diet (44.9 to

  14. Improving the quality of matured coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water by low alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: antioxidant and volatile profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanfei; Chen, Wenxue; Chen, Weijun; Chen, Haiming

    2018-03-01

    Matured coconut water (MCW) is a by-product in the coconut milk industry that is usually discarded due to its unpleasant flavor. In this study, low-alcohol coconut water (LACW) was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the quality of MCW. Volatile components and nonvolatile flavor-related elements were estimated to compare the qualities of the MCW and LACW. Besides measuring the kinetic changes, the levels of fructose, glucose, sucrose and ethanol contents were also determined. The results of the organic acid assays showed that tartaric, pyruvic and succinic acids were the primary organic acids present in LACW and increased significantly with fermentation. The resulting volatile composition assay indicated that esters, alcohols and fatty acids were significantly influenced by fermentation and yeast strains. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values increased significantly throughout the process, correlating with the enhancement of total phenolic content.

  15. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  16. Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of coconut (Cocos nucifera) lethal yellowing disease (CLYD), which has killed about eight million coconut trees in Mozambique, has proved challenging. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of farming practices and related history, on the CLYD incidence in Mozambique. The methodology ...

  17. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  18. Germination response of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    mainly for the soap industry, cosmetics, and candle wax (Campbell et al., 2000). Coconut cultivars are ... In addition, a number of aging coconut plantations are now being uprooted in order to make way for the planting of more portable crops (Muhammed, 2013). Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement efficient.

  19. Viabilidade financeira de instalação de uma unidade de beneficiamento de cascas de coco verde = Financial feasibility of installing a processing unit of green coconut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícios Silveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A produção nacional de coco (Cocos nucifera destinada para o consumo de água in natura e industrializada no ano de 2014 foi de aproximadamente 1,5 bilhão de frutos. Toneladas de cascas foram, em sua maioria, descartadas nos lixões e aterros sanitários das cidades, desprezando, dessa forma, uma matéria prima potencial de alta aplicabilidade e baixo custo. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de apurar a viabilidade financeira a partir do levantamento dos custos de instalação de uma unidade de beneficiamento de cascas de coco verde para produção de pó e fibras brutas. A unidade será implantada no município de São Luís (MA. Os quesitos técnicos utilizados como referência foram desenvolvidos e testados pela Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária [Embrapa] Agroindústria Tropical. Para os cálculos de viabilidade foram utilizados, a partir do fluxo de caixa, os critérios financeiros valor presente líquido [VPL], payback descontado e taxa interna de retorno [TIR], além de análise de sensibilidade de cenários. O maior volume de capital destinou-se às instalações físicas da unidade, consumindo R$ 550.415,00, enquanto as máquinas e equipamentos tiveram dispêndios de R$ 284.650,00. O projeto é financeiramente atrativo, gerando VPL de R$ 361.458,00 e TIR de 16%, frente a uma taxa mínima de atratividade de 7,13%, ao passo que os recursos investidos serão retornados no sexto ano. O projeto é sensível às variações de preço dos produtos vendidos. = The national coconut (Cocos nucifera production for natural and industrialized water, in 2014, was approximately 1.5 billion fruits. Tons of shells was mostly discarded in dumps and landfills, undervaluing a raw material with potential applicability and low cost. This study aims to determine the financial viability of a coconut shell processing installation for coconut shells powder production and husk fiber in São Luís - Maranhão State. The Brazilian Agricultural

  20. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Kenyan coconut germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP-PROBOOK

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... Genetic diversity and relationship among 48 coconut individuals (Cocos nucifera L.) collections from ... Cluster analysis was constructed using DARwin program version 6.0. ... effective crop improvement programme.

  1. Dinâmica do potencial matricial em substratos de pinus e coco sob ação da capilaridade Dynamics of matric potential on substrates of pine and coconut under the action of capillarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vinícius G Barreto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho médio de partículas e a porosidade dos substratos condicionam as propriedades matriciais, interferindo na capacidade de retenção e de transmissão da ��gua no meio. O conhecimento desses atributos é fundamental em processos de irrigação por capilaridade, para que o molhamento atinja as camadas superiores dos recipientes com níveis de tensão de água facilmente disponível. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a ascensão de água por capilaridade para determinar a posição mais apropriada do nível de saturação na ascensão capilar em recipientes com substratos de coco e pinus, de textura grossa e fina. Foram efetuados experimentos avaliando a ascensão de água por capilaridade em colunas segmentadas preenchidas com os substratos. Os valores de umidade em cada segmento foram calculados gravimetricamente e relacionados aos de tensão estimados pela curva de tensão dos substratos. Os substratos com textura fina apresentaram melhor elevação de água por capilaridade, com melhor elevação da umidade em níveis de tensão de água disponível. O substrato de coco fino apresentou água disponível em todo o perfil do recipiente, enquanto o de pinus apresentou as camadas superiores do recipiente com água retida em tensões abaixo do ponto de murcha permanente. O substrato fino de coco apresentou os melhores resultados para aplicação na irrigação por capilaridade, permitindo recomendar o seu uso com o nível de saturação posicionado a cinco centímetros do fundo do recipiente por quinze minutos.The average particle size and porosity of substrates affects the matrix properties of root growth media, interfering in water holding and water conductivity capacity through substrates. The knowledge of these attributes is essential in capillary irrigation processes to allow the wetting front reaches upper layers under easily available water tension. The present work had the objective to study the water rise by

  2. In vitro culture of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Florent; Malaurie, Bernard; N'Nan, Oulo

    2011-01-01

    Coconut is a very important crop for millions of people in tropical countries. With coconut, in vitro culture protocols have been developed with two main objectives, viz. the large scale production of particular types of coconuts and the international exchange and conservation of coconut germplasm. The methods described in this chapter have been developed in the framework of collaborative activities between research institutes in Côte d'Ivoire and France. Two coconut embryo in vitro collecting protocols have been established, one consisting of storing the disinfected embryos in a KCl solution until they are brought back to the laboratory, where they are re-disinfected and inoculated in vitro under sterile conditions, and the other including in vitro inoculation of the embryos in the field. For international germplasm exchange, zygotic embryos inoculated in vitro in plastic test tubes or endosperm cylinders containing embryos in plastic bags are used. For in vitro culture, embryos are inoculated on semi-solid medium supplemented with sucrose and activated charcoal and placed in the dark, and then transferred to light conditions with the same (solid or liquid) medium once the first true leaf is visible and the root system has started developing.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Protein Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Yajun; Zhang, Yufeng; Xu, Jianguo; Gao, Gang

    2018-03-20

    Coconut cake is an abundant and good potential edible protein source. However, until now it has not been extensively used in the food industry. To promote its usage, the characterization, nutrition value and antioxidant activity of coconut cake protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2) were studied. Results revealed that all the albumin, globulin, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 fractions showed a high nutrition value. The prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 all exhibited good radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the globulin and prolamine showed high ion chelating ability (89.14-80.38%). Moreover, all the fractions except glutelin-2 could effectively protect DNA against oxidative damage. Several peptides containing five to eight amino acids with antioxidant activity were also identified by LC-MS/MS from the globulin and glutelin-2 fractions. The results demonstrated that the coconut cake protein fractions have potential usages in functional foods.

  4. Use of coconut meal in slaughter pig diets Uso de farelo de coco nas dietas de suínos para abate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Marisa Bertol

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the swine bioeconomic performance and carcass characteristics, due to coconut meal (FC inclusion in diets, were evaluated. Twenty hybrid barrows, Landrace x Large White, with average weight of 19.7±2.9kg, at the beginning of diet supply, were used and slaughtered after 12 weeks with average weight of 89.2±5.2 kg and 149 days of age. The experiment was established at Escola Agrotecnica Federal in Sousa-PB. Increasing levels of coconut meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% replaced partially hominy feed and soybean meal in isoproteic, isocaloric and isolisinic diets. It was used a randomized block design with four treatments and five repetitions. The parameters evaluated were: feed consumption, final and slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weights, gross income and gross margin per carcass, percentage of weight loss due to chilling, hot and cold carcass yield and yields of main cuts (ham, sirloin, shoulder+picnic, belly+ribs and boston butt, backfat thickness, loineye area, carcass length and lean to fat ratio. It was concluded that 22.8 % of coconut meal may be included in slaughter swine diets, replacing partially hominy feed and soybean meal.Objetivou-se, por meio do experimento, avaliar o desempenho bioeconômico e as características de carcaça de suínos mediante à inclusão de farelo de coco (FC na ração. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados, híbridos Landrace x Large White, com 19,7±2,9 kg ao início do experimento e abatidos, após 12 semanas, com 89,2±5,2 kg e 149 dias de idade. O experimento foi realizado na Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Sousa-PB. Os níveis crescentes de farelo de coco (0%, 10%, 20% e 30% substituíram parcialmente o farelo residual de milho e o farelo de soja em dietas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas e isolisínicas. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo total de ração, os pesos (final, de

  5. Extraction and characterization of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. coir dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel1,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the characterization and extraction of coconut coir dust using water, acetone, acetone/water (70/30, (50/50 respectively. The acetone extract of the coir dust was phytochemically screened for tannins, polyphenols,flavanoids, phlobatannins. The moisture, ash, lignin, and cellulose contents of the coir dust were determined bymeasuring the cation exchange capacity (CEC and the pH were found to be 2.39 mmol g-1 and 6.4 respectively. The degree ofswelling of coir dust increased with increased solvent contact time. The percentage extract showed the best solvent systemto be acetone/water (70/30. In all the solvent systems, the smaller the particle size of coir dust, the greater the amount ofextract. The phytochemical screening of the acetone extract indicated significant amount of tannins, flavanoids and otherpolyphenols in coir dust.

  6. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Daniele; Wigg, Marcia D; Miranda, Mônica M F S; Rodrigues, Hugo M; Tostes, João B F; Rozental, Sonia; da Silva, Antonio J R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2002-12-01

    The decoction of Cocos nucifera L. husk fiber has been used in northeastern Brazil traditional medicine for treatment of diarrhea and arthritis. Water extract obtained from coconut husk fiber and fractions from adsorption chromatography revealed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extract and one of the fractions rich in catechin also showed inhibitory activity against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1-ACVr). All fractions were inactive against the fungi Candida albicans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cryptococcus neoformans. Catechin and epicatechin together with condensed tannins (B-type procyanidins) were demonstrated to be the components of the water extract.

  7. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, Jorge Miguel Schettino; Petroianu, Andy; Vasconcelos, Leonardo de Souza; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso; Soares, Cristina Duarte Vianna; de Oliveira, Amanda Lima

    2015-01-01

    to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvested the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exam. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p coconut water (p coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  8. Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

  9. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  10. The influence of steaming and a ratio of grated coconut to water on the yield and quality of virgin coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, N. L.; Istikoma, R.; Kumalaningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    The quality of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) is determined by the quality of coconut milk. High quality of coconut milk can be obtained by proper handling of grated coconut as raw material. When coconut was shredded, the lipases are exposed which can hydrolyse the oil resulting free fatty acid (FFA).Steaming is a technique to inactivate lipases. In addition, a ratio of grated coconut to water and steaming duration are important factor to the VCO extraction. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain the best combination of steaming duration and suitable ratio of grated coconut to water in order to produce high quality VCO. The research design was Factorial Randomized Block Design consisted of 2 factors: steaming duration (5; 10; and 15 minutes) and grated coconut to water ratio (1:0; 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; and 1:4 w/v),each treatment was repeated twice. Parameters analyzed were FFA, moisture content, and yield values. The result showed that the best treatment was a treatment with 15 minutes steaming of grated coconut and 1:4 ratio of grated coconut to water. The best treatment VCO had characteristic as follows: FFA 0.054 %, moisture content 0.129 % and yield 17.563 %.

  11. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Miguel Schettino César

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvasted the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exame. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p <0.001, 4 and 2 (p = 0.03 and 5 and 2 (p = 0.01. The splenic scintigraphy was not different between groups. The ovarian tissue was better preserved in mature coconut water (p <0.007. CONCLUSION: the coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  12. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Kenyan coconut germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and relationship among 48 coconut individuals (Cocos nucifera L.) collections from the Coastal lowland of Kenya were analyzed using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Diversity parameters were calculated using Popgene Software version 1.31. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.0408 ...

  13. Fermentation of tender coconut water by probiotic bacteria Bacillus coagulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Singh Gangwar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water is currently being considered as an elixir for patients suffering from diseases like dengue and malaria as well as chikungunia to provide hydration properties to the body. It has become a popular beverage for many people owing to its palatability and high mineral content. In this study, the growth, survival and fermentation performance of the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans in coconut water was assessed in order to produce a novel non-dairy, probiotic beverage. The species was characterized on the basis of morphology, physiology and biochemical parameters and its probiotic attributes were assessed. Batch fermentations were carried out for 2 days at a constant 37°C, thereafter the samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. The results suggested that the specie produced lactic acid and was acid and bile tolerant. The pH and titratable acidity of probiotic fermented coconut water were found to be 4.4 and 0.53 % lactic acid, respectively. The viscosity of fermented coconut water increased significantly from an initial 5.13 mPa.s to 5.35 mPa.s because of the increase in soluble solids content due to exopolysaccharide production by B. coagulans during fermentation. Also, the overall acceptability score of probiotic coconut water was higher than tender coconut water, suggesting its feasibility for use as a probiotic beverage.

  14. Electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH of beverages and coconut water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavalittamrong, B; Pidatcha, P; Thavisri, U

    1982-09-01

    Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the need for intravenous therapy. Beverages (i.e. Cola, Sprite etc.) and coconut water may be used as sources of oral fluid when glucose-electrolyte solution is not available. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of these soft drinks, the basic data such as electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH were determined. The electrolytes of the beverages were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water, especially potassium. The osmolarity of the beverages, which were 693 mOsm/l, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (288 mOsm/l); pH of the beverages (3.1) was more acidic (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (5.4). While the sugar content of the beverages, which were 8.7 gm/dl, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (1.1 gm/dl). On comparison, all brands of beverages would give more calories than the coconut water however the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than any brand of soft drink beverage.

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg−1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las características físico-químicas y la composición de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extraída de coco húmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los ácidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el índice de peróxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meq·O2Kg−1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as sister to the coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous sister relationships. We used primers d...

  17. Desempenho bioeconômico de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco Bioeconomic performance of growing - finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evânio da Costa Siebra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados mestiços Landrace × Large White com 19,7 ± 2,9 kg de peso vivo inicial e 89,2 ± 5,8 kg de peso vivo final distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0, 10, 20 ou 30% de farelo de coco e cinco repetições. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, o ganho de peso médio diário, o consumo de ração médio diário e a conversão alimentar nas fases de crescimento (65 a 107 dias de idade e crescimento-terminação (65 a 149 dias de idade. Os parâmetros econômicos avaliados foram a receita bruta média, o custo médio da alimentação, a margem bruta média e a rentabilidade média. Os melhores resultados de ganho de peso médio diário e receita bruta média na fase de crescimento foram obtidos com o nível de 22,5% de farelo de coco na ração. Na fase de crescimento-terminação, a receita bruta média no período total indica que é possível incluir 22,4% de farelo de coco em dietas para suínos formuladas com farelo residual de milho e farelo de soja.The objective was to evaluate the performance of growing- finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal. Twenty crossbred Large White × Landrace barrows with initial 19.7 ± 2.9 kg BW and final 89.2 ± 5.8 kg BW were allotted to complete a randomized blocks design with four levels (0, 10, 20 or 30% of coconut meal and five replications. Performance traits, as average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in grower phase (65 to 107 days old and grower-finisher phase (65 to 149 days old were evaluated. Economic parameters evaluated were: average gross income, average feed cost, gross margin and average return. The best results of average weight daily gain and average gross income in the grower phase were obtained with the level of 22.5% of coconut meal in the diet. In grower

  18. Cocos nucifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Coconut water weights, Brix degree, pH, dry matters and sugar contents were investigated. ... soluble sugar ; glycerol, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose and sucrose in coconut water. ...... water syrup fractions from two varieties of Nigerian.

  19. Isolation of the endosperm-specific LPAAT gene promoter from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and its functional analysis in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Ye, Rongjian; Zheng, Yusheng; Wang, Zhekui; Zhou, Peng; Lin, Yongjun; Li, Dongdong

    2010-09-01

    As one of the key tropical crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a member of the monocotyledonous family Aracaceae (Palmaceae). In this study, we amplified the upstream region of an endosperm-specific expression gene, Lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAAT), from the coconut genomic DNA by chromosome walking. In this sequence, we found several types of promoter-related elements including TATA-box, CAAT-box and Skn1-motif. In order to further examine its function, three different 5'-deletion fragments were inserted into pBI101.3, a plant expression vector harboring the LPAAT upstream sequence, leading to pBI101.3-L1, pBI101.3-L2 and pBI101.3-L3, respectively. We obtained transgenic plants of rice by Agrobacterium-mediated callus transformation and plant regeneration and detected the expression of gus gene by histochemical staining and fluorometric determination. We found that gus gene driven by the three deletion fragments was specifically expressed in the endosperm of rice seeds, but not in the empty vector of pBI101.3 and other tissues. The highest expression level of GUS was at 15 DAF in pBI101.3-L3 and pBI101.3-L2 transgenic lines, while the same level was detected at 10 DAF in pBI101.3-L1. The expression driven by the whole fragment was up to 1.76- and 2.8-fold higher than those driven by the -817 bp and -453 bp upstream fragments, and 10.7-fold higher than that driven by the vector without the promoter. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that these promoter fragments from coconut have a significant potential in genetically improving endosperm in main crops.

  20. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos does not induce morphological, cytological or molecular changes in recovered seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisunandar; Rival, Alain; Turquay, Patricia; Samosir, Yohannes; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the fidelity of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plants recovered from cryopreservation. Zygotic embryos from various different cultivars were cryopreserved following four successive steps, namely: rapid dehydration, rapid freezing, rapid thawing and in vitro recovery followed by acclimatization. At the end of the acclimatization period, the seedlings were compared to counterparts of the same age, which were produced from non-cryopreserved embryos. Both series were submitted to morphological, cytological and molecular comparisons. No significant differences in terms of growth rates could be measured. In addition, no morphological variation could be detected through the measurement of shoot elongation rates, production of opened leaves, and the number and total length of primary roots. Karyotype analysis revealed the same chromosome number (2n = 32) in all studied cultivars independently of cryopreservation. No significant differences could be observed between control and cryopreserved material concerning the type of chromosomes, the length of the long and short arms, the arm length ratio and the centromeric index. However, idiogram analysis did show a greater number of black banding on chromosomes isolated from cryopreserved material. Genetic and epigenetic fidelity was assessed through microsatellite (SSR) analysis and global DNA methylation rates; no significant differences would be observed between genomic DNAs isolated from seedlings originating from cryopreserved embryos and respective controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that the method of cryopreservation under study did not induce gross morphological, genetic or epigenetic changes, thus suggesting that it is an appropriate method to efficiently preserve coconut germplasm.

  1. Determinação direta de selênio em água de coco e em leite de coco utilizando espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica em forno de grafite Direct determination of selenium in coconut water and coconut milk using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana C. Aleixo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is both essential and toxic to man and animals, depending on the concentration and the ingested form. Most fruits and vegetables are poor sources of selenium, but coconut can be a good selenium source. Samples were suspended (1 + 4 v/v in a mixture of tertiary amines soluble in water (10% v/v CFA-C. This simple sample treatment avoided contamination and decreased the analysis time. The standard additions method was adopted for quantification. The action of the autosampler was improved by the presence of the amines mixture in the suspension. A Varian model AA-800 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a graphite furnace and a GTA 100 autosampler was used for selenium determination in coconut water and coconut milk. Background correction was performed by means of the Zeeman effect. Pyrolytically coated graphite tubes were employed. Using Pd as chemical modifier, the pyrolysis and the atomization temperatures were set at 1400 and 2200ºC, respectively. For six samples, the selenium concentration in coconut water varied from 6.5 to 21.0 mug L-1 and in coconut milk from 24.2 to 25.1 mug L-1. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by an addition-recovery experiment and all recovered values are in the 99.5-102.3% range. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it can be directly applied without sample decomposition.

  2. Bebida mista com propriedade estimulante à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado Mixed drink with stimulating properties consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelia Marques de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria de bebidas, uma alternativa para acrescentar valor nutricional ou simplesmente desenvolver novos sabores é a mistura de diferentes sucos de frutas na formulação de bebidas mistas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma bebida à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado (cajuína, com adição de cafeína, conferindo-lhe propriedades estimulantes. Foram avaliadas cinco formulações, com diferentes proporções de cajuína, tendo sido padronizados previamente o pH, teor de sólidos solúveis e cafeína. As formulações foram submetidas à caracterização físico-química (pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez, açúcares redutores, não redutores e totais e vitamina C, análises microbiológicas e avaliação sensorial de aceitação (atributos de cor, sabor, avaliação global e intenção de compra. Todas as formulações em estudo apresentaram boa aceitação sensorial, não havendo diferença entre as médias dos atributos avaliados. Na intenção de compra, a formulação mais aceita foi ACC 20 (20% de cajuína e 80% de água de coco. A incorporação de vitamina C na bebida através da adição da cajuína foi mais evidente até a formulação ACC 20. Os resultados indicaram que a formulação ACC 20 foi a mais viável para elaboração da bebida mista. Todas as formulações apresentaram padrões microbiológicos satisfatórios.In the beverage industry, an alternative to add nutritional quality or simply to develop new tastes is the blending of different kinds of fruit juices. The objective of this work was the development of blends consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice with the addition of caffeine so as to provide stimulating properties to the beverage. Five formulations with different concentration of clarified cashew apple juice and previously standardized for pH, total soluble solids and caffeine concentration were evaluated. The formulations were submitted to

  3. Measurement of transpiration and biomass of coconut palm with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Wahid, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of transpiration rate and biomass of coconut palm have been made using tritiated water as a tracer. The method of tracer injection into the coconut trunk and the extraction of tritiated water from coconut leaves are outlined. The transpiration rate of the tree selected for the study was found to be 2.2 litres/hour with a total biomass of 172 kg. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Market Potential of Pasteurized Coconut Water in the Philippine Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanilyn Aguilar Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Trends in health and well-being are taking the lead in the beverage consumption movement.  The waning attractiveness of carbonated beverage may be attributed to the negative impression of the sugar content linking it to health problems.  Studies show that coconut water is found to be as effective as a sports drink for rehydration.  However, while coconut water may be an old commodity which is usually consumed as fresh, pasteurized coconut water (PCW) becomes a new entrant in the Philippine be...

  5. Characteristics of lipase isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Lipase from coconut plant grown under complete nutrient conditions showed ... 35°C and had a broad optimum pH of 7.5 – 8.5. Key words: Lipase .... inhibited by the ex- cess of substrate concentration or change of physio-.

  6. Pattern of morphological variation and diversity of Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizumbo-Villarreal, D; Piñero, D

    1998-06-01

    The pattern of morphological variation of Cocos nucifera in Mexico was statistically and numerically evaluated. Forty-one populations were analyzed, using 17 morphological fruit characters. Principal components and cluster analyses indicated four main groups of coconut populations that showed high similarity with four different genotypes recently imported into Mexico from areas that could be the origin of Mexican coconut populations. These four genotypes were evaluated with regard to the lethal yellowing disease in Jamaica and showed a differential susceptibility. Therefore it is possible to speculate upon a difference in susceptibility of the Mexican genotypes. The analysis of correlation between morphological and geographical distances showed a high positive correlation that supports: (1) historical evidence that indicates early introductions of coconut from different regions of the world, (2) that on both coasts of Mexico two different patterns of dispersal were involved: continuous and in jumps. Collectively these results suggest that the impact of the lethal yellowing disease on coconut populations will vary depending on the specific area and the origin of its coconuts.

  7. Ingestão de alimentos e digestibilidade aparente das frações fibrosas da torta de coco para ovinos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.10406 Feed intake and digestibility of fibrous fractions of coconut cake by sheep - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.10406

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes de torta de coco (Cocos nucifera L. sobre a ingestão de alimentos e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido. Foram utilizados 16 ovinos não-castrados, com peso corporal médio de 28 kg (± 3,2 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo quatro tratamentos (0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2% PV de inclusão de torta de coco e quatro repetições. Houve um período experimental de 21 dias com 14 dias de adaptação e sete dias de coleta de dados, em que se monitorou o fornecimento da dieta e a coleta total de fezes. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente ácido apresentou efeitos lineares e crescentes com a inclusão da torta de coco na dieta (44,9 a 57 e 30,57 a 40,32% para os níveis de 1,2% de inclusão, respectivamente. A fibra em detergente neutro apresentou comportamento quadrático, e o melhor nível de inclusão ocorreu com 0,89% e digestibilidade máxima da FDN de 59,39%. A torta de coco é uma excelente fonte de suplementação alimentar e pode contribuir no atendimento das demandas nutricionais para produção de carne e leite na Amazônia Oriental.This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of coconut cake (Cocos nucifera L. on feed intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. We used 16 non-castrated sheep with mean body weight of 28 kg (± 3.2 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2% BW of inclusion of coconut pie and four replications. There was a trial period of 21 days with 14 days of adaptation and 7 days of data collection, which monitored the supply of diet and total fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and acid detergent fiber effects were linear and increasing with the inclusion of coconut cake in the diet (44.9 to

  8. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which corresponding to high sugar content in the substrates which is more than 14oBrix. Therefore, both substrates could be directly used for vinegar production without requirement of other carbon sources. However, coconut water which showed low Brix value need to be adjusted to 14oBrix by adding sucrose prior to the fermentation process. Substrates fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have yielded 7-8% of alcohol within 7-10 days aerobic incubation at room temperature. The alcoholic medium were then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation with Acetobactor aceti as inoculums and fermented for approximately 2 months to obtain at least 4% of acetic acid. Investigation on the effect of inoculum sizes and implementation of back-slopping technique were performed to improve the processing method for coconut water vinegar production. The results show that 10% of inoculum size was the best for acetic acid fermentation and the back-slopping technique has helped to reduce the process time of coconut water vinegar production.

  9. Chemical composition of meat (kernel) and nut water of major coconut (cocos nucifera l.) cultivars at coastal area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, A.; Ahmad, S.S.; Butt, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Three varieties of the coconut (Tall, Dwarf and Hybrid) were subjected to analyse for physicochemical properties of meat and nut water, Sodium (Na), Moisture %, Ash %, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Potassium (K), pH, Volatile matters, Caloric value (CV) and Total dissolved solids (TDS). The chemical analysis of Meat (mature and immature stage) showed high percentage of Mg and Na in study varieties. However, it was apparent that major portion of stored Ca, Mg, and Na were lodged in the nut water. The nutrients Na, K and Ca were high or less evenly distributed in the Kernel and Water, whereas there was nutrient a comparatively greater concentration of P and Mg in the Water. The K (56% to 81%) was higher in nut water as compared to other ones. The results showed Mg 45% to 70% and Na 1% to 53% in mature and immature meat, respectively. (author)

  10. Coconut water of different maturity stages ameliorates inflammatory processes in model of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coconut water is a natural beverage that is a part of daily diet of many people. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water of different maturation stages (young and mature) with rat paw edema model of inflammation using plethysmometer. Methodology: For this study, albino rats were selected and divided into four equal groups (10 rats in each group). Group 1 was set as control and administered distilled water 1 ml orally; Groups 2 and 3 were treated with young and mature coconut water, respectively, at 4 ml/100 g dose orally. Group 4 was treated with the standard drug (ibuprofen) at 400 mg/70 kg. 0.1 ml of 1% w/v acetic acid was administered in the subplantar tissue of rat paw 30 min after oral treatments of groups. Plethysmometer was used to measure rat paw edema. Results: Results revealed that both coconut water possess significant anti-inflammatory activity (P coconut water was 20.22%, 35.13%, 42.52%, and 36% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (42.52%) was observed in the second phase of the inflammatory process. On the other hand, percent inhibition by mature coconut water was 18.80%, 25.94%, 24.13%, and 18.66% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (25.94%) was observed in the first phase of the inflammatory process. Conclusions: This study strongly suggests the use of young coconut water for potent anti-inflammatory effect and mature coconut water for moderate anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27366350

  11. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  12. Qualidade do fruto verde de coqueiro em função da irrigação com água salina Quality of green coconut fruits in relation to salinity of irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ferreira Neto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados, neste trabalho, os efeitos de quatro níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (0,1, 5,0, 10,0 e 15,0 dS m-1 obtidos mediante adição de NaCl, na qualidade de frutos de coco (Cocos nucifera L. cultivar Anão Verde do Jiqui, com 3,5 anos de idade e na salinização do solo. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos inteiramente ao acaso, em solo de textura arenosa não salino, utilizando-se de sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, no município de Parnamirim, RN, durante o período de janeiro/2000 a março/2001. A qualidade do fruto foi avaliada com base no peso médio, volume de água, ºbrix, e composição iônica da água. A salinidade da água de irrigação reduziu o peso médio e o volume de água dos frutos, elevando o teor de açucares (ºbrix a concentração iônica expressa pela condutividade elétrica (CE da água do fruto. Os íons em maior concentração na água de coco foram o cloreto e o potássio. A CE do extrato de saturação do solo, 11 meses após iniciada a irrigação, aumentou até à profundidade de 0,80 m, em função da concentração salina da água de irrigação, atingindo valores superiores a 4 dS m-1 principalmente nos últimos dois níveis de CE (10 e 15 dS m-1.The effects of 4 levels of water salinity (0.1, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 dS m-1 obtained by addition of NaCl were studied on quality of 3.5 years old dwarf green coconut (Cocos nucífera L.. The experiment was carried out in a completly randomized block design in an initially non-saline sandy soil, using a micro sprinkler irrigation system in the municipality of Parnamirim-RN, Brazil, during the period of January 2000 to March 2001. The quality of fruit was evaluated by means of fruit weight, volume of water, ºbrix, and ionic composition of coconut water. The salinity of irrigation water reduced the mean weight and volume of fruit water but increased the ionic concentration expressed as electrical conductivity (EC of coconut water and sugar

  13. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P coconut water group (P coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystal structure of cocosin, a potential food allergen from coconut (Cocos nucifera) (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Coconut allergy cases have been reported, but only one coconut allergen has been identified. The 11S seed storage proteins belong to one of a few protein families that contain known food allergens in many food of plant sources. Cocosin, the 11S protein from cocosin remains to be character...

  15. Young coconut water ameliorates depression via modulation of neurotransmitters: possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-10-01

    In the current era, plants are frequently tested for its antidepressant potential. Therefore young coconut water, a commonly used plant based beverage, was selected to explore its antidepressant potential. Rodents were selected for this study and forced swim test was conducted to explore antidepressant activity. Analysis of brain biogenic amines using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection and potentiation of noradrenaline toxicity model were also incorporated in this study to demonstrate probable antidepressant mechanism of action. Coconut water was administered orally at the dose of 4 ml/100 g. Young coconut water showed highly significant increase in struggling time (p coconut water. In noradrenaline toxicity model, it was observed that young coconut water is not a good adrenergic component as its lethality percentage in this test was observed 0 % unlike imipramine which showed lethality of 100 %. High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection of rodent's brain revealed decline in 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine, with concomitant decline in metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and increase in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio. Findings from the exploration of monoamines suggest antidepressant effect of young coconut water via homeostasis of monoamines synthesis.

  16. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  17. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  18. Coconut-based biosorbents for water treatment--a review of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-10-15

    Biosorption is an emerging technique for water treatment utilizing abundantly available biomaterials (especially agricultural wastes). Among several agricultural wastes studied as biosorbents for water treatment, coconut has been of great importance as various parts of this tree (e.g. coir, shell, etc.) have been extensively studied as biosorbents for the removal of diverse type of pollutants from water. Coconut-based agricultural wastes have gained wide attention as effective biosorbents due to low-cost and significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of coconut-based biosorbents from vast literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants as available in the literature are presented. Available abundantly, high biosorption capacity, cost-effectiveness and renewability are the important factors making these materials as economical alternatives for water treatment and waste remediation. This paper presents a state of the art review of coconut-based biosorbents used for water pollution control, highlighting and discussing key advancement on the preparation of novel adsorbents utilizing coconut wastes, its major challenges together with the future prospective. It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on commercial scale, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Carvacrol and Coconut Oil on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božik M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils play a prominent role as flavouring agents and fragrances in the food and perfume industries. Carvacrol is a major component of various essential oils, such as oregano and thyme oils, and is responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA with a high antibacterial potential. Both carvacrol and MCFAs have been used empirically as antimicrobial agents. Here, we tested the inhibitory properties of carvacrol and coconut (Cocos nucifera L. oil containing a high percentage of MCFAs against 5 harmful bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus cecorum. Gas chromatography (GC-FID analysis of coconut oil showed a high concentration of lauric acid (41%. Microdilution antimicrobial assays showed that the combination of carvacrol and coconut oil had a stronger antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria than both agents separately. We conclude that carvacrol could significantly improve the antibacterial effect of coconut oil.

  20. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Silva, Edson Antonio da

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  1. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Edson Antonio da, E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  2. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, O. P.; Archana, B. S.; Singh, Asha; Raju, P. S.; Bawa, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 expe...

  3. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  4. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  5. A cultura do coco: uma análise econômica Coconut cultivation: an economical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Moura Pires

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O coqueiro é uma planta de clima tropical, sendo cultivado em cerca de 90 países, destacando-se o continente asiático na produção e comercialização do produto in natura e nos subprodutos. Podem-se aproveitar diversas partes da planta, como o fruto, as folhas, a inflorescência, entre outros produtos e subprodutos. O Brasil possui condições especiais que favorecem a adaptação e o desenvolvimento da cultura do coco. Dentre as principais regiões brasileiras produtoras, o Nordeste destaca-se, produzindo cerca de 80% de toda a produção nacional. A Bahia destaca-se como um dos principais produtores e consumidores. O município de Ilhéus vem expandindo a produção ao longo do tempo, em função do fluxo de turistas e de iniciativas de diversificar a agricultura regional. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar e avaliar, econômica e financeiramente, os diferentes níveis tecnológicos adotados pelos produtores de coco no município de Ilhéus. Neste estudo, utilizou-se de levantamento de corte seccional (cross-section para o qual foram aplicados vinte questionários junto aos produtores, selecionados por meio do critério de amostra intencional, segundo a técnica survey. Por meio dessas informações, foram calculados os indicadores financeiros (VPL, TIR, B/C e a análise de sensibilidade. Nota-se que os três níveis tecnológicos adotados no município apresentam receitas positivas; no entanto, a tecnologia III é a que se mostra mais eficiente. Os resultados, para as tecnologias I, II e III, do VPL são de R$ 4.857,04; R$ 20.782,38, e R$ 47.931,22, respectivamente; para a TIR, de 43%, 80% e 87%, sucessivamente. A relação B/C foi de 2,32 (Tecnologia I, 3,24 (Tecnologia II e 2,89 (Tecnologia III. Tais resultados indicam que as tecnologias adotadas são econômica e financeiramente viáveis. No entanto, o produtor poderia realizar maior exploração do potencial da atividade, gerando maior lucratividade.Coconut is a tropical tree

  6. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  7. Comparative evaluation of the hypolipidemic effects of coconut water and lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, V G; Rajamohan, T

    2008-12-01

    The coconut water presents a series of nutritional and therapeutic properties, being a natural, acid and sterile solution, which contains several biologically active components, l-arginine, ascorbic acid, minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium, which have beneficial effects on lipid levels. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that both tender and mature coconut water feeding significantly (Pcholesterol fed rats [Sandhya, V.G., Rajamohan, T., 2006. Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed rats. J. Med. Food 9, 400-407]. The current study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of coconut water (4ml/100g body weight) with a lipid lowering drug, lovastatin (0.1/100g diet) in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet ad libitum for 45 days. Coconut water or lovastatin supplementation lowered the levels of serum total cholesterol, VLDL+LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol in experimental rats (Pcholesterol in the liver were higher in coconut water treated rats. Coconut water supplementation increased hepatic bile acid and fecal bile acids and neutral sterols (Pcholesterol enriched diet.

  8. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN; SHAIFUL ADZNI SHARIFUDIN; AZLINA MANSOR; AINAA ABD KAHAR; KAMARIAH LONG

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which correspo...

  9. Isolation of Exosome-Like Nanoparticles and Analysis of MicroRNAs Derived from Coconut Water Based on Small RNA High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhehao; Yu, Siran; Li, Min; Gui, Xin; Li, Ping

    2018-03-21

    In this study, the presence of microRNAs in coconut water was identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the results of high-throughput small RNA sequencing. In addition, the differences in microRNA content between immature and mature coconut water were compared. A total of 47 known microRNAs belonging to 25 families and 14 new microRNAs were identified in coconut endosperm. Through analysis using a target gene prediction software, potential microRNA target genes were identified in the human genome. Real-time PCR showed that the level of most microRNAs was higher in mature coconut water than in immature coconut water. Then, exosome-like nanoparticles were isolated from coconut water. After ultracentrifugation, some particle structures were seen in coconut water samples using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate fluorescence staining. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy observation and dynamic light scattering analysis also revealed some exosome-like nanoparticles in coconut water, and the mean diameters of the particles detected by the two methods were 13.16 and 59.72 nm, respectively. In conclusion, there are extracellular microRNAs in coconut water, and their levels are higher in mature coconut water than in immature coconut water. Some exosome-like nanoparticles were isolated from coconut water, and the diameter of these particles was smaller than that of animal-derived exosomes.

  10. Coconut endocarp and mesocarp as both biosorbents of dissolved hydrocarbons in fuel spills and as a power source when exhausted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Zarate, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Mayra Cecilia; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2018-04-01

    Health and environmental problems associated with the presence of toxic aromatic compounds in water from oil spills have motivated research to develop effective and economically viable strategies to remove these pollutants. In this work, coconut shell (endocarp), coconut fiber (mesocarp) and coconut shell with fiber (endocarp and mesocarp) obtained from coconut (Cocos nucifera) waste were evaluated as biosorbents of benzene, toluene and naphthalene from water, considering the effect of the solution pH (6-9) and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water (14 mg/L). In addition, the heat capacity of saturated biosorbents was determined to evaluate their potential as an alternative power source to conventional fossil fuels. Tests of N 2 physisorption, SEM, elemental and fiber analysis, ATR-FTIR and acid-based titrations were performed in order to understand the materials' characteristics, and to elucidate the biosorbents' hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism. Coconut fiber showed the highest adsorption capacities (222, 96 and 5.85 mg/g for benzene, toluene and naphthalene, respectively), which was attributed to its morphologic characteristics and to its high concentration of phenolic groups, associated with the lignin structure. The pH of the solution did not have a significant influence on the removal of the contaminants, and the presence of DOM improved the adsorption capacities of aromatic hydrocarbons. The adsorption studies showed biphasic isotherms, which highlighted the strong affinity between the molecules adsorbed on the biosorbents and the aromatic compounds remaining in the solution. Finally, combustion heat analysis of coconut waste saturated with soluble hydrocarbons showed that the heat capacity increased from 4407.79 cal/g to 5064.43 ± 11.6 cal/g, which is comparable with that of woody biomass (3400-4000 cal/g): this waste biomass with added value could be a promising biofuel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  12. Effect of Coconut Fillers on Hybrid Coconut Kevlar Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Jani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This project focuses on the conversion of naturally available coconut fibers and shells into a useful composite. In addition to it, some mechanical properties of the resultant composite is determined and also the effect of coconut shell fillers on the composite is also investigated. The few portion of the composite is incorporated with synthetic Kevlar fiber, thus the coconut fiber is hybridized to enhance the mechanical properties of coconut. In this work two types of composite is fabricate, kevelar coconut fibre (kc composite and kevelarcoco nut fibre coconut shell filler (kccsf composite. Coconut fibers have low weight and considerable properties among the natural fibers, while coconut fillers have a good ductile and impact property. The natural fibers and fillers are treated with Na-OH to make it free of organic impurities. Epoxy resin is used as the polymer matrix. Two composite are produced one with fillers and the other without the fillers using compression molding method. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption tests are done with ASTM standard. It is observed that that the addition of filler materials improves the adhesiveness of the fibers leading to the increase in the above mentioned properties. The density of the composite is also low hence the strength to weight ratio is very high. The water absorption test also showed that the resultant composite had a small adhesion to water and absorption of water.

  13. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  14. Dietary coconut water vinegar for improvement of obesity-associated inflammation in high-fat-diet-treated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ky, Huynh; Ho, Wan Yong; Boo, Sook Yee; Chua, Joelle; Beh, Boon-Kee; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity has become a serious health problem worldwide. Various types of healthy food, including vinegar, have been proposed to manage obesity. However, different types of vinegar may have different bioactivities. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of coconut water vinegar on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Changes in the gut microbiota of the mice were also evaluated. To induce obesity, C57/BL mice were continuously fed an HFD for 33 weeks. Coconut water vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg body weight) was fed to the obese mice from early in week 24 to the end of week 33. Changes in the body weight, fat-pad weight, serum lipid profile, expression of adipogenesis-related genes and adipokines in the fat pad, expression of inflammatory-related genes, and nitric oxide levels in the livers of the untreated and coconut water vinegar-treated mice were evaluated. Faecal samples from the untreated and coconut water vinegar-treated mice (2 ml/kg body weight) were subjected to 16S metagenomic analysis to compare their gut microbiota. The oral intake of coconut water vinegar significantly (p coconut water vinegar also reduced HFD-induced inflammation by down-regulating nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, which consequently reduced the nitric oxide level in the liver. Alterations in the gut microbiota due to an increase in the populations of the Bacteroides and Akkermansia genera by the coconut water vinegar may have helped to overcome the obesity and inflammation caused by the HFD. These results provide valuable insights into coconut water vinegar as a potential food ingredient with anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:29056887

  15. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CESP) from mature coconut endosperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Leelamma M; Usha, Rajamma; Roy, Samir; Mandal, Chhabinath

    2009-01-01

    Background In plants, proteases execute an important role in the overall process of protein turnover during seed development, germination and senescence. The limited knowledge on the proteolytic machinery that operates during seed development in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) prompted us to search for proteases in the coconut endosperm. Findings We have identified and purified a coconut endosperm protease (CESP) to apparent homogeneity. CESP is a single polypeptide enzyme of approximate molecular mass of 68 kDa and possesses pH optimum of 8.5 for the hydrolysis of BAPNA. Studies relating to substrate specificity and pattern of inhibition by various protease inhibitors indicated that CESP is a serine protease with cleavage specificity to peptide bonds after arginine. Purified CESP was often autolysed to two polypeptides of 41.6 kDa (CESP1) and 26.7 kDa (CESP2) and is confirmed by immunochemistry. We have shown the expression of CESP in all varieties of coconut and in all stages of coconut endosperm development with maximum amount in fully matured coconut. Conclusion Since the involvement of proteases in the processing of pre-proteins and maintenance of intracellular protein levels in seeds are well known, we suspect this CESP might play an important role in the coconut endosperm development. However this need to be confirmed using further studies. PMID:19426537

  16. Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Cyriac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The husk fibers of coconut (Cocos nucifera are reported to be used by people of rural areas of South India for daily cleaning their teeth. As the beneficial effects of this plant material, with respect to antimicrobial properties against common cariogenic bacteria, are not scientifically proven, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut was collected and aqueous extract was prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were performed by agar well diffusion method. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: Aqueous extract of coconut husk showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against different tested organisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 4.44 to 15.33 mms. However, the efficacy was less in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Inhibitory action against cariogenic bacteria exhibited by aqueous extract of coconut husk indicate presence of highly effective active compounds in these extracts, which can be identified and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries.

  17. Inductive effect of coconut water on germination of seeds and sprouting of corms of Dracontium grayumianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Torres, Carlos; Mosquera Gamboa, Ferley; Gonzalez, Robert Tulio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the promotional effect of coconut water, gibberellic acid, cold stratification and mechanical scarification on seed germination of Dracontium grayumianum, and the effect of gibberellic acid and coconut water on the sprouting of corms of the same species. The seeds without the inductive treatment were unable to germinate, but the immersion in coconut water had significant effects, producing a germination rate of 50%, higher than the effect achieved with other treatments. The liquid endosperm of coconut also had favorable effect on the sprouting of corms under nursery conditions, like the treatment with gibberellic acid solution. This is the first report of the use of coconut water as a promoter of seed germination with high latency, which places this resource as an additional alternative, highly efficient, and cost-effective, for use in plant propagation strategies of species with seeds of deep dormancy.

  18. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  19. Structural characterization of lignin isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencoret, Jorge; Ralph, John; Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Ángel T; del Río, José C

    2013-03-13

    The structure of the isolated milled "wood" lignin from coconut coir has been characterized using different analytical methods, including Py-GC/MS, 2D NMR, DFRC, and thioacidolysis. The analyses demonstrated that it is a p-hydroxyphenyl-guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) lignin, with a predominance of G units (S/G ratio 0.23) and considerable amounts of associated p-hydroxybenzoates. Two-dimensional NMR indicated that the main substructures present in this lignin include β-O-4' alkyl aryl ethers followed by phenylcoumarans and resinols. Two-dimensional NMR spectra also indicated that coir lignin is partially acylated at the γ-carbon of the side chain with p-hydroxybenzoates and acetates. DFRC analysis showed that acetates preferentially acylate the γ-OH in S rather than in G units. Despite coir lignin's being highly enriched in G-units, thioacidolysis indicated that β-β' resinol structures are mostly derived from sinapyl alcohol. Finally, we find evidence that the flavone tricin is incorporated into the coconut coir lignin, as has been recently noted for various grasses.

  20. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM EQUIPAMENTO PARA TRITURAÇÃO DE COCO VERDE / DEVELOPMENT OF AN EQUIPMENT FOR CRUSHING GREEN COCONUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Simonetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é responsável por cerca de 80% da produção de cocos na América do Sul. O resíduo de cascas de coco se transforma em um problema ambiental, uma vez que sua degradação pode ocorrer em até oito anos. Por outro lado, as fibras processadas podem se transformar em uma série de produtos utilizados na indústria da construção, automotiva e de insumo para agricultura ou jardinagem. O processamento da extração das fibras de coco verde ou seco é uma tarefa difícil exigindo trabalho árduo. A mecanização deste processo se faz necessária no sentido de melhorar a qualidade de vida do trabalhador deste segmento, facilitando o posterior aproveitamento das fibras e reduzindo o impacto ambiental do produto. Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver um equipamento triturador de cascas de coco. O princípio de funcionamento do triturador de coco foi baseado no acionamento de um rotor das facas, que efetua o processo de corte dos cocos, depositados no triturador. Visou-se obter um equipamento de utilização simples e prática, para que a trituração seja executada sem riscos. Foram executados ensaios de compressão para determinar a força de rompimento da fruta e também calculados os valores que deveriam ter o torque do motor a ser usado. O protótipo foi construído e testado. No teste, os cocos foram, em sua maioria, completamente triturados, indicando a eficiência da máquina.

  1. Viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts in milk, Hank's balanced salt solution and coconut water as storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B D M; Lückemeyer, D D; Reyes-Carmona, J F; Felippe, W T; Simões, C M O; Felippe, M C S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of various storage media at 5 °C for maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF). Plates with PDLF were soaked in recently prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), skimmed milk, whole milk, Save-A-Tooth(®) system's HBSS (Save), natural coconut water, industrialized coconut water or tap water (negative control) at 5 °C for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Minimum essential medium (MEM) at 37 °C served as the positive control. PDL cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Data were statistically analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test complemented by the Scheffé test (α=5%). The greatest number of viable cells was observed for MEM. Skimmed and whole milk, followed by natural coconut water and HBSS, were the most effective media in maintaining cell viability (Pmilk had the greatest capacity to maintain PDLF viability when compared with natural coconut water, HBSS, Save, industrialized coconut water and tap water. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  2. Microbiological testing and physical and chemical analysis of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water
    Avaliação microbiológico e caracterização físico-quimica de refrescos e água de coco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. PILÓ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water sold for immediate consumption in bars, restaurants and bakeries, and by street vendors in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microbial quality was determined by counting coliforms, yeasts, staphylococci and salmonellae. Total titratable acidity, pH and total soluble solids of these beverages were recorded. For coconut water samples, the total reducing sugar content was also determined. The “juices” collected included reconstituted orange, cashew and grape-fl avored juice powders and concentrated cashew juice. Sixty samples of these juices and 45 of coconut water were collected. More than half (55% of the juice samples did not comply with current Brazilian legislation, which states that there must be a total absence of coliforms in a 50 mL sample. Sixteen percent of the coconut water samples exceeded the bacterial count limits defi ned in Brazilian law, with thermotolerant coliform densities above 102 MPN / mL. The high levels of sugar and low pH found in the coconut water were possibly related to the high yeast counts in most samples. Forty-seven percent of coconut water samples showed staphylococcal counts above 103 CFU/mL. The numbers of thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts and staphylococci found suggest unsatisfactory hygienic practices during the preparation of these beverages. Salmonellae were not detected in any of the samples. The physical and chemical properties of the drinks varied among the samples. Our results suggest that both the reconstituted juices and coconut waters need better hygienic and sanitary control.

  3. Caracterização mecânica e morfológica de compósitos de polipropileno e fibras de coco verde: influência do teor de fibra e das condições de mistura Mechanical and morphological characterization of polypropylene and green coconut fiber composites: influence of fiber content and mixture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina H. Ishizaki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos de polipropileno com 10, 20 e 30% em volume de fibra de coco verde foram obtidos em câmara de mistura Haake, tendo como variáveis a temperatura de processamento e a velocidade de cisalhamento. O módulo de flexão e as características morfológicas dos diferentes compósitos obtidos foram avaliados e comparados com o polipropileno puro. Foi observado que a temperatura de 170 °C, a velocidade do rotor de 60rpm e o teor de fibra de coco verde de 30% forneceram o melhor desempenho quanto à flexão. Essas observações foram comprovadas pela análise da morfologia.Polypropylene composites containing 10, 20 and 30% in volume of green coconut fiber were prepared in a Haake chamber at various processing temperatures and shear rates. The flexural modulus and morphological characteristics of the composites were evaluated and compared with pure polypropylene. Optimization experiments indicated that a temperature of 170 °C, shear rate of 60rpm and green coconut fiber content of 30% showed the best properties by flexural modulus. These observations were confirmed by a morphology analysis.

  4. Evolution of caesium 137 levels in coconut water and copra in french Polynesia, since 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabis de Saint-Chamas, L.; Bablet, J.P.; Ducousso, R.; Arnould, C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear experiments have been carried out by France in french Polynesia since 1966. The tests were first atmospheric, they have been underground since 1975. The experiment monitoring programme includes monitoring of 137 Cs contents in coconuts from the whole french polynesian territory. The methodology is described and the results of the 2 589 samples collected for 1967 to 1988 are presented. The maximum content found since 1967 is 52 Bq.kg -1 for coconut water and 289 Bq.kg -1 for coconut copra. The decrease of 137 Cs content is constant without discontinuity, whatever the distance from the explosion sites. The committed dose equivalent from 137 Cs delivered by coconut water and copra consumption represents only a few microsieverts a year [fr

  5. Long-distance dispersal of the coconut palm by migration within the coral atoll ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C; Clement, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    The location of the original home of the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, and the extent of its natural dispersal are not known. Proponents of a South American origin must explain why it is not indigenous there and why it shows greatest diversity in southern Asia. Conversely, proponents of an Asian origin must explain why there are no Asian Cocoseae and why the closest botanical relative to Cocos is in South America. Both hypotheses share the common problems of how, when, where and in what directions long-distance dispersal occurred. These difficulties are resolved by accepting that C. nucifera originated and dispersed by populating emerging islands of the coral atoll ecosystem, where establishment conditions impose high selection pressures for survival. When lifted by wave action onto virtually sterile, soilless coralline rocks just above sea level and exposed to the full impact of the sun, seednuts must germinate, root and establish vigorous populations. The cavity within the nut augments the buoyancy provided by the thick husk, which in turn protects the embryo and, by delaying germination, simultaneously extends viability while floating and provides a moisture-retentive rooting medium for the young seedling. These adaptations allow coconuts to disperse widely through the coral atoll ecosystem. The monthly production of fruit and the long floating duration ensure that viable seednuts are always available in the lagoon to replace those destroyed by hurricanes and tsunamis, or to populate newly emerged coral atolls elsewhere. Long-distance dispersal is secondary, because it was the spontaneous, independent migration of coral polyps on a prolonged geological time scale that generated new coral atolls in new areas where the coconuts would be amongst the earliest inhabitants. The coconut palm became an intermittent, itinerant, pioneer endemic there, and also on suitable beaches on volcanic or large islands and continental coastlines.

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Seven WRKY Genes across the Palm Subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) Identifies Syagrus as Sister Group of the Coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerow, Alan W.; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J.; Kuhn, David N.; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H.; Schnell, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the “abominable mysteries” of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for

  7. Lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods: Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII of 5 animals each. Groups I, II and III were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight, coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight on the 7th day. Groups VI and VII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  8. Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second-generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Van de Velde, Miet; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Kerstens, Dorien; Sels, Bert F; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2017-11-01

    The residual biomass obtained from the production of Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) is a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. Even though coconut hydrolysates for ethanol production have previously been obtained, high-solid loads to obtain high sugar and ethanol levels remain a challenge. We investigated the use of a fed-batch regime in the production of sugar-rich hydrolysates from the green coconut fruit and its mesocarp. Fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained from green coconut or its mesocarp, containing 8.4 and 9.7% (w/v) sugar, resulted in 3.8 and 4.3% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. However, green coconut hydrolysate showed a prolonged fermentation lag phase. The inhibitor profile suggested that fatty acids and acetic acid were the main fermentation inhibitors. Therefore, a fed-batch regime with mild alkaline pretreatment followed by saccharification, is presented as a strategy for fermentation of such challenging biomass hydrolysates, even though further improvement of yeast inhibitor tolerance is also needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentração salina e fases de exposição à salinidade do meloeiro cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco Salt concentration and phases of exposure tosalinity of melon grown in coconut fiber substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo da Silva Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No semiárido, a escassez de água de boa qualidade faz com que os produtores utilizem água salobra para preparar a solução nutritiva. Com o objetivo de investigar a utilização de água salobra na irrigação de meloeiro (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco em casa de vegetação, plantas foram nutridas com soluções salinas de condutividades elétricas (CEs 1,1 (testemunha; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 aplicadas durante as fases: crescimento vegetativo (10-30 dias após o transplantio-DAT; florescimento (31-50 DAT e frutificação e maturação (51-70 DAT. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos arranjados em um esquema fatorial 4x3 (níveis de salinidade x tempo de exposição dos sais, com três repetições. Houve correlação na perda relativa por incremento de CEs das variáveis de crescimento e de produção do meloeiro em função da salinidade da solução nutritiva para cada fase de exposição. As soluções nutritivas preparadas com água salobra podem ser utilizadas no cultivo do meloeiro em substrato de fibra de coco com o mínimo de perdas relativas de massa média de frutos por incremento de CEs, quando aplicadas na fase de florescimento.Scarcity of good water quality in semiarid region causes producers to use brackish water to prepare the nutrient solution. In order to investigate the use of brackish water in irrigation of greenhouse-melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 grown in coconut fiber substrate, plants were irrigated with saltine nutrient solutions of electrical conductivities (ECs of 1.1 (control, 2.5, 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1, applied during the phases of vegetative growth (10-30 days after transplanting, DAT, flowering (31-50 DAT and fruiting and ripening (51-70 DAT. The design was completely randomized, with 12 treatments arranged in a 4x3 factorial design (salinity levels x exposure time of the salts, with three replications. There was a correlation in

  10. Coconut processing technologies for rural transformation – Case study on coconut water vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    6. Seeja Thomachan, Deepu Mathew and Habeeburrahman P. V.

    2010-01-01

    The role of coconut based technologies in social development of rural India is described based on the influence of coconut vinegar technology in the rural women of Malappuram district, Kerala state, India

  11. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cocos sahnii Kaul: A Cocos nucifera L.-like fruit from the Early ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-07-20

    Jul 20, 2012 ... rules of nomenclature (ICBN Article no. 42) the name of the ... of land-based natural resources, it provides almost all the necessities of .... described a Cocos fruit from the Palaeocene of Colombia. A comparative .... over water.

  13. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

  14. Fibra de coco e adubação foliar no crescimento e na nutrição de Cryptanthus sinuosus Coconut fiber and foliar fertilization on the growth and nutrition of Cryptanthus sinuosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie M Jasmim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de Cryptanthus sinuosus foram cultivadas em três substratos (mesocarpo de coco - MC; mesocarpo de coco lavado - MCL e xaxim-X, visando comparar o efeito da fibra de coco verde, como substrato, àquele da fibra de xaxim sobre o crescimento e teores de nutrientes das plantas, sob três níveis de adubação foliar: 50, 100 e 150% de solução contendo 210 mg L-1 de N, 31 mg L-1 de P e 234 mg L-1 de K. O experimento constou de um fatorial em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três plantas por parcela, uma planta por vaso e conduzido em casa de vegetação. O número de folhas, diâmetro da roseta, massa da matéria seca (MS de folhas e raízes e teores de nutrientes foram avaliados. As plantas cultivadas em X apresentaram valores de MS de folhas e de raízes mais altos que aquelas em MC, mas não diferiram estatisticamente daqueles observados nas plantas em MCL. As plantas cultivadas em MC e MCL apresentaram características semelhantes indicando que a alta condutividade elétrica encontrada no substrato MC não prejudicou o acúmulo de matéria seca. As plantas cultivadas em MC e MCL apresentaram menores teores foliares de N, P, S que as cultivadas em X, porém com coloração e arquitetura foliares mais atrativas. Os diferentes níveis de adubação utilizados não tiveram efeito diferenciado sobre as características de crescimento, nem sobre os teores de nutrientes nas plantas.Cryptanthus sinuosus plants were grown in three substrates (coconut mesocarp - MC, rinsed coconut mesocarp - MCL and tree fern fiber-X aiming to compare the effect of green coconut fiber as substrate with tree fern fiber on the plant growth and nutrient contents, under three foliar fertilization levels (50, 100 and 150% of a solution containing 210 mg L-1 of N, 31 mg L-1 of P and 234 mg L-1 of K. The experimental design was a factorial scheme of randomized blocks with four replications and three plants per plot, one plant per pot, and was

  15. Evaluation of Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Coconut Water (Cocus nucifera L. and Caffeic Acid in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAO L.A. SANTOS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water contains several uncharacterized substances and is widely used in the human consumption. In this paper we detected and quantified ascorbic acid and caffeic acid and total phenolics in several varieties of coconut using HPLS/MS/MS (25.8 ± 0.6 µg/mL and 1.078 ± 0.013 µg/mL and 99.7 µg/mL, respectively, in the green dwarf coconut water, or 10 mg and 539 µg and 39.8 mg for units of coconut consumed, 500 ± 50 mL. The antioxidant potential of four coconut varieties (green dwarf, yellow dwarf, red dwarf and yellow Malaysian was compared with two industrialized coconut waters and the lyophilized water of the green dwarf variety. All varieties were effective in scavenging the DPPH radical (IC50=73 µL and oxide nitric (0.1 mL with an IP of 29.9% as well as in inhibiting the in vitro production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (1 mL with an IP of 34.4%, highlighting the antioxidant properties of the green dwarf which it is the most common used. In cell culture, the green dwarf water was efficient in protecting against oxidative damages induced by hydrogen peroxide.

  16. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

  17. Desenvolvimento e qualidade nutricional de mudas de mangabeiras cultivadas em substratos contendo fibra de coco e adubação fosfatada Development and nutritional quality of hancornia speciosa seedlings cultivated in mixture containing coconut fiber and fertilized with phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a produção de mudas de qualidade, é necessária a utilização de substratos com propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas que condicionem a germinação adequada das sementes e o estabelecimento das mudas. Neste sentido, foi realizado um experimento no Centro de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a composição mineral de mudas de mangabeiras (Hancornia speciosa em substratos compostos por diferentes proporções de fibra de coco (0% a 40%, esterco bovino (0% a 25%, terra vegetal (25% a 70% e 15% de areia, fertilizados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g dm-3. A terra vegetal e a fibra de coco exerceram efeitos benéficos às mudas com o aumento de suas proporções no substrato. A adição do esterco e do superfosfato triplo inibiu a produção de matéria seca e a área foliar das mudas. Houve aumento dos teores de nutrientes nas mudas com o aumento da concentração de esterco nos substratos. Pela estimativa dos resultados, o substrato que proporciona maior crescimento e composição mineral mais equilibrada nas mudas de mangabeira deve ser constituído por 14% de esterco, 56% de terra vegetal, 15% de fibra de coco, 15% de areia e 4 g dm-3 de superfosfato triplo.In order to produce good quality seedlings it is necessary to use a mixture that presents appropriate physical, chemical and biological properties, which supplies the necessary conditions for the germination and the seedling's establishment. This experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Sciences Center, Paraíba Federal University (Brazil, whose objective was to evaluate the growth and the mineral composition of Hancornia speciosa seedlings in substrata composed by concentrations of coconut fiber from 0% to 40%, manure bovine from 0% to 25%, soil from 25% to 70%, sand 15% and triple superphosphate between 0 and 11 g dm-3. The soil and coconut fiber had beneficial effects on the H. speciosa

  18. De novo assembly and characterization of global transcriptome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) embryogenic calli using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M K; Fayas, T P; Naganeeswaran, S; Rachana, K E; Bhavyashree, U; Sajini, K K; Karun, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Production and supply of quality planting material is significant to coconut cultivation but is one of the major constraints in coconut productivity. Rapid multiplication of coconut through in vitro techniques, therefore, is of paramount importance. Although somatic embryogenesis in coconut is a promising technique that will allow for the mass production of high quality palms, coconut is highly recalcitrant to in vitro culture. In order to overcome the bottlenecks in coconut somatic embryogenesis and to develop a repeatable protocol, it is imperative to understand, identify, and characterize molecular events involved in coconut somatic embryogenesis pathway. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of coconut embryogenic calli, derived from plumular explants of West Coast Tall cultivar, was undertaken on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. After de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation, we have obtained 40,367 transcripts which showed significant BLASTx matches with similarity greater than 40 % and E value of ≤10(-5). Fourteen genes known to be involved in somatic embryogenesis were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of these 14 genes were carried in six developmental stages. The result showed that CLV was upregulated in the initial stage of callogenesis. Transcripts GLP, GST, PKL, WUS, and WRKY were expressed more in somatic embryo stage. The expression of SERK, MAPK, AP2, SAUR, ECP, AGP, LEA, and ANT were higher in the embryogenic callus stage compared to initial culture and somatic embryo stages. This study provides the first insights into the gene expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis in coconut.

  19. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (He ) and observed heterozygosity (Ho ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at θ^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was ta = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities. PMID:21637579

  20. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-02-11

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type.

  1. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajini, K K; Karun, A; Amamath, C H; Engelmann, F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of preculture conditions, vitrification and unloading solutions on survival and regeneration of coconut zygotic embryos after cryopreservation. Among the seven plant vitrification solutions tested, PVS3 was found to be the most effective for regeneration of cryopreserved embryos. The optimal protocol involved preculture of embryos for 3 days on medium with 0.6 M sucrose, PVS3 treatment for 16 h, rapid cooling and rewarming and unloading in 1.2 M sucrose liquid medium for 1.5 h. Under these conditions, 70-80 survival (corresponding to size enlargement and weight gain) was observed with cryopreserved embryos and 20-25 percent of the plants regenerated (showing normal shoot and root growth) from cryopreserved embryos were established in pots.

  2. Farelo de coco na ração de poedeiras comerciais: digestibilidade dos nutrientes, desempenho e qualidade dos ovos Coconut meal in laying hens diets: nutrients digestibility, performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Castro Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de farelo de coco (FC sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da ração, o desempenho e as características dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Cento e cinqüenta poedeiras com 76 semanas de idade foram pesadas e distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de seis aves por unidade experimental. Foram avaliadas cinco rações, uma testemunha, sem FC, e as demais com 5, 10, 15 e 20% de farelo de coco. As rações foram calculadas para serem isoprotéicas e isocalóricas. A inclusão do FC nas rações aumentou a quantidade de EE, FB e EB da ração. Os níveis de inclusão de FC tiveram efeito quadrático sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, N e EB e nos valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida para N (EMAn, que atingiram o máximo no nível de 15% de inclusão. As rações contendo 10, 15 e 20% de farelo de coco apresentaram valores de EMA e EMAn superiores aos obtidos com a ração sem FC. Os níveis de FC utilizados não afetaram a porcentagem de postura, o peso do ovo e a massa de ovo. O consumo de ração diminuiu e a conversão alimentar melhorou com a inclusão de 15 e 20% de FC. Considerando os resultados de digestibilidade da energia das rações, recomenda-se que a inclusão de farelo de coco em rações para poedeiras não deve ultrapassar o nível de 15%.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of coconut meal (CM in diets on nutrients digestibility, performance and egg characteristics of commercial laying hens. A total of 150 laying hens, with 76 weeks of age was weighed and allotted to a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates of six birds in each experimental unit. Five diets were evaluated, one control, without CM and the others with 5, 10, 15, and 20% of CM. Diets were formulated to be isoprotein

  3. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  4. 137 CS content in coconut water and copra in French Polynesia: contribution to the dose for population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.; Arnould, C.; Sarbach, J.; Bablet, J.P.; Ducousso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Coconut tree has the peculiarity to be a good integrator for alkaline metals. The isotope 137 of cesium, which was generated during previous atmospheric nuclear tests, has a high fission yield and a half-life of about 30 years; this nuclide is supposed to be still present in food chain in French Polynesia. In this food chain coconut water and coconut copra are ingested depending upon diet customs and areas of French Polynesia. For some islands, among local foodstuffs, cesium 137 content in coconut highly contributes to the dose. Spectrometry gamma results and annual doses calculation since 1966 are displayed. (author)

  5. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  6. Microbial inactivation and cytotoxicity evaluation of UV irradiated coconut water in a novel continuous flow spiral reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Manreet Singh; Patras, Ankit; Kilanzo-Nthenge, Agnes; Pokharel, Bharat; Yannam, Sudheer Kumar; Rakariyatham, Kanyasiri; Pan, Che; Xiao, Hang; Sasges, Michael

    2018-01-01

    A continuous-flow UV reactor operating at 254nm wave-length was used to investigate inactivation of microorganisms including bacteriophage in coconut water, a highly opaque liquid food. UV-C inactivation kinetics of two surrogate viruses (MS2, T1UV) and three bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115) in buffer and coconut water were investigated (D 10 values ranging from 2.82 to 4.54mJ·cm -2 ). A series of known UV-C doses were delivered to the samples. Inactivation levels of all organisms were linearly proportional to UV-C dose (r 2 >0.97). At the highest dose of 30mJ·cm -2 , the three pathogenic organisms were inactivated by >5 log 10 (pUV-C irradiation effectively inactivated bacteriophage and pathogenic microbes in coconut water. The inactivation kinetics of microorganisms were best described by log linear model with a low root mean square error (RMSE) and high coefficient of determination (r 2 >0.97). Models for predicting log reduction as a function of UV-C irradiation dose were found to be significant (pUV-C treatment did not generate cytotoxic compounds in the coconut water. This study clearly demonstrated that high levels of inactivation of pathogens can be achieved in coconut water, and suggested potential method for UV-C treatment of other liquid foods. This research paper provides scientific evidence of the potential benefits of UV-C irradiation in inactivating bacterial and viral surrogates at commercially relevant doses of 0-120mJ·cm -2 . The irradiated coconut water showed no cytotoxic effects on normal intestinal and healthy mice liver cells. UV-C irradiation is an attractive food preservation technology and offers opportunities for horticultural and food processing industries to meet the growing demand from consumers for healthier and safe food products. This study would provide technical support for commercialization of UV-C treatment of beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Preliminary study on biosynthesis and characterization of bacteria cellulose films from coconut water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianingsih, A. W.; Rosyida, V. T.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Prasetyo, D. J.; Poeloengasih, C. D.; Apriyana, W.; Nisa, K.; Nurhayati, S.; Hernawan; Darsih, C.; Pratiwi, D.; Suwanto, A.; Ratih, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum is a unique type of bacterial cellulose. It contains more than 90% of water. A preliminary study had shown that bacterial cellulose films has remarkable mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum condition such as percentage of carbon source, time of cultivation, and pH to produce bacterial cellulose films from local coconut water, and its characterization on morphology, swelling ability and tensile strength of dried bacterial cellulose. A. xylinum was grown on coconut water culture medium with addition of 3%, 5%, and 7% of sugar, while the cultivation time was vary from 3 days, 5 days and 7 days. pH condition was conducted in pH 3, pH 5 and pH 7. Bacterial cellulose samples were dried using oven with temperature of 100°C until the moisture content reached 4-5%. This study showed that several parameters for optimum condition to produce bacterial cellulose films from local waste of coconut water had been obtained (5% of carbon source; pH 5; and 7 day of incubation period). The electron microscopy also showed that dried bacterial cellulose films had pores covered by fibrils on the surface. Therefore, the present work proposes the optimum formula and condition that can be used based on properties of end product needed.

  8. GUIDELINES FOR A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN ON SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT, MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES, COASTAL SPACE IN EL COCO, NICOYA PENINSULA, COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Orias-Arguedas, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    This document is the continuation of the article entitled: “The Expansion of El Coco Coastal Urban Space and Its Relationship with Vulnerability to Pollution of Water Resources, Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica,” included in the Central American Geographic Magazine, Issue No.50, I Semester 2013. The conditions of water resources in El Coco urban coastal space are questioned depending on factors, categories, impact indicators, vulnerability ranges, and those involved in the decision-making process...

  9. Lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte. parte II: consumo hídrico do coqueiro anão verde irrigado Large-scale weighing lysimeter. part II: water requirements of the irrigated dwarf-green coconut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inajá F. Sousa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, como segunda parte de uma pesquisa realizada no Estado de Sergipe, objetiva determinar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultura na fase de crescimento do coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L., com base em medições lisimétricas e no modelo do balanço de energia, segundo a razão de Bowen. Obteve-se a evapotranspiração de referência pelo método de Penman-Monteith, na escala diária em todo o período experimental. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi programado para a automação da coleta de todos os sensores necessários à obtenção dos componentes do balanço de energia. O consumo hídrico do coqueiro durante a fase de crescimento é de 1.263,30 mm, com média diária de 3,90 mm d-1. O coeficiente de cultura nessa fase fenológica da palmeira varia entre 0,50 e 1,80, com média de 0,96.This paper, as Part II of a research carried out in Sergipe state, aims to determine evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L. based on lysimeter measurements and Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The reference evapotranspiration was obtained by the Penman-Monteith approach on daily-scale during the experimental period. The data acquisition system was used to obtain all data from the sensors necessary to determine the energy balance components. The water requirements of coconut palm during the phenological growth stage is 1263.30 mm, with daily average of 3.90 mm d-1. The crop coefficient during this phenological growth stage varies between 0.50 and 1.80, with daily mean of 0.96.

  10. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  11. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-05-01

    Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

  12. Cocos nucifera coir-mediated green synthesis of Pd NPs and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Ganesh; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Irukatla Damodharan, Kasinathan; Elumalai, Kuppuswamy

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) was one of the versatile trees in tropical regions which also can act as a thrust quencher in all over the world. Cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help C. nucifera coir, Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were synthesized. Green-synthesized spherical-shape Pd NPs were over layered by secondary metabolites from C. nucifera coir extract and with an average particle size of 62 ± 2 nm, which were confirmed by morphological analysis. Eco-friendly mediated Pd NPs were further subjected to several biological applications like larvicidal against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and anti-feedent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against agricultural pest Callasobruchus maculates (C. maculates) and compared with C. nuciferacoir methanolic extract, which results in LC 50 value of 288.88 ppm and LC 90 value of 483.06 ppm using LSD-Tukey's test against dengue vector (A. aegypti). Cocos nucifera coir methanolic extract shows significant output while compared with Pd NPs towards anti-feedent assays; ovicidal activity and oviposition deterrent were discussed here.

  13. Rearing technique and biological traits of Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) in coconut fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, S.W.J.; Barros, R.; Torres, J.B.; Gondim Junior, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Larvae of the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) develop in flowers and fruits of coconut, Cocos nucifera, causing precocious abscission of these structures and, hence, yield decrease. This work studied a feasible and suitable rearing technique for A. subrufella using fruits of coconut. We first determined the appropriate density of larvae to be reared per coconut fruit (among two, three, four or five larvae) and later tested the suitability of this rearing technique for three successive generations. The storage of egg and pupal stages during 0, 5, 10 and 20 days was also studied at 12 deg C. Based on the fertility life table parameters, the best results were achieved by rearing two or three larvae per fruit as they yielded the best net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of population increase. In addition, eggs and pupae of A. subrufella can be stored at 12 deg C up to five days with viability higher than 90%. Adult moths emerged from pupae stored for five days at 12 deg C produced an average of 219.4 eggs and lived 18.8 days. Storage periods for eggs and pupae over 10 days significantly reduced egg viability and adult fecundity, respectively. Thus, the technique in here described was shown to be suitable for the continuous rearing of A. subrufella in laboratory conditions. (author)

  14. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  15. Hidrólisis del aceite de coco (Cocos nucífera L mediante enzimas estereoespecíficas y sin especificidad posicional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, R.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic fatty acid composition of coconut oil provides mainly short- and medium- chain fatty acids when incorporated to the diet. These fatty acids have nutritional advantages because their metabolic disposition allows the rapid obtention of energy, mainly at the hepatic level. The obtention of short- and medium- chain fatty acids from coconut oil as substrate, may be of importance because the different nutritional, pharmacological, and technological uses of these fatty acids. In the present work, the effect of two type of lipases on the hydrolysis of coconut oil was studied; a lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea showing no positional specificity, and a lipase from Mucor miehei with sn-1',3' specificity in its free and immobilized form (Lipozyme IM-20. The lipase from Candida cylindracea allows the hydrolysis of 85%-90% of the triacylglycerols after 47-50 hours, the fatty acid composition of the hydrolyzate being similar to the composition of the oil. The remaining monoacylglycerols show a prevalent composition of short- (C6-C8 -and medium- chain (C10-C14 fatty acids. Lipase from Mucor miehei allows 65% of hydrolysis, which is obtained after 30 hours of incubation when the free form of the lipase is assayed, and after 10 hours for the immobilized form (Lipozyme IM-20. The fatty acid composition of the hydrolyzate is similar for the two enzymes and different to the composition of the oil, being C8-C14 the most prevalent fatty acids. The remaining monoacylglycerol, as product of the action of both forms of the enzyme, is almost enterely composed by lauric acid (C12:0, implicating that the sn-2' position is the most favoured for this fatty acid in the coconut oil triacylglycerols. The usefulness of lipases for the obtention of especific fractions of some fatty acids is discussed. The utility of the lipase from Mucor miehei for the obtention enriched fractions of lauric acid, which can be liberated after

  16. The Effects of Cocos Nucifera (Coconut Shell on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Recycled Waste Aluminium Can Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Agunsoye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry sliding wear behaviour and mechanical properties of recycled aluminium metal matrix composite reinforced with 5 and 10 % coconut shell particles (CSp has been investigated. The particle size of Cocosnucifera (coconut shell that were used ranges from 50-300µm. The wear behaviors of developed samples were investigated under varied loads and speed using pin on disc equipment. The samples were also subjected to tensile, impact and hardness test. The result shows that the additions of coconut shell particles improved the wear resistance of the recycled aluminium can/CSp composites at low Speed (2.36 m/s. However, with increase in Speed (4.72 m/s, an increase in the specific wear rates were observed. Increasing the coconut shell particles additions to the recycled waste aluminium cans (RWAlC reduced the impact resistance, hence the toughness of the RWAlC/CSp composite samples. However, the impact resistance of the composites increased as the Cocosnucifera particle size increased. The result of the filler size variation shows that decrease in filler particles size improved the tensile strength and yield strength of the developed aluminium metal matrix /CSp composite. The hardness of the composite increased with increased additions of the filler within the matrix.

  17. Solid state fermentation for extracellular polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus with coconut water and sugar cane juice as renewable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Techapun, Charin; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus confusus in liquid and solid state fermentation was carried out using coconut water and sugarcane juice as renewable wastes. High concentrations of EPS of 62 (sugarcane juice) and 18 g/l of coconut water were produced in solid state fermentation when nitrogen sources were reduced 5-fold from the original medium.

  18. Characterization and Ectopic Expression of CoWRI1, an AP2/EREBP Domain-Containing Transcription Factor from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Endosperm, Changes the Seeds Oil Content in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, RuHao; Ye, Rongjian; Gao, Lingchao; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Rui; Mao, Ting; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    Coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) is a key tropical crop and a member of the monocotyledonous family Arecaceae ( Palmaceae ). Few genes and related metabolic processes involved in coconut endosperm development have been investigated. In this study, a new member of the WRI1 gene family was isolated from coconut endosperm and was named CoWRI1 . Its transcriptional activities and interactions with the acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( BCCP2 ) promoter of CoWRI1 were confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid approaches, respectively. Functional characterization was carried out through seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis and endosperm-specific expression in rice. In transgenic Arabidopsis , high over-expressions of CoWRI1 in seven independent T2 lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative mRNA accumulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in either fatty acid biosynthesis or triacylglycerols assembly (BCCP2, KASI, MAT, ENR, FATA, and GPDH) were also assayed in mature seeds. Furthermore, lipid and fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 significantly increased. In two homozygous T2 transgenic rice lines (G5 and G2), different CoWRI1 expression levels were detected, but no CoWRI1 transcripts were detected in the wild type. Analyses of the seed oil content, starch content, and total protein content indicated that the two T2 transgenic lines showed a significant increase ( P oil content. The transgenic lines also showed a significant increase in starch content, whereas total protein content decreased significantly. Further analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed that palmitic acid (C16:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) increased significantly in the seeds of the transgenic rice lines, but oleic acid (C18:1) levels significantly declined.

  19. De novo transcriptome sequence assembly from coconut leaves and seeds with a focus on factors involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Lee, Chueh-Pai; Fu, Jason L; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2014-09-04

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a symbol of the tropics and a source of numerous edible and nonedible products of economic value. Despite its nutritional and industrial significance, coconut remains under-represented in public repositories for genomic and transcriptomic data. We report de novo transcript assembly from RNA-seq data and analysis of gene expression in seed tissues (embryo and endosperm) and leaves of a dwarf coconut variety. Assembly of 10 GB sequencing data for each tissue resulted in 58,211 total unigenes in embryo, 61,152 in endosperm, and 33,446 in leaf. Within each unigene pool, 24,857 could be annotated in embryo, 29,731 could be annotated in endosperm, and 26,064 could be annotated in leaf. A KEGG analysis identified 138, 138, and 139 pathways, respectively, in transcriptomes of embryo, endosperm, and leaf tissues. Given the extraordinarily large size of coconut seeds and the importance of small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation during seed development in model plants, we used homology searches to identify putative homologs of factors required for RNA-directed DNA methylation in coconut. The findings suggest that RNA-directed DNA methylation is important during coconut seed development, particularly in maturing endosperm. This dataset will expand the genomics resources available for coconut and provide a foundation for more detailed analyses that may assist molecular breeding strategies aimed at improving this major tropical crop. Copyright © 2014 Huang et al.

  20. Analisis Kadar Protein Total Dan Non Protein Nitrogen Pada Air Dan Daging Buah Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera L.) Dengan Metode Kjeldahl

    OpenAIRE

    Margata, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, coconut palm is one of the big contributors for the economy of the people and nation. As food, coconut water and coconut meat contain some nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, and also proteins. During maturation, changes in protein content of coconut water and coconut meat may happen. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of total protein and non protein nitrogen (NPN) in coconut water and coconut meat, and their changes in young and mature coconuts....

  1. Modificação da fibra de coco com polianilina e o seu uso como sensor de pressão Coconut fibers modified with polyaniline nanoparticles are used in pressure sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. de Souza Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por foco a modificação de fibras de coco, tornando-as materiais compósitos condutores de eletricidade. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma técnica de polimerização in situ, capaz de gerar nanopartículas de polianilina sobre a superfície de fibras tratadas. As fibras modificadas com polianilina foram caracterizadas por FTIR, UV-Vis, DRX e SAXS. Além disso, foram submetidas a ensaios eletromecânicos, com a finalidade de indicar quais condições de modificação são mais eficientes para a obtenção de um material sensível a esforços compressivos. Os resultados de sensibilidade a compressão sugerem que os materiais modificados com as menores quantidades de polianilina são os mais adequados para aplicações no campo de sensores de pressão de natureza resistiva, podendo ser utilizados no desenvolvimento de dispositivos inteligentes.Coconut fibers were covered with polyaniline in order to obtain electrically conductive composite materials. For this purpose aniline was polymerized in the presence of coconut fibers, leading to the formation of polyaniline nanoparticles over the surface of the fibers. The treated fibers were analyzed by FTIR, UV-Vis, DRX and SAXS, being also submitted to electromechanical assays, in order to find the best conditions for obtaining materials with optimal compressional sensitivity. The results suggest that materials obtained with smaller amounts of polyaniline are the most adequate for applications as resistive pressure sensors. This class of materials can be used in the development of intelligent devices.

  2. Protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas-Flores, I.; Oropeza, C.; Hernandez-Sotomayor, S.M.T.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species

  3. 2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal from tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera) attenuates biofilm formation and quorum sensing-mediated virulence of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethupathy, Sivasamy; Nithya, Chari; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  4. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used and it can be seen that coconut shell pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: water loss, pyrolysis and pyrocondensation. The main components of coconut-shell oil are water (about 50 wt%), aromatic, phenolic, acid, ketone and ether containing compounds.

  5. Pullulan production from coconut by-products by Aureobasidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Key words: Pullulan, Aureobasidium pullulans, coconut water, coconut milk, characterization, FT-IR. ... sugars such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, starch, or ... sate, cornmeal hydrolysates, corn syrup, fuel ethanol.

  6. Incorporation of coconut shell based nanoparticles in kenaf/coconut fibres reinforced vinyl ester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Abdul Khalil H. P.; Masri, M.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Fazita, M. R. N.; Azniwati, A. A.; Sri Aprilia, N. A.; Rosamah, E.; Dungani, Rudi

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a successful attempt has been made on enhancing the properties of hybrid kenaf/coconut fibers reinforced vinyl ester composites by incorporating nanofillers obtained from coconut shell. Coconut shells were grinded followed by 30 h of high energy ball milling for the production of nanoparticles. Particle size analyzer demonstrated that the size of 90% of obtained nanoparticles ranged between 15-140 nm. Furthermore, it was observed that the incorporation of coconut shell nanofillers into hybrid composite increased water absorption capacity. Moreover, tensile, flexural, and impact strength increased with the filler loading up to 3 wt.% and thereafter decrease was observed at higher filler concentration. However, elongation at break decreased and thermal stability increased in nanoparticles concentration dependent manner. Morphological analysis of composite with 3% of filler loading showed minimum voids and fiber pull outs and this indicated that the stress was successfully absorbed by the fiber.

  7. Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water, and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%, hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids, water activity (0.14-0.58, lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil, and process yield (20.33-30.19%. All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.

  8. Enzymatic aqueous technology for simultaneous coconut protein and oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho, Maria A. Z.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the following commercial enzymes were evaluated in the enzymatic extraction of oil and protein from coconut: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease. Preliminary experiments were carried out for selection of enzymes, enzyme concentration and incubation time. In order to verify the effects of pH and water/substrate ratio, a response surface methodology was applied based in a 32 full factorial experimental design. The pH is the most meaningful parameter on oil and protein extraction yields, with a significance level higher than 90%. The maximal extraction yields of oil and protein emulsion (83% was reached using Viscozyme L and subsequently Neutrase 1.5 MG at concentrations of 0.6% (w/w and 0.3% (w/w, respectively, total incubation time of 60 minutes, substrate/water ratio 1:6 and pH around 7 (no adjustment.En este trabajo diferentes enzimas hidroliticos fueron usados para la extracción de aceite y proteína de coco: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease producidos por Novo Nordisk. Experimientos preliminares fueron encaminados a la selección de los extractos enzimaticos, de las concentraciones de las enzimas y de los tiempos de incubación. La técnica de análisis de varianza, mediante un delineamiento factorial en tres niveles, fue usada para la optimización de los procesos con relación a los parámetros pH y razón sustrato/agua. Comparando con la extracción acuosa todos los enzimas hidroliticos incrementan la extracción de aceite y proteína vegetal de coco. Los coeficientes de correlación muestran que el pH fué el parámetro mas significativo (pViscozyme y Neutrase 0.6 % (w/w y 0.3 % (w/w, respectivamente, tiempo de incubación 30 minutos, razón sustrato/agua 1:6 y pH 7.

  9. Studies on coconut products utilization in the National Institute of Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review covering the composition of coconut husk, shell, water, and oil and studies on improving the processing of coconuts, especially the integrated coconut process and production of protein from coconut. 65 references.

  10. Nutritional value of whole coconut, coconut powder, and coconut fiber treated with sodium hydroxide for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cardoso de Araújo Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growing consumption of green coconut - fresh and industrialized - in Brazil generates a large volume of wastes and coproducts that justifies the search for alternatives for their use in animal feeding. The most limiting factor to the inclusion of these coproducts in ruminant diets is their high fiber content, which may restrict intake and performance. The present study determined the composition and in vitro dry matter degradability of whole coconut, coconut powder, and coconut fiber treated with sodium hydroxide (0%, 3%, and 6% and the effect of including whole coconut hydrolyzed with 6% sodium hydroxide at different concentrations (25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% in the diet on apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and feeding behavior of sheep. Alkalinization decreased the hemicellulose, NDF, and ADF contents of the evaluated coproducts. Whole coconut and coconut powder provided greater in vitro degradation of DM compared with coconut fiber, with highest values obtained with the inclusion of 6% sodium hydroxide. Inclusion of whole coconut in the diets did not affect the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF, but influenced weight gain, feed conversion, and apparent digestibility of DM and NDF. Regarding the feeding behavior of the animals, the inclusion of whole coconut in the diet only affected their rumination time. Whole coconut hydrolyzed with 6% NAOH can be included in diets for feedlot sheep at up to 35% without reducing intake or weight gain.

  11. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. genetic improvement in Vanuatu: overview of research achievements from 1962 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labouisse Jean-Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Compared to higher-yielding hybrids, the improved VTT populations offer the advantage of being totally tolerant of coconut foliar decay and of being reproducible by farmers themselves. The merits of setting up decentralized seed gardens in the Vanuatu archipelago from improved populations at the research station, or from locally surveyed material, are discussed.

  12. The development of 2 acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP in Thai aromatic coconut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water and coconut meat from 1-9 month-old aromatic coconut fruit were used to monitor the development of the aromatic compound; 2 acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP concomitant with the development of each fruit part. 2-AP was also determined in other parts of fruit as well as in other parts of the tree. The aromatic coconut fruit development represented a double sigmoidal curve. The coconut water and coconut meat were detected when the fruit was two and five months old, respectively. Total soluble solids and titratable acidity increased as the fruit got older and reached the optimum taste when the fruit was 6-7 months old. 2-AP in coconut water and meat was found in fruit of 6 months of age at the earliest, then increased with fruit age, and it was found in all parts of the fruit and other parts of the tree in various amounts.

  13. Influence of Production Variables on Eco-Friendly Briquettes from Coconut and Bambara Nut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Sotannde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of production variables on the properties of molasses-induced fuel briquettes from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc. shells. The milled samples of both raw materials were mixed with molasses at ratios 100:20, 100:25, 100:30 and 100:35 by weight respectively, and briquetted using a Jack press at an average pressure of 1.2KN/m2. A 3x4 factorial experiment in completely randomized design was used. The briquettes produced were subjected to both physical and combustion tests. The tests revealed that majority of the variations in briquette properties were largely influenced by the type of biomass residues used while molasses’ content also contributed significant effect atp < 0.05. Coconut shell briquettes had higher compressed density though lower in relaxed form (0.80 g·cm-3vs 0.78 g·cm-3 when compared to Bambara nut shell briquettes (0.77 g.cm-3vs0.75 g.cm-3. Both physical and combustion properties were significantly improved when both bio-residue mixtures were used. Briquettes from the mixtures had the highest average fixed carbon and heating values of 85.21% and 32.80 MJ·kg-1 respectively, though it was 83.83% and 32.12 MJ·kg-1for coconut shell briquette and 82.18% and 32.03 MJ·kg-1for Bambara nut shell briquette. Therefore, based on physical and combustion characteristics, the best Bambara nut briquettes and its mixture with coconut shell were produced when molasses content was 30%. In contrast, the best coconut shell briquette was produced when molasses content was 35%. These two level are therefore recommended for production of quality briquettes from these agro-residues.

  14. Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Márcio Santos Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Population growth and the increasing search for healthy foods have led to a major consumption of coconut water and, hence, to an environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of green coconut husks. This lignocellulosic biomass has deserved attention of researchers concerning the seeking of new usages, as, for example, in renewable fuels production technologies. This study examines the potential of green coconut husk fibers as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The coconut fibers were pretreated through an alkaline method, hydrolyzed enzymatically and submitted to ethanol fermentation with commercial yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant loss of cellulose (4.42% in relation to the fiber and 17.9% concerning the original cellulose content, the alkaline pretreatment promoted an efficient solubilization of lignin (80%, turning the coconut fibers into a feasible raw material for 2G ethanol production studies. Enzymatic hydrolysis converted 87% of the sugars and the ethanolic fermentation consumed 81% of the substrate in the hydrolyzate, leading to a sugar to ethanol convertion efficiency of 59.6%. These results points out that green coconut husks are a promising alternative to the production of renewable energy.

  15. Investigating the influence of alkalization on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okikiola Ganiu AGBABIAKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are products made from renewable agricultural and forestry feedstock, which can include wood, grasses, and crops, as well as wastes and residues. There are two primary ways these fibers are used: to create polymers or as reinforcement and filler. Thermoplastic polymer may be reinforced or filled using natural fibers such as coir, sponge, hemp, flax, or sisal. This paper focused on the influence of alkalization (NaOH treatment on the mechanical and water absorption properties of selected natural fibers (coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites. In this study, coconut and sponge fiber were extracted from its husk by soaking them in water and was dried before it was cut into 10mm length. Those fibers were chemically treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH in a shaking water bath before it was used as reinforcement in polypropylene composite. The reinforced polypropylene composite was produced by dispersing the coconut fibers randomly in the polypropylene before it was fabricated in a compression molding machine where the composite was produced. The fiber content used were; 2%wt, 4%wt, 6%wt, 8%wt and 10%wt. Tensile and flexural properties was observed from universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for seven (7 days. It was observed that the influence of NaOH treatment highly enhanced the Flexural and water absorption properties of sponge fiber reinforced polypropylene composites than coconut fiber reinforced composite samples.

  16. The Effectivity of Green Coconut Water To Reduce Mercury Level In The Blood And To Improve Blood Profiles And Liver Cells Appearance (Study In Sprague Dawley Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrzag, Ehmeeda M.; Nur Kristina, Tri; Suwondo, Ari; Sunoko, Henna Rya

    2018-02-01

    When people are exposed to mercury chloride, it can produce a variety of health effects in the blood and liver. Coconut water contains Zn, Fe, Vit. C, Vit B11, Vit. B6, and Se to reduce mercury chloride level in the blood and improve blood profile and liver cells. Aim of this study was to analysis the effect of green coconut water supplementation in overcoming the toxic effect of Hg chlorid in the blood and liver of Sprague dawley rats exposed to Hg chloride. Samples were randomly about 36 animals rats exposed to HgCl2 through forced feeding by 20 mg/kgBW sondage per day for 14 days, which divided into control group, and intervention groups were given fresh green coconut water in each by 6, 8, and 10 mL/kgBW for intervention 7 and 17 days. The result of this study showed that there is a significant effect and the decrease in mercury levels in the blood. There is no significant affect on the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level and platelet count with the treatment of green coconut water in the mice with exposure Hg. There is no significant effect between treatments using green coconut water with SGPT levels; there is a decrease in SGPT levels at the increasing number of doses of green coconut water and the length of treatment.

  17. Pelatihan Dan Pendampingan Pengolahan Komoditi Kelapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metasari Kartika

    2018-03-01

    ABSTRACT                 The objective of Science and Technology activity for community  of Kalimas Village through Coconut Commodity Diversification in collaboration with both partners, which are Jaya Mas Farmer Group and Family Welfare Program Group of Kalimas village, is to increase the partners’ income by producing and marketing coconut commodity diversification product (nata de coco. The problems faced by the first partner, Jaya Mas Farmer Group, are the lack of knowledge about coconut commodity diversification, the low coconut farmer income, the lack of knowledge in marketing the products, and their surrender behavior of current condition. While the problems faced by the second partner, Family Welfare Program Group of Kalimas Village, are the lack of productive activities and uninformed about how to market the products. Based on these problems, both parties agreed to process a part of coconut that is wasted (the coconut water that is in fact, economically valuable if produced into its derivate product (nata de coco product. Thus, the executing methods used in this activity are: (1 give the information of study result related to the featured product in that area, (2 workshop and supervision of soft skill about work motivation and creative thinking, (3 workshop and supervision of nata de coconata de coco production, and (4 workshop and supervision related to marketing. The result of this activity is the improvement in knowledge and skill of these partners, the creation of nata Kalimas product, publication using mass media, as well as Instagram and e-mail account for marketing product online.  Keywords: Diversification, Coconut, Nata, Workshop, Supervision

  18. Morphologic evaluation of goat spermatozoa diluted and frozen in media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 or TRIS, stained by eosin-nigrosin and bromophenol blue AVALIAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES CAPRINOS DILUÍDOS E CONGELADOS EM MEIO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO EM PÓ (ACP-101 OU TRIS, CORADOS POR EOSINA-NIGROSINA E AZUL DE BROMOFENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Alencar de Araripe Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This aims of the work were: to evaluate in vitro the goat semen frozen in diluents media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 and TRIS and, compare the bromophenol blue stain efficiency with the eosin-nigrosin stain. The ejaculateds were divided and diluted into PCW-101 and TRIS, frozed and thawed after 30 days. Spermatic morphology was evaluated, through semen smears stained by eosin-nigrosin (EN and bromophenol blue (BB. The morphologic parameters evaluated were: normal spermatozoa (N, head alteration (HA, intermediary piece alteration (IPA, tail alteration (TA, proximal citoplasmic drop (PCD, distal citoplasmic drop (DCD, and detached head (DH. There wasn’t significant difference in the observation of N between media, staining and their interactions after 5 minutes of thermo resistance test. After 120, the N was significantly influenced by media, where the TRIS presented better results. The incubation period of 120 minutes at 37ºC affect the spermatic morphology, increasing the HA percentages. The media based on TRIS promoted better protection from the cryoinjuries on frozen goat spermatozoa. BB staining was efficient on the fresh and post-thaw goat semen evaluation.

    KEY WORDS: Bromophenol blue, goat, powder coconut water; TRIS, spermatozoa.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a morfologia de espermatozoides caprinos frescos e congelados em meios à base de água de coco em pó (ACP-101 e TRIS, bem como comparar a eficiência dos corantes azul de bromofenol (AB e eosina-nigrosina (EN. Cada ejaculado foi dividido, diluído em ACP-101 e TRIS, congelado e, após trinta dias, descongelado. Analisou-se a morfologia espermática por esfregaços corados por EN e AB. Os parâmetros morfológicos foram: espermatozoides normais (N, alterações de cabeça (AC, de peça intermediária (API, de flagelo (AF, gotas citoplasmáticas proximal (GCP e distal (GCD e cabeça destacada (CD. Não se verificou diferença de N entre

  19. Coconut Model for Learning First Steps of Craniotomy Techniques and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond-Braga, Bernardo; Peleja, Sebastião Berquó; Macedo, Guaracy; Drummond, Carlos Roberto S A; Costa, Pollyana H V; Garcia-Zapata, Marco T; Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi

    2016-12-01

    Neurosurgery simulation has gained attention recently due to changes in the medical system. First-year neurosurgical residents in low-income countries usually perform their first craniotomy on a real subject. Development of high-fidelity, cheap, and largely available simulators is a challenge in residency training. An original model for the first steps of craniotomy with cerebrospinal fluid leak avoidance practice using a coconut is described. The coconut is a drupe from Cocos nucifera L. (coconut tree). The green coconut has 4 layers, and some similarity can be seen between these layers and the human skull. The materials used in the simulation are the same as those used in the operating room. The coconut is placed on the head holder support with the face up. The burr holes are made until endocarp is reached. The mesocarp is dissected, and the conductor is passed from one hole to the other with the Gigli saw. The hook handle for the wire saw is positioned, and the mesocarp and endocarp are cut. After sawing the 4 margins, mesocarp is detached from endocarp. Four burr holes are made from endocarp to endosperm. Careful dissection of the endosperm is done, avoiding liquid albumen leak. The Gigli saw is passed through the trephine holes. Hooks are placed, and the endocarp is cut. After cutting the 4 margins, it is dissected from the endosperm and removed. The main goal of the procedure is to remove the endocarp without fluid leakage. The coconut model for learning the first steps of craniotomy and cerebrospinal fluid leak avoidance has some limitations. It is more realistic while trying to remove the endocarp without damage to the endosperm. It is also cheap and can be widely used in low-income countries. However, the coconut does not have anatomic landmarks. The mesocarp makes the model less realistic because it has fibers that make the procedure more difficult and different from a real craniotomy. The model has a potential pedagogic neurosurgical application for

  20. The Usefullness of Green Coconut Water Supplementation in Overcoming The Toxic Effect of Mercury Chloride in The Blood and Blood Profile (Study in Sprague Dewly Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrzag Ehmeeda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When people are exposed to mercury chloride, it can produce a variety of health effects in the blood and liver. Coconut water contains Zn, Fe, Vit. C, Vit B11, Vit. B6­, and Se to reduce mercury chloride level in the blood and improve blood profile. Aim of this study was to analysis the effect of green coconut water supplementation in overcoming the toxic effect of Hg chloride in the blood of Sprague dawley rats exposed to Hg chloride. Samples were randomly about 36 animals rats exposed to HgCl2 through forced feeding by 20 mg/kgBW sondage perday for 14 days, which divided into control group, and intervention groups were given fresh green coconut water in each by 6, 8, and 10 mL/kgBW for intervention 7 and 17 days. The result of this study showed that there is a significant effect and the decrease in mercury levels in the blood. There is no significant affect on the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level and platelet count with the treatment of green coconut water in the rats with exposure Hg. New findings/significance of contribution were the effectiveness of green coconut water to reduce Hg level in blood and improve blood profile.

  1. PROCESSAMENTO DE CASCA E FIBRA DE COCO VERDE POR CARBONIZAÇÃO PARA AGREGAÇÃO DE VALOR / PROCESSING OF COCONUT SHELL AND FIBER FOR ADDING VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS A. B. CORTEZ; JUAN M. M. PEREZ; JOSÉ D. ROCHA; RODRIGO A. JORDAN; HENRY R. M. MESA

    2009-01-01

    Atualmente o Brasil é o maior produtor de coco verde, com uma área plantada equivalente a 57 mil hectares, onde a maior parte da parte da produção (66,5%) se concentra na região Nordeste. O descarte do coco depois do consumo da água representa um problema para os sistemas de coleta e tratamento de lixo, pela sua lenta degradação devido ao alto teor de fibras. Neste trabalho são mostrados os resultados da pirólise lenta da fibra e da casca do coco verde. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um ...

  2. Preliminary studies of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of coconut fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tarciana M; Bispo, Mozart D; Cardoso, Anne R T; Migliorini, Marcelo V; Schena, Tiago; de Campos, Maria Cecilia V; Machado, Maria Elisabete; López, Jorge A; Krause, Laiza C; Caramão, Elina B

    2013-07-17

    This work studied fast pyrolysis as a way to use the residual fiber obtained from the shells of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L. var. Dwarf, from Aracaju, northeastern Brazil). The bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis and the aqueous phase (formed during the pyrolysis) were characterized by GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOF-MS. Many oxygenated compounds such as phenols, aldehydes, and ketones were identified in the extracts obtained in both phases, with a high predominance of phenolic compounds, mainly alkylphenols. Eighty-one compounds were identified in the bio-oil and 42 in the aqueous phase using GC/qMS, and 95 and 68 in the same samples were identified by GC×GC/TOF-MS. The better performance of GC×GC/TOF-MS was due to the possibility of resolving some coeluted peaks in the one-dimension gas chromatography. Semiquantitative analysis of the samples verified that 59% of the area on the chromatogram of bio-oil is composed by phenols and 12% by aldehydes, mainly furfural. Using the same criterion, 77% of the organic compounds in the aqueous phase are phenols. Therefore, this preliminary assessment indicates that coconut fibers have the potential to be a cost-effective and promising alternative to obtain new products and minimize environmental impact.

  3. APROVEITAMENTO DO RESÍDUO DE COCO VERDE (Cocos nucifera L.) COMO SORVENTE EM DERRAMAMENTO DE PETRÓLEO EM AMBIENTE MARINHO

    OpenAIRE

    Caldas, Alex Soares

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e avaliar o potencial da fibra de coco (Cocos nucifera L.) como sorvente em derramamento de petróleo no mar. Foi utilizado para simulação quatro reservatórios com 5L de água do mar, bombas de aeração para simular o efeito hidrodinâmico. Em três unidades foram adicionados 15mL de petróleo e 0,5g de fibra de coco (Cocos nucifera L.). Foram realizados na fibra de coco teste de flutuabilidade, densidade, microscopia eletrônica d...

  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  5. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms present in coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Vandbergue Santos Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coconut water is considered to be a natural isotonic drink and its marketing is gradually increasing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil. Products form ten industries from different states in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed. The most probable number (MPN method was used to quantify the coliforms. Samples showing positive for coliforms were seeded on ChromAgar Orient plates and the bacteria identified from isolated colonies using the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, according to the manufacturer's instructions for the preparation of the inoculum, incubation, reading and interpretation. The samples showed thermotolerant coliform counts between 6.0×102 and 2.6×104 MPN/100 mL. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Providencia alcalifaciens was observed. The implementation of preventive methods and monitoring of the water quality by the industries is required.

  6. Estimation of potassium concentration in coconut water by beta radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.J.; Narayani, K.; Bhade, S.P.D.; Anilkumar, S.; Kolekar, R.V.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Potassium is widely distributed in soil, in all vegetable, fruits and animal tissues. Approximately half the radioactivity found in humans comes from 40 K. Potassium is an essential element in our diet since it is required for proper nerve and muscle function, as well as for maintaining the fluid balance of cells and heart rhythm. Potassium can enter the body mainly consuming fruits, vegetables and food. Tender coconut water is consumed widely as natural refreshing drink which is rich in potassium. The simple way to determine 40 K activity is by gamma ray spectrometry. However, the low abundance of this gamma photon makes the technique less sensitive compared to gross beta measurement. Many analytical methods are reported for potassium estimation which is time consuming and destructive in nature. A unique way to estimate 40 K by beta activity is by Cerenkov Counting technique using Liquid Scintillation Analyzer. Also much lower detection limit is achieved, allowing for greater precision. In this work, we have compared two methods to arrive at the potassium concentration in tender and matured coconut water by measuring 40 K. One is non-scintillator method based on measurement of the Cerenkov radiation generated from the high-energy β of 40 K. The second method is based on beta activity measurement using low background Gas flow counter

  7. Studi Kualitas Minyak Goreng dari Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera L.) melalui Proses Sterilisasi dan Pengepresan

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the cooking oil quality from raw material of grated coconut flesh . The grated coconut flesh is dried within oven at 35 °C to 50 °C temperature until its water content reached 5%. Grated coconut flesh with maximum water content of 5% was weighted with magnitude of 1000 g for each treatments. It was subsequently wrapped by using cloth for sterilization processs at 10 psi, 12.5 psi and 15 psi pressures as well as 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of sterilizat...

  8. Past and present uses of Nuclear techniques in Coconut Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekera, C.; Fernando, D.N.S.

    1995-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in the 1960's using radioactive phosphorous to study the physiological and growth process of the coconut palm. As a result valuable information on the effective root system and the uptake of fertilizer of the coconut palm, have been obtained. Accordingly precise recommendations on the placement and application of fertilizers were made. Investigations conducted by using stable carbon isotopes have shown the possibility to screen palms for high yield and water-use efficiency. Root water extraction pattern of coconut palms under different soil types and climatic conditions was studied by using neutron moisture probe

  9. Study of Antiglycation, Hypoglycemic, and Nephroprotective Activities of the Green Dwarf Variety Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Isabella F D; Silva, Railmara P; Chaves Filho, Adriano de B; Dantas, Lucas S; Bispo, Vanderson S; Matos, Isaac A; Otsuka, Felipe A M; Santos, Aline C; Matos, Humberto Reis

    2015-07-01

    Coconut water (CW) is a natural nutritious beverage, which contains several biologically active compounds that are traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhea and rehydration. Several works with CW have been related with antioxidant activity, which is very important in the diabetic state. To evaluate the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective activities of CW, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were pre- and post-treated by gavage with CW (3 mL/kg), caffeic acid (CA) (10 and 15 mg/kg), and acarbose (Acb) (714 μg/kg) during a period of 16 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Amadori products in plasma and kidney homogenates were evaluated in all groups and used as parameters for the monitoring of the diabetic state. The results showed that rats of the CW+diabetic group had maintenance in blood glucose compared with the control group (P<.05) in addition to a decrease of HbA1c levels and increase of body weight when compared with the diabetic group rats (P<.05). The animals of the CA and CA+diabetic groups did not have significant variation of body weight (P<.05) during the experiment; however, they showed decrease in their HbA1c and urea levels in plasma as well as Amadori products in kidney homogenates when compared with the diabetic group (P<.05). Our results indicate that CW has multiple beneficial effects in diabetic rats for preventing hyperglycemia and oxidative stress caused by alloxan.

  10. Using ultrasound technology for the inactivation and thermal sensitization of peroxidase in green coconut water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Meliza Lindsay; Trevilin, Júlia Hellmeister; Funcia, Eduardo Dos Santos; Gut, Jorge Andrey Wilhelms; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2017-05-01

    Green coconut water has unique nutritional and sensorial qualities. Despite the different technologies already studied, its enzymatic stability is still challenging. This study evaluated the use of ultrasound technology (US) for inactivating/sensitizing coconut water peroxidase (POD). The effect of both US application alone and as a pre-treatment to thermal processing was evaluated. The enzyme activity during US processing was reduced 27% after 30min (286W/L, 20kHz), demonstrating its high resistance. The thermal inactivation was described by the Weibull model under non-isothermal conditions. The enzyme became sensitized to heat after US pre-treatment. Further, the use of US resulted in more uniform heat resistance. The results suggest that US is a good technology for sensitizing enzymes before thermal processing (even for an enzyme with high thermal resistance). Therefore, the use of this technology could decrease the undesirable effects of long times and/or the high temperatures of the conventional thermal processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA DAN ANTIBAKTERI VIRGIN COCONUT OIL HASIL FERMENTASI BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT [Physicochemical and Antibacterial Characteristics of Virgin Coconut Oil Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahmadi*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Destabilization of oil-water emulsion in coconut milk, in the production of virgin coconut oil (VCO, can be accelerated with the utilization of lactic acid bacteria fermentation. This research was aimed to determine physicochemical and antibacterial characteristics of VCO from coconut hybrid variety fermented with L. casei of Yakult® and two isolates of L. plantarum from mandai (traditionally fermented Artocarpus campeden and coconut water. The observed physicochemical of VCO included yield, specific gravity, moisture content, saponification value, peroxide value, and free fatty acid. The antibacterial activity was subjected to the well diffusion method against E. coli and S. aureus with chloramphenicol as the positive control. L. casei yielded the best VCO-BAL at 34.5% (v/v, while L. plantarum from mandai and coconut water yielded 29.5% (v/v and 25.3% (v/v, respectively. VCO-BAL from L. casei had the lightest specific gravity of 0.84±0.04 g.mL-1. Average of measured moisture contents (0.03-0.05%, saponification values (161.3-163.6, peroxide values (0.53-0.86, and free fatty acids (0.11-0.12% of the three VCO-BALs were not significantly (p>0.05 different with respect to control. VCO-BAL produced from L. plantarum of coconut water did not exhibit better antibacterial activity compared to control. VCO-BAL from L. casei demonstrated highest antibacterial activity against E. coli, 6.45±0.50 mm (58.1% of positive control and S. aureus, 5.23±0.40 mm (51.3% of positive control. It is deduced that antibacterial activity from VCO-BAL is contributed by hydrophobic bacteriocins.

  12. Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Panel Influenced by Treated and Untreated Coconut Fiber Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Alida; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Anwar, Mohamed Iylia; Noor, Mazlee Mohd; Hussin, Kamarudin

    This project was conducted to produce a cement panel with the addition of treated and untreated coconut fiber in cement panel. Coconut fiber was added to replace coarse aggregate (sand) in this cement panel. In this project, the ratios used to design the mixture were 1:1:0, 1:0.97:0.03, 1:0.94:0.06, 1:0.91:0.09 (cement: sand: coconut fiber). The water cement ratio was constant at 0.55. The sizes of sample tested were, 160 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm for compression test, and 100 mm x 100 mm x 40 mm for density, moisture content and water absorption tests. After curing samples for 28 days, it was found that the addition of coconut fiber, further increase in compressive strength of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber. Moisture content of cement panel with treated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber whereas water absorption of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber. The density of cement panel decreased with the addition of untreated and treated coconut fiber.

  13. Antioxidant and Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitory Properties of Supplementation with Coconut Water in Submerged Cultivation of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, G M; Kumar, S Sravan; Giridhar, P; Manohar, B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the potential use of coconut water to supplement potato dextrose broth (PDB) in the production of Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 by submerged cultivation. The basal PDB medium was modified by supplementation with tender coconut water (TCW) and mature coconut water (MCW) at 10% and 5% (v/v), respectively; these mixtures were cultured at 28°C for 14 days, with a pH of 7 and an inoculum volume of 10%. The addition of optimized levels of TCW and MCW improved the biomass yield by 2.2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, and adenosine, cordycepin, and polysaccharide content by 58% and 69%, 50% and 55%, and 19% and 27%, respectively. Antioxidant and cholesterol esterase (CE) inhibitory activities of the aqueous extract from O. sinensis CS1197 mycelia supplemented with TCW and MCW were high compared with those of the control, indicating that coconut water has a positive correlation with the enhanced antioxidant and CE inhibitory activities. These antioxidant and CE inhibitory responses were dependent on concentration, and the larger amounts of bioactives in O. sinensis CS1197 are beneficial in pharmaceutical formulations.

  14. Apendicularias (Urochordata y quetognatos (Chaetognatha del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Appendicularians (Urochordata and chaetognaths (Chaetognatha of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Castellanos-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    samples. Nine species of appendicularians, and eight species of chaetognaths were identified. Oikopleura longicauda was the most abundant in the surveyed area (217 specimens, 65.56% of total appendicularian numbers, followed by Oikopleura rufescens with 35 (10.57%. All the appendicularian species found in this study are common in warm ocean waters, but six species herein recorded for the first time from waters off Isla del Coco, and two species are new records for Costa Rica. Among the chaetognaths, Flaccisagitta enflata was the commonest species (85 specimens, 50.6% of total numbers recorded in this study, followed by Serratosagitta pacifica with 38 organisms (20.62%. Zonosagitta bedoti was represented by a single specimen. These species have been recorded from tropical waters of the Eastern Pacific, but six species are new records for Isla del Coco. Data on the distribution and morphology of the species recorded are presented together with keys for the identification of both taxa in the surveyed area.

  15. Reduction of the DNA damages, Hepatoprotective Effect and Antioxidant Potential of the Coconut Water, ascorbic and Caffeic Acids in Oxidative Stress Mediated by Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDERSON S. BISPO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0.18 µM, caffeic acid (1.1 µM, methyl caffeate (0.03 µM, quercetin (0.08 µM and ferulic acid (0.02 µM isomers. In the animals, the activity of the serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT was reduced to 1.8 I.U/L in the coconut water group, 3.6 I.U/L in the ascorbic acid group and 2.9 I.U/L in the caffeic acid groups, when compared with the ethanol group (5.1 I.U/L, p<0.05. Still in liver, the DNA analysis demonstrated a decrease of oxidized bases compared to ethanol group of 36.2% and 48.0% for pretreated and post treated coconut water group respectively, 42.5% for the caffeic acid group, and 34.5% for the ascorbic acid group. The ascorbic acid was efficient in inhibiting the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in the liver by 16.5% in comparison with the ethanol group. These data indicate that the green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids have antioxidant, hepatoprotective and reduced DNA damage properties, thus decreasing the oxidative stress induced by ethanol metabolism.

  16. Germinação e formação de mudas de coqueiro irrigadas com águas salinas Germination and seedling formation of coconut irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. L. Marinho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de coqueiro vem crescendo no Nordeste, com aumento de produtividade, quando irrigado. Sendo comuns na região águas salinas e se considerando a carência de dados de pesquisa de salinidade em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L., objetivou-se, através deste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com águas salinas (CEa = 2,2, 5, 10, 15 e 20 dS m-1 sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de plântulas, até 120 dias após semeadura (fase I, estendendo-se a avaliação, posteriormente, após repicagem para o viveiro, quando passaram a ser irrigadas com água de CEa = 2,2 dS m-1, durante 120 dias (fase II, estudando-se o efeito residual dos níveis de salinidade aplicados na fase I. Em ambos os experimentos, o delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As águas salinas foram preparadas com adição de NaCl comercial. Na primeira fase, o incremento da CEa não influenciou significativamente a germinação que variou de 80 a 97,5%, porém afetou a velocidade de germinação e o crescimento das plântulas; na fase de sementeira, a salinidade afetou a fitomassa total a partir de 5,4 dS m-1; o sistema radicular foi a variável mais afetada pela salinidade. Na fase II, as plantas oriundas de germinação sob condições de alta salinidade, após passarem a ser irrigadas com água de 2,2 dS m-1, cresceram no mesmo ritmo daquelas germinadas sem estresse salino.The coconut cultivation is growing in the Northeast Brazil with increase in productivity under irrigated conditions. Saline waters are commonly found in this region and considering the lack of data related to salinity on dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L., this work had the objective of evaluating the effects of the irrigation with saline waters (ECw = 2.2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dS m-1 on the germination and the initial growth of seedlings until 120 days after sowing (phase I, extending the evaluation, later, after transplanting in the nursery, when

  17. Influence of dietary fiber from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera) on the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, M G; Thampi, B S; Menon, V P; Leelamma, S

    1999-09-01

    The influence of dietary fiber from coconut kernel isolated by the neutral detergent fiber method on the antioxidant status in rats treated with the colon specific carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was studied in rats fed a high-fat diet for 15 weeks. The DMH-treated fiber group showed higher levels of lipid peroxides than the control group treated with DMH at the preneoplastic and neoplastic stages. Free fatty acid levels were found to decrease significantly in the DMH-treated control group, whereas it was near normal in the fiber groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity also were found to be increased in the liver, intestine, proximal colon, and distal colon. Glutathione levels in all the tissues studied showed significant decreases in the fiber group. The results suggest that coconut kernel fiber can protect cells from loss of oxidative capacity with the administration of the procarcinogen DMH.

  18. KONSISTENSI PRODUKSI NATA DALAM MEDIA FERMENTASI YANG MENGANDUNG HIDROLISAT UBI KAYU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfansyah Muchtar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nata de coco is known as a gelatinous substance, white to creamy-yellow, firm, glossy and not sticky, produced by some bacteria, which forms on the surface of coconut water medium during fermentation. Acetobacter xylinum (current name: Gluconacetobacter xylinus is the common bacteria which synthesized nata de coco. Besides coconut water, there are some alternatives for making nata, such as cassava. Gluconacetobacter sp. was employed in this study to produce nata de coco from cassava hydrolysate medium (U and compared it qualitatively and quantitatively to coconut water medium (K. In U medium, glucose was the main product derived from hydrolysis of cassava. Fermentation was conducted three times with each former fermentations became sources of inocula for the next fermentations, respectively. All data were analysed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23. Fermentation product of nata from U medium were relatively stable in thickness, wet weight, dry weight, yield, water content, and log from total bacteria (quantitative and in colour, texture, transparency, and surface of nata (qualitative. Glucose was rapidly consumed by bacteria then other sugar (fructose and sucrose. Glucose consumption and nata yield was affected by the number of bacteria. However, nata yield was not significantly influenced by glucose consumption. Nata yield was possibly influenced by other factors such as nutrient content in U medium. Growth dynamics of Gluconacetobacter sp. was measured in log cfu mL-1 on Hassid-Barker Agar (HBA medium and relative number of 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial growth during fermentation in U medium were relatively more stable than fermentation on K medium although the yield in K medium gradually increased and were higher than U medium.

  19. Wood (Bagassa guianensis Aubl) and green coconut mesocarp (cocos nucifera) residues as textile dye removers (Remazol Red and Remazol Brilliant Violet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mônica S; de Farias, Robson F; Chaves, José Alberto Pestana; Santana, Sirlane A; Silva, Hildo A S; Bezerra, Cícero W B

    2017-12-15

    In this work the efficiency of two lignocellulosic waste materials, wood residues and coconut mesocarp, were investigated as adsorbents towards two representative textile dyes (Remazol Red, RR and Remazol Brilliant Violet, RBV). The moisture, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, ash and fiber contents of both natural matrices were characterized. The materials were also characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis and thermogravimetry. The adsorption of dyes was monitored by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It was verified that both, coconut mesocarp (CM) and wood residues can act as effective adsorbents towards the investigated dyes. It is verified that the maximum adsorption capacity Γ M (mg g -1 ) for RBV and RR are 7.28 and 3.97 towards CM and 0.64 and 0.71 towrads SD. Furthermore, it was verified that the adsorption is strongly pH dependent and, as a general behavior, an increase in the pH value is associated with a decrease of the total amount of adsorbed dye. The adsorption of violet dye onto coconut mesocarp is well described by the Langmuir model, while all the remazol red fitted better with the Freundlich equation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PROCESSAMENTO DE CASCA E FIBRA DE COCO VERDE POR CARBONIZAÇÃO PARA AGREGAÇÃO DE VALOR / PROCESSING OF COCONUT SHELL AND FIBER FOR ADDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A. B. CORTEZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente o Brasil é o maior produtor de coco verde, com uma área plantada equivalente a 57 mil hectares, onde a maior parte da parte da produção (66,5% se concentra na região Nordeste. O descarte do coco depois do consumo da água representa um problema para os sistemas de coleta e tratamento de lixo, pela sua lenta degradação devido ao alto teor de fibras. Neste trabalho são mostrados os resultados da pirólise lenta da fibra e da casca do coco verde. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um forno experimental de pequena capacidade, a uma temperatura de 350°C. Os resultados mostraram que o rendimento em carbono fixo foi de 74,43% para o endocarpo verde e 58,07% para o mesocarpo verde. O teor de cinzas, para as mesmas amostras, foi de 14,13% e 13,03%, respectivamente. Os teores de voláteis foram de 11,40% para o carvão obtido do endocarpo verde e, de 28,90% para o carvão obtido do mesocarpo verde. Ficou demonstrado que o resíduo do coco verde apresenta potencial para a produção de carvão vegetal. Porém ainda é preciso estudar o rendimento, utilizando para isto, sistemas em maior escala, avaliando também o emprego integral (casca e fibra, além de estudos econômicos que considerem os custos de logística e acondicionamento.Palavras Chaves: pirólise lenta, carbonização, resíduos de coco.

  1. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  2. Coconut Allergy Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.

  3. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein concentrate from by-product of coconut processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodsamran, Pattrathip; Sothornvit, Rungsinee

    2018-02-15

    Coconut cake, a by-product from milk and oil extractions, contains a high amount of protein. Protein extraction from coconut milk cake and coconut oil cake was investigated. The supernatant and precipitate protein powders from both coconut milk and oil cakes were compared based on their physicochemical and functional properties. Glutelin was the predominant protein fraction in both coconut cakes. Protein powders from milk cake presented higher water and oil absorption capacities than those from oil cake. Both protein powders from oil cake exhibited better foaming capacity and a better emulsifying activity index than those from milk cake. Coconut proteins were mostly solubilized in strong acidic and alkaline solutions. Minimum solubility was observed at pH 4, confirming the isoelectric point of coconut protein. Therefore, the coconut residues after extractions might be a potential alternative renewable plant protein source to use asa food ingredient to enhance food nutrition and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Características físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais da água de frutos de coqueiro anão verde oriundo de produção convencional e orgânica Physical, physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics of coconut water from green-dwarfed coconut palm from conventional and organic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Verde da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se comparar a qualidade da água de coco obtida de frutos de coqueiro anã verde, produzidos em dois sistemas distintos de produção: convencional e orgânico, mediante as análises físicas (cor da casca, peso, volume, comprimento e diâmetro, físico-químicas (sólidos totais, acidez titulável, pH, turbidez, açúcares solúveis totais e redutores e os minerais: (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, P, sulfato, cloreto e C.E.; e análise sensorial. Foram realizados os seguintes parâmetros sensoriais: avaliação global, turbidez, doçura e sabor. Os frutos utilizados nesse experimento encontravam-se com 210 dias após a polinização das inflorescências e foram provenientes de dois plantios comerciais do município de Trairí- Ceará. O experimento foi desenvolvido no laboratório de Fisiologia e Tecnologia de Pós-Colheita da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, Fortaleza-CE. Foi observado, a partir dos resultados das análises físicas, que o coco produzido em sistema convencional é melhor do que os produzidos organicamente. Para todas as variáveis estudadas, porém apenas as medições de comprimento e peso mostraram diferenças importantes por meio do teste Tukey em um nível de 5% de probabilidade. Nas análises físico-químicas e análise sensorial não houve diferença significativa para os tratamentos.This work aimed to assess and compare the quality of coconut water produced in two different systems: standard and organic. The physical characteristics of the fruit were described (skin color, weight, water volume, length, and diameter, the physical-chemical characteristics of the water were assessed (total solid content, total titrable acidity, pH, turbidity, reducing and total soluble sugars, the mineral content was checked (Fe, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, sulphate, chloride, and C.E., and the sensory analysis was conducted assessing the following parameters: overall evaluation, turbidity, sweetness, and flavor. The fruits

  6. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly [in

  7. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber ethanolic extract: antioxidant capacity and electrochemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Monika Bezerra dos Santos; Valentim, Iara Barros; de Vasconcelos, Camila Calado; Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; da Costa, João Gomes; Freitas, Mikael de Lima; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-02-01

    The present study aims to determine the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of husk fiber of four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties (yellow dwarf, green dwarf, giant and hybrid) and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of these extracts on a glassy carbon electrode and on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained for the hybrid (531 ± 24 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) and yellow dwarf (501 ± 29 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) varieties and the lowest was for the green dwarf variety with 58 ± 9 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH˙ radicals was in the order of giant > yellow dwarf > hybrid > green dwarf and the IC50 values varied from 8.6 to 55.9 μg mL(-1). All varieties showed reducing potential by the use of FRAP and CUPRAC methods, with the lowest performance obtained for the green dwarf variety. Additionally, through the use of mimetic biomembranes, ethanolic extracts of coconut husk were shown to protect lipids against oxidative damage independent of the variety. The main antioxidants identified in the extract of yellow dwarf variety by UPLC-MS were quercetin and catechin. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the ethanolic extracts on glassy carbon electrode confirmed the presence of easily oxidized compounds, and the high antioxidant capacity of the varieties. This capacity was expressed as mg quercetin equivalents g(-1) dry extract and ranged from 25.9 up to 53.5 mg QE g(-1). A poly-xanthurenic acid (poly-Xa)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) / glassy carbon modified electrode (poly-Xa/MWCNT/GCE) was used for this purpose. Our findings suggest that these extracts are potentially important antioxidant supplements for the everyday human diet, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, thereby aggregating value to the enormous amount of waste from the coconut industry, mostly used for burning purposes.

  8. Asthma Picture Book - Why is Coco Orange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco the chameleon can't change colors, and his asthma is acting up. Read how Coco and his friends at Lizard Lick Elementary solve this mystery as they learn about air quality and how to stay healthy when the air quality is bad.

  9. Gastroprotective and mucosa homeostatic activities of coconut milk and water on experimentally induced gastropathies in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeigbe, K O; Owonikoko, W M; Egbe, V; Iquere, I; Adeleye, G

    2017-10-01

    In this biphasic study, 45 male wistar rats were divided into 9 groups. In Phase 1, Group 1 was treated with normal saline and served as the overall control, group 2 was treated with 95% Ethanol and represents the ulcer control, groups 3 and 4 received coconut water (CW; 4ml/100g BWt) and milk (CM; 4ml/100g BWt) for 4weeks while group 5 received Omeprazole (Omep; 20mg/kg BWt) during terminal week. 95% Ethanol-induced ulceration followed the treatments in all except group 1. In the second phase, Group 1 was the overall control, group 2 served as ulcer control by receiving acetic acid only, group 3 received coconut milk, and group 4 received omep. CM and omep were administered post-ulcer induction for 3 and 6days twice daily. Blood collection after 1hour was through cardiac puncture for haemocytometry, and gastric tissues harvested for histopathological investigations. Results showed significantly reduced ulcer score and gastric lesion index in Omep, CW and CM groups compared to ulcer control. WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte counts in Omep, CW and CM groups were significantly reduced compared to ulcer and overall control groups. C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in CM compared to control. Neutrophil Infiltration score reduced while mucus cell density increased significantly in Omep; CM compared to control. EGFR and CD 31 assessment revealed significantly higher expressions in coconut-milk group compared to the ulcer control. We conclude that the protective effects of coconut (water and milk) is expressed by inflammation suppression, upregulation of mucus cell population and catalyses mucosa homeostasis via angiogenesis and mucosal cell proliferation following mucosa. erosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in coconut palms infected with the lethal yellowing phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maust, B E; Espadas, F; Talavera, C; Aguilar, M; Santamaría, J M; Oropeza, C

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT Lethal yellowing (LY), a disease caused by a phytoplasma, is the most devastating disease affecting coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Mexico. Thousands of coconut palm trees have died on the Yucatan peninsula while plantations in Central America and on the Pacific coast of Mexico are severely threatened. Polymerase chain reaction assays enable identification of incubating palm trees (stage 0+, phytoplasma detected but palm asymptomatic). With the development of LY, palm trees exhibit various visual symptoms such as premature nut fall (stage 1), inflorescence necrosis (stages 2 to 3), leaf chlorosis and senescence (stages 4 to 6), and finally palm death. However, physiological changes occur in the leaves and roots prior to onset of visual symptoms. Stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and root respiration decreased in stages 0+ to 6. The number of active photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers decreased during stage 2, but maximum quantum use efficiency of PSII remained similar until stage 3 before declining. Sugar and starch concentrations in intermediate leaves (leaf 14) and upper leaves (leaf 4) increased from stage 0- (healthy) to stages 2 to 4, while root carbohydrate concentrations decreased rapidly from stage 0- to stage 0+ (incubating phytoplasma). Although photosynthetic rates and root carbohydrate concentrations decreased, leaf carbohydrate concentrations increased, suggesting inhibition of sugar transport in the phloem leading to stress in sink tissues and development of visual symptoms of LY.

  11. Study of Fiber Treatment and Water Absorption toward Tensile Stength of Coconut Filtrate/Polyester Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Lokantara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tapis Kelapa (coconut filter as natural fiber, in this time it resourches very copius but no longer be exploited off hand andwaste though in fact it used for alternative to be composite. The objective of this research is to investigated tensile strength ofcomposite tapis kelapa as reinforcement and epoxy 7120 and hardener versamid 140 as matrix. The fiber is treated with thechemical NaOH with percentage 0,5%, 1% dan 2% in weight, respectively. This research used coconut-tapis fibre which cutas long as 1cm with 0%,5%,7,5%,10% fiber volume fraction, respectively. Soaking time on the water are 24 hour, 48 hour,98 hour and 196 hour, respectively. For testing of speciment in tensile test with ASTM D3039. The result of this researchshown that the composite with no treatment with NaOH have soak the water better than the composite with treatment NaOH.The average of tensile strength with no treatment NaOH less than with treatment NaOH. The highest strength are reached bycomposite with 10% fraction volume on 48 hour soaking time equal to 52 MPa. While the lowest tensile strength are reachedby composite with 0% fraction volume fibre equal to 16,667 MPa. The average of tensile strength that soak in mineral waterbetter than sea water.

  12. New insulating particleboards from durian peel and coconut coir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedari, J.; Charoenvai, S.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Building Scientific Research Center

    2002-03-01

    The development of new particleboards from tropical fruit peels with low thermal conductivity as a component of construction panels for energy conservation of building is the main purpose of this study. Durian (Durio zibethinus) peels and coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers were used as the raw material to manufacture particleboards. Two main parameters were investigated namely binder types, (UF 12%, PF 6% and IC 3%) and board density. In general, the effect of adhesive type on the properties of boards was not obvious whereas that of the density was more significant on most properties of boards. Experimental investigation indicated that the mechanical strength of all boards such as modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing board density, but it is still rather low. However, this decreased the dimensional stability, measured in term of thickness swelling, and thermal conductivity as well. Finally, as the raw materials are agriculture waste, manufacturing particleboards is therefore an economic and interesting option. Such natural particleboards with a low thermal conductivity could be utilized for specific applications as in insulating ceiling and walls.(author)

  13. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Investigation of sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut husk from aqueous solution using radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasany, S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Chaudhary, M.H. [Nuclear Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2003-07-01

    The sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut (Cocos nucifera) husk has been studied using radiotracer technique. Maximum sorption (96%) of Hg(II) ions (7.39 x 10{sup -6} M) onto sorbent surface is achieved from 10{sup -3} M HNO{sub 3} solution in 30 min agitation time using 100 mg of coconut husk. The sorption data follow the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Sorption capacity (6.84{+-}0.45 mmol g{sup -1}) and sorption energy (10.6{+-}0.13 kJ mol{sup -1}) have been evaluated using these isotherms. Among the ions tested to monitor their influence on the sorption, Ba(II), fluoride and tartarate increased the sorption, while thiosulfate, bromide and thiocyanate reduced (< 63 > 26%) the sorption. The cations K(I), Ce(III), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Zr(IV) partially suppressed the sorption. The variation of sorption with temperature yields thermodynamic parameters {delta}H = -37.4{+-}2 kJ mol{sup -1} {delta}S = -105{+-}7 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and {delta}G = -2.58{+-}0.05 kJ mol{sup -1} at 298 K. The negative values of enthalpy and free energy reflect the spontaneous and exothermic nature of sorption, respectively. The selectivity studies of sorbent show that the coconut husk column can be used to separate Hg(II) ions from Se(IV), Zn(II), I(I) and Tc (VII). The sorbent has a potential in radiochemistry to separate gamma energies of {sup 203}Hg (279 keV) from {sup 75}Se (265 and 280 keV). (orig.)

  15. Investigation of sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut husk from aqueous solution using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Chaudhary, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut (Cocos nucifera) husk has been studied using radiotracer technique. Maximum sorption (96%) of Hg(II) ions (7.39 x 10 -6 M) onto sorbent surface is achieved from 10 -3 M HNO 3 solution in 30 min agitation time using 100 mg of coconut husk. The sorption data follow the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Sorption capacity (6.84±0.45 mmol g -1 ) and sorption energy (10.6±0.13 kJ mol -1 ) have been evaluated using these isotherms. Among the ions tested to monitor their influence on the sorption, Ba(II), fluoride and tartarate increased the sorption, while thiosulfate, bromide and thiocyanate reduced ( 26%) the sorption. The cations K(I), Ce(III), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Zr(IV) partially suppressed the sorption. The variation of sorption with temperature yields thermodynamic parameters ΔH = -37.4±2 kJ mol -1 ΔS = -105±7 J mol -1 K -1 and ΔG = -2.58±0.05 kJ mol -1 at 298 K. The negative values of enthalpy and free energy reflect the spontaneous and exothermic nature of sorption, respectively. The selectivity studies of sorbent show that the coconut husk column can be used to separate Hg(II) ions from Se(IV), Zn(II), I(I) and Tc (VII). The sorbent has a potential in radiochemistry to separate gamma energies of 203 Hg (279 keV) from 75 Se (265 and 280 keV). (orig.)

  16. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  17. Cytokinins and coconut water promoted abnormalities in zygotic embryo culture of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimine Chaemalee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction of adventitious shoot formation from mature zygotic embryo of oil palm was carried out in liquid MS mediumsupplemented with various types of cytokinins. Kinetin (KN alone at concentration of 0.5 mg/l gave the highest adventitiousshoot formation at 13.4%. However, abnormal shoots in form of inflorescence-like structure (ILS were obtained in 5mg/l KN containing medium. For coconut water a big ILSs were formed at 10.6%. Histological studied revealed that thoseinflorescences had no clear floral organs.

  18. An Integrated Age Model for the Cocos Plate using IODP CRISP Drilling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, A. T.; Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Sandoval, M. I.; Barckhausen, U.; Li, Y. X.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present an integrated age model for the incoming Cocos Plate sediments offshore Costa Rica. The data, collected over two IODP Expeditions (334 and 344), provides a medium- to high-resolution record from the initial formation of the ocean crust in the Miocene to the present day. This study provides >50 age control points for the CRISP sediments from Sites U1381 and U1414. Although the two sites are just 10 km apart, there are distinct differences in the sediment and tephra record. Most notable is the presence of a hiatus at Site U1381. The hiatus, which is seen at other sites on the Cocos Plate, but not at Site U1414, may be related to erosion due to bottom water currents, mass wasting from Cocos Ridge subduction or may be related to the closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS). Sediment accumulation rates in the Miocene are comparable to modern abyssal plain rates. However, an increase is observed in the Pleistocene, when detritus from the forearc basin appears at Site U1414 2 Ma, shortly after the initiation of Cocos Ridge subduction. A tectonic model is presented that reconstructs the Cocos Plate, from its formation at 23 Ma to the present day. Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) paleoceanographic events, such as the Miocene `carbonate crash' and the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene `biogenic bloom' observed at Site U1414, are also discussed.

  19. [Analysis of characteristics and problems of international trade of Poria cocos in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiu-Lian; Yang, Guang; Ma, Shuai; Cheng, Meng; Que, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Poria cocos is one of medical materials frequently used in China and well marketed at home and abroad. Based on the analysis of exports and imports data of P. cocos, we found that large proportions of P. cocos were exported, while only a small proportions of those were imported in China between 2011 and 2016. During periods of these six years, the annual exporting trade of P. cocos in quantity significantly decreased, but that in dollars tend to increase slightly and the unit-prices of P. cocos significantly increased. Statistically, the average annual export trade of P. cocos from 2011 to 2016 in quantity and dollars were 9 279.73 tons and 35.454 million dollars, respectively. And the average annual export in unit-price was 4.14 dollars per kilogram. In total, P. cocos came from 29 provinces and exported to 44 countries through 21 ports. More than 98% of total exports of P. cocos were flew to the markets of countries in Asia, of which Hong Kong was the major partner in import trade of P. cocos. Large amount of P. cocos came from Guangdong province and exported mainly through Shenzhen port. Except the exports, China also imports P. cocos from other countries, among which Korea was the major country exports largest amount of P. cocos to China. And most of P. cocos were imported by Jilin province and mainly through Changchun port. To improve the export kinetic, quality and profits of P. cocos, and thus enhance the international competitiveness of the industry of P. cocos, Chinese governments should emphasize the researches on the products of P. cocos, broaden the demand space of the high-end customers, stimulate the high-end market grow in high speed and accelerate the process of standardization in future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Biodiesel production from waste coconut oil by esterification with ethanol: The effect of water removal by adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao Felipe G.; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Saboya, Rosana M. Alves; Rodrigues, Marcelo L.; Torres, Antonio Eurico B.; Fernandes, Fabiano A. Narciso; Cavalcante, Celio L. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Bl. 709, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Parente, Expedito Jose S. Jr. [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas (TECBIO), PARTEC, Rua Prof. Romulo Proenca, s/n, CEP 60455-700, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The production of biodiesel by esterification with ethanol using waste oil generated in the refining of coconut oil was investigated in this study. The reaction was performed with and without adsorption of water in order to verify the effect of removing water on the reaction conversion. Methanol was also evaluated as an esterification agent. For both ethanol and methanol, conversions over 99% mol were observed. Simultaneous water adsorption allowed the use of lower alcohol/oil molar ratios thus enabling better economics to a possible industrial process. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 721.10191 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10191 Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl]. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco...

  2. Multifarious beneficial traits and plant growth promoting potential of Serratia marcescens KiSII and Enterobacter sp. RNF 267 isolated from the rhizosphere of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Priya; Gupta, Alka; Gopal, Murali; Thomas, Litty; Thomas, George V

    2013-01-01

    Two plant growth promoting bacteria designated as KiSII and RNF 267 isolated from the rhizosphere of coconut palms were identified as Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter sp. based on their phenotypic features, BIOLOG studies and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both bacteria exhibited phosphate solubilization, ammonification, and production of indole acetic acid, β-1, 3 glucanase activities and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase activity. They could also tolerate a range of pH conditions, low temperature and salinity (NaCl). In addition, S. marcescens KiSII exhibited N- fixation potential, chitinase activity, siderophore production and antibiotics production. Seed bacterization with these bacteria increased the growth parameters of test plants such as paddy and cowpea over uninoculated control in green house assay. In coconut seedlings, significant increase in growth and nutrient uptake accompanied with higher populations of plant beneficial microorganisms in their rhizospheres were recorded on inoculation with both the PGPRs. The present study clearly revealed that PGPRs can aid in production of healthy and vigorous seedlings of coconut palm which are hardy perennial crops. They offer a scope to be developed into novel PGPR based bioinoculants for production of elite seedlings that can benefit the coconut farming community and the coconut based ecology.

  3. Quality of green coconut fruits in relation to salinity of irrigation water

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Neto, Miguel; Gheyi, Hans R.; Holanda, José S. de; Medeiros, José F. de; Fernandes, Pedro D.

    2002-01-01

    Foram estudados, neste trabalho, os efeitos de quatro níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (0,1, 5,0, 10,0 e 15,0 dS m-1) obtidos mediante adição de NaCl, na qualidade de frutos de coco (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivar Anão Verde do Jiqui, com 3,5 anos de idade e na salinização do solo. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos inteiramente ao acaso, em solo de textura arenosa não salino, utilizando-se de sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, no município de Parnamirim, RN, durante o período de jan...

  4. Identification and characterization of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumpuli, P A B N; Watanabe, Taisuke; Toyama, Hirohide

    2014-01-01

    From the pellicle formed on top of brewing coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka, three Acetobacter strains (SL13E-2, SL13E-3, and SL13E-4) that grow at 42 °C and four Gluconobacter strains (SL13-5, SL13-6, SL13-7, and SL13-8) grow at 37 °C were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii, respectively. Acetic acid production by the isolated Acetobacter strains was examined. All three strains gave 4% acetic acid from 6% initial ethanol at 37 °C, and 2.5% acetic acid from 4% initial ethanol at 40 °C. Compared with the two other strains, SL13E-4 showed both slower growth and slower acetic acid production. As well as the thermotolerant SKU1108 strain, the activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and the aldehyde dehydrogenase of SL13E-2 and SL13E-4 were more stable than those of the mesophilic strain. The isolated strains were used to produce coconut water vinegar at higher temperatures than typically used for vinegar production.

  5. Investigation of Structure and Property of Indian Cocos nucifera L. Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gautam; Mishra, Leena; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Structure and physico-mechanical properties of Cocos nucifera L. fibre from a specific agro-climatic region of India, was thoroughly studied. Fine structure of the fibre was examined by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), component analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. SEM shows prominent longitudinal cracks and micro-pores on the surface. XRD shows a low degree of crystallinity (45%), bigger crystallite size, and even the presence of appreciable amount of non-cellulose matter. FTIR reveals presence of large quantities of hydroxyl, phenolic and aldehyde groups. Component and thermal analyses indicates presence of cellulose and lignin as major components. Physical parameters reveal that, fibres are highly variable in length (range 44-305 mm), and diameter (range 100-795 µm). Mechanical properties of the fibre viz. breaking tenacity, breaking extensibility, specific work of rupture, and coefficient of friction were measured. Microbial decomposition test under soil reveals excellent durability of coconut fibre which makes it appropriate for the application in geotextiles. Mass specific electrical resistance of 4 Ω-kg/m2 indicates its enhanced insulation as compared to the jute.

  6. Ambiguous genetic relationships among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars: the effects of outcrossing, sample source and size, and method of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prior analysis of eight coconut cultivars with 15 microsatellite (SSR) markers drew unexpected relationships between two of the out-crossing tall cultivars evaluated: ‘Atlantic Tall’ and ‘Panama Tall’. We further investigated the relationships between these eight cultivars by increasing the number...

  7. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  8. Thermophysical and rheological properties of dulce de leche with and without coconut flakes as a function of temperature Propriedades termofísicas e reológicas de doces de leite puro e adicionado de flocos de coco em função da temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Camarinha Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dulce de leche (DL, a dairy dessert highly appreciated in Brazil, is a concentrated product containing about 70% m/m of total solids. Thermophysical and rheological properties of two industrial Brazilian Dulce de leche formulations (classic Dulce de leche and Dulce de leche added with coconut flakes 1.5% m/m were determined at temperatures comprised between 28.4 and 76.4 °C. In general, no significant differences (p Doce de leite é uma sobremesa láctea concentrada (cerca de 70% de sólidos muito apreciada no Brasil. Propriedades termofísicas e reológicas de duas formulações de doce de leite brasileiro (puro e adicionado de coco ralado a 1,5% em massa foram determinadas a temperaturas compreendidas entre 28,4 e 76,4 °C. No geral, a presença de flocos de coco não acarretou diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 nestas propriedades das duas formulações. A capacidade calorífica variou entre (2633,2 e 3101,8 J/kg.°C; a condutividade térmica entre (0,383 e 0,452 W/m°C; a massa específica entre (1350,7 e 1310,7 kg/m³; e enfim, a difusividade térmica entre (1,082 × 10-7 e 1,130 × 10-7 m²/s. O modelo de Bingham descreveu adequadamente o comportamento não Newtoniano dos dois produtos, com tensão crítica de escoamento variando entre (27,3 e 17,6 Pa e a viscosidade plástica de (19,9 a 5,9 Pa.s.

  9. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Cocos nucifera Linn. on streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Sagar; Mazumder, Upal K; Pramanik, Goutam; Gupta, Malaya; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Islam, Aminul

    2011-12-08

    The plant Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae) is commonly known as coconut. Traditionally the juice of the young spadix when fresh is used in diarrhea and diabetes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidiabetic activity and effect on lipid profile as well as cardioprotective effect of hydro-methanol extract of Cocos nucifera (HECN) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 72 h of STZ (50 mg/kg, b.w. i.p.) administration, animals showing plasma sugar level more than 250 mg/dl were considered as diabetic rat. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured on 0th (after 72 h of STZ), 5th, 10th, and 15th day. On the 15th day all the animals were sacrificed and the serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme status were measured. HECN treated animals showed a significant reduction in FBG level as compared with diabetic control group. Serum enzyme level (SGOT, SGPT, SALP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme level such as CAT, GSH, SOD and cholesterol and triglycerides in the HECN treated groups were restored towards normal level as compared to diabetic control groups and the values were comparable with the standard groups (glibenclamide). Improvement in the FBG and the restoration of all other biomarker as well as enzymes indicates that HECN has very good antidiabetic activity with very low side effects and provides a scientific rationale for the use as an antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Drag reduction of nata de coco suspensions in circular pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, J.; Ogata, S.

    2015-04-01

    Reducing pipe friction by adding a drag-reducing agent has attracted interest as a means to reduce energy consumption. In addition to reducing drag, these agents are required to have a low environmental load and conserve natural resources. However, no drag-reducing agent currently satisfies both these conditions. We focused on nata de coco and found that the nata de coco fiber reduced drag by up to 25%. With respect to the mechanism of drag reduction by nata de coco fiber, the relationship between drag-reduction phenomena and the fiber form of nata de coco was investigated by visualization. We also found that the drag-reduction effect appeared to be due to the formation of networks of tangled fibers of nata de coco. However, drag reduction did not occur in the case in which fibers of nata de coco did not form networks.

  11. COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF MASSAGE THERAPY ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH GREEN COCONUT WATER THERAPY ON Β-ENDORPHIN LEVEL IN TEENAGE GIRLS WITH DYSMENORRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Hikmatul Ulya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is pain during menstruation in lower abdomen, and is not due to other diseases. Effleurage massage and consuming green coconut water are considered able to reduce menstrual pain. However, little is known about the effect of the combination between the two interventions. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of effleurage massage and in combination with green coconut water on pain, anxiety, and ß-endorphin level in teenage girls with menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea. Design: A quasy experiment with pretest-posttest approach design with control group. There were 36 samples recruited in this study by purposive sampling, which were divided into a massage therapy group, the combination therapy group, and a control group. Menstrual pain was measured using Numeric Rating Scale, while anxiety was measured using Zung Self rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS, and endorphin level using ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. One way anova test and repeated anova were performed as a bivariate analysis. Mancova and post hoc anova were used for multivariate analysis. Result: The combination of massage and green coconut water was more effective in reducing pain (p 0.013 and anxiety levels (p 0.000, and in increasing β-endorphin (p 0.029 with significant value of <0.05 compared to the massage therapy alone. Conclusion: The combination of effleurage massage and green coconut water had significant effect in decreasing anxiety and pain levels, and increasing β-endorphin levels in teenage girls with painful periods (dysmenorrhea; and more effective than performing effleurage massage only. It is suggested that this combination therapy could be used as an alternative therapy for women with dysmenrrohea.

  12. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin Cs; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-10-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A-D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility ( P coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter ( P coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

  13. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Kan; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Xirui

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China, and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut. The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk, roots, withered coconut leaves, coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut, mainly used for biogas extraction, direct combustion and power generation, brewing, pharmacy, and processing of building materials; the wastes generated ...

  14. Adubação de orquídeas em substratos com fibra de coco Fertilization of orchids in substrates with coconut fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tátila Lima do Amaral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, avaliar a eficiência de substratos e doses de adubação sobre o crescimento e teores foliares de nutrientes de híbridos de orquídeas do gênero Phalaenopsis. O estudo constou de dois experimentos conduzidos em substrato com fibra de coco industrializada (Sub 1 e não industrializada (Sub 2, em mistura com casca de Pinus e brita zero (1:1:1 v/v/v, em delineamento de blocos casualizados. O primeiro experimento, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo (06 e 12 meses, com cinco repetições, avaliou o híbrido RJ 343, nos dois substratos, sob quatro doses de adubo mineral (0; 0,9; 1,2; 1,5 g L-1 e dois tratamentos adicionais [aplicação foliar de Aminon® (0,5 ml L-1 na dose de 1,2 g L-1, no Sub 1 e Sub 2]. O segundo avaliou o híbrido RJ 84-2, nos dois substratos, com as mesmas doses de adubo mineral e aplicação foliar de Aminon® (0 e 0,5 ml L-1, em esquema de parcelas subsubsubdivididas no tempo (6 e 12 meses, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se número de folhas, área foliar, área superficial de raízes, massa seca de folhas, raízes e total, e teores foliares de N, P e K. O Aminon® não teve efeito sobre o crescimento dos híbridos. O aumento da adubação promoveu aumento de crescimento, exceto de raízes, sendo o maior crescimento observado sob a dose de 1,5 g L-1 de adubo mineral. O Sub 2 promoveu maior crescimento das plantas do híbrido RJ 343, enquanto o Sub 1 promoveu maior crescimento do híbrido RJ 84-2.The research objective was to evaluate the efficiency of substrates and fertilization levels on the growth and leaf nutrient contents of orchid hybrids of the genus Phalaenopsis. The study consisted of two experiments in carried out with industrialized coconut fiber (Sub 1 and non-industrialized coconut fiber (Sub 2, in mixture with Pinus bark and grade zero gravel (1:1:1 v/v/v in randomized blocks. The first experiment in a split-plot scheme in time (6 and 12 months with five replications

  15. Rearing technique and biological traits of Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) in coconut fruits; Tecnica de criacao e aspectos biologicos de Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) em frutos de coqueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, S.W.J.; Barros, R.; Torres, J.B.; Gondim Junior, M.G.C., E-mail: jtorres@depa.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia e Entomologia

    2011-01-15

    Larvae of the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) develop in flowers and fruits of coconut, Cocos nucifera, causing precocious abscission of these structures and, hence, yield decrease. This work studied a feasible and suitable rearing technique for A. subrufella using fruits of coconut. We first determined the appropriate density of larvae to be reared per coconut fruit (among two, three, four or five larvae) and later tested the suitability of this rearing technique for three successive generations. The storage of egg and pupal stages during 0, 5, 10 and 20 days was also studied at 12 deg C. Based on the fertility life table parameters, the best results were achieved by rearing two or three larvae per fruit as they yielded the best net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of population increase. In addition, eggs and pupae of A. subrufella can be stored at 12 deg C up to five days with viability higher than 90%. Adult moths emerged from pupae stored for five days at 12 deg C produced an average of 219.4 eggs and lived 18.8 days. Storage periods for eggs and pupae over 10 days significantly reduced egg viability and adult fecundity, respectively. Thus, the technique in here described was shown to be suitable for the continuous rearing of A. subrufella in laboratory conditions. (author)

  16. Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties of Crude Extract and Triterpenes from Poria cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsuan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poria cocos, Bai Fu Ling in Chinese, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes. However, its claimed benefits and mechanism are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect and action of P. cocos on type 2 diabetes. We first performed phytochemical analysis on the crude extract and factions of P. cocos. P. cocos crude extract at 50 mg/kg body weight or more significantly decreased blood glucose levels in db/db mice. Based on a bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation (BDFI strategy, chloroform fraction and subfractions 4 and 6 of the P. cocos crude extract possessed a blood glucose-lowering effect. Dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and pachymic acid were identified from the chloroform sub-fractions 4, 3, and 2, respectively. Dehydrotumulosic acid had anti-hyperglycemic effect to a greater extent than dehydrotrametenolic acid and pachymic acid. Mechanistic study on streptozocin- (STZ- treated mice showed that the crude extract, dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and pachymic acid of P. cocos exhibited different levels of insulin sensitizer activity. However, the P. cocos crude extract and triterpenes appeared not to activate PPAR-γ pathway. Overall, the data suggest that the P. cocos extract and its triterpenes reduce postprandial blood glucose levels in db/db mice via enhanced insulin sensitivity irrespective of PPAR-γ.

  17. Pemanfaatan Limbah Virgin Coconut Oil (Blondo)

    OpenAIRE

    Haerani, Haerani

    2010-01-01

    Coconuts and coconut oil have been traditional, staple foods of Asia, Africa, Central America and the Pacific Islands for thousands of years. Pacific Islanders, those who still eat traditional diets, have a reputation for good health and strong beautiful bodies. Many of these traditional diets obtain 30% to 60% of their calories from coconuts and coconut oil. They tend to have normal cholesterol levels and no cardiovascular disease. Prior to the early 1900s, coconut oil was an important dieta...

  18. Deepwater fish assemblages at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009 we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas of the Isla del Coco Marine Conservation Area, Costa Rica and a nearby seamount using a manned submersible. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco. We completed a total of 22 submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. We surveyed habitats from 50-402m and observed more than 45 species of fishes, some of which have not yet been described and are likely new to science. The diversity of fish species in deep water at Isla del Coco National Park was lower than the diversity of fishes in shallow water, and eight species groups accounted for more than 95% of the total fish biomass. The combined density of all fish species was higher at Las Gemelas Seamount (253 fishes/100m² than at Isla del Coco National Park (138 fishes/100m². The combined density of fishes in habitats comprised primarily of bedrock or large boulders outcrops was more than three times as high at Las Gemelas Seamount as it was at Isla del Coco National Park. This discrepancy was caused by the extremely high concentration of Anthiinae fishes in rocky habitats at Las Gemelas Seamount. Densities of fishes in the other habitats were similar between the two sites. Similarly, when estimates of fish density were plotted by slope categories the density was much greater on steep slopes, which were usually comprised of rock habitats. Also, the density of fishes was greatest on high rugosity habitats. Results of these submersible surveys indicate that seamounts in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean may be an important source of biodiversity and that more quantitative surveys

  19. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  20. Coco is a dual activity modulator of TGFβ signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Haremaki, Tomomi; Warmflash, Aryeh; Sorre, Benoit; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is a crucial regulator of developmental processes and disease. The activity of TGFβ ligands is modulated by various families of soluble inhibitors that interfere with the interactions between ligands and receptors. In an unbiased, genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes involved in ligand-dependent signaling, we unexpectedly identified the BMP/Activin/Nodal inhibitor Coco as an enhancer of TGFβ1 signaling. Coco synergizes with TGFβ1 in both cell culture and Xenopus explants. Molecularly, Coco binds to TGFβ1 and enhances TGFβ1 binding to its receptor Alk5. Thus, Coco acts as both an inhibitor and an enhancer of signaling depending on the ligand it binds. This finding raises the need for a global reconsideration of the molecular mechanisms regulating TGFβ signaling. PMID:26116664

  1. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  2. Analysis of monoglycerides, diglycerides, sterols, and free fatty acids in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) oil by 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrit, Fabian M; Buenafe, Olivia Erin M; Chainani, Edward T; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S

    2008-07-23

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( (31)P NMR) was used to differentiate virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached, deodorized coconut oil (RCO). Monoglycerides (MGs), diglycerides (DGs), sterols, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in VCO and RCO were converted into dioxaphospholane derivatives and analyzed by (31)P NMR. On the average, 1-MG was found to be higher in VCO (0.027%) than RCO (0.019%). 2-MG was not detected in any of the samples down to a detection limit of 0.014%. On the average, total DGs were lower in VCO (1.55%) than RCO (4.10%). When plotted in terms of the ratio [1,2-DG/total DGs] versus total DGs, VCO and RCO samples grouped separately. Total sterols were higher in VCO (0.096%) compared with RCO (0.032%), and the FFA content was 8 times higher in VCO than RCO (0.127% vs 0.015%). FFA determination by (31)P NMR and titration gave comparable results. Principal components analysis shows that the 1,2-DG, 1,3-DG, and FFAs are the most important parameters for differentiating VCO from RCO.

  3. CoCo design as a risk preventive tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Flannery, M.

    2011-01-01

    Contingent Convertible (CoCo) bonds have been suggested as a way to ensure that banks keep aside enough capital to help them through financial crises. This column proposes a market-triggered CoCo buffer to maintain risk incentives during periods of high leverage. It argues that this will also

  4. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SAND AND COCONUT SUBSTRATE IN URBAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PERFORMANCES COMPAREES DU SABLE ET DU SUBSTRAT DE COCO EN TRAITEMENT D’EAUX RESIDUAIRES URBAINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINE KONE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban wastewater has been treated by infiltration-percolation on sand and on coconut substrate, in order to highlight their comparative performance. The pilots were fed to the hydraulic loading rate of 40 L·m-2·d-1 during three days a week and kept at rest the next four days. Parameters are measured on an average sample of 24 hours taken on the output of each pilot at the end of the third day of treatment. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD were respectively, 94.8 and 39.61 % with the sand and the coconut substrate while the average yields of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 were 99.01 and 98.12 %. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of fecal coliform bacteria were respectively, 98.8 and 91 %. Conductivities have increased by an average of 39.88 % with the sand and 4.65 % with coconut substrate.

  5. Algunos poliquetos holoplanctónicos (Annelida: Polychaeta del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Some holoplanktonic polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta from the Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Jiménez-Cueto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los poliquetos holoplanctónicos no han sido estudiados en las aguas oceánicas adyacentes al Parque Isla del Coco. Se estudiaron estas formas pelágicas a partir del análisis de muestras de zooplancton recolectadas en esta área protegida. Las muestras fueron obtenidas mediante redes de plancton estándar (0.2-0.5mm de malla, 0.49m de diámetro de boca en arrastres horizontales y verticales en la isla oceánica Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Los poliquetos pelágicos de esta zona fueron analizados taxonómicamente. El material obtenido incluye representantes de seis especies y cinco familias: Alciopidae, Lopadorhynchidae, Tomopteridae, Polynoidae y Typhloscolecidae. Se presentan diagnosis breves, sino- nimias, análisis morfológicos comparativos, ilustraciones taxonómicas y la distribución conocida de las especies recolectadas en el plancton de Isla del Coco. El registro de Drieschia pellucida Moore es el primero en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; nuestro espécimen muestra algunas diferencias respecto a la descripción original. El resto de las especies han sido encontradas previamente en aguas del Pacífico Tropical Oriental y en el Domo de Costa Rica, pero son los primeros registros para esta área protegida.The holoplanktonic polychaetes have not been surveyed in the oceanic waters adjacent to Isla del Coco. These pelagic forms are studied based on the analysis of zooplankton samples collected in the area. Samples were obtained both at night and daytime by standard plankton nets (0.2-0.5 mm meshes, 0.49 m mouth diameter hauled horizontally and vertically off the oceanic island Isla del Coco, Costa Rica in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Pelagic polychaetes were collected in one of the night samples and were taxonomically analyzed. The material obtained includes representatives of six species and five families: Alciopidae, Lopadorrhynchidae, Tomopteridae, Polynoidae, and Typhloscolecidae. Brief diagnoses

  6. Design and manufacture a coconut milk squeezer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayan Surata, I.; Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Budyanto, D.; Yulianto, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    The process of cooking oil production generally is started by grating the ripe coconut meat, then pressing the grated meat to obtain coconut milk, and finally heating the coconut milk to obtain the cooking oil. Pressing mechanism to obtain coconut milk is a very important step and decisive in the process of producing cooking oil. The amount of milk produced depends on the pressure applied at the time of pressing grated coconut. The higher the pressure, the more milk is obtained. Some commercial mechanical pressing tools that available in the market are not efficient due to the working steps too much and take long time per cycle of work. The aims of this study was to design and manufacture a power screw squeezer for the collection of coconut milk. Power screw produces a compressive force in the cylinder to push and press the grated coconut until the end of the cylinder while the coconut milk and coconut dregs flow out simultaneously. Screw press was designed using straight shaft configuration with square profile. Performance test was done to investigate the actual capacity and yield of milk produced. The results showed that squeezer of grated coconut worked well with capacity an average of 13,63 kg/h and coconut milk yield of 58%.

  7. Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Anany, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

    La hiperlipidemia

  8. Deepwater fish assemblages at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009 we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas of the Isla del Coco Marine Conservation Area, Costa Rica and a nearby seamount using a manned submersible. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco. We completed a total of 22 submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. We surveyed habitats from 50-402m and observed more than 45 species of fishes, some of which have not yet been described and are likely new to science. The diversity of fish species in deep water at Isla del Coco National Park was lower than the diversity of fishes in shallow water, and eight species groups accounted for more than 95% of the total fish biomass. The combined density of all fish species was higher at Las Gemelas Seamount (253 fishes/100m² than at Isla del Coco National Park (138 fishes/100m². The combined density of fishes in habitats comprised primarily of bedrock or large boulders outcrops was more than three times as high at Las Gemelas Seamount as it was at Isla del Coco National Park. This discrepancy was caused by the extremely high concentration of Anthiinae fishes in rocky habitats at Las Gemelas Seamount. Densities of fishes in the other habitats were similar between the two sites. Similarly, when estimates of fish density were plotted by slope categories the density was much greater on steep slopes, which were usually comprised of rock habitats. Also, the density of fishes was greatest on high rugosity habitats. Results of these submersible surveys indicate that seamounts in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean may be an important source of biodiversity and that more quantitative surveys

  9. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  10. Efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco em rações para poedeiras comerciais Effect of inclusion of coconut meal in diets for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlla Vivianny de Paula Braga

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento (112 dias foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração de 240 poedeiras com 43 semanas de idade, distribuídas em cinco tratamentos com oito repetições de seis aves por tratamento. Os tratamentos consistiram da inclusão de FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% em dietas isoprotéicas (16,5% PB e isocalóricas (2.800 kcal EM/kg. Consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, porcentagem de postura (%, peso do ovo (g, massa de ovo (g/ave/dia, conversão alimentar (kg de ração/kg de ovo e cor da gema (leque colorimétrico da Roche foram avaliados. O aumento do nível de FC na ração de 5 a 20% reduziu o consumo de ração, porém, apenas o nível de 20% foi significativamente menor que o controle. A produção de ovos e a massa de ovos diminuíram com o aumento do FC, mas esses resultados não diferiram daqueles obtidos com o nível zero de inclusão. A cor da gema diminuiu linearmente com a inclusão do FC e apresentou cor menos amarela que a dos ovos do grupo controle. Conclui-se que, em rações de poedeiras, o FC pode ser incluído em níveis de até 15%, desde que seja utilizada uma fonte de pigmentos.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of coconut meal (CM in diets for laying hens. Two hundred and forty laying hens at 43 weeks of age were assigned to a randomized block design, with five treatments and eight replicates of six birds per treatment. The treatments consisted of five isoprotein (16.5% CP and isocaloric (2,800 kcal ME/kg diets containing 0%, 5%; 10%; 15% and 20% CM. The experiment was carried out for 112 days and the variables studied were: feed intake (g/bird/day, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (kg feed/ kg egg and yolk color (Roche color fan. Birds feed intake decreased as CM increased in the diet. However this effect was significantly only among birds fed diets containing 0% and 20% CM. Although not significantly egg production and egg

  11. Physicochemical and functional properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L) cake dietary fibres: Effects of cellulase hydrolysis, acid treatment and particle size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yajun; Li, Yan

    2018-08-15

    Effects of cellulase hydrolysis, acid treatment and particle size distribution on the structure, physicochemical and functional properties of coconut cake dietary fiber (DCCDF) were studied. Results showed that both the cellulase hydrolysis and acid treatment contributed to the structural modification of DCCDF as evident from XRD, FT-IR and SEM analysis. Moreover, the cellulase hydrolysis enhanced soluble carbohydrate content, water holding capacity (WHC) and swelling capacity (WSC), α-amylase inhibition activity (α-AAIR), glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of DCCDF; but it had undesirable effects on colour, oil holding capacity (OHC) and emulsifying capacity (EC). On other hand, acid treatment decreased the WHC, WSC and GDRI, but improved the colour, CEC, OHC and emulsion stability of DCCDF. Furthermore, the WHC, WSC and EC of DCCDF increased as the particle size reduced from 250 to 167 μm, while the GDRI, OHC, α-AAIR and emulsion stability decreased with decreasing particle size. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental study on the strength parameter of Quarry Dust mixed Coconut Shell Concrete adding Coconut Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangulu Shrestha, Victor; Anandh, S.; Sindhu Nachiar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous mixture constitute of cement as the main ingredient with a different mix of fine and coarse aggregate. The massive use of conventional concrete has a shortfall in its key ingredients, natural sand and coarse aggregate, due to increased industrialisation and globalisation. To overcome the shortage of material, an alternate material with similar mechanical properties and composition has to be studied, as replacement of conventional concrete. Coconut shell concrete is a prime option as replacement of key ingredients of conventional concrete as coconut is produced in massive quantity in south East Asia. Coconut shell concrete is lightweight concrete and different research is still ongoing concerning about its mix design and composition in the construction industry. Concrete is weak in tension as compared to compression, hence the fibre is used to refrain the crack in the concrete. Coconut fibre is one of many fibres which can be used in concrete. The main aim of this project is to analyse the use of natural by-products in the construction industry, make light weight concrete and eco-friendly construction. This project concerns with the comparison of the mechanical properties of coconut shell concrete and conventional concrete, replacing fine aggregate with quarry dust using coconut fibre. M25 grade of concrete was adopted and testing of concrete was done at the age of 3, 7 and 28 days. In this concrete mix, sand was replaced completely in volumetric measurement by quarry dust. The result was analysed and compared with addition of coconut fibre at varying percentage of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. From the test conducted, coconut shell concrete with quarry dust has the maximum value at 4% of coconut fibre while conventional concrete showed the maximum value at 2% of coconut fibre.

  13. Elaboração e caracterização de doce de coco adicionado de diferentes concentrações de rapadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Pedro Melo Azerêdo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapadura é o produto sólido obtido da concentração do caldo da cana-de-açúcar, muito procurada pelos consumidores, sendo sua utilização na elaboração de doces uma boa alternativa econômica para seu aproveitamento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade microbiológica e sensorial de três formulações de doce de coco. Os resultados mostram que a formulação mais aceita foi obtida a partir da concentração média de rapadura, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento do doce a base de rapadura por meio de procedimentos simples e de fácil aplicação pelos produtores.Preparation and characterization of doce de coco added to different concentrations of sugar cane productsAbstract: The brown sugar is the solid product obtained by concentration of the juice of cane sugar, very popular with consumers, and is used to manufacture candy good economic alternatives for their utilization. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological and sensory quality of three sweet coconut formulations. The results show that the most accepted formulation was obtained from the average concentration of brown sugar, contributing to the development of the sweet brown sugar base through simple procedures and easy to apply by producers.

  14. A database for coconut crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Velamoor; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Devakumar, Krishnamurthy; Rajesh; Karun, Anitha; Niral, Vittal; Gopal, Murali; Aziz, Shamina; Gunasekaran, Marimuthu; Kumar, Mundappurathe Ramesh; Chandrasekar, Arumugam

    2005-12-08

    Coconut crop improvement requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. A database containing information on CG (coconut germplasm), CCI (coconut cultivar identification), CD (coconut disease), MIFSPC (microbial information systems in plantation crops) and VO (vegetable oils) is described. The database was developed using MySQL and PostgreSQL running in Linux operating system. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. http://www.bioinfcpcri.org.

  15. PHILIPPINE COCONUT INDUSTRY AND THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Oniki, Shunji

    1992-01-01

    This study explores effects of Philippines' coconut policies on the performance in the international market. Analysis of the coconut sector found that the Philippine government successfully changed the structure of the coconut industry during the 1970's using a fund collected as coconut levies. Since the Philippines dominated the international trade market of coconut products, it could exercise dominant market power in the world trade, by integrating the domestic sector. However, the industri...

  16. Improving transcriptome de novo assembly by using a reference genome of a related species: Translational genomics from oil palm to coconut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Armero

    Full Text Available The palms are a family of tropical origin and one of the main constituents of the ecosystems of these regions around the world. The two main species of palm represent different challenges: coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a source of multiple goods and services in tropical communities, while oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is the main protagonist of the oil market. In this study, we present a workflow that exploits the comparative genomics between a target species (coconut and a reference species (oil palm to improve the transcriptomic data, providing a proteome useful to answer functional or evolutionary questions. This workflow reduces redundancy and fragmentation, two inherent problems of transcriptomic data, while preserving the functional representation of the target species. Our approach was validated in Arabidopsis thaliana using Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella as references species. This analysis showed the high sensitivity and specificity of our strategy, relatively independent of the reference proteome. The workflow increased the length of proteins products in A. thaliana by 13%, allowing, often, to recover 100% of the protein sequence length. In addition redundancy was reduced by a factor greater than 3. In coconut, the approach generated 29,366 proteins, 1,246 of these proteins deriving from new contigs obtained with the BRANCH software. The coconut proteome presented a functional profile similar to that observed in rice and an important number of metabolic pathways related to secondary metabolism. The new sequences found with BRANCH software were enriched in functions related to biotic stress. Our strategy can be used as a complementary step to de novo transcriptome assembly to get a representative proteome of a target species. The results of the current analysis are available on the website PalmComparomics (http://palm-comparomics.southgreen.fr/.

  17. Improving transcriptome de novo assembly by using a reference genome of a related species: Translational genomics from oil palm to coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armero, Alix; Baudouin, Luc; Bocs, Stéphanie; This, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The palms are a family of tropical origin and one of the main constituents of the ecosystems of these regions around the world. The two main species of palm represent different challenges: coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a source of multiple goods and services in tropical communities, while oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is the main protagonist of the oil market. In this study, we present a workflow that exploits the comparative genomics between a target species (coconut) and a reference species (oil palm) to improve the transcriptomic data, providing a proteome useful to answer functional or evolutionary questions. This workflow reduces redundancy and fragmentation, two inherent problems of transcriptomic data, while preserving the functional representation of the target species. Our approach was validated in Arabidopsis thaliana using Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella as references species. This analysis showed the high sensitivity and specificity of our strategy, relatively independent of the reference proteome. The workflow increased the length of proteins products in A. thaliana by 13%, allowing, often, to recover 100% of the protein sequence length. In addition redundancy was reduced by a factor greater than 3. In coconut, the approach generated 29,366 proteins, 1,246 of these proteins deriving from new contigs obtained with the BRANCH software. The coconut proteome presented a functional profile similar to that observed in rice and an important number of metabolic pathways related to secondary metabolism. The new sequences found with BRANCH software were enriched in functions related to biotic stress. Our strategy can be used as a complementary step to de novo transcriptome assembly to get a representative proteome of a target species. The results of the current analysis are available on the website PalmComparomics (http://palm-comparomics.southgreen.fr/).

  18. CoCo the colorful history of Tandy's underdog computer

    CERN Document Server

    Pitre, Boisy G

    2013-01-01

    CoCo: The Colorful History of Tandy's Underdog Computer is the first book to document the complete history of the Tandy Color Computer (CoCo), a popular 8-bit PC series from the 1980s that competed against the era's biggest names, including the Apple II, IBM PC, and Commodore 64. The book takes you inside the interesting stories and people behind this unique, underdog computer.Both noted computer science and technology advocates, authors Pitre and Loguidice reveal the story of a pivotal period in the home computing revolution from the perspective of Tandy's CoCo. As these computers were sold i

  19. Effect of Chemical Treatment on Mechanical and Water-Sorption Properties Coconut Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester from Recycled PET

    OpenAIRE

    Munirah Abdullah, Nurul; Ahmad, Ishak

    2012-01-01

    Coconut fibers were used as reinforcement for unsaturated polyester resin from recycled PET that has been prepared using glycolysis and polyesterification reaction. Various concentrations of alkali, silane, and silane on alkalized fiber were applied and the optimum concentration of treatments was determined. Morphological and mechanical properties of the composite have also been investigated to study the effect of fiber surface treatment. The influence of water uptake on the sorption characte...

  20. Characterization and diversity assessment in coconut collections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and genetic diversity assessment among 30 conserved coconut accessions collected from Pacific Ocean Islands and Nicobar Islands for morphological traits, physico-chemical traits of tender nut water, leaf biochemical parameters and molecular characterization by using random amplified polymorphic ...

  1. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  2. Distribution of shallow water soft and hard bottom seabeds in the Isla del Coco National Park, Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Sibaja-Cordero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS applications used in marine habitats are powerful tools for management and monitoring of marine reserves and resources. Here, we present a series of maps of the soft and hard substrates in the shallow waters (>80 m depth of Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (PNIC= Isla del Coco National Park. We use bathymetry data and field data as input for a GIS, GAM, and kriging methods to generate a series of maps that describe the bottom characteristics. Eight types of bottom were found in the PNIC by composition and grain size. The shore of the island and islets consisted of rocky formations (mainly basalts, with coral reefs in the subtidal of some areas. Rhodolith beds had a dispersing distribution. The bottom on the southern and southwestern region is hard substrate, while sediments cover the northern and northeastern zones. Slightly gravelly sand dominated the bays, while gravelly sand (with more coarse grains was frequent offshore. The inner areas of Chatham and Wafer bays have mud and organic matter. The sediments in the area are mostly carbonates, except in Bahía Yglesias where clastic sediments (from the erosion of basalts are presented. The information generated in this study could be a valuable input for future monitoring in the PNIC.

  3. Anaerobic degradation of coconut husk leachate using UASB-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neena, C; Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S

    2007-07-01

    Reffing of coconut husk, the majorprocess in quality coir fibre extraction, causes serious pollution with brackish water lagoons of Kerala. An attempt is made to treat the coconut husk leachate by using a laboratory scale UASB-reactor The experiment was conducted with loading of leachate from 1 kg of fresh coconut husk. The anaerobic treatment was done continuously The parameters like VFA, pH, COD and polyphenols were analysed regularly during the evaluation of the reactor performance. The polyphenol, VFA and COD were diminished gradually with time. The pH of the reactor during the study was found to be in the range of 6-8. The biogas production was increased with loading and about 82% of the total COD/kg husk could be converted to biogas. The maximum polyphenol loading in the reactor was reached to about 298.51 mg/l of husk.

  4. Indução de calo a partir de eixo embrionário de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. Callus induction from coconut embryogenic axis (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicia Karinne Pereira Gomes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade de formação de calos a partir de tecidos originários do eixo embrionário de embriões zigóticos de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. em diferentes concentrações de 2,4-D. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (4 concentrações de 2,4-D x 5 segmentos do eixo embrionário. Os eixos embrionários foram excisados longitudinalmente dos embriões zigóticos e, em seguida, submetidos à assepsia com hipoclorito de sódio (0,2% por dois minutos, lavados com água destilada estéril e imersos por dois minutos em solução de ácido cítrico estéril (100 mg.L-1. Os eixos embrionários foram então seccionados em cinco segmentos correspondentes às posições A, B, C, D e E, e transferidos para placas de Petri contendo meio de cultura Y3, suplementado com quatro concentrações de 2,4-D (10-4; 1,36x10-4; 3,62x10-4 e 4,52x10-4 M, sacarose (50 g.L-1, carvão ativado (2,5 g.L-1 e vitaminas de Morel e Wetmore, mantidos em ambiente escuro, em temperatura de 25 ± 2ºC. Após 15 dias de inoculação, os segmentos A e B apresentaram 97,5% de explantes com calos friáveis na concentração de 10-4 M de 2,4-D, e 92,5% e 80%, respectivamente, na concentração de 1,36x10-4 M. O segmento E, em ambas as concentrações, apresentou 60% de calogênese. Após 30 dias de inoculação, os segmentos A e B apresentaram 100% e 97,5% de calogênese na concentração de 10-4 M, e 90% e 80%, respectivamente, na concentração de 1,36x10-4 M. Em ambas as concentrações, o segmento E apresentou de 55 a 57,5% de formação de calos. As concentrações de 2,4-D que melhor induzem calogênese, são as de 10-4 e 1,36x10-4 M. Os segmentos A, B e E apresentaram maior competência para calogênese.The ability of callus formation from the embryo axes of coconut in different concentrations of 2,4-D was evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4x5

  5. Germinación del coco con tres tipos de cortes en Sandy Bay Sirpi, Costa Caribe Sur de Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhovany Jhoel Hooker Medina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la germinación del coco criollo (Cocos nucifera, utilizando 3 tipos de cortes (horizontal, transversal, vertical, en Sandy Bay Sirpi, municipio Desembocadura del Río Grande, el experimento fue unifactorial con un Diseño Experimental de Bloques Completamente al Azar (BCA, con 4 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas: tiempo promedio, porcentaje de germinación y de mortalidad entre los tratamientos y susceptibilidad al ataque de plagas y enfermedades, características morfológicas (tamaño embrión, grosor de hojas, tamaño raíces, las variables se sometieron a un análisis de varianza con un 95 por ciento de confianza. El mayor porcentaje de germinación de las nueces lo presento corte vertical con un porcentaje del 95, el segundo de corte transversal 83, seguido del corte horizontal 76 y testigo con 50: todos evaluados con una muestra de 60 nueces con los diferentes tratamientos. En índice de mortalidad a los 135 días de establecidos lo obtuvo el T4 (corte vertical con el porcentaje del 5; seguido por T3 (corte transversal con 16; T2 (corte horizontal con 23; y, T1 (testigo con 50. Respecto a la morfología el T4 obtuvo mejores promedios, tamaño del embrión (53.71 cm, grosor de hojas (5.72 cm, tamaño de raíces (29.55 cm, seguido el T3, T2 y T1. Se determinó que el mejor tratamiento para acelerar la germinación de la variedad del coco criollo Alto del Atlántico, corte vertical (T4, presentó mejores características y mayor cantidad de nueces germinadas en menos tiempo promedio. Abstract The germination of the native coconut (Cocos nucifera was evaluated using 3 types of cuts (horizontal, transversal, vertical at Sandy Bay Sirpi, Rio Grande estuary municipality, the experiment was univariate with an Experimental Block Design (BCA, with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The variables evaluated: mean time, percentage of germination and mortality among treatments and susceptibility to attack of pests and

  6. Pembuatan minyak kelapa secara enzimatis dengan memanfaatkan kulit buah dan biji pepaya serta analisis sifat fisikokimianya

    OpenAIRE

    Yunita Susanti; Purwanto Purwanto; Yuliana Kristiani Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic process using papain is an efficient and less expensive method for producing coconut oil. This research was conductedto produce coconut oil which meet quality requirement from Cocos Nucifera L using ripe fruit peel and seed of papaya (Carica PapayaL) as enzyme sources. The coconut oil was prepared by mixing of coconut milk and juice of papaya ripe fruit peel and/or seed; and thenthe oils produced and incubated for 24 hours. The physicochemical properties of the coconut oil were dete...

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Metal Soaps of Cocos nucifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the extraction of Cocos nucifera seed oil (CSO) from Cocos nucifera seed using aqueous processing and the production of metal soaps from the oil and their characterization in terms of colour, pH, free caustic alkalinity, foaming power, foam stability, and corrosion inhibition test. The metal soaps of the ...

  8. Harvestable energy from the coconut palm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzon, J A

    1984-01-01

    The harvestable energy from the coconut palm is in the form of husks, shells and oil from the nuts and the leaf petioles with a regular monthly production of a bunch of nuts and one leaf. From the known energy content of the husks, nut shells and petioles, the number of palm trees required to provide the total energy for domestic cooking at wood equivalent to 1-3 kg firewood per day ranges from 5-14 for husks, shells and petioles, or 15-47 if the material is first converted to charcoal. In order to provide diesel fuel containing 10% coconut oil and cope with the annual increase in such a demand, the coconut crop would have to increase at the rate of 1 nut per bunch per month from 3-11 nuts to 12 nuts over the next 8 years. Highest coconut sap yield in ethanol terms, amounts to 109 MJ/month per palm which equals the oil in a 20-nut fruit bunch, thus indicating possible greater energy harvest from coconut sap than from coconut oil.

  9. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L. Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC, Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mendes Loiola

    Full Text Available The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF, Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe and West African Tall (WAT; the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT; the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT; and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT, Tonga Tall (TONT and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  10. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  11. Refrigerated Shelf Life of a Coconut Water-Oatmeal Mix and the Viability of Lactobacillus Plantarum Lp 115-400B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasena, Muthu; Barron, Felix; Fraser, Angela; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-10

    Non-dairy probiotic products have the advantage of being lactose-free and can be manufactured to sustain the growth of probiotics. In this study, coconut water and oatmeal were used with the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp 115-400B ( L. plantarum ) as a starter culture. Two separate treatments were carried out probiotic (P) and probiotic and prebiotic (PP) added. In both treatments, oatmeal-coconut water matrix was inoculated with 7 log CFU/g of L. plantarum and fermented at 27 °C for 10 h. For the PP treatment, 1 g of inulin/100 mL of the product was added additionally. The fermented products were then refrigerated (4 °C) and the viability of L. plantarum , pH, total acidity, and apparent viscosity of the matrix were monitored at selected time intervals. The shelf life to reach was defined by maintenance of L. plantarum count of 7 log CFU/g product. Refrigerated shelf life was determined to be seven-weeks for the P treatment and five-weeks for PP treatment. A significant reduction of pH was observed at the end of the considered shelf life; conversely, the apparent viscosity of the product did not change significantly.

  12. Physiochemical, energy characteristics and performance of coconut fiber in the sorption of diesel and bio diesel oils; Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas, energetica e desempenho da fibra de coco na sorcao de oleos diesel e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriana Ferla de [Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis, Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Palotina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: adrianaferla@ufpr.br; Leao, Alcides Lopes [Dept. de Recursos Naturais, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Caraschi, Jose Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Itapeva, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: carachi@itapeva.unesp.br; Oliveira, Luciano Caetano de [Curso de Agronomia, Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Palotina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: lucianocaetano@ufpr.br; Goncalves, Jose Evaristo [Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: evaristto@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Accidents involving oil spills and its derivatives on the soil and in hydric bodies are common and worrying once they endanger the quality of the ecosystem. An economical and efficient way of combating oil spills is the use of the sorption method using sorbent materials. There is a range of sorbent materials, however, the natural ones like biomass and vegetable fibers demonstrate interest due to the low cost and good sorbent capacity. There are works concerning the sorption of crude oil, however for diesel and bio diesel, which had their production increased, there is a little or even nothing exists in the literature. The aim of this work was to investigate the sorption capacity of coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera) confronting to the fuels, diesel and biodiesel and to compare them with the peat commercially used. The bio sorbents were also submitted to the physiochemical and energy characterization. Most of the tests were performed on the granulometric size range of {<=}180 {mu}m 180-425 {mu}m; 425-850 {mu}m e 850-3350 {mu}m. The coir fiber presented capacity of diesel and bio diesel sorption similar to the commercial sorbent made of peat. The determination of the calorific power of the bio sorbents shows that they can be used for energy generation before and after they are used as sorbents. This way, those materials can be used after studies of economical viability in this sector and still to increase the economy of the areas where they are abundant. (author)

  13. Growth and yield of Dutch cucumber grown in a protected environment and with alternative organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Meneses Fernández

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of imported substrates by local materials is a trend in severaltechnifiedproduction systems, given the cost reduction and the importance of agricultural by-products, formerly considered to be waste. The main objective of this work was to validate the effect of different substrates on the growth and productivity of Dutch cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions. The study took place from October 2012 to January 2013, at the Agricultural Experiment Station Fabio Baudrit, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Variety Fuerte was used and four mixed substrates (volume ratio made of local raw materials as coconut fiber (FC, oil palm leaf fiber (FP, organic compost (ABO, and sawdust (AS as well as a commercial treatment (control constituted by coco coir slabs were analyzed. Substrate water content, plant growth (vegetative phase, and yield were evaluated according to commercial size (S, M, L, XL, and rejected. The growth of Dutch cucumber plants, variety Fuerte, was higher on substrates with coconut fiber 40% + oil palm leaf fiber 40% + organic compost 20%, and coconut fiber 70% + organic compost 30%, while yield of the same two substrates was 15.57 and 15.44 kg/m2, respectively. Both treatments were statistically equal to the commercial coco coir substrate slabs with a yield of 14.77 kg/m2. Result attributed to the nutritional contribution of the organic compost (high K, Ca, and Mg along with and to the effects of aeration and water retention of fibers.

  14. The Influence of Coconut Water and Activated Charcoal in MS Medium on In Vitro Callus Regeneration of Dendrobium sp. Cultivar Bertha Chong Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Novita Sari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium is one of the most commercial orchids. In Vitro technique is one of solution to fulfill the market demand of Dendrobium. Organic matters, such as coconut water, and activated charcoal are often given to in vitro medium to regenerate orchids callus. The addition of activated charcoal is not only adsorbing toxic substances but also organic matters. The aimof this researchistofindthe best combination for callus regeneration medium. The research was conducted at the Biological Cell and Molecular Laboratory, Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty of Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh since March to November 2013. The method used is experimental with Completely Randomized Factorial Design with two factor; treatments of coconut water and activated charcoal. The result showed that the combinationof 150mL/Lcoconut waterand2,0g/Lactivated charcoal is the best resultbecauseit is the onlytreatment that have capability in producingplantletswithin60days.

  15. Effect of Fiber Volume Fraction and Water Absorption toward Bending Strength of Coconut Filters/ Polyester Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Lokantara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The variation of fibre volume and the duration of water soaking take influence on the mechanical properties of composite. This research aim is to know the influence of fraction volume fibre and soaking duration on the mineral watertoward the tensile strength and flexural of polyester-coconut-tapis composite. This research used coconut-tapis fibre which is cut 1 cm in length with 0%, 5%, 7,5%, and 10% fiber volume fraction, unsaturated-polyester (UPRs matrix resin type Yucalac 157 BQTN-EX, and MEKPO hardener. The flexure specimen are made by press hand lay-up method and cut according ASTM D790-03 for the flexure test. The result of flexure test shows that the duration of soaking and the fiber volume fraction give a significant effect on the flexural strength of composite. The highest strength are reached by composite with 10% fibre volume on 48 hour soaking time equal to 41.994 MPa. The flexure modulus happenend shows increasing until 24 hour soaking time. The highest modulus are reached by composite with 10% fibre volume equal to 7.114 GPa while the lowest are reached by composite with 0% fibre volume equal to 3,023 GPa.

  16. Emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. seedlings for different substrates = Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. em função de diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effects of different substrates on the emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth seedlings. For this purpose an experiment was done in a greenhouse of the Department of Plant Sciences of Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. The statistical design was completely randomized (CRD, where treatments were composed of nine substrates (T1: vermiculite, T2: coconut fiber, T3: trade hortimix®, T4: vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1: 1:1, T5: coconut fiber and compost (1:1, T6: coconut fiber and compost (1:2,T7: vermiculite and compost (1:1, T8, vermiculite and compost organic (1:2 and T9: organic compost. All treatments were represented by four replications containing 25 seeds. The following variables were evaluated: emergency percentage, emergence rate index, length of shoot and root, stem diameter, dry leaves, stem, root and total leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, and leaf weight ratio. Data were submitted to the Tukey test at 5% probability. The coconut fiber substrates, commercial hortimix® and vermiculite proved superior promoted good emergence and early development of seedlings. The mixture of vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1:1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:2 and organic compost and vermiculite (1: 1 was not shown to be adequate for the cultivation of seedlings. There was no emergency in the pure organic compound in the mixture of compost and vermiculite (1:2.Key words - Vermiculite. Organic compost. Coconut fiber. Sabiá. Substrates. = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. O delineamento estat

  17. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  18. Observations of Litter Deposited in the Deep Waters of Isla del Coco National Park, Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Naranjo-Elizondo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine debris is recognized as a major threat to biodiversity and can be found ubiquitously even in remote regions, including deep-sea environments. Isla del Coco National Park is known as one of the best protected areas around the world, a preferred diving destination, and is also renowned for large aggregations of pelagic species that attract illegal commercial fisheries. Despite its pristine reputation, this study demonstrates that anthropogenic debris can affect this remote and well protected area. Images of marine debris were taken using the DeepSee submersible, mainly plastic litter from fishing gear were found between 200 and 350 m depth. A total of 40 items of debris were found in 5.48% of 365 dives, 60% of the items were plastics, and local boat and fishing activities provided most of litter. Our aim with this research is to raise awareness about the potential problem of solid wastes and fishing gear deposited in the deep environments of Isla del Coco National Park and to explore the potential implications for the ecological integrity of this protected area, including ghost fishing and the possible ingestion of pollutants. These results provide useful management information for the area, especially if one considers the constant pressure of illegal fishing and tourism at Isla del Coco National Park.

  19. Sorption of Lead (II Ions on Activated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Jahangard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, various toxic chemicals/compounds have been widely detected at dangerous levels in drinking water in many parts of the world posing a variety of serious health risks to human beings. One of these toxic chemicals is lead, so this paper aimed to evaluate of efficiency coconut husk as cheap adsorbent for removal lead under different conditions. Methods: In the spring of 2015, batch studies were performed in laboratory (Branch of Hamadan, Islamic Azad University, to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and the effect of temperature on the adsorption capacity of coconut husk for removal lead from aqueous solution. Results: Optimum conditions for Pb (II removal were pH 6, adsorbent dosage 1g/100ml of solution and equilibrium time 120 min. The adsorption isotherm was also affected by temperature since the adsorption capacity was increased by raising the temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was better described by Freuindlich adsorption isotherm model. Conclusion: It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. Coconut husk-based activated carbon can be a promising adsorbent for removal of Pb from aqueous solutions.

  20. Audrey Tautouga Coco jälgedes / Audrey Tautou ; intervjueerinud Lee Hanael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tautou, Audrey, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Näitlejanna mängib peaosa äsja esilinastunud eluloofilmis "Coco enne Chaneli" ("Coco avant Chanel", režissöör Anne Fontaine, Prantsusmaa 2009) ja on Chaneli moemaja parfüümi Chanel №5 reklaaminägu

  1. INHIBITION OF Escherichia coli O157:H7 CONTAMINATION ON CHICKEN MEAT BY NATURAL VINEGAR PREPARED FROM BANANA PEEL AND COCONUT WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskiyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of vinegar as a natural preservative to inactivate microbial growth in meat was investigated. Vinegar was prepared from banana peel and coconut water, and the efficacy against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was tested. Chicken meat were treated with vinegar solution (equals to 1% acetic acid, acetic acid solutions (1%, and lactic acid solutions (2%, control (distilled water. Samples were soaked with acid solution treatment for 1 minute (1.125:1 w/v; chicken meat: solution treatment. Treated samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of the chicken meat, then left for 20 minutes for absorption of bacteria into the meat. Observation was done at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days at low temperature storage, and at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours at room temperature storage. The results showed that banana peel vinegar and coconut water vinegar were effective as natural preservative. In conclusion, the vinegar were potentially inhibited E. coli O157:H7 growth at chicken meat until 12 hours at room temperature storage and 9 days at cold temperatures.

  2. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  3. CEASEMT system: the COCO code. Automatic network of planar and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charras, Thierry; Hoffmann, Alain.

    1977-01-01

    COCO is a code written in Fortran IV for IBM 360; it is intended to meshing bi- or tri-dimensional structures: planar structures, shells and beams, pipes in space. The existence of a real language makes possible a simple flexible use of COCO. Due to its modular structure COCO can incorporate new feasibilities if needed. The elements can have 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 15, 20 vertices at will. COCO makes it possible to divide the network of the structure in independent sectors and gather them together through new numbering. Partial results can be verified at any time by listing or displaying them on a cathode screen [fr

  4. Mechanical characterization of the green coconut fiber for application in the footwear industry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Célia Regina da; Sanches, Regina Aparecida; Ramos, Júlia Baruque; Filho, Jose Jorge Boueri; Guimarães, Barbara Maria Gama

    2013-01-01

    In the tropical countries, the green coconut water consumption generates a great problem with the fruit final destination. To minimize this problem, it is necessary to find applicability to the residues. In this sense, this study had as its objective to investigate the characteristics of the green coconut fiber, from the fruit disposed in the city of Francisco Morato – Sao Paulo, and to compare them to the characteristics from other natural fibers, to check the viability of ap...

  5. Lovely clone of coconuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branton, R.; Blake, J.

    1983-05-01

    It has taken over 10 years research and development to clone oil palms and coconut palms successfully. Unilever has recently built a tissue culture factory in England with a potential capacity for producing half a million clonal oil palms a year for export. Research on the cloning of coconut palms is reported here. Cloned palms may increase yields from oil palms by 20 to 30 percent and yields from coconut could be as high as five-fold over unselected stock. Improved yields would not only increase the yield of oil and copra but also the harvests of husk and shell which are immense potential sources of energy; the 1978 Philippine harvest of over 12 million nuts is equivalent in terms of energy to 3.8 billion litres of petrol (31 x 10/sup 12/ kcal).

  6. The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Mamta; Reddy, Pallavi; Sharma, Roshni; Udameshi, Pooja; Mehra, Neha; Marwaha, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Oil pulling is an age-old practice that has gained modern popularity in promoting oral and systemic health. The scientific verification for this practice is insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of coconut oil pulling on the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and to compare its efficacy with that of Chlorhexidine mouthwash: in vivo. The null hypothesis was that coconut oil pulling has no effect on the bacterial count in saliva. A randomized controlled study was planned and 60 subjects were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups, Group A: Oil pulling, Group B: Chlorhexidine, and Group C: Distilled water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 10 ml of coconut oil for 10 minutes. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml Chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute and Group C with 5 ml distilled water for 1 minute in the morning before brushing. Saliva samples were collected and cultured on 1st day and after 2 weeks from all subjects. Colonies were counted to compare the efficacy of coconut oil and Chlorhexidine with distilled water. Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in both the coconut oil pulling and Chlorhexidine group. Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine. Edible oil-pulling therapy is natural, safe and has no side effects. Hence, it can be considered as a preventive therapy at home to maintain oral hygiene.

  7. Durability of coconut shell powder (CSP) concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. S.; Shahidan, S.; Senin, M. S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Anak Guntor, N. A.; Zuki, S. S. Mohd; Khalid, F. S.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Razak, N. H. S.

    2017-11-01

    The rising cost of construction in developing countries like Malaysia has led concrete experts to explore alternative materials such as coconut shells which are renewable and possess high potential to be used as construction material. Coconut shell powder in varying percentages of1%, 3% and 5% was used as filler material in concrete grade 30 and evaluated after a curing period of 7 days and 28days respectively. Compressive strength, water absorption and carbonation tests were conducted to evaluate the strength and durability of CSP concrete in comparison with normal concrete. The test results revealed that 1%, 3% and 5% of CSP concrete achieved a compressive strength of 47.65 MPa, 45.6 MPa and 40.55% respectively. The rate of water absorption of CSP concrete was recorded as 3.21%, 2.47%, and 2.73% for 1%, 3% and 5% of CSP concrete respectively. Although CSP contained a carbon composition of 47%, the carbonation test showed that CSP no signs of carbon were detected inside the concrete. To conclude, CSP offers great prospects as it demonstrated relatively high durability as a construction material.

  8. Refrigerated Shelf Life of a Coconut Water-Oatmeal Mix and the Viability of Lactobacillus Plantarum Lp 115-400B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Dharmasena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-dairy probiotic products have the advantage of being lactose-free and can be manufactured to sustain the growth of probiotics. In this study, coconut water and oatmeal were used with the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp 115-400B (L. plantarum as a starter culture. Two separate treatments were carried out probiotic (P and probiotic and prebiotic (PP added. In both treatments, oatmeal-coconut water matrix was inoculated with 7 log CFU/g of L. plantarum and fermented at 27 °C for 10 h. For the PP treatment, 1 g of inulin/100 mL of the product was added additionally. The fermented products were then refrigerated (4 °C and the viability of L. plantarum, pH, total acidity, and apparent viscosity of the matrix were monitored at selected time intervals. The shelf life to reach was defined by maintenance of L. plantarum count of 7 log CFU/g product. Refrigerated shelf life was determined to be seven-weeks for the P treatment and five-weeks for PP treatment. A significant reduction of pH was observed at the end of the considered shelf life; conversely, the apparent viscosity of the product did not change significantly.

  9. Utilización de ladrillos de adobe estabilizados con cemento portland al 6% y reforzados con fibra de coco, para muros de carga en Tampico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares Santiago, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article conclusions are presented about adobe bricks stabilized with 6% portland cement and reinforced with different percentages of coconut fibers. The author, has developed an experimental plan in laboratory and has built in situ several walls with different bricks, different joints and different orientations, to analyze the behaviour ofthe brick prototypes for the weather conditions in Tampico.En este artículo se presentan las conclusiones acerca del refuerzo Ide ladrillos de adobe, estabilizados con cemento portland al 6% con diferentes porcentajes de fibra de coco. El autol; para llegar a estas conclusiones, desarrolla un plan experimental en laboratorio asi como construye in situ muestras de muros con diferentes clases de ladrillos, diferentes uniones entre ellos y distintas orientaciones, para analizar el comportamiento de prototipos ante las condiciones climáticas de la zona de Tampico.

  10. Cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e aclimatação de plântulas de coqueiro-anão In vitro culture of zygotic embryos and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Lédo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar os protocolos de cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e de aclimatação de plântulas de coqueiro-anão-verde do Brasil de Jiqui (Cocos nucifera L.. Os embriões zigóticos maduros, colocados assepticamente em meio de cultura líquido Y3 suplementado com 27,8 mg L-1 de Fe2SO4.7H2O e 60 g L-1 de sacarose, apresentaram maior germinação e formação de plântulas normais. As plântulas transferidas para meio indutor de enraizamento Y3, gelificado e suplementado com 1 mg L-1 de ANA, 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP e 2,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado, apresentaram incremento do desenvolvimento radicular e da parte aérea. Na fase de aclimatação, o substrato composto por areia lavada e pó de casca de coco seco, na proporção de 1:1, proporcionou maior sobrevivência das plântulas (58,33%, maior crescimento da parte aérea (39,08 cm e maior número de folhas (6,33. Os protocolos estabelecidos para o cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e a aclimatação de coqueiro-anão-verde de Jiqui podem ser utilizados no intercâmbio e conservação de germoplasma.The objective of this work was to improve the protocols for culture and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.. Mature zygotic embryos, cultivated in vitro aseptically in Y3 liquid medium culture, supplemented with 27.8 mg L-1 of Fe2SO4.7H2O and 60 g L-1 of sucrose, presented higher germination and normal plantlets formation. The plantlets transferred to Y3 semi-solid medium culture supplemented with 1 mg L-1 of ANA, 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP and 2.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal, promoted better root and shoot development. In the acclimatization phase, the 1:1 substrate composed of washed sand and coconut coir dust provided higher survival of plantlets (58.33%, larger growth of the aerial part (39.08 cm and larger number of leaves (6.33. The established protocols for in vitro culture of zygotic embryos and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm

  11. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides...

  12. Review of Coconut “Lethal Yellowing” type diseases Diversity, variability and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollet Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. can be affected by several types of Lethal Yellowing (LY diseases worldwide. Some of the syndromes are caused by phytoplasmas, small bacteria that are impossible to detect by light microscopy. Amplification of a given gene of the phytoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most convenient diagnosis method. The problem is that there are at least 28 “groups” of phytoplasmas and only one pair of primers -P1/P7- commonly used for PCR. As these primers belong to a very conserved gene, false positives are frequent. Consequently, alternative primers specific to one “strain” (or subgroup have to be used, such as LY-F/LY-R for the Caribbean LY, Rohde primers for LD Tanzania. Such specific primers are sometimes restrictive. Indeed, there is variability within each strain and the sequence of the primers has to be adapted to that variability. There are at least five LY subgroups. The subgroups can only be identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism or sequencing. In Africa, two subgroups of LY phytoplasmas have been identified so far.

  13. Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinderlerer, J.L.; Kellard, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the sterilisation of coconut by autoclaving or gamma irradiation, followed by storage in water at 25 0 C for 8 weeks. Bacillus subtilis developed after storage in water. The volatile compounds formed as a result of bacterial activity were extracted and identified. (U.K.)

  14. The influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme ratio on preparation virgin coconut oil for candidate in-house reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohyami, Yuli; Anjani, Rafika Debby; Purwanti, Napthalina Putri

    2017-03-01

    Virgin coconut oil is an excellent product which has result of oil processing business opportunities in the international market. Standardization of virgin coconut oil necessary to satisfy the requirements industry needs. This research is expected as procedure preparation of reference materials. Preparation of virgin coconut oil by Sacharomycescerevisiaeenzyme. Based on the results of this study concluded that the ratio of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can affect the yield of virgin coconut oil produced. The preparation of virgin coconut oil enzymatically using a variety of mass ratio of 0.001 to 0.006% is obtained yield average of 12.40%. The optimum separation of virgin coconut oil on the use of enzymes with a mass ratio of 0.002%. The average water content at a ratio of 0.002% is 0.04 % with a value of uncertainty is 0.005%. The average iodine number in virgin coconut oil produced is 2.4403 ± 0,1974 grams of iodine per 100 grams of oil and optimum iodine number is obtained from the manufacturing process virgin coconut oil with a ratio of 0.006% Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sacharomycescerevisiae with a ratio of 0.002% results virgin coconut oil with acid number 0.3068 ± 0.1098%. The peroxide value of virgin coconut oil between 0.0108 ± 0.009 to 0.0114 ± 0015milli-equivalent per kilograms. Organoleptic test results and test chemical parameters can be used as the test data that can be developed in prototype preparation of candidate in-house reference material in the testing standards of quality virgin coconut oil.

  15. The use of lipidic sources and digestible energy levels on testicles parameters of 60 Kg boars Uso de diferentes fontes de lipídios e níveis de energia digestível sobre parâmetros testiculares de suínos machos a partir dos 60 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Flávia Miranda de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the lipidic sources (coconut oil and soybean oil and digestible energy levels (3350, 3450, 3550 e 3650 kcal de DE/kg of ration effect on swine reproductive performance. It was used eighty 60 kg boars distributed in different treatments. There was no treatment effect on VLDL and lipase concentrations. The coconut oil provided higher HDL levels than soybean oil. The cholesterol, LDL and triglicerides levels were increased in a linear way with both lipidic sources. The treatments did not cause a modification in testosterone seric concentration. The semen volume and spermatic vigor was influenced by DE level when coconut oil was used. The spermatic concentration was increase by soybean oil use. Considering the interaction between lipidic source x DE level for spermatic motility the coconut oil reduced this parameter in a quadratic way. The semen morphological alterations were not altered. The coconut oil at 4499 and 3492 kcal of DE level provided the higher results for STD and SET. The increase of the coconut oil on diet rise cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglicerides levels in the blood.Visando-se estudar o efeito de fontes (gordura de coco e óleo de soja e níveis de energia digestível (3350, 3450, 3550, 3650 kcal de ED/kg de ração sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de suínos, foram utilizados 80 animais, machos inteiros recebendo a partir dos 60 kg os diferentes tratamentos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados. Não se observou efeito dos tratamentos nas concentrações de VLDL e lipase. A gordura de coco proporcionou maiores valores de HDL que o óleo de soja. Houve efeito dos níveis de ED sobre o colesterol total (CT, LDL e triglicerídeos que aumentaram linearmente com o aumento do nível de ED, quando a gordura de coco foi utilizada. A concentração sanguínea de testosterona não foi alterada pelos tratamentos. O volume do sêmen e o vigor espermático foram influenciados pelo n

  16. Reductive effects of poria cocos on radiation-induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Heon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2002-01-01

    In order to screen a radioprotective material from nontoxic natural products, the effects of Poria cocos (PC), known as a blood tonic of traditional Oriental herbs, were investigated in HL-60 cells and ICR mice. The water extract of PC was administrated to mice and then the mice were irradiated with - rays. The jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in mice irradiated with 12 Gy, 6.5 Gy, 2 Gy of -rays, respectively. The administration of the PC extract protected the jejunal crypts (p<0.005) and decreased the apoptosis frequency (p<0.05). The formation of endogenous spleen colony was increased but not significantly. The micronuclei (MN) formation and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) were investigated in HL- 60 cells irradiated 2 Gy of -rays. The frequency of MN was decreased (p<0.001) and the tail movement, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in the SCGE, was decreased in groups treated with PC extract (p<0.01) before exposure to-irradiation. These results indicated that PC protects stem cells and reduces DNA damage induced by -rays. Therefore, Poria cocos might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic product

  17. Analisis Finansial Dan Strategi Pengembangan Usaha Serat Kelapa (Coco Fiber)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Adolf Paskaris

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana proses produksi usaha serat kelapa, untuk menganalisis usaha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di Kecamatan Batang Kuis sudah layak atau tidak, untuk menjelaskan strategi pengembangan yang cocok untuk usaha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di Kecamatan Batang Kuis. Penentuan daerah penelitian dilakukan secara secara purposive (sengaja) dan metode pengambilan sampel adalah purposive sampling dengan pertimbangan bahwa responden/sampel penelitian adalah ...

  18. Méthode simple d'échange de germoplasme de cocotier (Cocos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2014 ... Garcia BM, Malaurie B, Viltres PS, Campos CD, 2008. Efecto de distintas concentraciones de sacarosa en la conservacion in vitro de coco. (Cocos nucifera L.). Colombiana de. Biotecnología 2: 111-119. Frison EA, Putter CAJ, Diekmann (1993). FAO/IBPGRI. Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  20. Coconut Program Area Research Planning and Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Corazon

    2000-01-01

    The coconut industry is one of the country's major pillars in employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. However, local production problems, the expansion in coconut hectarage of neighboring countries, and recent developments in biotechnology research on other competing crops that have high lauric oil content might affect its long-term sustainability and viability. In a highly liberalized global trade environment, innovation and creativity in the country's coconut industry are neede...

  1. The production of paper soaps from coconut oil and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) with the addition of glycerine as plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyasanti, Asri; Miracle Lenyta Ginting, Anastasia; Asyifani, Elgina; Nurjanah, Sarifah

    2018-03-01

    Hand washing with soap is important because it is proven to clean hands from germs and bacteria. The paper soapswere made from coconut oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO) with the addition of glycerin as a plasticizer. The aims of this research were to determine both formulation of paper soap using coconut oil and VCO based with addition of glycerin, and to determine the quality of the paper soapswhich is a disposable hand soap. This research used laboratory experimental method using descriptive analysis. The treatments of this research were treatment A (paper soap without the addition of glycerin), treatment B (paper soap with the addition of glycerin 10% (w/w)), treatment C (paper soap with the addition of glycerin 15% (w/w)), treatment D (paper soap with the addition of glycerin of 20% (w/w)). Parameters tested were moisture content, stability of foam, pH value, insoluble material in ethanol, free alkali content, unsaponified fat, antibacterial activity test, and organoleptic test. The result of physicochemical characteristics for bothcoconut oil-paper soap and VCO-paper soap revealed that treatment C (the addition of glycerin 15% (w/w) was the best soap formulation. Coconut Oil papersoap 15% w/w glicerin had water content 13.72%, the content of insoluble material in ethanol 3.93%, the content of free alkali 0.21%, and the content of unsaponified fat 4.06%, pH value 10.78, stability of foam 97.77%, and antibacterial activity against S. aureus 11.66 mm. Meanwhile, VCO paper soap 15% w/w glicerin had the value of water content of 18.47%, the value stability of foam of 96.7%, the pH value of 10.03, the value of insoluble material in ethanol of 3.49%, the value of free alkali content 0.17%, the value of unsaponified fat 4.91%, and the value of inhibition diameter on the antibacterial activity test 15.28 mm. Based on Mandatory Indonesian National Standard of solid soap SNI 3532:2016 showed that both of paper soap had not been accorded with SNI 3532:2016, unless the

  2. Adubação nitrogenada e potássica de bromeliáceas cultivadas em fibra de coco e esterco bovino Nitrogen and potassium fertilization of Bromeliaceae grown in coconut fiber and cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L do Amaral

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio e de potássio no crescimento e teor foliar de nutrientes de quatro bromeliáceas comerciais e propor uma formulação de adubação adequada para cada planta estudada. O experimento foi em esquema fatorial (4 x 4, sendo quatro doses de nitrogênio (0; 375; 562,6 e 750 mg de N L-1 e quatro doses de potássio (0; 468,8; 703,2 e 937,6 mg de K L-1, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições para Aechmea blanchetiana e Neoregelia 'Sheba' e três repetições para Orthophytum gurkenii e Vriesea gigantea, duas plantas por parcela. As mudas de Aechmea blanchetiana e Neoregelia 'Sheba' foram cultivadas em substrato composto por 50% de fibra de coco + 50% de esterco bovino; as de Orthophytum gurkenii e Vriesea gigantea, em 100% de fibra de coco. As doses de nitrogênio 0; 375; 562,6 e 750 mg de N L-1 e potássio 0; 468,8; 703,2 e 937,6 mg de K L-1 no substrato correspondem, respectivamente, a 0; 187,5; 281,3 e 375 mg N/planta e 0; 234,4; 351,6 e 468,8 mg K/planta. A adubação fosfatada foi fixa, 50 mg de P L-1 no substrato, correspondendo a 25 mg P/planta, exceto para Neoregelia 'Sheba', que foi inoculada com 25 mL/vaso do inóculo micorrízico misto (Glomus geosporum, Acaulospora laevis, Acaulospora mellea e não recebeu adubação fosfatada. A adubação com 305,1 mg N/planta foi a que proporcionou maior incremento na altura de Aechmea blanchetiana. Em Orthophytum gurkenii; a adubação com 250 mg N/planta proporcionou o maior número de folhas e o maior diâmetro da roseta. As adubações nitrogenada e potássica não beneficiaram o crescimento das plantas de Vriesea gigantea. Em Neoregelia 'Sheba', a dose de 315 mg N/planta causou maior incremento em altura e diâmetro da roseta.Levels of nitrogen and potassium fertilization were evaluated on leaf nutrient contents of four commercial bromeliads, to recommend a suitable fertilization formula for each kind of plant

  3. Vibrational analysis of coconut fiber-PP composites

    OpenAIRE

    Gelfuso, Maria Virginia; Thomazini, Daniel; Souza, Júlio César Silva de; Lima Junior, José Juliano de

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have been studying coconut fibers due to its being a natural and renewable source. Moreover, coconut waste is discarded in landfills, bringing environmental problems because this material, although natural, takes time to be degraded. The use of natural fibers such as coconut fibers has become industrially attractive because of its low cost, high availability and desired mechanical properties for some applications, such as panels, ceilings, and partition boards and automotive ...

  4. Crab As A Coconut Oil Separating Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Margino, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The role of sterilized and nonsterilized crab extract on the separation of coconut oil was examined using grated coconut meat as substrate. Sterilized crab extract was prepared by suspension and centrifugation of crushed crab and then filtrated using Millipore Utter. Sterilized crab extract has proteolytic activity but not lipolytic one. It was found that the sterilized crab extract supported the growth of proteolytic microbes, isolated from fermentation process of coconut oil. Both sterilize...

  5. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete. ► Behavior of coconut shell concrete under flexure. ► SEM images of cement, sand, coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete. ► Coconut shell hollow blocks and precast slabs are used in practice. - Abstract: Coconut shell has been used as coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. The flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Twelve beams, six with coconut shell concrete and six with normal control concrete, were fabricated and tested. This study includes the moment capacity, deflection, cracking, ductility, corresponding strains in both compression and tension, and end rotation. It was found that the flexural behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under flexural loadings. Under serviceability condition, deflection and cracking characteristics of coconut shell concrete are comparable with control concrete. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. The end rotations of the coconut shell concrete beams just prior to failure values are comparable to other lightweight concretes. Coconut shell concrete was used to produce hollow blocks and precast slab in 2007 and they are being subjected to some practical loading till today without any problems such as deflection, bending, cracks, and damages for the past five years

  6. Comportamento sazonal do potencial hídrico e das trocas gasosas de quatro variedades de coqueiro-anão Seasonal performance of water potential and gas exchange in four varietes of dwarf coconut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Dória Passos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o curso diurno e sazonal do potencial hídrico e das trocas gasosas foliares do coqueiro-anão (Cocos nucifera L. sob condições de campo, no município de Ilha das Flores-SE. As quatro variedades estudadas (Anão Vermelho de Camarões - AVC, Anão Vermelho de Gramame - AVG, Anão Amarelo de Gramame - AAG e Anão Verde de Jiqui - AveJ reduziram drasticamente a condutância estomática (gs no período seco. Sob estiagem, os valores de transpiração (E e fotossíntese líquida (A foram reduzidos principalmente nas variedades AVG e AVeJ, as quais apresentaram aumento significativo nos valores de eficiência intrínseca do uso da água (A/gs, principalmente o AVeJ. Na estação chuvosa, as trocas gasosas foram condicionadas pela densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos (DFFFA e pela gs. No entanto, durante a estação seca, as trocas gasosas foram condicionadas somente pelos valores de gs, sendo os valores de DFFFA não-limitantes desde as primeiras horas do dia. A variedade AVC apresentou pouca eficiência no controle da perda de água pela transpiração sob condições de estresse hídrico, atingindo os valores mais negativos do potencial hídrico foliar, mantendo, todavia, a fotossíntese líquida mais elevada durante o curso diurno. Por outro lado, o AVeJ controlou eficientemente a transpiração e, mesmo com menores valores de A, apresentou a maior razão A/gs que as demais variedades. Em cultivo tecnificado, como ocorre nos perímetros irrigados, a variedade AVC deverá manter um balanço de carbono mais favorável durante todo o ano, apresentando-se como uma variedade muito promissora.Leaf gas exchange and water potential (psil were assessed daily and seasonaly in four varieties of dwarf coconut (Cocos nuficera L. under field conditions: Cameroon Red Dwarf (CRD, Gramame Red Dwarf (GRD, Gramame yellow Dwarf (GYD and Jiqui Green Dwarf (JGD. All varieties showed strong reduction of stomatal conductance (gs values in

  7. Effect of tender coconut water on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2014-02-01

    . Dietary intakes of high potassium will decrease blood pressure (BP. Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drink high in potassium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TCW on BP in female teachers and employees prehypertension. Methods: The research was a parallel single blind randomized clinical trial. A total of 32 female prehypertension subjects aged 25-44 years. The subjects were selected using certain criteria and randomly allocated to one of two groups using block randomized, 16 subjects each. The treatment group received TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling, and the control group received water 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling. Assessment of BP was done on day 0, day 8, and day 15. Statistical analysis were done using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Mean dietary intakes of potassium were 1420.28±405.54 mg/day or 30.22±8.63% compared to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA. During treatment period, potassium intake increased significantly in the treatment group. There were decreased BP in both groups, which were greater in the treatment group, but not statistically significant different (P > 0.05. The mean decrease of systolic BP was significant in treatment group (P = 0.031, meanwhile the mean decrease of diastolic BP was not significant (P=0.134. Conclusion: Tender coconut water 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has tendency to decrease systolic BP, but not diastolic blood pressure. (Health Science Indones 2013;2: 64-8Key words: coconut water, systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  8. Preliminary study on the coconut crab (Birgus latro rearing in captive pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sulistiono

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on the coconut crab (Birgus latro rearing was employed in captive pond at Citarate village, Lebak Regency (Banten from May to December 2008.  The rearing activity was done in captive pond sized 5x5x1.3 m3 divided into 22 smaller ponds sized 1x1x1.3 m3 with a hiding hole (constructed by pile stones, supported by two small ponds sized 30x40x40 cm3 for sea and fresh water stocks, respectively.  The coconut crab (N=22 individuals at cement pond I and N=18 individuals at cement pond II were reared in each small ponds (density: 1 individual/pond, feed by a piece of coconut (20-50 gram per individual in each cement pond.  The coconut and the water (sea and fresh water were replaced for 2-3 times per week. Result of the study showed that survival rate was around 82% (ponds I and 83% (ponds II, and mortality was around 18% (ponds I and 18% (ponds II. The coconut crab growth at captive ponds I and II were around 17.5 and 52 gram per month, respectively. Key words:  Preliminary study, rearing, coconut crab (Birgus latro   ABSTRAK Uji coba pemeliharaan kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan di kolam penangkaran di Desa Citarate, Kabupaten Lebak (Banten pada Bulan Mei sampai Desember 2008.  Kegiatan pemeliharaan dilakukan pada bak semen berukuran 5x5x1.3 m2 yang terbagi menjadi 22 bak semen lebih kecil yang berukuran 1x1x1.3 m3 dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (berupa tumpukan batu, serta bak kecil sebagai tempat penampungan air laut dan tawar masing-masing berukuran 30x40x40 cm3. Kepiting kelapa (N=22 ekor pada kolam I dan N=18 pada kolam II dimasukkan ke dalam setiap kolam (kepadatan 1 individu/kolam, dan diberikan pakan utama berupa potongan kelapa ukuran sekitar 20-50 gram per individu per kolam.  Penggantian kelapa dan air (tawar dan laut dilakukan 2-3 kali per minggu. Hasil uji coba pemeliharaan kepiting kelapa menunjukkan bahwa tingkat sintasan (survival rate di kolam peliharaan berkisar 82 (Kolam I dan 83% (Kolam II

  9. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as an alternative carbon source: the effect of peptone, yeast extract and beef extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW is a by-product of food industry and has little value in Thailand. It is usually discarded as a wasteinto the environment. Consequently, we developed a value added process of exopolysaccharide (EPS production usingLactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 and coconut water. The effect of three expensive supplements (peptone, yeast extractand beef extract on EPS and biomass production was investigated at 35°C for 24 h. Using a mod-MRS-CW medium, preparedby replacing the de-ionized water with 100% CW and supplemented with 20 g/l crystalline sucrose and a reduced quantity(50% of the three expensive supplements (5 g/l of peptone, 2.5 g/l of yeast extract, and 2.5 g/l of beef extract gave thehighest yield of EPS (12.3 g/l. By optimizing the conditions for fermentation (pH 5.5, agitation speed at 50 rpm and initialsucrose concentration of 100 g/l, EPS yield increased up to 38.2 g/l. When compared with the modified MRS medium, themedium supplemented with CW was found to be suitable for the reduction of cost spent on the organic nitrogen and growthfactors (savings close to 50%.

  11. Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M B; Bevilaqua, C M L; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Barros, R S; Rodrigues, A C M; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Morais, S M; Lima, Y C; Vieira, L S; Navarro, A M C

    2009-01-22

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to in vitro and in vivo tests. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatching (EHT) and larval development tests (LDT) with Haemonchus contortus. The concentrations tested in the EHT were 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg ml(-1), while in the LDT they were 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg ml(-1). The in vivo assay was a controlled test. In this experiment, 18 sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into three groups (n=6), with the following doses administered: G1-400 mg kg(-1) LGCHF ethyl acetate extract, G2-0.2 mg kg(-1) moxidectin (Cydectin) and G3-3% DMSO. The worm burden was analyzed. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests were submitted to ANOVA and analyzed by the Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. The extract efficacy in the EHT and LDT, at the highest concentrations tested, was 100% on egg hatching and 99.77% on larval development. The parameters evaluated in the controlled test were not statistically different, showing that despite the significant results of the in vitro tests, the LGCHF ethyl acetate extract showed no activity against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

  12. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Ethanolic Leaf Extract Reduces Amyloid-β (1-42) Aggregation and Paralysis Prevalence in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Independently of Free Radical Scavenging and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Rafael Vincent; Silvestre, Maries Ann; Barbosa, Aza Lea Anne; Medina, Paul Mark

    2017-04-21

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been the subject of several studies which have aimed to alleviate Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, focusing on in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. Here, we studied an underutilized and lesser-valued part of the coconut tree, specifically the leaves, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Coconut leaf extract (CLE) was screened for antioxidant and AChE inhibitory properties in vitro and therapeutic effects in two strains of transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) in muscle cells. CLE demonstrated free radical scavenging activity with an EC 50 that is 79-fold less compared to ascorbic acid, and an AChE inhibitory activity that is 131-fold less compared to Rivastigmine. Surprisingly, in spite of its low antioxidant activity and AChE inhibition, CLE reduced Aβ deposits by 30.31% in CL2006 in a dose-independent manner, and reduced the percentage of paralyzed nematodes at the lowest concentration of CLE (159.38 μg/mL), compared to dH₂O/vehicle (control). Phytochemical analysis detected glycosides, anthocyanins, and hydrolyzable tannins in CLE, some of which are known to be anti-amyloidogenic. Taken together, these findings suggest that CLE metabolites alternatively decrease AB 1-42 aggregation and paralysis prevalence independently of free radical scavenging and AChE inhibition, and this warrants further investigation on the bioactive compounds of CLE.

  13. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Coconut shell used as aggregate in concrete production. • Coconut shell concrete beam behavior studied under shear. • Coconut shell concrete beam behavior are compared with control concrete beams. - Abstract: Lightweight concrete has been produced using crushed coconut shell as coarse aggregate. The shear behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with normal control concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the structural shear behavior, shear capacity, cracking behavior, deflection behavior, ductility, strains in concrete and in reinforcement. It was observed that the shear behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under shear loadings. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams

  14. Ketogenic Diet Based on Extra Virgin Coconut Oil Has No Effects in Young Wistar Rats With Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Isabelle T; M Rêgo, Elisabete; Bueno, Nassib B; Gomes, Tâmara C; Oliveira, Suzana L; Trindade-Filho, Euclides M; Cabral, Cyro R; Machado, Tacy S; Galvão, Jaqueline A; R Ataide, Terezinha

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) based on extra virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L., VCO), on the treatment of epileptic rats. Two sets of experiments were conducted. First, male Wistar rats underwent induction of status epilepticus (SE) with the administration of pilocarpine intraperitoneally 21 animals reached spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and were randomly allocated to the dietary regimens and video-monitored for 19 days. In the second experiment, 24 animals were randomized immediately after the induction of SE and followed for 67 days. Diets were as follows: Control (AIN-93G; 7% lipid), KetoTAGsoya (KD based on soybean oil; 69.79% lipid), and KetoTAGcoco (KD based on VCO; 69.79% lipid). There were no differences in the latency to the first crisis, total frequency, and duration of the SRS between groups in 2 experiments. The data suggest no effects of KD, with or without VCO, in rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. © 2018 AOCS.

  15. ANALISIS JENIS DAN KONSENTRASI ENZIM TERHADAP DAYA SIMPAN VCO (VIRGIN COCONUT OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M FM Fuad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil products susceptible to damage. Several causes of oil damages is water, light, heat, oxygen, metals, acids, alkalis, and enzymes. This study aimed to obtain information about effect of several types of enzymes, namely crude extract of papain enzyme (from papaya, bromelain enzyme (from pineapple and zingibain enzyme (from ginger to the yield and shelf life of the virgin coconut oil was produced. The design of experiments in this study were split plot design with two plots were 3 (three levels of enzyme type as a main plot and 3 levels of enzyme concentration as a sub plot. Virgin coconut oil stored and tested % FFA content gradually to determine shelf life. Estimation of deterioration rate by using the Arrhenius equation. Shelf life determination based on % FFA of the virgin coconut oil. The results show that shelf life of VCOwith the shortest shelf life wasVCO produced by the papain enzyme, bromelain enzyme, and the longest wasVCO produced by zingibain enzyme, respectively.

  16. Erosion and Soil Contamination Control Using Coconut Flakes And Plantation Of Centella Asiatica And Chrysopogon Zizanioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Rasyikin; Che Omar, Rohayu; Nor Zuliana Baharuddin, Intan; Zulkarnain, M. S.; Hanafiah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Land degradation in Malaysia due to water erosion and water logging cause of loss of organic matter, biodiversity and slope instability but also land are contaminated with heavy metals. Various alternative such as physical remediation are use but it not showing the sustainability in term of environmental sustainable. Due to that, erosion and soil contamination control using coconut flakes and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides are use as alternative approach for aid of sophisticated green technology known as phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Soil from cabonaceous phyllite located near to Equine Park, Sri Kembangan are use for monitoring the effect of phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control. Five laboratory scale prototypes were designed to monitor the effect of different proportion of coconut flakes i.e. 10%, 25%, 50% & 100% and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides to reduce the top soil from eroding and reduce the soil contamination. Prototype have been observe started from first week and ends after 12 weeks. Centella asiatica planted on 10% coconut flakes with 90% soil and Chrysopogon zizanioides planted on 25% coconut flakes with 75% soil are selected proportion to be used as phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control.

  17. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  18. Efek Konsumsi Air Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera terhadap Ketahanan Berolahraga Selama Latihan Lari pada Laki-laki Dewasa Bukan Atlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Fen Tih

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ketahanan berolahraga menunjang latihan fisik yang optimal untuk meningkatkan derajat kesehatan dan kebugaran jasmani. Penurunan kapasitas ketahanan olahraga disebabkan oleh dehidrasi dan penurunan karbohidrat dalam otot selama melakukan latihan. Air kelapa berpotensi sebagai minuman olahraga karena memiliki derajat keasaman yang rendah, gula seimbang, kandungan mineral, dan bersifat isotonis. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek konsumsi air kelapa terhadap ketahanan dan kebugaran berolahraga diukur dari jarak tempuh dan VO2max  selama latihan lari. Penelitian dilakukan di Lapangan FPOK UPI Bandung periode Juli 2015–Februari 2016. Bahan penelitian yang digunakan adalah air kelapa dalam kemasan. Air mineral, air gula 5%, dan minuman olahraga isotonik yang digunakan sebagai pembanding. Subjek penelitian adalah 120 orang laki-laki, berusia 18–23 tahun yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok untuk tiap-tiap bahan uji. Setelah pemanasan, subjek berlari secepatnya selama 30 menit. Bahan uji diberikan sebelum dan setiap 10 menit selama lari. Jarak yang ditempuh dicatat dalam satuan meter. Analisis dengan one-way ANOVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji least significant difference (LSD dengan α<0,05. Jarak tempuh terpanjang rata-rata dan VO2max tertinggi didapatkan pada kelompok perlakuan air kelapa, diikuti kelompok air gula 5%, minuman olahraga isotonik, dan air mineral (p<0,01. Simpulan, konsumsi air kelapa sebelum dan selama latihan olahraga lari dapat meningkatkan ketahanan olahraga pada laki-laki dewasa bukan atlet. Abstract The endurance in exercising supports optimal physical training to improve physical health and fitness. Two major factors in decreasing sport endurance are dehydration and loss of carbohydrates in muscle during exercise. Coconut water is a potential sports drink because it has low acidity, sugars, minerals content and is isotonic. This research aims to know the effects of coconut water consumption towards endurance and

  19. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF CEARÁ’S COCONUT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vieira Cavalcante

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to discuss the spatial dynamics of coconut production in the State of Ceará (Brazil while highlighting the spatialization of this process and the characterization of the coconut production spaces in Ceará’s territory. It also debates the effect agricultural activity has on the space production process, empirically evidenced from the coconut cultivation analysis.

  20. Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials commonly used for preparation of activated carbons include coal and coconut shells. Ghana generates over 30,000 tonnes of coconut shells annually from coconut oil processing activities but apart from a small percentage of the shells, which is burned as fuel, the remaining is usually dumped as waste.

  1. Adjuvant potential of virgin coconut oil extract on antiretroviral therapy-induced testicular toxicity: An ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, O O; Jegede, A I; Onanuga, I O; Offor, U; Peter, A I; Akang, E N; Naidu, E C S; Azu, O O

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Virgin coconut oil as an adjuvant to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were investigated on the testicular ultrastructure and biochemical markers in rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153-169 g were divided into four groups and treated as follows: control A (distilled water), B (HAART), C (HAART+Virgin coconut oil 10 ml/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil [VCO] 10 ml/kg). Testicular segments were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Serum was assayed for testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testicular tissue for malondialdehyde and glutathione. Ultrastructure of basement membrane (Bm), mitochondria and spermatocytes was normal in the control group. HAART-treated group showed significant increase (p group. Mitochondrial cristae appear collapsed, and Sertoli cells showed cytoplasmic vacuolations. HAART+VCO group showed improved ultrastructural details in Bm, and Sertoli cell and Leydig cells show abundant lipid droplets. Virgin coconut oil-treated group showed thinning of Bm with otherwise normal ultrastructural features of organelles. HAART-treated group showed significant increase (p Virgin coconut oil improved testicular morphology and reversed HAART-induced ultrastructural alterations. Further studies on putative mechanism are required. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effects of Cocos Ridge Collision on the Western Caribbean: Is there a Panama Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Chichaco, E.; Abrego M, A. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Camacho, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    It has been recognized that the subduction and collision of the Cocos Ridge, a 2 km high aseismic ridge standing on >20 km thick oceanic crust of the Cocos plate, drives upper plate deformation in southern Central America. Recent studies of Global Positioning System (GPS) derived horizontal velocities relative to the Caribbean Plate showed a radial pattern centered on the Cocos Ridge axis where Cocos-Caribbean convergence is orthogonal, and margin-parallel velocities to the northwest. Models of the full three-dimensional GPS velocity field and earthquake slip vectors demonstrate low mechanical coupling along the Middle America subduction zone in Nicaragua and El Salvador, and a broad zone of high coupling beneath the Osa Peninsula, where the Cocos Ridge intersects the margin. These results suggest that Cocos Ridge collision may be the main driver for trench-parallel motion of the fore arc to the northwest and for uplift and shortening of the outer fore arc in southern Central America, whereby thickened and hence buoyant Cocos Ridge crust acts as an indenter causing the tectonic escape of the fore arc. These studies, however, were not able to constrain well the pattern of surface deformation east-southeast of the ridge axis due to a lack of GPS stations, and Cocos Ridge collision may be responsible for the kinematics and deformation of the proposed Panama block. Recent reinforcement of the GPS network in southeastern Costa Rica and Panama has increased the spatial and temporal resolution of the network and made it possible to further investigate surface deformation of southern Central America and the Panama block. We present a new regional surface velocity field for Central America from geodetic GPS data collected at 11 recently-installed and 178 existing episodic, semi-continuous, and continuous GPS sites in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. We investigate the effects of Cocos Ridge collision on the Panama block through kinematic block modeling. Published

  3. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660 Section 573.660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil...

  4. The shallow-water fish assemblage of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica: structure and patterns in an isolated, predator-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Friedlander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1 and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.La biomasa promedio de peces costeros en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco en septiembre de 2010 fue de 7,8 toneladas por hectárea, entre las más elevadas halladas jamás en zonas tropicales. Los grandes depredadores representaron el 40% de la biomasa total. La abundancia de tiburones costeros y pelágicos, particularmente las enormes agregaciones de tiburón martillo (hasta 42 individuos por hectárea y los

  5. Adsorptive studies of hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000 from an aqueous phase on to coconut-husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011 (India)], E-mail: rajeevjain54@yahoo.co.in; Shrivastava, Meenakshi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011 (India)

    2008-10-30

    This contribution presents result pertaining to the adsorptive removal of water-soluble hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000, on to a low cost adsorbent-coconut-husk and its efficiency in the dye colour sorption was compared with activated carbon (AC). The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of the coconut-husk to remove the Tropaeoline 000 dye. The adsorption of dye was carried out at different pH, temperatures, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate (initial dye concentration) and particle size. The adsorption studies revealed that the ongoing adsorption validates both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm at temperatures 30, 40 and 50 deg. The adsorption isotherm data was also employed to calculate thermodynamic parameters like {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}. The negative values of {delta}G{sup o} indicate that the dye adsorption process is a spontaneous in nature. The positive value of {delta}H{sup o} shows the endothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk system whereas negative value of {delta}H{sup o} indicates that the exothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk. The adsorption was found to undergo via a pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics and the results revealed that coconut-husk, an agricultural waste, proved to be an excellent low cost adsorbent.

  6. Adsorptive studies of hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000 from an aqueous phase on to coconut-husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Rajeev; Shrivastava, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    This contribution presents result pertaining to the adsorptive removal of water-soluble hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000, on to a low cost adsorbent-coconut-husk and its efficiency in the dye colour sorption was compared with activated carbon (AC). The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of the coconut-husk to remove the Tropaeoline 000 dye. The adsorption of dye was carried out at different pH, temperatures, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate (initial dye concentration) and particle size. The adsorption studies revealed that the ongoing adsorption validates both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm at temperatures 30, 40 and 50 deg. The adsorption isotherm data was also employed to calculate thermodynamic parameters like ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o . The negative values of ΔG o indicate that the dye adsorption process is a spontaneous in nature. The positive value of ΔH o shows the endothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk system whereas negative value of ΔH o indicates that the exothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk. The adsorption was found to undergo via a pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics and the results revealed that coconut-husk, an agricultural waste, proved to be an excellent low cost adsorbent

  7. Characterization of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities from Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Sebastian; Silva, Davi O; Bello, Fabiana; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S; Matheus, Maria Eline; Fernandes, Patricia D

    2009-04-21

    Cocos nucifera cultivated in Brazil is known as "coco-da-Bahia" or "coqueiro-da-India". The tea from the husk fiber is widely used to several inflammatory disorders. Crude extract and fractions obtained from Cocos nucifera "common variety" were evaluated to test the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Crude extract (CE, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg), fraction 1 (F1, molecular weight lesser than 1 kDa, 1, 10, and 50mg/kg), fraction 2 (F2, molecular weight higher than 1 kDa, 1, 10, and 50mg/kg), and the references drugs morphine (5mg/kg), acetilsalicilic acid (200mg/kg), prometazine (30 mg/kg), and metisergide (5mg/kg) were evaluated on models of analgesia and inflammation. CE, F1, and F2 significantly develop peripheral and central antinociceptive activity but with less effect on supra-spinal regions of the brain. Administration of the opioid antagonist, naloxone (5mg/kg) inhibited the antinociceptive effect indicating that Cocos nucifera crude extract and fractions may be acting in opioid receptors. CE and F1 also inhibited rat paw edema induced by histamine, and serotonin. results demonstrated that Cocos nucifera and its fractions have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities which confirm the popular use of this plant in several inflammatory disorders.

  8. The morphology of coconut fiber surface under chemical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Wardana, I Nyoman Gede; Pratikto,; Irawan, Yudy Surya

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemical treatment on the coconut fiber surface morphology. This study is divided into three stages, preparation of materials, treatment and testing of coconut fiber. The first treatment is coconut fiber soaked in a solution of NaOH for 3 hours with concentration, respectively 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The second treatment is coconut fiber soaked in KMnO4 solution with a concentration of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% for 3 hours. The third ...

  9. The effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile components of desiccated coconut during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, T.P.; Azanza, M.P.

    1989-11-01

    Flavor volatiles of desiccated and irradiated desiccated coconut stored for 24 weeks at room temperature were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Chromatograms of fresh coconut meat revealed sone esters, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols which were responsible for its fruity odor. The oily odor of fresh coconut meat was attributed to minimal amount of delta lactones. Freshly desiccated coconut contained the same volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor but the concentration of the delta lactones was considerably higher. The newly irradiated desiccated coconut had the highest concentration of the delta lactones with other volatiles such as ethyl caproate, 1-hexanol, and caprylic aldehyde being also present. With storage, development of oily odor to rancid odor was noted due to increasing amount of delta lactones. Corresponding decrease of volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor was noted as shown by the chromatographic profiles of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Odor deterioration was more pronounced in the irradiated sample. Significant changes in moisture content, peroxide and iodine values, and free acid were observed during storage. No significant changes, however were noted in percent oil, pH and water activity. Significant difference in color, taste and general acceptability were noted at the start of storage with odor changes becoming more evident only after 4 weeks of storage. (Auth.). 69 refs.; 15 figs.; 14 tabs.; Appendix p. 90-205

  10. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other

  11. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the...

  12. Effects of fluid flowrate on coconut milk fouling at pasteurization temperature (70ºC - 74.5ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvit Tia

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of fluid flowrate on coconut milk fouling at pasteurization temperature (heating from 70ºC to 74.5ºC were investigated. A test section equipped with four flat plates forming one coconut milk channel and two hot water channels was constructed with the total heat transfer area of 0.051 m2. Three different flowrates of coconut milk (2, 4 and 6 litres per minute (LPM were studied. Monitoring of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U with time (t and the rate of increase of the fouling resistance (dRf/dt was done for all experimental runs. The results illustrated that there were two fouling periods: a fouling period and a post-fouling period, where the rate of increase of the fouling resistance of the fouling period was found to be higher than that of the post-fouling period. The effects of fluid flowrate were found to increase the fouling rate when the flowrate decreased. Published fouling models by protein solutions were unable to predict accurately the fouling rate for coconut milk. Non-linear regression models were then provided by using the experimental data to illustrate the effects of fluid flowrate on coconut milk fouling. The role of protein and fat on coconut milk fouling was explained according to microanalysis of the deposit and chemistry data of the coconut milk from previous research.

  13. The shallow-water fish assemblage of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica: structure and patterns in an isolated, predator-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Friedlander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1 and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.

  14. Anti-emetic principles of Poria cocos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, T; Akita, Y; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, K

    1995-12-01

    The triterpenes isolated from P. cocos and their derivatives were examined for anti-emetic activity. Some of these triterpenes inhibited emetic action induced by oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard frog. The triterpenes having an exomethylene group at C-24 showed anti-emetic activity to frogs.

  15. Cloning and Characterization of Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Gene Involved in Triterpenoids Biosynthesis from Poria cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poria cocos (P. cocos has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine and triterpenoids are the most important pharmacologically active constituents of this fungus. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS is a key enzyme of triterpenoids biosynthesis. The gene encoding FPS was cloned from P. cocos by degenerate PCR, inverse PCR and cassette PCR. The open reading frame of the gene is 1086 bp in length, corresponding to a predicted polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 41.2 kDa. Comparison of the P. cocos FPS deduced amino acid sequence with other species showed the highest identity with Ganoderma lucidum (74%. The predicted P. cocos FPS shares at least four conserved regions involved in the enzymatic activity with the FPSs of varied species. The recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the recombinant FPS could catalyze the formation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP from geranyl diphosphate (GPP and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP. Furthermore, the expression profile of the FPS gene and content of total triterpenoids under different stages of development and methyl jasmonate treatments were determined. The results indicated that there is a positive correlation between the activity of FPS and the amount of total triterpenoids produced in P. cocos.

  16. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  17. Assessment of Fertility Status of Soils Supporting Coconut ( Cocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coconut cultivation is mostly practiced in the Western and Central regions of Ghana. Information on the fertility status of the soils on which coconuts are grown and possible fertilizer recommendation is not common. Since coconut yield is generally related to the fertility status of the soil, a study was conducted to evaluate the ...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a processing...

  19. Low-cost and eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil cake extract and its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarthanan, Muthusamy; Seo, Young-Seok; Lee, Kui-Jae; Jung, Ik-Boo; Ju, Ho-Jong; Kim, Jae Su; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports the simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using coconut oil cake extract. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy peak at 3 keV confirmed the presence of silver. Transmission electron micrograph showed that nanoparticles are mostly circular with an average size of 10-70 nm. The results of the X-ray powder diffraction analysis (2θ = 46.2, 67.4 and 76.8) indicated the crystal nature of the AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicates that proteins present in the oilcake extract could be responsible for the reduction of silver ions. The synthesized AgNPs (1-4 mm) reduced the growth rate of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Aeromonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Citrobacter sp. isolated from livestock wastewater.

  20. Workability and Compressive Strength for Concrete With Coconut Shell Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Alif Syazani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the compressive strength and workability of concrete added with coconut shells. Comparisons were made between conventional concrete with concrete mix coconut shell. In this study, the concretes were mixes with coconut shell by percentage of weight concrete which is 0%, 5%, and 10%. The coconut shell has been crushed first, then it was sieved, to get the optimum size which, that retained on the 5mm sieve and passing 10mm sieve. Experimental tests conducted in this study are slump test and compressive test. The results from this study are workability of concrete added with 0% and 5% of coconut shell has medium degree of workability compared to concrete added with 10% that has low workability. For the compressive strength, the concrete added with 5% and 10% of coconut shell has lower strength compared with normal concrete.

  1. Effect of Pelletized Coconut Fibre on the Compressive Strength of Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Jaini Zainorizuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed concrete is a controlled low density ranging from 400kg/m3 to 1800kg/m3, and hence suitable for the construction of buildings and infrastructures. The uniqueness of foamed concrete is does not use aggregates in order to retain low density. Foamed concrete contains only cement, sand, water and foam agent. Therefore, the consumption of cement is higher in producing a good quality and strength of foamed concrete. Without the present of aggregates, the compressive strength of foamed concrete can only achieve as high as 15MPa. Therefore, this study aims to introduce the pelletized coconut fibre aggregate to reduce the consumption of cement but able to enhance the compressive strength. In the experimental study, forty-five (45 cube samples of foamed concrete with density 1600kg/m3 were prepared with different volume fractions of pelletized coconut fibre aggregate. All cube samples were tested using the compression test to obtain compressive strength. The results showed that the compressive strength of foamed concrete containing 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pelletized coconut fibre aggregate are 9.6MPa, 11.4MPa, 14.6MPa and 13.4MPa respectively. It is in fact higher than the controlled foamed concrete that only achieves 9MPa. It is found that the pelletized coconut fibre aggregate indicates a good potential to enhance the compressive strength of foamed concrete.

  2. Analisis Gaya Spesifik Pemotongan Sabut Kelapa Muda (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Hafzara S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To design a young coconut trimming machine, it’s important to analyze the cutting mechanism of young coconut husk. The aim of this study were to analyze the cutting mechanism of young coconut husk and generate mathematical model of specific cutting force. Sharpening angle, cutting angle and sharpened knife were optimized to get the lowest cutting force. Mathematical model has been generated to estimate the maximum cutting force for one side sharpened knife and two side sharpened knife with cutting angle (θ at 0Oand above 0O. Based on the analysis of this study, the type of knife that require the lowest cutting force is two side sharpened knife with sharpening angle (β = 10O and cutting angle (θ= 30O.

  3. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarki, J., E-mail: sarksj@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Hassan, S.B., E-mail: hassbolaji@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S., E-mail: aigbodionv@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Oghenevweta, J.E. [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  4. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarki, J.; Hassan, S.B.; Aigbodion, V.S.; Oghenevweta, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  5. Mestica calappa, the Coconut pearl, trick or true?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    A bibliographic study is made of Mestica calappa, the Coconut pearl. It is concluded that if pearls do grow in coconuts, they are exceedingly rare, and the ones analyzed on structure and chemical composition were fake ones.

  6. Characterization of Coconut Shell Liquid Volatile Matter (CS-LVM) by Using Gas Chomatroghaphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Ermawati; Rahmat; Arsyad, Jumiati; Riskayanti, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Generally, the coconut shell is only used for the fuel of furnace or is just burnt in which this will just create pollution. One way of solving this problem is by re-processing the coconut shell as raw materials for making liquid volatile matter (LVM) by pyrolysis method. Coconut shell is part of the coconut fruit at which having biological function to protect fruit core and is located on the inner side of the fiber with a thickness ranging from 3-6 mm. Coconut shell is classified as hardwood, mainly composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, with water content of approximately 6-9 %. Coconut shell is more suitable for pyrolysis process, since they contain less amount of ash, more amount of volatile matter and available with lower cost in rural areas during all the sessions of the year. This research was aimed at determining the influence of pyrolysis temperature towards the LVM volume of coconut shell. LVM was made of condensing the smoke of pyrolysis result from the coconut shell while the analysis of compound composition of LVMcoconut shell used Gas Chromatography. Based on the result of the research, it was known that the pyrolysis, at the temperatures of 400°C, 500°C, 600°C and 700°C can create LVM volume as many as 204.167 mL kg-1, 208,33 mL kg-1 and 216.67 mL kg-1. The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 400°C was made of ammonia (12. 41%), acetic acid (37.27%), phenol (31.66%), furfural (4.16%), and alcohol (5.01%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 500°C was made ofammonia (12.22%), hydrazine (5.61%), acetic acid (40.96%), phenol (32.82%), and alcohol (3.10%), furfural (5.30%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 600°C was made of ammonia (15.49%)), acetic acid (36,01%), phenol (32.85%)), alcohol (6.75%)), and furfural (4.62%). The LVM created from the pyrolysis at 700°C was made of ammonia (15,.), acetic acid (35.20%), phenol (22.60%), alcohol (5.07%), and furfural (4,90%). From this result, it can be seen that LVM has big advantages

  7. Ácidos graxos da gema e composição do ovo de poedeiras alimentadas com rações com farelo de coco Yolk fatty acids and egg components from layers fed diets with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Carvalho Santiago Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração e do tempo de alimentação de poedeiras comerciais, sobre os ácidos graxos da gema e os componentes do ovo. O delineamento foi em esquema fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de inclusão do FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% e dois tempos de alimentação (14 e 28 dias. Foram avaliados o peso e as porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca dos ovos, bem como os sólidos e lipídios totais e o perfil de ácidos graxos das gemas. A inclusão do FC e o tempo de alimentação influenciaram apenas a proporção de ácido mirístico na gema, que aumentou com a inclusão do FC aos 28 dias de alimentação. Os ácidos esteárico e oléico variaram somente com o tempo de alimentação, e as maiores concentrações foram obtidas aos 28 dias. A relação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados para ácidos graxos saturados da gema diminuiu a partir de 10% de inclusão e aumentou com o tempo de alimentação das aves. O uso de farelo de coco, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, não influencia a proporção dos componentes do ovo, apenas altera a concentração do ácido mirístico da gema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of coconut meal (CM inclusion in commercial layer diets and feeding time, on egg components and yolk fatty acid composition. The experiment followed a factorial design 5x2, with five levels of CM inclusion (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% and two feeding time (14 and 28 days. Parameters evaluated included: egg weight, and albumen, yolk and shell percentages, as well as solids, lipids and fatty acid profile of the yolk. The inclusion of CM and feeding time affected the yolk content of myristic acid which increased with CM level and with feeding time. The levels of stearic and oleic acids in the yolk varied with feeding time and were higher in the eggs after 28 days. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in yolk decreased, when dietary CM levels were

  8. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  9. Uso da Fibra de Coco em Betão

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Stephanie Assunção

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar as resistências à compressão axial, tração por compressão diametral e tração na flexão, módulos de elasticidade estático e dinâmico do betão reforçado com fibra de coco (BRFC), tendo como referência o betão preparado sem a adição de fibra. A escolha da fibra natural decorreu da necessidade de utilizar os resíduos gerados pelo consumo do coco verde. Sendo assim, este trabalho apresenta uma breve história do betão, suas propriedades, tipos de fibras...

  10. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

  11. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO3NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Vollnhals

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM, including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO5. Co(CO3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  12. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Replanting/underplanting strategy for old coconut plantations in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Jean

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In most producing countries, the population of coconut palms is growing old, and ways of replacing them are rarely implemented to ensure that production is maintained and the future of the industry and its profitability are safeguarded. Rehabilitating/replanting coconut plantations and adopting appropriate intercropping systems is one of the main challenges to be taken up for the future of coconut in the Asia-Pacific region. The example of Papua New Guinea (PNG reveals one of the lowest yields per hectare among the countries in the Asia-Pacific zone. Almost 106,000 ha were planted between 1910 and 1940, amounting to around 40% of the current coconut plantings, hence 80 to 100,000 ha can be expected to disappear in the next twenty years. Faced with this forecast, the PNG Cocoa and Coconut Research Institute (PNG CCRI launched several operations, beginning with the creation of a coconut research centre on the PNG mainland: examination of a replanting strategy for old coconut plantings, based on hybrid planting material, distribution of improved planting material through the creation of a seed garden, and development of a system for controlling pest populations in high-risk zones. The experiments set up at the station are designed to optimize the felling date for old coconut palms, by measuring the effects of competition with the underplanted hybrids, and to determine from an economic point of view the best strategy to be applied for implementing rehabilitation and/or replanting programmes in old coconut plantings. This paper describes the results of these operations.

  14. Characterization and diversity assessment in coconut collections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUBDIC

    conservation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the aim to characterize morphological, biochemical and nut component traits and to assess the diversity among 24 exotic and six indigenous in coconut accessions conserved at World Coconut Germplasm. Centre (WCGC) in Andaman and Nicobar Islands ...

  15. Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; it is part of the largest national park of Costa Rica and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island has been visited since the 16th Century due to its abundance of freshwater and wood. Marine biodiversity studies of the island started in the late 19th Century, with an intense period of research in the 1930’s, and again from the mid 1990’s to the present. The information is scattered and, in some cases, in old publications that are difficult to access. Here I have compiled published records of the marine organisms of the island. At least 1688 species are recorded, with the gastropods (383 species, bony fishes (354 spp. and crustaceans (at least 263 spp. being the most species-rich groups; 45 species are endemic to Isla del Coco National Park (2.7% of the total. The number of species per kilometer of coastline and by square kilometer of seabed shallower than 200m deep are the highest recorded in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco is relatively well known, there are regions that need more exploration, for example, the south side, the pelagic environments, and deeper waters. Also, several groups of organisms, such as the flatworms, nematodes, nemerteans, and gelatinous zooplankton, have been observed around the Island but have been poorly studied or not at all.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; es parte del Parque Nacional más grande de Costa Rica y es un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial. La isla ha sido visitada desde el Siglo XVI por su abundancia de agua dulce y árboles. Estudios de biodiversidad marina de la isla empezaron a finales del Siglo XIX, con un intenso período de investigación en la década de 1930, y de nuevo desde mediados de la década de 1990 al presente. La información sobre organismos marinos se encuentra dispersa y en algunos casos en publicaciones

  16. They say coconut oil can aid weight loss, but can it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    There has in recent years, been much media speculation and consumer interest in the beneficial satiating properties of consuming coconut oil and its potential to aid weight loss. However, the media has primarily cited studies using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil. The current perspective looks at the research that is available on coconut oil. It examines if and how MCT-related research can be applied to coconut oil and if there is potential for coconut oil to aid weight loss. The current report indicates a lack of consistent evidence on the topic of coconut oil, satiety and weight loss. Given both the publicity and the increased consumption of coconut oil further research, particularly long-term clinical trials, in this area are warranted.

  17. An integrated green process: Subcritical water, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, for biohydrogen production from coconut husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Ranggina, Dian; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated green process of subcritical water (SCW), enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of coconut husk (CCH) to biohydrogen. The maximum sugar yield was obtained at mild severity factor. This was confirmed by the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The tendency of the changing of sugar yield as a result of increasing severity factor was opposite to the tendency of pH change. It was found that CO 2 gave a different tendency of severity factor compared to N 2 as the pressurizing gas. The result of SEM analysis confirmed the structural changes during SCW pretreatment. This study integrated three steps all of which are green processes which ensured an environmentally friendly process to produce a clean biohydrogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Post-consumption Problem of Green Coconut in Brazil: Alternatives and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pacheco Martins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This literature review explores the problem of post-consumption of green coconut in Brazil. It starts by offering an analysis of the general aspects of the coconut industry and its derivatives. It also highlights the origins of coconut by-products, as well as the impacts of the industry in rural and urban management. The properties and potential uses of coconut by-products are also evaluated. The review presents diverse theoretical approaches regarding the concept of sustainable development as applied to product design. Results reveal a wide range of potential applications of coconut by-products in the field of engineering, although there is still an evident lack of research into the management and logistics of the coconut production chain. We argue that the concept of sustainability must be interpreted broadly, but also objectively, in any future research in order to facilitate the sustainable consumption and post-consumption of the green coconut.

  19. AKTIVITAS HIDROLISIS ENZIM LIPASE DARI KENTOS KELAPA TERHADAP MINYAK KELAPA Hidrolysis Activity of Lipase Enzyme from Coconut Houstorium for Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Su’i

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study hydrolysis conditions of houstorium lipases enzyme using coconut oil as substrate. Hydrolysis conditions studied were substrate (coconut oil concentration, enzyme substrate ratio, duration of hydro- lysis and effect of stirring to hydrolysis. The results show  that lipase of coconut houstorium may be optimally used at a coconut oil concentration of 10 %, enzyme to substrate ratio of 3 : 10 (v/v and hydrolysis for 60 minutes with stirring. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari kondisi hidrolisis minyak kelapa yang optimum menggunakan enzim lipase dari kentos kelapa. Kondisi hidrolisis yang dipelajari meliputi konsentrasi substrat optium, perbandingan enzim : substrat dan lama hidrolisis yang optimum serta pengaruh pengadukan selama hidrolisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, hidrolisis minyak kelapa menggunakan enzim lipase kentos kelapa menghasilkan asam lemak bebas paling banyak pada kon- sentrasi substrat (minyak kelapa 10 %, perbandingan enzim : substrat yaitu 3 : 10 (v/v, lama hidroloisa 60 menit dan dilakukan pengadukan selama hidrolisis.

  20. Residues of 14C-chlorpyrifos in coconut by radiotracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, A.W.; Calumpang, S.M.F.; Magallona, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    A coconut tree was root-infused with 5 g a.i. chlorpyrifos (Lorsban plus 1.4 uCi of 14 C-chlorpyrifos. Coconut samples both young and mature, were taken 24 h up to 60 days after root infusion. Analysis of the meat and water was done. The maximum uptake of chlorpyrifos equivalents was on the 13th day after root infusion both in mature and young fruit. The residue in water reached the peak on the 20th day after infusion and declined thereafter. A preharvest interval (PHI) of more than 60 days maybe recommended for safe consumption. The usual practice of storing copra in treated warehouses until it is processed into oil was simulated in the laboratory to determine the residues absorbed on the meat. Forty kg of copra with moisture content of 7-12% were stored in an improvised warehouse, i.e. 1 m x 1.5 m x 1 m wooden box, which was treated with 100 ml 1% a.i. Lorsban 50 WP plus 100 uCi 14 C-chlorpyrifos for protection against insects. Analysis showed that 14 C-chlorpyrifos equivalents ranged from 22.6 mg/kg on the 30th day to 8.2 mg/kg on the 90th day with a 63.7% reduction in residues. Bound residues were detected on samples stored for 60-90 days, with levels of 1.0 to 0.2 ug/g 14 C-chlorpyrifos equivalents. This is within the Maximum Residue Limit of 2 mg/kg set by FAO/WHO for chlorpyrifos in most agricultural commodities. Chlorpyrifos residues were also determined at various stages of refining and processing of crude coconut oil. It was subjected to alkali refining, bleaching and finally steaming. The residues were reduced by as much as 32.7%. (author). 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Visita al Parque Nacional Isla del Coco

    OpenAIRE

    Malavassi, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    El Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, en Costa Rica, fue visitado por espacio de cinco días, en el año 1981, en el marco de una expedición organizada por el Servicio de Parques Nacionales y el Servicio de Patrullaje Marítimo del Ministerio de Seguridad Pública.

  2. Germinação de embriões e crescimento inicial in vitro de macaúba Germination and early growth of embryos of macaúba seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Dória Rodrigues Soares

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A macaúba é uma palmeira oleaginosa altamente produtiva e seu óleo pode ser usado na produção de biocombustíveis. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a influência de concentrações dos sais do meio de cultura MS e de água de coco na germinação in vitro de embriões zigóticos de macaúba e no crescimento inicial de plântulas. Os embriões foram excisados e em seguida inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15mL de meio de cultura MS nas concentrações de 50 e 100% de sais minerais, acrescidos de água de coco (0, 50, 100 e 150mL L-1. As culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com irradiância em torno de 42W m-2, temperatura de 25±2°C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Maior porcentagem de germinação de embriões de macaúba foi obtida aos 60 dias, em meio MS, na concentração original dos sais. O crescimento e a conversão de plântulas viáveis ou normais, passíveis de serem aclimatizadas, requerem metade da concentração de sais do meio MS suplementado com 50mL L-1 de água de coco.The macaw is a palm oleaginous that it is highly productive and in which their oil can be used to produce biofuels.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of minerals of the culture medium MS and coconut water germination in vitro of zygotic embryos of macaw and initial growth of seedlings. The embryos were inoculated in test tubes containing 15mL of culture medium MS in concentrations of 50 and 100% of minerals, plus coconut water (0, 50, 100 and 150mL L-1. The cultures were kept in room for growth with irradiance around 42W m-2, at 25±2°C and photoperiod of 16 hours. Higher percentage of germination of embryos of 'macaúba' was obtained at 60 days in MS medium in the original concentration of salts. The growth and conversion to viable seedlings or normal, which can be acclimatized, require half the concentration of salts of MS medium supplemented with 50mL L-1 coconut water.

  3. INVESTIGATION ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATE STRUCTURES OF NATURAL PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEM USING CRYO-TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hudiyanti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM was used to investigate the aggregates morphology and properties of candle tree (Aleurites moluccana endosperm, sesame (Sesamum indicum L. syn. seeds, and coconut (Cocos nucifera endosperm phospholipids in dilute aqueous system. The micrographs showed that candle tree phospholipids formed planar bilayer and cluster of vesicles with lipid droplets, while coconut and sesame phospholipids formed well-defined unilamellar vesicles. The vesicles size could be as small as 50 nm in diameter. Coconut phospholipids also showed a good bending ability. Formation of clusters of vesicles was also found in coconut phospholipids dispersion, but this cluster was easily broken by extrusion through a small pore membrane.

  4. Effects of coconut granular activated carbon pretreatment on membrane filtration in a gravitational driven process to improve drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flávia Vieira; Yamaguchi, Natália Ueda; Lovato, Gilselaine Afonso; da Silva, Fernando Alves; Reis, Miria Hespanhol Miranda; de Amorim, Maria Teresa Pessoa Sousa; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of a polymeric microfiltration membrane, as well as its combination with a coconut granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment, in a gravitational filtration module, to improve the quality of water destined to human consumption. The proposed membrane and adsorbent were thoroughly characterized using instrumental techniques, such as contact angle, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The applied processes (membrane and GAC + membrane) were evaluated regarding permeate flux, fouling percentage, pH and removal of Escherichia coli, colour, turbidity and free chlorine. The obtained results for filtrations with and without GAC pretreatment were similar in terms of water quality. GAC pretreatment ensured higher chlorine removals, as well as higher initial permeate fluxes. This system, applying GAC as a pretreatment and a gravitational driven membrane filtration, could be considered as an alternative point-of-use treatment for water destined for human consumption.

  5. Calligraphy design for coconut garbage use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Maulina, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coconut trees have contributed to the social life of mankind, ranging from basic personal needs such as food to the need to manage the environment. Human life requires not only food, but requires an artistic need. Certain art affects social life psychologically, and the human psychological condition is also influenced by the environment of life, especially garbage. A few of calligraphy art is designed based on using the garbage. Therefore, this paper aims to propose the calligraphy based on the use of natural garbage from coconut trees.

  6. Assessment of nutritional status of soil supporting coconut (Cocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Assessment of nutritional status of soil supporting coconut ... Infact coconut plays a vital role in the ... A high fertility status of the supporting soils is required for high .... the amount/concentration of basic fertility elements of the.

  7. Lipidic sources and digestible energy levels on reproductive performance of boars Fontes de lipídios e níveis de energia digestível sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de suínos machos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the lipid sources (coconut oil and soybean oil and digestible energy levels (3350; 3450; 3550 and 3650kcal of DE/kg of ration effect on swine reproductive performance. We use used eighty 60kg boars distributed in different treatments. There was no treatment effect on VLDL and lipase concentrations. The coconut oil provided higher HDL levels than soybean oil. The cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides levels were increased in a linear way with both lipid sources. The treatments did not cause a modification in plasma testosterone concentration. The semen volume and spermatic vigor was influenced by DE level when coconut oil was used. The spermatic concentration was increased by soybean oil. Considering the effect of the interaction between lipid source and DE level on spermatic motility, the coconut oil reduced this parameter in a quadratic way. The semen morphological alterations were normal. The increase of the coconut oil on diet raised cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides levels in the blood.Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de fontes (gordura de coco e óleo de soja e níveis de energia digestível (3350; 3450; 3550 e 3650kcal de ED/kg de ração sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de suínos, foram utilizados 80 animais, machos inteiros que recebiam, a partir dos 60kg, diferentes tratamentos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados. Não se observou efeito dos tratamentos nas concentrações de lipoproteínas de densidade muito baixa (VLDL e lipase. A gordura de coco proporcionou maiores valores de lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL do que o óleo de soja. Houve efeito dos níveis de ED sobre o colesterol total (CT, LDL e os triglicerídeos que aumentaram linearmente com a elevação do nível de ED, quando a gordura de coco foi utilizada. A concentração sanguínea de testosterona não foi alterada pelos tratamentos. O volume do sêmen e o vigor espermático foram influenciados pelo n

  8. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  9. Determination of the efficiency of sawdust and coco fiber used as Biofilter for pollutant removal for the treatment of wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Vicente Reyes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is a resource used by mankind for industrial and domestic needs, which once used, is discharged into the public sewer system or septic tanks. This project proposes an ecological alternative for the treatment of wastewater from domestic use named Biofilter, which is built of living material (worms and inert material (chip and gravel, which filters the wastewater; the biological filter has shown high efficiency in the removal of organic matter and pathogens. The field work was carried out with experimental biological filters, to ascertain the best composition of inert material, different variants were used. Two experimental Biofilters, one using sawdust and the other coco fiber were used in the treatment of domestic wastewater; treated samples from each reactor were subjected to laboratory analysis. The analysis and interpretation of results showed that the Biofilter using sawdust removed 53.53 % of pollutants and is outside the required norm for wastewater treatment and the Biofilter using coco fiber removed 82.37 % of contaminants and is within the Environmental Quality Norm and Effluent Discharge: Water Resource.

  10. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Ramasubramani, R.; Annadurai, R.; Prakash Chandar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete production. • Behavior of coconut shell concrete under torsion. • Pre and post cracking behavior and analysis. • Torsional reinforcement and ductility. • Crack width and stiffness. - Abstract: This research investigates and evaluates the results of coconut shell concrete beams subjected to torsion and compared with conventional concrete beams. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with conventional concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the general cracking characteristics, pre cracking behavior and analysis, post cracking behavior and analysis, minimum torsional reinforcement, torsional reinforcement, ductility, crack width and stiffness. It was observed that the torsional behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of conventional concrete. Compare to ACI prediction, equation suggested by Macgregor is more conservative in calculating cracking torsional resistance. But for the calculation of ultimate torque strength ACI prediction is more conservative compared to the equation suggested by Macgregor. Indian standard is also conservative in this regard, but it was under estimated compared to ACI and Macgregor equations. Minimum torsional reinforcement in beams is necessary to ensure that the beam do not fail at cracking. Compared to conventional concrete specimens, coconut shell concrete specimens have more ductility. Crack width at initial cracking torque for both conventional and coconut shell concrete with corresponding reinforcement ratios is almost similar

  11. ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM MUDAS DE BERINJELA CULTIVADAS EM PÓ DE COCO VERDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bosco Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry through chemical caracterization of the coconut fiber powder and evaluate its effect on the absorption of nutrients in the as medium substrate on the production of eggplant seedling. The experiment was conducted for forty days under greenhouse, and it was used seeds of the Florida Market cultivar were cultivated in polyetilene strays with 54 cells and irrigated with nutritive solution two times for day. The substrates were used dust and fiber green coconut coir fibre, in the proportions of 100% of dust, 75% of dust + 25% of fiber and 50% of dust + 50% of fiber, washed and not washed; dry coconut coir fibre not washed; rind of green coconut grinded (fiber and dust mix from machine washed end not washed (fiber and dust mix from machine; commercial substrate not fertilized and control (green coconut coir fibre not washed and not fertilized. It was used a statistical randomized block design with eleven treatments and four replications, with 25 plants per replications. The chemical characterization of substrates was carried through and was valuated nutrient total contents of the plant upper parts. The best results were observed for the seedlings grown in dry coconut coir fibre not washed, followed by commercial substrate and green coconut coir fibre washed.

  12. Efecto de distintas concentraciones de sacarosa en la conservación in vitro de coco (cocos nuciferas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misterbino Borges García

    2008-07-01

    -1. A los 6 meses de cultivo se determinó el porcentaje de germinación, y a los 18 meses las siguientes variables: los porcentajes de supervivencia y enraizamiento, el número de hojas, la longitud y el grosor del vástago de las plántulas mantenidas in vitro. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con análisis de varianza de clasificación simple y prueba de comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que la incorporación de 60 g/l-1 de sacarosa en el medio Eeuwens es la más adecuada para la conservación de los recursos genéticos de coco (Cocos nucifera L en condiciones in vitro a partir de embriones cigóticos, donde se muestran los más altos porcentajes de supervivencia y el mayor vigor de las plántulas a los 18 meses de cultivo. Palabras clave: cultivo de tejidos; embriones cigóticos; recursos genéticos; Genetic resources; plant tissue culture; zygotic embryo.

  13. DEKOMPOSISI SAMPAH JANUR KELAPA (Cocos nucifera L. DAN NIBUNG (Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack Ridl. DALAM LUBANG RESAPAN BIOPORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Candra Noviarta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increasing volume of garbage of Balinese Hindu’s offering is still a problem. The garbage, when it is decomposed however could be useful for fertilized. This organic litter can be decomposed in biopore. This research ainied to investigated the decomposition rate of C. nucifera and O. tigillarium litter in biopores. This research was conducted between February and July 2015. Garbage were collected from temples in Jembrana city and treated at Dangin Tukadaya village, Jembrana Distric. Sampels were arranged in a Factorial Randomized Blocked Sampling Design 2 factors i.e: treatments and times (1, 2, 3, 4 and 23 weeks. The result showed that decomposition rate 98,63% of cocos litter and 99,23% of oncosperma litter were decomposed in biopore on week 23 compared to 89,06% of cocos and 75,76 % of oncosperma litter in control. Decomposition mean rate is 9,33 %/week of cocos litter and 9,64 %/week of oncosperma litter were decomposed in biopore but in control is 7,85 %/week of cocos and 8,07 %/week of oncosperma litter. Total cocos and oncosperma litter decomposition took about 23,3 and 23,2 weeks in biopore but for control 25,8 and 30,4 weeks The number of millipedes (Harpaphe haydeniana as decomposer was found higher compared to other decomposers such as earth worms and molusca. Keywords: decomposition, biopore, decomposer, bali, cocos litter, oncosperma litter

  14. Cultivo de Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae) em substratos a base de coco

    OpenAIRE

    Assis,Adriane Marinho de; Faria,Ricardo Tadeu de; Unemoto,Lilian Keiko; Colombo,Larissa Abgariani

    2008-01-01

    Entre os substratos utilizados no cultivo de orquídeas, a fibra de coco vem se destacando como promissor substituto do xaxim, material utilizado por muitos produtores e colecionadores de orquídeas, porém ameaçado de extinção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de coco, no cultivo da orquídea Oncidium baueri. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 50% de luminosidade. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de xaxim desf...

  15. Gamma ray attenuation studies in concrete reinforced with coconut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnu, C.V.; Joseph, Antony

    2017-01-01

    Gamma ray absorption studies on wood in general is an area of interest. In Kerala, though coconut tree is a common plantation, a systematic study of gamma ray attenuation in coconut shell has not been reported. In the present study, we have made an attempt to carry out such measurements on coconut shells collected from Trichur district. Coconut shells in to the size of 4cm × 4cm was used in these studies and 662 KeV gamma ray counts were measured using 8K channel NaI(Tl) detector. Subsequently we extended these studies by reinforcing concrete with crushed coconut shells, arranged in a layer by layer fashion. Concrete is usually a choice for shielding nuclear radiations. The effect of reinforcing them with coconut shell is also an area of interest. We have carried out absorption studies by using two types of sand also in the concrete mixture. Common sand is not amply available and people use M-sand (Manufactured sand) instead. In the concrete blocks we selectively used common sand and m-sand and its effects on gamma absorption were also investigated. We have estimated both linear and mass attenuation coefficients and the half value layer (HVL) parameter was determined from them. We have noticed an increase in µ/ρ with increase in density of concrete, achieved through the reinforcement. (author)

  16. Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sulistiono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro had been done since June - November 2004 and December - 2005 February 2006.  Study was carried out in two locations namely Laboratory of Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu to study adult crab, and Laboratory of Ecobiology of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University to study crab in clomang stage.  Adult crabs were collected by using some fishing gears namely trap, net and directly using bamboo stick.  Domestication was done in rearing batch sized 1x1x1 m3 with artificial nests (30x15x15 cm3, and small batch for water (7x10x10 cm3.  While for clomang stage, crabs were reared in aquarium (80x40x40 cm3 with debris and small water batch.  Result showed that adult crab had a survival rate around 12.5-0%, and mortality around 50-87.5%.  A similar result was also in clomang stage, which was 12.5% for survival rate and 87.5% for mortality.  Adult coconut crab was preferred to feed coconut than other food likely vegetable and chick. Keywords: domestication, coconut crab, Birgus latro, food habit   ABSTRAK Penelitian awal mengenai kajian awal penangkaran kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan pada bulan Juni - November 2004 dan Desember 2005 Februari 2006.  Pelaksanaan penelitian di lakukan di dua tempat, yaitu Laboratorium Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu untuk percobaan kepiting dewasa, dan Laboratorium Ekobiologi Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan IPB Bogor,  untuk percobaan kepiting tahap klomang.  Kepiting dewasa ditangkap dengan menggunakan beberapa peralatan a.l. perangkap, jaring dan secara langsung dengan tongkat.  Penangkaran dilakukan di bak-bak peliharaan berukuran 1x1x1 m3 yang dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (30x15x15 cm3, dan bak kecil tempat air (7x10x10 cm3.  Sedangkan kepiting tahap klomang dipelihara di akuarium (80x40x40 cm3 yang diberi daun/serasah dan tempat air.  Hasil uji coba penangkaran

  17. Relative Efficiency of Brown Sugar Agroindustry in Kokap District, Kulon Progo Regency, D.I. Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Dian Eswin; Hartono, Slamet; Darwanto, Dwidjono Hadi

    2018-01-01

    Agriculture industry is the activity using agriculture product as raw material by further process become the result product and is conducted by packaging, saving to the distributor toward consumer. Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) is one of agriculture commodity that has good potential market in Kulon Progo. Besides sold as a fresh product, coconut tree also produced nira (liquid from palm tree) that is quite potential if it is further process become brown sugar (brown sugar) to increase economic val...

  18. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength

  19. Avaliação da biodegradação de compósitos de poli(ε-caprolactona/fibra de coco verde Evaluation of biodegradation poly(ε-caprolactone/green coconut fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. A. M. Leite

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma classe de plásticos com destaque crescente são os polímeros biodegradáveis, como a Poli(ε-caprolactona (PCL. Quando esses polímeros são utilizados para elaboração de compósitos com fibras naturais, novas propriedades são agregadas. Existem vários métodos de modificação química da fibra para melhorar a adesão dessas fibras em matrizes poliméricas. Neste trabalho foi estudada a biodegradabilidade em solo simulado de compósitos de PCL/fibra de coco (antes e após a modificação química da fibra por reação de acetilação com avaliação da perda de massa e da modificação da morfologia. A espectroscopia na região do infravermelho mostrou a eficiência da reação de acetilação nas fibras. Os compósitos enterrados em solo simulado apresentaram perda de massa e a degradação das amostras foi confirmada pela modificação da morfologia observada através de análises como as Microscopias Óptica e Eletrônica de Varredura. O comportamento térmico dos compósitos, analisado por Calorimetria Diferencial de Varredura mostrou diferença no teor de cristalinidade da matriz com a incorporação da fibra.Biodegradable polymers such as poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL have received increasing attention. New properties are achieved when these polymers are used in composites with natural fibers. Several methods exist for the chemical modification of the fiber to improve adhesion to the polymer matrices. This work deals with the biodegradation in simulated soil of PCL/coconut fiber composites (before and after fiber chemical modification by acetylation - reaction with the evaluation of mass loss and morphology. Infrared spectroscopy has shown the efficiency of fiber acetylation. The composites buried in simulated soil presented weight loss. The degradation of the samples was confirmed by the morphology modification observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Microscopy analysis. The thermal properties analyzed with

  20. Comparison of date-palm wastes and perlite as growth substrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... materials, such as a mixture of peat moss and pine bark, or a mixture of peat moss ... Key words: Date palm wastes, incubation time, aerating, perlite, fertigation, tomato. ... perlite and perlite mixed with coconut coir dust (coco.

  1. Radiation processing of composite materials on the basis of coconut hair and plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owolabi, O.; Czvikovszky, T.

    1983-01-01

    Composite materials containing coconut hair as fibrous reinforcements and synthetic polyester resin as matrix were prepared. The coconut hair, together with the unsaturated polyester resin and other required ingredients (fillers, complexing agents, etc.) were pre-processed in a BRABENDER-type kneader or similar equipment to produce a bulk moulding compound ('BMC' or 'Premix') and later hot pressed for 10 minutes at 130 degC and 30 bars to produce sheets of 2 mm thickness. The tensile-, flexural- and impact strength of the sheets were measured and served as the main basis of comparison. The effect of increasing coconut hair percentage was studied. The effect of preirradiation of the coconut hair, pretreatment with hot sodium hydroxide solution and a combination of the two, to improve the coupling of the coconut hair and synthetic polyester were also studied. Composite materials were also made from a mixture of coconut hair and chopped glass fibers as reinforcements in the same BMC material. The radiation-treated coconut fiber gives a useful composite material for hot-press moulding. (author)

  2. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  3. Characterization of deepwater invertebrates at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009, we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas around Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica using a manned submersible to survey the seafloor habitats. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas. We completed a total of 22 successful submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. With respect to invertebrates, our objectives were to gather quantitative information on species composition, density, distribution and habitat associations as well as to compare the invertebrate communities between the two sites. A total of 7 172 invertebrates were counted from analysis of the video collected on this project. Larger organisms were counted and placed into 27 taxonomic groups to characterize the deepwater invertebrate fauna of Las Gemelas Seamount and Isla del Coco National Park. The Shannon-Weiner Index for biodiversity (H’ was calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 for Isla del Coco and 0.07 ± 0.03 for Las Gemelas surveys. Although richness was fairly equal between the two sites, evenness was greater at Isla del Coco (J = 0.04 ± 0.006 when compared to Las Gemelas (J = 0.02 ± 0.01. This lower level of evenness in the community at Las Gemelas was a result of high densities of a few dominant species groups, specifically sea urchins and black corals. We also evaluated invertebrate percent cover at both Isla del Coco and Las Gemelas Seamount with respect to habitat type, slope and rugosity. Results indicated that highly rugose habitats contained the highest frequencies of all invertebrates at both sites, with the exception of glass sponges and polychaetes at Isla del Coco

  4. An ecological study for Sri Lanka about health effects of coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athauda, L K; Wickremasinghe, A R; Kumarendran, B; Kasturiratne, A

    2015-09-01

    An ecological correlation study was conducted to determine the association between consumption of coconut products and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in Sri Lanka. Data on coconut consumption patterns from 1961 to 2006 were abstracted from the FAO database, and mortality data from reports of the Department of Census and Statistics, and UN databases. Correlational and regression analyses were carried out. There was no increase in the per capita consumption of coconut products from 1961 to 2006 (range 54.1-76.2kg/ capita/year). The CVD death rates and the proportionate mortality rate due to CVD increased from 1961 to 2006. CVD death rates were significantly associated with per capita GDP, percentage of urban population, and elderly dependency ratio but not consumption of coconut products after adjusting for the other variables (R2=0.94). The results do not provide evidence at the population level that consumption of coconut products increases mortality due to cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Bibliografía sobre investigaciones marinas, oceanográficas, geológicas y atmosféricas en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco y aguas adyacentes, Pacífico de Costa Rica Bibliography on marine, oceanographic, geological and atmospheric research at Isla del Coco Nacional Park and adjacent waters, Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco, Pacífico de Costa Rica, ha sido visitada y se ha escrito sobre ella desde el Siglo XVI. Desde finales del Siglo XIX muchas expediciones han desarrollado investigaciones en el Isla. Aquí compilo las publicaciones sobre biología y geología marina, oceanografía física y química, ciencias atmosféricas y algunos temas sociales. Una lista de 599 artículos y capítulos, 41 libros, Suplementos, tesis, informes y un sitio de internet es incluida, y diez libros históricos donde se describen organismos y ambientes marinos de la Isla del Coco. La mayoría de las publicaciones (425 o 66.4% son sobre biodiversidad marina (descripciones, listas y distribuciones de especies. De los grupos que más publicaciones hay son de los gasterópodos (81 trabajos, decápodos (67 y peces óseos (66. No hay publicaciones de varios grupos de animales que han sido observados en Isla del Coco, por ejemplo, gusanos planos de vida libre, parásitos o nemertinos, entre otros. Temas con muchas publicaciones son: biogeografía con 65, ecología (61 y geología (48; los ecosistemas más estudiados son los arrecifes coralinos con 14 trabajos. Se necesitan más publicaciones en muchos tópicos, tales como el impacto sobre la flora y fauna del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco de la pesca ilegal y el cambio climático.Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island, Pacific Costa Rica, has been visited and written about since the 16th Century, and since the late 1800’s many expeditions and scientists have carried out research in the Island. Here I compiled publications on marine biological, geological, oceanographic and atmospheric research done at Isla del Coco. A list of 599 scientific papers and chapters were compiled, together with 41 books, reports, Special Issues, theses and web sites, and ten historic books with descriptions of marine animals or environemnets. A mayority of the publications (425 or 66.4% are related to marine biodiversity topics (species

  6. A Survey on Robotic Coconut Tree Climbers - Existing Methods and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Sakthiprasad, K. M.; Sreekanth, M. M.; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela

    2017-08-01

    As the coconut palm growers are struggling with the acute shortage of human coconut tree climbers to climb and harvest the coconuts, many are working towards possible alternatives to help them handle this situation. In this study paper we analyse the problems associated with the shortage of human coconut tree climbers in -depth. We also present details of various existing mechanical models available in the market and have not yet solved this issue. Along with this we discuss how robotics and automation could be a possible solution for this entire problem. In this context we discuss about the features of such robotic system and also give suggestions on various unmanned robotic models that can be designed and implemented.

  7. Evidence Based Decline in Coconut Productivity along the Coastline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... production in Tanzania due to implementation of the National Coconut Development Program (NCDP). However, since phasing out of NCDP in 2004, little is known and even less is documented on the status of coconut production and productivity in the country. This study was conducted along the coastal belt where more ...

  8. Overview of the Epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also to compare the level of LYD susceptibility in the local West African Tall (WAT) variety and the MYD x VTT hybrid, recommended for replanting under the Coconut Sec-tor Development Project (CSDP). Structured survey questionnaires were administered for 15 months to obtain information on every CSPD coconut ...

  9. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  10. Kinetic study of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated coconut coir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Akbarningrum; Agustriyanto, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Biomass waste utilization for biofuel production such as bioethanol, has become more prominent currently. Coconut coir is one of lignocellulosic food wastes, which is abundant in Indonesia. Bioethanol production from such materials consists of more than one step. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis is crucial steps to produce sugar which can then be fermented into bioethanol. In this research, ground coconut coir was pretreated using dilute sulfuric acid at 121°C. This pretreatment had increased the cellulose content and decreased the lignin content of coconut coir. The pretreated coconut coir was hydrolyzed using a mix of two commercial cellulase enzymes at pH of 4.8 and temperature of 50°C. The enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted at several initial coconut coir slurry concentrations (0.1-2 g/100 mL) and reaction times (2-72 hours). The reducing sugar concentration profiles had been produced and can be used to obtain reaction rates. The highest reducing sugar concentration obtained was 1,152.567 mg/L, which was produced at initial slurry concentration of 2 g/100 mL and 72 hours reaction time. In this paper, the reducing sugar concentrations were empirically modeled as a function of reaction time using power equations. Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis reaction is adopted. The kinetic parameters of that model for sulfuric acid-pretreated coconut coir enzymatic hydrolysis had been obtained which are Vm of 3.587×104 mg/L.h, and KM of 130.6 mg/L.

  11. COMPARISON OF PRETREATMENT STRATEGIES FOR CONVERSION OF COCONUT HUSK FIBER TO FERMENTABLE SUGARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Y. Ding,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, coconut husk was employed as biomass feedstock for production of bioethanol, due to its abundance in Malaysia. Due to the complex structures of coconut husk, a pretreatment process is crucial in extracting fermentable sugars from the embedded cellulose matrix for subsequent ethanol fermentation process. The ground coconut husk was subjected to three different pretreatment processes inclusive of thermal, chemical, and microwave-assisted-alkaline techniques, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process. The composition profile of coconut husk was significantly altered upon the microwave-assisted-alkaline treatment as compared to the untreated sample, with the cellulose content increasing from 18-21% to 38-39% while lignin content decreased from 46-53% to 31-33%. Among the pretreatment methods applied, enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut husk pretreated by microwave-assisted-alkaline method recorded the highest yield of fermentable sugars, 0.279 g sugar/g substrate. SEM imaging showed the obvious and significant disruption of coconut husks’ structure after microwave-assisted-alkaline pretreatment. In conclusion, by employing suitable pretreatment technique in treating the lignocellulosic materials of coconut husk, the extracted fermentable sugar is a potential substrate for bioethanol production.

  12. Introducing COCOS: codon consequence scanner for annotating reading frame changes induced by stop-lost and frame shift variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Haines, Jonathan L; Bush, William S

    2017-05-15

    Reading frame altering genomic variants can impact gene expression levels and the structure of protein products, thus potentially inducing disease phenotypes. Current annotation approaches report the impact of such variants in the context of altered DNA sequence only; attributes of the resulting transcript, reading frame and translated protein product are not reported. To remedy this shortcoming, we present a new genetic annotation approach termed Codon Consequence Scanner (COCOS). Implemented as an Ensembl variant effect predictor (VEP) plugin, COCOS captures amino acid sequence alterations stemming from variants that produce an altered reading frame, such as stop-lost variants and small insertions and deletions (InDels). To highlight its significance, COCOS was applied to data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Transcripts affected by stop-lost variants introduce a median of 15 amino acids, while InDels have a more extensive impact with a median of 66 amino acids being incorporated. Captured sequence alterations are written out in FASTA format and can be further analyzed for impact on the underlying protein structure. COCOS is available to all users on github: https://github.com/butkiem/COCOS. mariusz.butkiewicz@case.edu. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Effect of dietary fiber on the activity of intestinal and fecal beta-glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, G; Thampi, B S; Leelamma, S; Menon, P V

    2001-01-01

    The effects of fiber isolated from black gram (Phaseolus mungo) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) kernel on the metabolic activity of intestinal and fecal beta glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis were studied. The results indicated that the inclusion of fiber from black gram and coconut kernel generally supported lower specific activities and less fecal output of beta-glucuronidase than did the fiber free diet. This study suggests that the fibers isolated from coconut or black gram may potentially play a role in preventing the formation of colon tumors induced by the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine by reducing the activity of the intestinal as well as fecal beta-glucuronidase.

  14. Tender coconut water as alternative food to increase potassium intake among prehypertension adult female?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hampir seluruh populasi di dunia mengonsumsi kalium lebih rendah dari rekomendasi yangdianjurkan. Air kelapa muda merupakan minuman khas yang tinggi kalium. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahuntuk menganalisis asupan kalium pada perempuan prahipertensi dan menentukan peningkatan asupankalium dengan pemberian air kelapa muda untuk menurunkan tekanan darah di antara subyek prahipertensi.Metode: Pada uji klinis paralel single blind dengan subyek sebanyak 32 guru perempuan dan karyawatiprahipertensi berusia 25-44 tahun di Surabaya bulan April – Juni 2013. Pemilihan subyek penelitian denganrandomisasi blok, 16 subyek tiap kelompok. Kelompok perlakuan (P mendapat air kelapa muda disertaipenyuluhan gizi, sedangkan kelompok kontrol (K mendapat air putih disertai penyuluhan gizi. Penilaianasupan kalium dengan food record 2x24 jam selama fase run in, minggu pertama, dan minggu kedua periodepenelitian. Food record dianalisis menggunakan nutrisurvey, dan kandungan kalium dalam air kelapa mudasegar dan air putih dianalisis dengan metode atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS.Hasil: Pada awal penelitian, rerata asupan kalium subyek 1420,28±405,54 mg/hari atau sekitar 30,22%± 8,63% dari angka kecukupan gizi (AKG. Selama perlakuan, didapatkan peningkatan asupan kaliumsebesar 2 kali lipat dan meningkat signifikan pada kelompok perlakuan, tetapi masih lebih rendah darirekomendasi AKG dan WHO.Kesimpulan: Pada perempuan prahipertensi, asupan kalium dikategorikan rendah, dan air kelapa mudasegar 300 ml dua kali sehari selama 14 hari berturut-turut dapat meningkatkan asupan kalium. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:12-16Kata kunci: asupan kalium, air kelapa muda segar AbstractBackground: Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended intake of potassium.Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drinks high in potassium. The study aimed to analyze potassiumintake in prehypertension subjects and to identify the

  15. evaluation of growth of young coconut and nut yield of old coconut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    nutrient status under coconut-cassava intercropping systems. Experiment I was ... farmer's income/ food security base and helps in weed control ... GenStat Discovery Edi- tion 3 statistical ..... nut, it did not impact on nut yield since it was not a limiting ... Evaluation of crop management options ... (1996). Manual on standard-.

  16. Keanekaragaman Tanaman Pekarangan dan Pemanfaatannya untuk Mendukung Ketahanan Pangan Kecamatan Wakorumba Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriatin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the type composition, vegetation structure, and the patterns of utilization to support food security in the sub district of South Wakorumba. This study employed a quadrat method. The results of this research show that the composition of plant species in gardens in South Wakorumba sub district was comprised of 25 families from 44 species of plants. For plants vegetation structure the highest of importance value for trees of the class was indicated by coconut (Cocos nucifera L. species. Whereas the lowest value was indicated by water apple (Eugenia aquea Burm. F species. For of poles, the highest of importance value was indicated by chocolate (Theobroma cacao L. species. Whereas the lowest value was by Jamaica cashew (Syzygium malacensis species. The class of saplings highest value was indicated by papaya (Carica papaya L. species. whereas the lowest was indicated by tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. species. For of seedling the highest of importance value was indicated by coconut (Cocos nucifera L. species. Whereas the lowest of importance value was indicated by rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. species. The pattern of utilization of garden plants by the villagers of Wakorumba Sub District is as follows: as a source of carbohydrate (18.18%, proteins (11.36%, vitamins (45.45%, minerals (22.73%, and fat (2.27%

  17. The Cocos Ridge hydrothermal system revealed by microthermometry of fluid and melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, J.; Kurz, W.; Krenn, K.

    2017-12-01

    ). The microthermometric data indicate a seawater/pore water like fluid source in communication with a deeper sourced, up to 400 °C hot fluid. This implies that seawater within the Cocos Ridge aquifer communicated with high-temperature fluids and/or were modified by heat advection.

  18. Hypolipidemic effect of hemicellulose component of coconut fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    1998-08-01

    The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) isolated from coconut kernel was digested with cellulase and hemicellulase and the residual fiber rich in hemicellulose (without cellulose) and cellulose (with out hemicellulose) were fed to rats and compared with a fiber free group. The results indicate that hemicellulose rich fiber showed decreased concentration of total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol, while cellulose rich fiber showed no significant alteration. There was increased HMG CoA reductase activity and increased incorporation of labeled acetate into free cholesterol. Rats fed hemicellulose rich coconut fiber produced lower concentration of triglycerides and phospholipids and lower release of lipoproteins into circulation. There was increased concentration of hepatic bile acids and increased excretion of faecal sterols and bile acids. These results indicate that the hemicellulose component of coconut fiber was responsible for the observed hypolipidemic effect.

  19. Topical Coconut Oil in Very Preterm Infants: An Open-Label Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Tobias; Pupala, Sameer; Hibbert, Julie; Doherty, Dorota; Patole, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    The immature fragile skin of preterm infants represents an inadequate protective barrier. The emollient and anti-infective properties of coconut oil make it a potentially beneficial topical agent for this population. Our aim was to evaluate feasibility, safety, and the effects of topical coconut oil on skin condition in very preterm infants. An open-label randomised controlled trial in preterm infants coconut oil (5 mL/kg) twice daily for 21 days, starting within 24 h of birth. The neonatal skin condition was the primary outcome, and was assessed using the Neonatal Skin Condition Score (NSCS) on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. The number of coconut oil applications was recorded to assess clinical feasibility and all enrolled infants were monitored for adverse effects of topical coconut application, such as skin irritation. A total of 72 infants born coconut oil was feasible and without adverse effects. The NSCS was maintained in the coconut oil group throughout the intervention period, but deteriorated from a median (IQR) of 3 (3-4) on day 1 to 4 (4-4) on day 21 in the control group (p = 0.01). There were no differences in common neonatal outcomes, including sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and mortality. Topical coconut oil maintained a better skin condition in very preterm infants without adverse effects. This simple, safe, and affordable intervention warrants further investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. How does coconut oil affect cognitive performance in alzheimer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Sánchez Álvarez, Carmen; Selvi Sabater, Pablo; Bueno Cayo, Alma María; Sancho Castillo, Sandra; Rochina, Mariano Julián; Hu Yang, Iván

    2017-03-30

    Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative dementia in developed world. This fact, coupled with the lack cure, makes new no pharmacological therapeutic strategies such as nutrient management to investigate. In this regard, it stresses the possible influence of coconut oil as alternative energy source capable of stopping the progressively neuronal death that occurs in this disease. Objectives: To assess the cognitive impact of coconut oil in Alzheimer’s patients, and specifically in orientation, language-building, fixing, calculation-concentration and memory areas. Methods: Prospective, longitudinal, qualitative, analytical and experimental study through a clinical trial where 44 patients with Alzheimer’s in region of Ribera (Valencia), of which half was selected to receive during 21 days, 40 ml coconut oil daily divided between breakfast (20 ml) and food (20 ml). Before and after administration of the oil, they were evaluated through cognitive test Mini-Mental State Examination to determine possible changes. Results: It was observed in patients who received coconut oil, that cognitive improvement after completion of the intervention, statistically significant improved in the orientation and language-construction areas. Conclusions: Coconut oil appears to improve cognitive abilities of Alzheimer’s patients, with different intensity depending on the cognitive area.

  1. Absorção e redistribuição de boro em coqueiro-anão-verde Boron absorption and redistribution in green dwarf coconut tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Glaydson da Rocha Pinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se ocorre redistribuição de boro em coqueiros (Cocos nucifera, quando a aplicação de ácido bórico é realizada na axila foliar ou no solo. Foram empregados os seguintes tratamentos com ácido bórico: 30 g aplicados sobre a axila da folha número 10; 60 g aplicados ao solo; e controle, sem aplicação. Foram realizadas duas aplicações de B, com um intervalo de cinco meses entre elas. A unidade experimental consistiu de duas plantas, com seis repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram determinados os teores de boro nas folhas 2, 6, 10, 14 e 18, aos dois e quatro meses após a primeira aplicação de ácido bórico, e aos dois e cinco meses após a segunda aplicação. O boro se redistribuiu pela planta de coqueiro, independentemente da forma de aplicação. A elevação do teor de boro nas folhas persistiu por mais tempo, quando a aplicação de ácido bórico foi feita ao solo. As doses de ácido bórico aplicadas não causaram fitotoxidade, mesmo quando a aplicaçãofoi repetida após um curto período.The aim of this work was to verify if boron redistribution occurs among the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera fronds, when boric acid is applied on frond axils or on soil. The treatments with boric acid were: 30 g applied on the axil of frond number 10; 60 g applied to the soil; and a control without boric acid application. The B applications were repeated after five-month interval. The experimental unit consisted of two plants, with six replicates, in a randomized complete block design. Boron contents were determined in fronds number 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18, two and four months after the first boric acid application, and two and five months after the second application. Boron was redistributed in coconut plants, regardless of the application form. Increases in boron concentration in fronds persisted longer when boric acid was applied to the soil. The applied doses of boric acid hadno

  2. 46 CFR 148.04-21 - Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). 148.04-21 Section 148.04-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... § 148.04-21 Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). (a) Coconut meal pellets; (1) Must...

  3. A study on the use of renewable energy for coconut dehusking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Shamsul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar photovoltaic (PV coconut dehusking machine may become one important application of renewable energy especially in rural areas like in Sarawak. It will not only enhance the socio-economy in such areas but also indirectly reduce the risk of injuries from the process of dehusking coconuts manually. Thus the purpose of the study is to simulate the performance of the PV coconut dehusking machine by circuit modeling in Simulink and PVsyst software. Simulation results showed that it could match the rpm and torque required in the dry coconut shear test. Furthermore, when implemented, such a PV-powered machine is expected to offer better cost of ownership in the long term when compared to a dehusking machine that runs on fossil fuel based on the PVsyst software analysis.

  4. A model for acoustic absorbent materials derived from coconut fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis, J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a methodology is proposed for obtaining empirical equations describing the sound absorption characteristics of an absorbing material obtained from natural fibers, specifically from coconut. The method, which was previously applied to other materials, requires performing measurements of air-flow resistivity and of acoustic impedance for samples of the material under study. The equations that govern the acoustic behavior of the material are then derived by means of a least-squares fit of the acoustic impedance and of the propagation constant. These results can be useful since they allow the empirically obtained analytical equations to be easily incorporated in prediction and simulation models of acoustic systems for noise control that incorporate the studied materials.En este trabajo se describe el proceso seguido para obtener ecuaciones empíricas del comportamiento acústico de un material absorbente obtenido a partir de fibras naturales, concretamente el coco. El procedimiento, que ha sido ensayado con éxito en otros materiales, implica la realización de medidas de impedancia y resistencia al flujo de muestras del material bajo estudio. Las ecuaciones que gobiernan el comportamiento desde el punto de vista acústico del material se obtienen a partir del ajuste de ecuaciones de comportamiento de la impedancia acústica y la constante de propagación del material. Los resultados son útiles ya que, al disponer de ecuaciones analíticas obtenidas empíricamente, facilitan la incorporación de estos materiales en predicciones mediante métodos numéricos del comportamiento cuando son instalados formando parte de dispositivos para el control del ruido.

  5. Evolutionary history of Arecaccea tribe Cocoseae inferred from seven WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor gen...

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of six WRKY transcription factor loci across the spiny cocosoid palm subtribes Bactridinae and Elaeidinae (Areceaceae, Cocoseae),and comparison of several gene tree/species tree reconciliation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfamily Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor g...

  7. Rigid Polyurethane Foam Reinforced Coconut Coir Fiber Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azham Azmi

    2012-01-01

    This research work studied the properties of composite foam panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane (PU) foam in order to increase the properties of foam. This composite foam panels were fabricated by using polyurethane molded method. The polyurethane foam panels reinforced from 5 to 20wt% coconut coir were produced to investigate the physical and mechanical test via density test and three point bending test respectively. It was found that the density test resul...

  8. Coconut Products Improve Signs of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Carnahan, Sharyn; Brown, Lindsay

    2017-12-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome warrants identification of potential therapeutic options for intervention. This study tested commercially available Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Nourish, as coconuts are rich sources of lauric and myristic acids. Male Wistar rats were fed either corn starch diet (C); high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H); high-carbohydrate, high-virgin coconut oil diet (HV); or high-carbohydrate, high-coconut Nourish diet (HN) for 16 weeks. Metabolic, liver, and cardiovascular health parameters were measured during and at the end of the study. Virgin coconut oil lowered body weight (C 386±8g, H 516±13g, HV 459±10g), blood glucose concentrations (C 4.2±0.1 mmol/L, H 5.4±0.2 mmol/L, HV 4.6±0.2 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (C 127±5mmHg, H 149±4mmHg, HV 133±3mmHg,) and diastolic stiffness (C 25.0±1.7, H 31.4±1.2, HV 25.2±2.3,) with improved structure and function of the heart and liver. Coconut Nourish increased total body lean mass (C 255±10g, H 270±16g, HN 303±15g) and lowered plasma total cholesterol concentrations (C 1.6±0.2 mmol/L, H 1.7±0.1 mmol/L, HN 1.0±0.0 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (C 127±5mmHg, H 149±4mmHg, HN 130±3mmHg) and diastolic stiffness (C 25.0±1.7, H 31.4±1.2, HN 26.5±1.0), improved structure and function of the heart and liver but increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides (C 0.3±0.1 mmol/L, H 1.1±0.4 mmol/L, HN 1.8±0.2 mmol/L) and non-esterified fatty acids (C 1.2±0.3 mmol/L, H 3.3±0.8 mmol/L, HN 5.6±0.4 mmol/L). Thus, the fiber and protein in coconut Nourish and the medium-chain saturated fatty acids in virgin coconut oil may improve cardiovascular and liver complications in obesity.

  9. Lime and fertilizer recommendation system for coconut trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nogueira Guedes Pereira Rosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer recommendation to most agricultural crops is based on response curves. Such curves are constructed from field experimental data, obtained for a particular condition and may not be reliable to be applied to other regions. The aim of this study was to develop a Lime and Fertilizer Recommendation System for Coconut Crop based on the nutritional balance. The System considers the expected productivity and plant nutrient use efficiency to estimate nutrient demand, and effective rooting layer, soil nutrient availability, as well as any other nutrient input to estimate the nutrient supply. Comparing the nutrient demand with the nutrient supply the System defines the nutrient balance. If the balance for a given nutrient is negative, lime and, or, fertilization is recommended. On the other hand, if the balance is positive, no lime or fertilizer is needed. For coconut trees, the fertilization regime is divided in three stages: fertilization at the planting spot, band fertilization and fertilization at the production phase. The data set for the development of the System for coconut trees was obtained from the literature. The recommendations generated by the System were compared to those derived from recommendation tables used for coconut crop in Brazil. The main differences between the two procedures were for the P rate applied in the planting hole, which was higher in the proposed System because the tables do not pay heed to the pit volume, whereas the N and K rates were lower. The crop demand for K is very high, and the rates recommended by the System are superior to the table recommendations for the formation and initial production stage. The fertilizer recommendations by the System are higher for the phase of coconut tree growth as compared to the production phase, because greater amount of biomass is produced in the first phase.

  10. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  11. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; De Geest, Bart

    2017-07-18

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher ( p coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64) during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold ( p coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower ( p coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  12. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Asiah; Abdul Rahman, Shyful Azizi; Nordin, Latiffah; Abdullah, Hazlina; Ruslan, Abdul Razak [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Agrotechnology and Bioscineces Div.; Taib, Mohd Idris [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Intelligent Group

    2004-07-01

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  13. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Latiffah Nordin; Hazlina Abdullah; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Mohd Idris Taib

    2004-01-01

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  14. The effect of Co-Co3O4 coating on the electrochemical properties of Si as an anode material for Li ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yong-Mook; Lee, Sang-Min; Sung, Min-Seok; Jeong, Goo-Jin; Kim, Joon-Sup; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of Si as an anode material for Li ion secondary batteries, a biphasic layer composed of Co and Co 3 O 4 was coated on Si particles by sol-gel method. Compared to Si, Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si showed the drastic improvement in several electrochemical properties, such as initial coulombic efficiency (55% → 88%), cyclic efficiency and cycle life. The comparison between Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si and heat-treated Si without the coating let us know that the improvement of electrochemical properties only results from Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer. Little changed cyclic properties (cyclic efficiency and cycle life) of Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si even at a higher charge-discharge rate insinuated that Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer plays a crucial role in maintaining the electronic contacts between particles and conducting parts. When trying to measure a thickness variation of the electrodes each containing Si and Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si as active materials, it was notified that Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer can accommodate the volume expansion of Si during Li + insertion, which has its original thickness almost recovered after Li + extraction

  15. Diferentes suplementos no cultivo in vitro de embriões de pinhão-manso Different supplements for in vitro embryo culture of physic nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Ferreira Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do estádio de maturação dos frutos, no desenvolvimento de embriões de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas, cultivados em meio MS com diferentes suplementos: sacarose, água de coco e carvão ativado. Os frutos foram coletados, e os embriões de suas sementes extraídos assepticamente. Utilizaram-se duas condições experimentais: embriões oriundos de frutos em três estádios de desenvolvimento (imaturo, maduro e seco, colocados em meio de cultivo MS acrescido de sacarose (0, 15, 30 e 60 g L-1; embriões oriundos de frutos secos, colocados em meio MS acrescido de: 30 g L-1de sacarose, carvão ativado (0, 1, 2 e 3 g L-1 e de água de coco (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mL L-1. O material foi mantido por 30 dias em sala de crescimento, sob condições ambientais controladas. Apenas os embriões zigóticos provenientes de frutos imaturos necessitam da suplementação de sacarose para sustentar sua germinação. O melhor desenvolvimento de embriões ocorre em meio MS suplementado com 60 g L-1 de sacarose. A associação de carvão ativado e água de coco proporcionam melhor crescimento de plântulas oriundas de embriões de sementes retiradas de frutos secos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of maturation stages of physic nut fruits on the development of their embryos cultivated in MS medium supplemented with sucrose, coconut water and activated carbon. Fruits were collected, and their embryos were extracted aseptically. They were submitted to two experimental conditions: embryos from fruits in three development stages (immature, mature and dry were put into MS medium, supplemented with sucrose (0, 15, 30 and 60 g L-1; embryos derived from dry fruits were put into MS medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g L-1, activated carbon (0, 1, 2 and 3 g L-1, and coconut water (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mL L-1. Explants were kept in a growth chamber under controlled conditions during 30

  16. Revestimentos biodegradaveis para conservação do coco 'anão verde'

    OpenAIRE

    Josane Maria Resende

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A água de coco verde é extremamente perecível após a colheita dos frutos e sua qualidade está diretamente relacionada às condições do ambiente de armazenagem. Portanto, são necessárias tecnologias que permitam a conservação do coco verde por um período superior a trinta dias para que o fruto possa ser exportado e comercializado mantendo a água em condições apropriadas para o consumo ao natural. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver revestimentos biodegradáveis para prolon...

  17. Analysis of Carrying Capacity of Agro-Ecosystem Coconut-Cattle in South Minahasa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHS Salendu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Coconut plantation is very dominating in South Minahasa regency seen from its production of 49,907.33 tons in 2010. The land under coconut trees can be used for food crops or forage. The waste from food crops is the source of animal feed, while the livestock’s manure is used to improve soil fertility under coconut tree. The research objective was to analyse the carrying capacity of the agro-ecosystem of coconut-cattle. Regency and district were determined purposively. A total of 86 farmers as respondents were determined based on the ownership of at least 2 cattle and cattle selling experience. Data were analyzed using effective potential of livestock development and land capability index (IDD. The result showed that the maximum potential of land resources (PMSL was 30,872.94 animal unit (AU. The capacity increase in cattle population based on the soil resources was 18,208.94 AU. The maximum potential based on farmer house holds was 127,023.00 AU. The value of land capability index was 2.14. The conclusion was South Minahasa Regency was still potential for cattle development regarding land resources or workforce potentials. Development of cattle can be integrated with the coconut to maintain and improve agro-ecosystem sustainability of coconut plantation. Keywords: cattle, carrying capacity, agro-ecosystem, coconut Animal Production 14(1:56-62, January 2012

  18. EL POLVO DE COCO COMO SUSTRATO ALTERNATIVO PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE PLANTAS ORNAMENTALES PARA TRASPLANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ayala-Sierra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó con el objeto de evaluar la factibilidad de utilizar sustratos elaborados a base de polvo de coco para la germinación de semillas y desarrollo inicial de plantas para trasplante de seis especies ornamentales y determinar la posibilidad de remplazar al Peat Moss. Las especies seleccionadas para el estudio fueron: Dianthus chinensis (clavelina, Gazania rigens (gazania, Tagetes erecta (marigold, Viola wittrockiana (pensamiento, Antirrhinum majus (dragón y Petunia x hybrida (petunia. Las semillas de las seis especies fueron sembradas en tres sustratos: polvo de coco, Peat Moss y Peat Lite. Previo a la siembra, el polvo de coco fue acondicionado mediante el ajuste del pH a 6.2, la adición de cal dolomítica y KNO3 como carga de nutrientes. Posteriormente, se elaboró una mezcla a base de polvo de coco, perlita y vermiculita a razón de 70, 20 y 10 % (v/v, y Peat Moss, perlita y vermiculita en las mismas proporciones. El Peat Lite contenía 50 % de Peat Moss y 50 % de perlita (v/v. Se evaluó el efecto de los sustratos en la altura de planta, el peso seco del vástago y de raíz, el porcentaje de germinación y el porcentaje de plantas con valor comercial. Aunque el polvo de coco causó una disminución significativa en la altura de plantas de gazania (21 %, dragones (30 % y petunias (13 %, y en el peso seco del vástago de dragones (24 % y en el peso seco de raíz de clavelina (22 %, esto no estuvo asociado con una disminución en la calidad de las plantas. Por lo tanto, se concluye que el polvo de coco puede utilizarse como sustrato para la producción de plantas para trasplante de especies ornamentales.

  19. Adsorption of Nickel (II) from Aqueous Solution by Bicarbonate Modified Coconut Oilcake Residue Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumari, N; Srinivasan, K

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption of Ni (II) on modified coconut oilcake residue carbon (bicarbonate treated coconut oilcake residue carbon-BCORC) was employed for the removal of Ni (II) from water and wastewater. The influence of various factors such as agitation time, pH and carbon dosage on the adsorption capacity has been studied. Adsorption isothermal data could be interpreted by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In order to understand the reaction mechanism, kinetic data has been studied using reversible first order rate equation. Similar studies were carried out using commercially available activated carbon--CAC, for comparison purposes. Column studies were conducted to obtain breakthrough capacities of BCORC and CAC. Common anions and cations affecting the removal of Ni (II) on both the carbons were also studied. Experiments were also done with wastewater containing Ni (II), to assess the potential of these carbons.

  20. Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) husk fiber aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviano, Daniela S; Rodrigues, Karen F; Leitão, Suzana G; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Matheus, Maria Eline; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2004-06-01

    In the current study, the analgesic and free radical scavenging properties of an aqueous extract from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) were demonstrated by the use of in vivo and in vitro models. The orally administered Cocos nucifera aqueous extract (200 or 400 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. Tail flick and hot plate assays demonstrated that treatment of animals with this plant extract at 200 mg/kg induced attenuation in the response to a heat stimulus. A LD(50) of 2.30 g/kg was obtained in acute toxicity tests. Topic treatment of rabbits with the Cocos nucifera extract indicated that it does not induce any significant dermic or ocular irritation. In vitro experiments using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) photometric assay demonstrated that this plant extract also possesses free radical scavenging properties.

  1. Analisis Finansial dan Strategi Pengembangan USAha Pengolahan Sabut Kelapa Menjadi Serat Kelapa (Coco Fiber) (Studi Kasus : Kecamatan Batang Kuis, Kabupaten Deli Serdang)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Adolf Paskaris; Ayu, Salmiah, Sri Fajar

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk menjelaskan bagaimana proses produksi USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber), menganalisis USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber) sudah layak atau tidak, dan menjelaskan strategi pengembangan yang cocok untuk USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di daerah penelitian. Daerah penelitian ditentukan secara sengaja (purposive) berdasarkan pertimbangan tertentu, yaitu di Kecamatan Batang Kuis, Kabupaten Deli Serdang. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode teknik purposive sampli...

  2. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  3. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  4. Wear rate and surface coating optimization of coconut coir-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The use of fuzzy logic for modeling surface parameters of coconut coir-based composite is the focus of this research paper. Natural fiber–polymer composite has been developed by combining coconut coir as a stimulator and polyester as a fixative. This sturdy material is resistant to scratches in the coating process on the ...

  5. Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafar, Firoozeh; Mearow, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

  6. Alternative substrata for xaxim on culture of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Fonseca Sorace

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of different substrata by vegetal origin, to grow species of orchids (Orchidaceae. Seedlings of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata, obtained by in vitro culture, and acclimated, with medium height of 5 cm, had the following substrata: 1- Defibered xaxim (control; 2- Carbonized rice husk; 3- Coconut fiber; 4- Husk pínus; 5- Carbonized rice husk + Coconut fiber (1:1; 6- Carbonized rice husk + Husk pínus (1:1; 7- Coconut fiber + Husk pinus (1:1; 8- Husk pínus + Carbonized rice husk + Coconut fiber (1:1:1. A randomized design with eight treatments and ten replications. Results were submited to Variance Analysis and Tukey Test at 5 %. Growing parameters evaluated after 17 months were: root length, roots number, height of above ground, buds number, leaves number, leaf length, leaf width, total fresh mass and root volume. Determinated substrata parameters were: pH, eletric conductivity and density. All studied substratum can be recommended to substitute xaxim but, coconut fiber was least efficient to develop roots and aerial parts of plants. Better results were showed by substratum only with carbonized rice husk + husk pine on culture of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes substratos de origem vegetal no cultivo de espécies de orquídeas. Plântulas de Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata, provenientes de cultivo in vitro, aclimatizadas e com altura média de 5 cm, foram plantadas nos substratos: 1-Xaxim desfibrado (testemunha; 2-Casca de arroz carbonizada; 3-Fibra de coco; 4-Casca de pínus; 5-Casca de pínus + Fibra de coco (1:1; 6-Casca de arroz + Fibra de coco (1:1; 7-Casca de arroz carbonizada + Casca de pínus (1:1; 8-Casca de pínus + Casca de arroz carbonizada + Fibra de coco (1:1:1. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e dez repeti

  7. Feasibility Study of Aseptic Homogenization: Affecting Homogenization Steps on Quality of Sterilized Coconut Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phungamngoen Chanthima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut milk is one of the most important protein-rich food sources available today. Separation of an emulsion into an aqueous phase and cream phase is commonly occurred and this leads an unacceptably physical defect of either fresh or processed coconut milk. Since homogenization steps are known to affect the stability of coconut milk. This work was aimed to study the effect of homogenization steps on quality of coconut milk. The samples were subject to high speed homogenization in the range of 5000-15000 rpm under sterilize temperatures at 120-140 °C for 15 min. The result showed that emulsion stability increase with increasing speed of homogenization. The lower fat particles were generated and easy to disperse in continuous phase lead to high stability. On the other hand, the stability of coconut milk decreased, fat globule increased, L value decreased and b value increased when the high sterilization temperature was applied. Homogenization after heating led to higher stability than homogenization before heating due to the reduced particle size of coconut milk after aggregation during sterilization process. The results implied that homogenization after sterilization process might play an important role on the quality of the sterilized coconut milk.

  8. Safety assessment of widely used fermented virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera) in Malaysia: Chronic toxicity studies and SAR analysis of the active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad H; Khan, Md Shamsuddin Sultan; Al-Rawi, Sawsan S; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Majid, Aman Shah Bin Abdul; Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih R; Ji, Dan; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO. The haematology, biochemistry and histopathology of the treated rats were evaluated. The treated rats were safe with the dose of 5000 mg/kg in acute, sub-chronic and chronic indication. Abnormal clinical signs and morphology (gross necroscopy), changes of organ weight, anomalous haematology and biochemistry indexes were not found in comparison with the control (p > 0.05). In general, food and water intake were higher in the treated rats related to control. It was concluded that the presence of the antioxidant active compounds of FVCO might be the reason of safety. The structure activity relationship (SAR) provides a comprehensive mechanism to determine the safety that is the presence of the electron donating phenolic groups, carbonyl groups, and carboxylic acid in the ortho and meta position of the aromatic rings. The SAR showed the antioxidant properties of myristic acid and lauric acid determined by GC-MS analysis. This result suggests the safety of FVCO for chronic use, nutritional activity that FVCO formulation complies the requirements of regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  10. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Coconut Fiber as a Concrete Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of conventional construction materials is the dominating factor affecting housing systems worldwide. Because of this, further research into alternative materials in construction is required. The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of concrete produced using shredded coconut fibre composites. The following percentage amounts of fibre were tested: 0 % (control, 0.6 %, and 1.8 %. The coconut fibres were cut to a certain length according to previous studies which suggested that the most ideal length is around 30 - 60mm. The test results showed that the compressive strength of concrete decreased as the percentage of total fibre in the concrete mix increased. The experimental results also showed that coconut fibre concrete performed satisfactorily in terms of crack growth in comparison to that of conventional concrete. Finally, it was concluded that the use of coconut fibres has great potential in the production of lightweight concrete or normal concrete for use in the construction of concrete structures. As coconut fibre is a natural material that is easily available and cheap, it is a particularly good, low-cost alternative. Therefore, this material has the potential to overcome the problem of escalating costs in the industry.

  11. hexane extracts of the husk of Cocos nucifera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... (Esquenazi, 2002) and in India, heating the coconut shells gives ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... sterilized molten Mueller-Hinton agar at 40°C to give final .... and 8 h, respectively, and transferred to 4.5 ml of nutrient broth.

  12. Fiber Optic Long Period Grating Based Sensor for Coconut Oil Adulteration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Libish

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and demonstration of a Long-Period Grating (LPG based optical fiber sensor for determining the adulteration of coconut oil by palm oil. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of LPG on the changes of the refractive index of the environmental medium around the cladding surface of the grating. Refractive index sensing with LPGs employs light coupling between core and cladding modes in the grating section. The transmittance spectra of a long period grating element immersed in different mixtures of coconut oil and palm oil were recorded. Results show that resonance wavelengths and transmission intensities varied as a function of the adulteration level of coconut oil. Detection limit of adulteration was found to be 2 % for coconut oil–palm oil binary mixture.

  13. Co@Co3O4 nanoparticle embedded nitrogen-doped carbon architectures as efficient bicatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chunling; Zhang, Li; Xu, Guancheng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Dianzeng

    2018-01-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play crucial roles in efficient energy conversion and storage solutions. Here, Co@Co3O4 nanoparticle embedded nitrogen-doped carbon architectures (denoted as Co@Co3O4/NCs) are prepared via a simple two-step and in situ approach by carbonization and subsequent oxidation of Co-MOF containing high contents of carbon and nitrogen. When evaluated as electrocatalyst towards both ORR and OER in a KOH electrolyte solution, the as-fabricated Co@Co3O4/NC-2 exhibits similar ORR catalytic activity to the commercial Pt/C catalyst, but superior stability and good methanol tolerance. Furthermore, the as-fabricated catalysts also show promising catalytic activity for OER. The effective catalytic activities originate from the synergistic effects between well wrapped Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles and nitrogen doped carbon structures.

  14. Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaimin, Sudiono, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose has been done. The aim of this research was to study of the effect of time and temperature to the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The various temperature of the hydrolysis process were 30 °C, 48 °C, 72 °C and 95 °C and the various time of the hydrolysis process were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 minutes. A quantitative analysis was done by measured the concentration of the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The result showed that the rate constant from the various temperature were 3.10-4 minute-1; 8.10-4 minutees-1; 84.10-4 minute-1, and 205.10-4 minute-1, and the energy activation was 7,69. 103 kJ/mol.

  15. A new estimate for present-day Cocos-Caribbean Plate motion: Implications for slip along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles

    Velocities from 153 continuously-operating GPS sites on the Caribbean, North American, and Pacific plates are combined with 61 newly estimated Pacific-Cocos seafloor spreading rates and additional marine geophysical data to derive a new estimate of present-day Cocos-Caribbean plate motion. A comparison of the predicted Cocos-Caribbean direction to slip directions of numerous shallow-thrust subduction earthquakes from the Middle America trench between Costa Rica and Guatemala shows the slip directions to be deflected 10° clockwise from the plate convergence direction, supporting the hypothesis that frequent dextral strike-slip earthquakes along the Central American volcanic arc result from partitioning of oblique Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence. Linear velocity analysis for forearc locations in Nicaragua and Guatemala predicts 14±2 mm yr-1 of northwestward trench-parallel slip of the forearc relative to the Caribbean plate, possibly decreasing in magnitude in El Salvador and Guatemala, where extension east of the volcanic arc complicates the tectonic setting.

  16. Caracterização de fibras de bananeira e de coco por ressonância magnética nuclear de alta resolução no estado sólido Characterization of banana and coconut fibers by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Albinante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de ressonância magnética nuclear, RMN, de alta resolução no estado sólido permitiu um estudo detalhado da dinâmica molecular de fibras naturais, entre elas duas obtidas a partir do tronco de bananeira e outra, da fruta do coco. Utilizou-se a técnica de relaxação nuclear para avaliar os domínios relacionados às diferentes mobilidades dos componentes dessas fibras, tais como celulose, hemicelulose e lignina. Também foram realizados testes para a quantificação do teor de lignina por método químico. A partir dos tempos de relaxação e da curva de domínios, foi possível verificar que as fibras com alto teor de lignina possuem tempos maiores de relaxação, pois esse componente da fibra apresenta uma estrutura, mais rígida, de anéis aromáticos.High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, NMR, in the solid-state permitted a detailed molecular dynamic study of natural fibers, including two obtained from the banana tree stems and from coconut fruits. The nuclear relaxation technique was applied to evaluate the domains associated with different mobilities of the fiber components, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Experiments were also done to quantify the lignin content using a chemical method. From the relaxation times and the domain curves, fibers with higher lignin content were found to have higher relaxation times, because they present a more rigid structure with aromatic groups.

  17. Variation of structures of ingredients of desiccated coconut during hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian XIONG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Owing to the high content of lignocellulose, desiccated coconut become a healthy material for dietary fiber supplementation. In this study, the changes in solubility of the fibers of desiccated coconut were evaluated. The changes of the pHs and weight losses were studied. Furthermore, variations of the ingredient structures of desiccated coconut by hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After hydrolysis 30 s, the pHs of all systems increased, while six hours later, the pH of only system with initial pH = 1.00 decreased. The decline of pH only existed in hydrolysis systems with initial pH = 1.00, there is no relevant with the quantities of desiccated coconut. The lower initial pH of hydrolysis system was, the less the intrinsic viscosity of the desiccated coconut after hydrolysis was, the small the crystallinity was. After hydrolysis, the microstructure of the desiccated coconut become looser, and the secondary structure of the coconut protein became more stable and ordered. The results suggest that the hydrolysis of desiccated coconut mainly occurred in the branched chain and the non-crystalline region of lignocellulose, which transforms some insoluble dietary fiber into soluble dietary fiber. This improves the nutritional value of desiccated coconut.

  18. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478-1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research.

  19. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  20. Effect of ethyl acetate extract from husk fiber water of Cocos nucifera in Leishmania braziliensis infected hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. C. Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment with ethyl acetate extract (EAE from husk fiber water of Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae, in L. braziliensis (Lb infected hamsters. Twelve male hamsters were randomly allocated in three groups (n=4: G1 received only EAE; G2 was infected with Lb only and G3 received EAE after Lb infection. The infection was carried 28 days prior to the treatment with EAE, which was administrated (0.2 mL, 300 mg.kg-1 for 21 consecutive days. Infection was evaluated through skin lesions and infected footpad edema. Haematological evaluation was done on -28th, 0 and 21st days. Imprint footpad and lymph node weight were evaluated on 21st day. Lb infection significantly inhibited the peripheral leukocytes blood. However, neutrophils and lymphocytes values did not have significant alterations. G3 presented eosinophilia in relation to G2. The treatment with EAE did not reduce edema of infected footpad neither weight of drainage lymph node. Infected footpad imprints revealed amastigotes forms and cellular infiltration. Animals from G3 presented skin lesions on 7th day, shown a reduction of these lesions in day 14. Therefore, the treatment with EAE did not alter the etiological agent elimination in these conditions. However, EAE presents a healing activity in this experimental model.

  1. Removal of toxic Congo red dye from water employing low-cost coconut residual fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K C; Naik, Aduja; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-05-01

    The coconut residual fiber (CRF) is the major byproduct obtained during production of virgin coconut oil. Its application as a biosorbent for adsorption of Congo red was investigated. The CRF was subjected to different pretreatments, namely, pressure cooking, hexane treatment, acid treatment and their combinations. The pretreatment of CRF with the combination of hexane, acid, and pressure cooking resulted in the highest degree of adsorption. The equilibrium data were analyzed and found to fit best to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (ΔG 0 kJ mol -1 ), standard enthalpy (ΔH 0 , kJ mol -1 ) and standard entropy (ΔS 0 , kJ mol -1 K -1 ) of the systems were calculated by using the Langmuir constant. The ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 were found to be 16.51 kJ mol -1 , -19.39 kJ mol -1 and -0.12 kJ mol -1 K -1 , respectively, at 300 K. These thermodynamic parameters suggest the present adsorption process to be non-spontaneous and exothermic. The adsorption process was observed to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggest that CRF has potential to be a biosorbent for the removal of hazardous material (Congo red dye) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 128.94 mg g -1 at 300 K.

  2. Gamma ray attenuation studies on concrete reinforced with coconut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnu, C.V.; Antony, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The fact that radiation could be harmful has led to the development of wide variety of shields to protect against it. For nuclear radiation shielding, a larger quantity of shielding material is required and therefore, the study of propagation of radiation flux in shielding materials is an essential requirement for shield design. Concrete has proven to be an excellent and versatile shielding material with well-established linear attenuation for neutrons and gamma rays. Coconut being naturally available, it can be used readily in concrete, still maintaining almost all the qualities of the original form of concrete. Concrete obtained using coconut shell as a coarse aggregate satisfies the requirements of concrete. Coconut shell aggregate possess acceptable strength which is required for structural concrete

  3. Development of Coconut Trunk Fiber Geopolymer Hybrid Composite for Structural Engineering Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, F.; Akifah, N.; Nurfadilla; Subaer

    2017-03-01

    A research on the influence of coconut fiber trunk on mechanical properties based on fly ash has been conducted. The aims of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of geopolymer composites by varrying the concentration of coconut trunk fiber. Geopolymer synthesized by alkali activated (NaOH+H2O+Na2O.3SiO2) and cured at the temperature 700C for one hour. Specimens were synthesized into 5 different mass of fiber 0 g, 0.25 g, 0.50 g, 0.75 g, and 1.00 g keeping fly ash constant. The highest compressive strength was 89.44 MPa for specimen added with 0.50 g of fiber. The highest flexural strength was 7.64 MPa for the same sample. The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the matrix of geopolymers and coconut fiber was conducted by using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The chemical composition of the specimen was examined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of coconut fiber trunk was analyzed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It was found that coconut fiber was able to improve the mechanical and microstructure properties of geopolymers composites.

  4. Use of array of conducting polymers for differentiation of coconut oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rañola, Rey Alfred G; Santiago, Karen S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2016-01-01

    An array of chemiresistors based on conducting polymers was assembled for the differentiation of coconut oil products. The chemiresistor sensors were fabricated through the potentiostatic electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANi), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (P-3MTp) on the gap separating two planar gold electrodes set on a Teflon substrate. The change in electrical resistance of the sensors was measured and observed after exposing the array to the headspace of oil samples. The sensor response was found rapid, reversible and reproducible. Different signals were obtained for each coconut oil sample and pattern recognition techniques were employed for the analysis of the data. The developed system was able to distinguish virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached & deodorised coconut oil (RBDCO), flavoured VCO, homemade VCO, and rancid VCO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Ascending Flaccid Paralysis Secondary to Multiple Trigger Factor Induced Hyperkalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. D. Thilini Hemachandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute flaccid paralysis is an uncommon, but potentially life threatening, sequel of severe hyperkalemia. Reported primary aetiologies include renal failure, Addison’s disease, potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and dietary excess. Coconut water, when consumed in excess, has been reported to cause severe hyperkalemia. We report the case of acute ascending flaccid paralysis secondary to hyperkalemia induced by multiple trigger factors—king coconut water, renal failure, diabetes, metabolic acidosis, and potassium sparing diuretics. Case Presentation. A 78-year-old man presented with acute ascending type flaccid paralysis over five-hour duration and subsequently developed preterminal cardiac arrhythmias secondary to severe hyperkalemia (serum potassium: 7.02 mEq/L. He was on Losartan and Spironolactone for ischemic heart disease. Dietary history revealed excessive intake of king coconut water (Cocos nucifera over past one week. Electrocardiogram returned to normal rhythm and serum potassium was 6.1 mEq/L within 2 hours of institution of emergency management for life threatening hyperkalemia. Neurological symptoms completely recovered within twenty-four hours without the need for dialysis. Electromyogram three days after the initial presentation revealed normal findings. Conclusions. The report describes a rare case of secondary hyperkalemic flaccid paralysis induced by multiple trigger factors. It is important that patients with risk factors for hyperkalemia are educated regarding avoiding excess dietary potassium. Regular follow-up of these patients is mandatory with review of medication related side effects and serum electrolytes.

  6. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilayaraja Muthuramu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05 in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64 during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold (p < 0.01 higher in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density (p < 0.001 was decreased, interstitial fibrosis was 1.88-fold (p < 0.001 higher, and systolic and diastolic function was worse in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold (p < 0.001 higher in coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower (p < 0.05 in coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  7. Nutritional evaluation of structured lipid containing omega 6 fatty acid synthesized from coconut oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-06-01

    Coconut oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids, but deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Structured lipids (SL) enriched with omega 6 PUFA were synthesized from coconut oil triglycerides by employing enzymatic acidolysis with free fatty acids obtained from safflower oil. Rats were fed a diet containing coconut oil, coconut oil-safflower oil blend (1:0.7 w/ w) or structured lipid at 10% levels for a period of 60 days. The SL lowered serum cholesterol levels by 10.3 and 10.5% respectively in comparison with those fed coconut oil and blended oil. Similarly the liver cholesterol levels were also decreased by 35.9 and 26.6% respectively in animals fed structured lipids when compared to those fed on coconut oil or the blended oil. Most of the decrease observed in serum cholesterol levels of animals fed structured lipids was found in LDL fraction. The triglyceride levels in serum showed a decrease by 17.5 and 17.4% while in the liver it was reduced by 45.8 and 23.5% in the structured lipids fed animals as compared to those fed coconut oil or blended oil respectively. Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated that structured lipids had lower melting points and solid fat content when compared to coconut oil or blended oils. These studies indicated that enrichment of coconut oil triglycerides with omega 6 fatty acids lowers its solid fat content. The omega 6 PUFA enriched structured lipids also exhibited hypolipidemic activity.

  8. Apendicularias (Urochordata y quetognatos (Chaetognatha del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Castellanos-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las apendicularias y quetognatos son miembros importantes del zooplancton pero poco estudiados en Costa Rica y no del todo en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacífico tropical este. Se recolectaron muestras epipelágicas de zooplancton de la zona oceánica (0-50m de la Isla del Coco, en noviembre de 2001 y sobre parches arrecifales en 2009. Se analizó la composición de especies de apendicularias y quetognatos presentes en 31 muestras. Nueve especies de apendicularias, y ocho especies de quetognatos fueron identificadas. Oikopleura longicauda fue la más abundante en el área estudiada (217organismos, representando el 65.56% del número total de apendicularias, seguida por Oikopleura rufescens, con 35 (10.57%. Todas las especies de apendicularias encontradas en este estudio son comunes en las aguas cálidas de los océanos, seis especies se registran aquí por primera vez en aguas de la Isla del Coco y dos son nuevos registros para Costa Rica. Entre los quetognatos, Flaccisagitta enflata fue la especie más común (85 ejemplares, representando el 50.6% del número total registrada en este estudio, seguida por Serratosagitta pacifica con 38 organismos (20.62%. Zonosagitta bedoti estuvó representada por un solo espécimen. Estas especies también se han registrado en las aguas tropicales del Pacífico oriental, pero seis especies son nuevos registros para Isla del Coco. Los datos sobre la distribución y morfología de las especies registradas se presentan junto con las claves para la identificación de los taxones en el área estudiada.

  9. Fruit Setting Under Controlled Natural Cross Pollination In Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties, West African Tall (WAT), Malayan Green Dwarf (MGD), Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD) and Malayan Red Dwarf (MRD), planted in the Main Station of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) near Benin City, in an ...

  10. Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Domnina Bote Pestaño

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The reserves of non-renewable energy sources such as coal, crude oil and natural gas are not limitless, they gradually get exhausted and their price continually increases. In the last four decades, researchers have been focusing on alternate fuel resources to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to avoid dependence on crude oil. Amongst different sources of renewable energy, biomass residues hold special promise due to their inherent capability to store solar energy and amenability to subsequent conversion to convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. At present, among the coconut farm wastes such as husks, shell, coir dust and coconut leaves, the latter is considered the most grossly under-utilized by in situ burning in the coconut farm as means of disposal. In order to utilize dried coconut leaves and to improve its biomass properties, this research attempts to produce solid fuel by torrefaction using dried coconut leaves for use as alternative source of energy. Torrefaction is a thermal method for the conversion of biomass operating in the low temperature range of 200oC-300oC under atmospheric conditions in absence of oxygen. Dried coconut leaves were torrefied at different feedstock conditions. The key torrefaction products were collected and analyzed. Physical and combustion characteristics of both torrefied and untorrefied biomass were investigated. Torrefaction of dried coconut leaves significantly improved the heating value compared to that of the untreated biomass.  Proximate compositions of the torrefied biomass also improved and were comparable to coal. The distribution of the products of torrefaction depends highly on the process conditions such as torrefaction temperature and residence time. Physical and combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass were superior making it more suitable for fuel applications. Article History: Received June 24th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted 27th 2016; Available

  11. De novo analysis of Wolfiporia cocos transcriptome to reveal the differentially expressed carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes genes during the early stage of sclerotial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The sclerotium of Wolfiporia cocos has been used as an edible mushroom and/or a traditional herbal medicine for centuries. W. cocos sclerotial formation is dependent on parasitism of the wood of Pinus species. Currently, the sclerotial development mechanisms of W. cocos remain largely unknown and the lack of pine resources limit the commercial production. The CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes play important roles in degradation of the plant cell wall to provide carbohydrates for fungal growth, development and reproduction. In this study, the transcript profiles from W. cocos mycelium and two-months-old sclerotium, the early stage of sclerotial growth, were specially analyzed using de novo sequencing technology. A total of 142,428,180 high-quality reads of mycelium and 70,594,319 high-quality reads of two-months-old sclerotium were obtained. Additionally, differentially expressed genes from the W. cocos mycelium and two-months-old sclerotium stages were analyzed, resulting in identification of 69 CAZymes genes which were significantly up-regulated during the early stage of sclerotial growth compared to that of in mycelium stage, and more than half of them belonged to glycosyl hydrolases (GHs family, indicating the importance of W. cocos GHs family for degrading the pine woods. And qRT-PCR was further used to confirm the expression pattern of these up-regulated CAZymes genes. Our results will provide comprehensive CAZymes genes expression information during W. cocos sclerotial growth at the transcriptional level and will lay a foundation for functional genes studies in this fungus. In addition, our study will also facilitate the efficient use of limited pine resources, which is significant for promoting steady development of Chinese W. cocos industry.

  12. Production of Methyl Laurate from Coconut Cream through Fractionation of Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P. Sitompul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the production of methyl laurate from coconut cream through fractionation of methyl esters. Coconut oil was produced by wet processing of coconut cream. The esters were prepared by reacting coconut oil and methanol using homogeneous catalyst KOH in a batch reactor, followed by fractionation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME at various reduced pressures applying differential batch vacuum distillation. Experimental data were compared with simulation of a batch distillation employing the simple Raoult’s model and modified Raoult’s model of phase equilibria. Activity coefficients (γi were determined by optimization to refine the models. The modified Rault’s model with activity coefficients gave better agreement with the experimental data, giving the value of γi between 0,56-0,73. For a given boiling temperature, lower operating pressure produced higher purity of C10 and C12 FAME for respective distillates.

  13. KAJIAN PELEPAH KELAPA SEBAGAI SERAT KOMPOSIT (STUDY OF COCONUT BRANCH AS COMPOSITE FIBER)

    OpenAIRE

    Seno Darmanto; Windu Sediono; Bambang Setyoko; Murni Murni

    2012-01-01

    Research is done to analyze coconut branch fiber as car body composite. Analyzing is based onmaterial, composition, and strength of material. Research was done in laboratory. Coconut branchfiber is obtained by natural drying process and cutting to become fiber with ±0,5 mm of length.Reinforcement and binder is determined polyester resin. Coir (coconut fiber) have 1.15 kg/m3 ofdensity, 1.15 MPa of strength dan modulus elastisitas 4 – 6 GPa. And based on specimen and studyof litera...

  14. Adsorption of gold onto γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane grafted coconut pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, M.; Akhtar, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate adsorption kinetic and adsorption thermodynamics of Au(III) ions onto γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane grafted coconut pith. The results from equilibrium adsorption were fitted in various adsorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich and the best fit for the experimental data was Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for virgin coconut pith (VCP) and the grafted coconut pith (GCP) were 256.41 and 285.59 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data was verified using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion model. The correlation results suggested that the pseudo-second-order model fits the experimental data well. A thermodynamic study revealed the endothermic nature of reaction due to positive enthalpy (?Ho) values and negative values of Gibbs free energy (?Go) describes the spontaneity of adsorption process. The regenerability of VCP and GCP adsorbents were investigated with NaOH (1.0 M).

  15. Extraction and Characterization of Nano cellulose from Coconut Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Liyana Ahmad; Ishak Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Coconut husk fibers has been modified by some chemical treatments to extract cellulose nano crystals (CNC), which are alkali treatment, bleaching and acid hydrolysis using concentrated sulphuric acid. The effect of the treatments on the coconut husk fibers has been analysed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Meanwhile, the morphology observation and thermal stability of the fiber have been analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. The analyses show that the chemical modification could eliminate some of the lignin and hemicelluloses of the fiber. Nano cellulose extracted from acid hydrolysis has been analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to define the size of extracted nano cellulose. The cellulose nano crystals from coconut fibre has the average diameter and length in the range 13.7±6.2 nm and 172.3±8.4 nm, respectively. The obtained nano cellulose may have the potential applications in the fields of biomedical, oil adsorption, membrane, pharmaceutical and bio composites. (author)

  16. STUDY ON IMPACT AND TENSILE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH COCONUT SHELL AS COARSE AGGREGATE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ranjith*

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of coconut shell aggregate concrete (CSAC) namely splitting tensile strength, impact strength have been determined and a comparison is made with conventional granite aggregate concrete (CGAC) in the 30 days short-term experimental investigation. From the test results it is observed that coconut shell aggregate concrete has considerably sufficient strength. But the splitting tensile strength of coconut shell aggregate concrete is 50 % less than that of conventional gr...

  17. Production of mutants by irradiation of in vitro-cultured tissues of coconut and banana and their mass propagation by the tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, E.V. de; Rosario, A.G. del; Pagcaliwagan, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Regeneration of buds/shoots as well as plantlets was induced from banana shoot tip explants cultured in highly modified Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with coconut water and benzyladenine. Initially shoot regeneration was sparse, but on further subculture became profuse. Gamma irradiation at low dosage (1.0 kR) was stimulating to explant growth and bud formation with the two types of explants used. With Bungulan stimulation was observed even at 2.5 kR. Several morphological aberrations were exhibited by shoots of 'irradiated' in vitro plants growing in potted soil. A highly and continuously proliferating tissue strain has been isolated from a subculture which was ultimately derived from an irradiated explant. Its continued proliferation is dependent on an external supply of coconut water and benzyladenine. In vitro-produced plants have been established under field conditions. The 'irradiated' plants are comparable with, and some seem to be better than, the unirradiated controls with respect to height, girth, sucker production and number of hands and fingers per bunch. Higher doses of irradiation are required to produce an adverse effect on growth of coconut embryos during the liquid culture than when growing in solid medium. (author)

  18. Caractérisation Physico-Chimique de l'Amande d'Hybride de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilisée en biscuiterie, pâtisserie et savonnerie comme le PB 121 ordinaire. Mots clés: Cocotier, hybride, vitroculture, amande, caractéristique. Abstract. Chemical and physical characterization of kernel from coconut hybrid PB 121 (Cocos nucifera L.) regenerated by in vitro culture at different storage duration and mature ...

  19. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age

  20. Distribution and ratios of 137Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Brown, Patrick H.; Stone, Earl L.; Hamilton, Terry F.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low, ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg -1 . When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of 137 Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, 137 Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while 137 Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K-treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally low concentrations. However, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while 137 Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 (2.2 kg). Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K-fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). The 137 Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K-treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and 137 Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and 137 Cs in fronds as they age is logarithmic, but K

  1. Performance of non-coconut base adsorbers in removal of iodine and organic iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, R.D.; Pasha, M.; Fowler, E.E.; Goldsmith, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Systems for the removal of radioactive iodine and organic iodides have used impregnated coconut shell activated carbons almost exclusively. Coconut shell carbons have some disadvantages: their geographical origin determines their trace chemical content; pore structures and impregnant effectiveness are highly dependent on activation and impregnation techniques. The authors report laboratory performance of a group of iodine-organic iodide adsorbers using bases other than coconut shell carbon. These have been evaluated in conformity with USAEC Regulatory Guide 1.52 and RDT M16 1T. Performance with regard to 131 I 2 and CH 3 131 I penetration and high-temperature elution have equaled or exceeded both the requirements of Guide 1.52 and results on typical coconut-shell carbons. Some performance outside Guide 1.52 ranges is included. Experimental problems in simulated LOCA testing are discussed. (U.S.)

  2. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, M.A; Masjuki, H.H.; Maleque, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NO x , smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity potentials of husk fiber extracts from Cocos nucifera, a medicinal plant used in Nigeria to treat human malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, J O; Santana, A E G; Krettli, A U

    2012-03-01

    Nigeria is an African country where transmission of malaria occurs all year round and where most inhabitants use plants as remedies against parasitic diseases, including malaria. Some of such medicinal plants have their antimalarial efficacies already demonstrated experimentally, active compounds isolated and the mechanism of drug action suggested. Decoction of Cocos nucifera husk is used in the middle belt region of Nigeria as an antimalarial remedy. In our current studies, we tested extracts from husks of four varieties of C. nucifera, all collected in Brazil, where the plant fruit is popularly named 'coco'. The husks of coco mestiço, amarelo, anão and gigante collected in the Northeast of Brazil were used to prepare extracts at the Chemistry Department, Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), which were then tested for their antiplasmodial activities, cytotoxicities and hemolytic activities in vitro. Only the hexane extract of coco mestiço was active against the blood forms of Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite maintained in continuous culture. Most extracts presented selectivity indices of coco mestiço had a selectivity index of 35, meaning that the extract is not toxic. The isolation of the active compounds from coco mestiço husks has not yet been done.

  4. Sensory evaluation of gamma irradiated coconut cream powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Norimah Yusof; Zainab Harun

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation (5, 10 and 15kGy) and storage on the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. Ageing process was achieved using GEER oven at 60 degree C for seven days, which is equivalent to one-year storage at room temperature. The sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the level of acceptance on four parameters, namely odour, colour, creamy taste and overall acceptance. Twenty (20) taste panelists gave their score from scale] (least acceptable) to 5 (most acceptable). The results showed that there was a significant different (P 0. 05) in all the sensory properties. The sensory evaluation of stored samples showed that there was significant different (P>0.05) in odour, creamy taste, colour and overall acceptance compared to the control. Based on the overall acceptance, gamma irradiation as low as 5 kGy could affect the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. The possibility of using doses lower than 5 kGy for decontamination of coconut cream powder could be considered in the future study. The irradiated product was not acceptable after one-year storage. (Author)

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