WorldWideScience

Sample records for coconut tree cocos

  1. Estimating the total leaf area of the green dwarf coconut tree (Cocos nucifera L.

    Sousa Elias Fernandes de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area has significant effect on tree transpiration, and its measurement is important to many study areas. This work aimed at developing a non-destructive, practical, and empirical method to estimate the total leaf area of green dwarf coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. in plantations located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A mathematical model was developed to estimate total leaf area values (TLA as function of the average lengths of the last three leaf raquis (LR3, and of the number of leaves in the canopy (NL. The model has satisfactory degree of accuracy for agricultural engineering purposes.

  2. The genome draft of coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Xiao, Yong; Xu, Pengwei; Fan, Haikuo; Baudouin, Luc; Xia, Wei; Bocs, Stéphanie; Xu, Junyang; Li, Qiong; Guo, Anping; Zhou, Lixia; Li, Jing; Wu, Yi; Ma, Zilong; Armero, Alix; Issali, Auguste Emmanuel; Liu, Na; Peng, Ming; Yang, Yaodong

    2017-11-01

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera,2n = 32), a member of genus Cocos and family Arecaceae (Palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares [1]. Coconut palm is generally classified into 2 main categories: "Tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "Dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years after planting), based on morphological characteristics and breeding habits. This Palmae species has a long growth period before reproductive years, which hinders conventional breeding progress. In spite of initial successes, improvements made by conventional breeding have been very slow. In the present study, we obtained de novo sequences of the Cocos nucifera genome: a major genomic resource that could be used to facilitate molecular breeding in Cocos nucifera and accelerate the breeding process in this important crop. A total of 419.67 gigabases (Gb) of raw reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform using a series of paired-end and mate-pair libraries, covering the predicted Cocos nucifera genome length (2.42 Gb, variety "Hainan Tall") to an estimated ×173.32 read depth. A total scaffold length of 2.20 Gb was generated (N50 = 418 Kb), representing 90.91% of the genome. The coconut genome was predicted to harbor 28 039 protein-coding genes, which is less than in Phoenix dactylifera (PDK30: 28 889), Phoenix dactylifera (DPV01: 41 660), and Elaeis guineensis (EG5: 34 802). BUSCO evaluation demonstrated that the obtained scaffold sequences covered 90.8% of the coconut genome and that the genome annotation was 74.1% complete. Genome annotation results revealed that 72.75% of the coconut genome consisted of transposable elements, of which long-terminal repeat retrotransposons elements (LTRs) accounted for the largest proportion (92.23%). Comparative analysis of the

  3. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.

    DebMandal, Manisha; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-03-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. EXPLOITING A BENEFIT OF COCONUT MILK SKIM IN COCONUT OIL PROCESS AS NATA DE COCO SUBSTRATE

    Setiaji, Bambang; Setyopratiwi, Ani; Cahyandaru, Nahar

    2010-01-01

    A research to know influence of mixing concentration of coconut water and sucrose concentration to coconut milk skim as nata de coco substrate has been conducted. The variation was taken from mixing coconut water (0%, 25%, 35% and 50% and 100% as control) and the sucrose concentration (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%). Coconut milk skim boiled before used as substrat, yielded a coconut protein (blondo). The result of research showed that coconut milk skim can be used as nata de coco substrate with mixi...

  5. Complete sequence and comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2013-01-01

    Coconut, a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important trees used by mankind. Despite its diverse morphology, coconut is recognized taxonomically as only a single species (Cocos nucifera L.). There are two major coconut varieties, tall and dwarf, the latter of which displays traits resulting from selection by humans. We report here the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of a dwarf coconut plant, and describe the gene content and organization, inverted repeat fluctuations, repeated sequence structure, and occurrence of RNA editing. Phylogenetic relationships of monocots were inferred based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes. Potential nodes for events of gene duplication and pseudogenization related to inverted repeat fluctuation were mapped onto the tree using parsimony criteria. We compare our findings with those from other palm species for which complete cp genome sequences are available.

  6. Germination response of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo

    The study investigated the effects of liquid and solid media in the propagation of coconut (Cocos nucifera) zygotic embryos at initiation stage. Eeuwen's medium supplemented with growth hormones naphthalene acetic acid ( NAA) and indole butyric acid (IBA) at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5mg/l) were ...

  7. Germination response of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effects of liquid and solid media in the propagation of coconut (Cocos nucifera) zygotic embryos at initiation stage. Eeuwen's medium supplemented with growth hormones naphthalene acetic acid ( NAA) and indole butyric acid (IBA) at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and ...

  8. Development of Young Coconut (Cocos nucifera Wine

    Polemer M. Cuarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop wine from young coconut water. This investigated the acceptability of the quality attributes of young coconut wine compared with commercial wine. Using a 5 - point hedonic scale, sensory evaluation test was done by the panelists (N=30 to evaluate the accep tability of the product quality attributes such as color, aroma and taste. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that young coconut wine has a pale light color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Results also showed that panelists choose the color and tast e of the young coconut wine as its desirable attributes. Statistical analysis (p<0.05 showed significant difference in the color and aroma between young coconut wine and commercial wine but no significant difference in terms of taste.

  9. Crystal Structure of Cocosin, A Potential Food Allergen from Coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Cao, Min-Jie; Fu, Tong-Jen; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yuzhu

    2017-08-30

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is an important palm tree. Coconut fruit is widely consumed. The most abundant storage protein in coconut fruit is cocosin (a likely food allergen), which belongs to the 11S globulin family. Cocosin was crystallized near a century ago, but its structure remains unknown. By optimizing crystallization conditions and cryoprotectant solutions, we were able to obtain cocosin crystals that diffracted to 1.85 Å. The cocosin gene was cloned from genomic DNA isolated from dry coconut tissue. The protein sequence deduced from the predicted cocosin coding sequence was used to guide model building and structure refinement. The structure of cocosin was determined for the first time, and it revealed a typical 11S globulin feature of a double layer doughnut-shaped hexamer.

  10. Cultivo de Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae em substratos a base de coco Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae cultivation in coconut-based substrates

    Adriane Marinho de Assis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os substratos utilizados no cultivo de orquídeas, a fibra de coco vem se destacando como promissor substituto do xaxim, material utilizado por muitos produtores e colecionadores de orquídeas, porém ameaçado de extinção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de coco, no cultivo da orquídea Oncidium baueri. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 50% de luminosidade. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de xaxim desfibrado, coco desfibrado, coco em pó, coco desfibrado + coco em pó, coxim (coco em cubos, coxim + coco em pó e coxim + coco desfibrado. Após dezenove meses, foram avaliadas as variáveis: altura das plantas, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos, comprimento da maior raiz, massa seca das raízes, número de brotações e pH dos substratos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições. Para todas as variáveis avaliadas, os substratos coco em pó e a mistura de coco desfibrado com coco em pó mostraram-se tão eficientes ao desenvolvimento das plantas quanto o xaxim desfibrado, podendo substituí-lo no cultivo de O. baueri.Among the several substrates used in orchid growing, coconut fiber is being considered the most promising substitute for xaxim (tree fern fiber, material highly used by orchid growers and collectors, which has become endangered. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of coconut-based substrates in the cultivation of the Brazilian orchid Oncidium baueri. Seedlings were grown in polypropylene vases kept in a nursery with 50% of lighting. Treatments included: defibered tree fern (control, de-fibered coconut, coconut powder, de-fibered coconut + coconut powder, coxim (diced coconut., coxim + coconut powder and coxim + de-fibered coconut. Plant height, pseudo bulbs diameter, number of buds, root dry matter weight, root length and pH substrate were evaluated 19 months

  11. Coconut (Cocos nucifera l.) pollen cryopreservation.

    Karun, A; Sjini, K K; Niral, V; Amarnth, C H; Remya, P; Rajesh, M K; Samsudeen, K; Jerard, B A; Engelmann, F

    2014-01-01

    Coconut genetic resources are threatened by pests and pathogens, natural hazards and human activities. Cryopreservation is the only method allowing the safe and cost-effective long-term conservation of recalcitrant seed species such as coconut. The objective of this work was to test the effect of cryopreservation and of cryostorage duration on coconut pollen germination and fertility. Pollen of two coconut varieties (West Coast Tall WWCTW and Chowghat Orange Dwarf CODC) was collected in March-May over three successive years, desiccated to 7.5 % moisture content (FW) and cryopreserved by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Germination and pollen tube length (PTL) of desiccated and cryopreserved pollen were not significantly different for both WCT and COD over the three harvest months of the three consecutive years of study. Pollen germination ranged from 24 to 32 % in desiccated pollen whereas it was between 26 and 29 % in cryopreserved COD pollen. In the case of WCT, germination ranged from 30 to 31 % in desiccated pollen, while it was between 28 and 32 % in cryopreserved pollen. PTL of cryopreserved pollen ranged between 224-390 nm and 226-396 mm for COD and WCT, respectively. Germination of COD pollen varied between 29.0 and 44.1 % after 4 years and 1.0/1.5 years cryostorage, respectively. Germination of WCT pollen did not change significantly between 0 and 6 years cryostorage, being comprised between 32 (24 h) and 40 % (1.5 years). Germination and vigour of cryopreserved pollen were generally higher compared to that of pollen dried in oven and non-cryopreserved. Normal seed set was observed in COD and WCT palms using pollen cryostored for 6 months and 4 years. Cryopreserved pollen of five Tall and five Dwarf accessions displayed 24-31 % and 25-49 % germination, respectively. These results show that it is now possible to establish pollen cryobanks to contribute to coconut germplasm long-term conservation.

  12. Tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions for the improvement of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): a review.

    Nguyen, Quang Thien; Bandupriya, H D Dharshani; López-Villalobos, Arturo; Sisunandar, S; Foale, Mike; Adkins, Steve W

    2015-11-01

    The present review discusses not only advances in coconut tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions but also future research directions toward the resilience of this important palm crop. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is commonly known as the 'tree of life'. Every component of the palm can be used to produce items of value and many can be converted into industrial products. Coconut cultivation faces a number of acute problems that reduce its productivity and competitiveness. These problems include various biotic and abiotic challenges as well as an unstable market for its traditional oil-based products. Around 10 million small-holder farmers cultivate coconut palms worldwide on c. 12 million hectares of land, and many more people own a few coconut palms that contribute to their livelihoods. Inefficiency in the production of seedlings for replanting remains an issue; however, tissue culture and other biotechnological interventions are expected to provide pragmatic solutions. Over the past 60 years, much research has been directed towards developing and improving protocols for (i) embryo culture; (ii) clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis; (iii) homozygote production via anther culture; (iv) germplasm conservation via cryopreservation; and (v) genetic transformation. Recently other advances have revealed possible new ways to improve these protocols. Although effective embryo culture and cryopreservation are now possible, the limited frequency of conversion of somatic embryos to ex vitro seedlings still prevents the large-scale clonal propagation of coconut. This review illustrates how our knowledge of tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions in coconut has so far developed. Further improvement of protocols and their application to a wider range of germplasm will continue to open up new horizons for the collection, conservation, breeding and productivity of coconut.

  13. Biochemical and nutritional characterization of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) haustorium.

    Manivannan, Arivalagan; Bhardwaj, Rakesh; Padmanabhan, Sugatha; Suneja, Poonam; Hebbar, K B; Kanade, Santosh R

    2018-01-01

    Study was conducted to determine the biochemical constituents in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) haustorium, a spongy tissue formed during coconut germination. Results indicated that 100g of dried coconut haustorium contained 1.05±0.2% ash, 44.2±4.6% soluble sugar, 24.5±3.2% starch, 5.50±0.3% protein, 1.99±0.9% fat, 5.72±0.4% soluble dietary fibre, 20.3±1.9% insoluble dietary fibre, and 146±14.3mg phenolics. Mineral profiling showed that it contained 145±8.6, 104±9.6, 33.9±8.2, 30.9±1.9, 9.45±2.1, 0.292±0.1, 2.53±0.2 and 1.20±0.1mg of K, Mg, Ca, P, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, respectively. Antioxidant activity assay indicated that 100g haustorium was equivalent to 1918±173, 170±20.4, 72.8±14.7 and 860±116mg of Trolox as measured by CUPRAC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Amino acid score indicated that methionine+cysteine (57.6%), phenylalanine+tyrosine (32.6%), leucine (45.7%) and isoleucine (68%) are found less in haustorium. Further studies needed in developing nutritionally balanced formulations using coconut haustorium, which will be useful for lactose intolerant children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Whole-plant adjustments in coconut (Cocos nucifera) in response to sink-source imbalance.

    Mialet-Serra, I; Clement-Vidal, A; Roupsard, O; Jourdan, C; Dingkuhn, M

    2008-08-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial tropical monocotyledon that produces fruit continuously. The physiological function of the large amounts of sucrose stored in coconut stems is unknown. To test the hypothesis that reserve storage and mobilization enable the crop to adjust to variable sink-source relationships at the scale of the whole plant, we investigated the dynamics of dry matter production, yield and yield components, and concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in a coconut plantation on Vanuatu Island in the South Pacific. Two treatments were implemented continuously over 29 months (April 2002 to August 2004): 50% leaf pruning (to reduce the source) and 100% fruit and inflorescence pruning (to reduce the sink). The pruning treatments had little effect on carbohydrate reserves because they affected only petioles, not the main reserve pool in the stem. Both pruning treatments greatly reduced dry matter production of the reproductive compartment, but vegetative growth and development were negligibly affected by treatment and season. Leaf pruning increased radiation-use efficiency (RUE) initially, and fruit pruning greatly reduced RUE throughout the experiment. Changes in RUE were negatively correlated with leaflet soluble sugar concentration, indicating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. We conclude that vegetative development and growth of coconut show little phenotypic plasticity, assimilate demand for growth being largely independent of a fluctuating assimilate supply. The resulting sink-source imbalances were partly compensated for by transitory reserves and, more importantly, by variable RUE in the short term, and by adjustment of fruit load in the long term. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed, as well as modeling concepts that may be applied to coconut and similar tree crops.

  15. Single base substitution causing the fragrant phenotype and development of a type-specific marker in aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Vongvanrungruang, A; Mongkolsiriwatana, C; Boonkaew, T; Sawatdichaikul, O; Srikulnath, K; Peyachoknagul, S

    2016-09-19

    The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2. The ring side chain of proline could destabilize the structure leading to a non-functional enzyme. Badh2 genomic DNA was cloned from exon 1 to 4, and from exon 5 to 15 from the two coconut types, except for intron 4 that was very long. The intron sequences of the two coconut groups were highly homologous. No differences in Badh2 expression were found among the tissues of aromatic coconut or between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The amino acid sequences of BADH2 from coconut and other plants were compared and the genetic relationship was analyzed using MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the Bayesian information criterion consisted of two distinct groups of monocots and dicots. Among the monocots, coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were the most closely related species. A marker for coconut differentiation was developed from one-base substitution site and could be successfully used.

  16. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  17. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) habitat at Palmyra Atoll.

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Hathaway, Stacie A; Wegmann, Alex S; Shipley, Frank S; Backlin, Adam R; Helm, Joel; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-02-01

    Black rats ( Rattus rattus ) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59%) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll.

  18. Antiulcerogenic effects of coconut (Cocos nucifera) extract in rats.

    Nneli, R O; Woyike, O A

    2008-07-01

    A warm water crude extract of coconut milk and a coconut water dispersion were investigated for their antiulcerogenic effects in male Wistar albino rats. Ulcers were induced in the male rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg) using standard procedures. The ulcer inhibition rate (UIR) was taken as a measure of the cytoprotection offered by test substances. Coconut milk (2 mL daily oral feeding) produced a stronger percentage (54%) reduction in the mean ulcer area than coconut water (39%). The effect of coconut milk was similar to the effect of sucralfate that reduced the mean ulcer area by 56% in this study. Sucralfate is a conventional cytoprotective agent. The results showed that coconut milk and water via macroscopic observation had protective effects on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. It is concluded that coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.

  19. Germination response of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryo ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    mainly for the soap industry, cosmetics, and candle wax (Campbell et al., 2000). Coconut cultivars are ... In addition, a number of aging coconut plantations are now being uprooted in order to make way for the planting of more portable crops (Muhammed, 2013). Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement efficient.

  20. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L. in the old world tropics.

    Bee F Gunn

    Full Text Available As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L. played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  1. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the old world tropics.

    Gunn, Bee F; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  3. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  4. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro culture of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos.

    Engelmann, Florent; Malaurie, Bernard; N'Nan, Oulo

    2011-01-01

    Coconut is a very important crop for millions of people in tropical countries. With coconut, in vitro culture protocols have been developed with two main objectives, viz. the large scale production of particular types of coconuts and the international exchange and conservation of coconut germplasm. The methods described in this chapter have been developed in the framework of collaborative activities between research institutes in Côte d'Ivoire and France. Two coconut embryo in vitro collecting protocols have been established, one consisting of storing the disinfected embryos in a KCl solution until they are brought back to the laboratory, where they are re-disinfected and inoculated in vitro under sterile conditions, and the other including in vitro inoculation of the embryos in the field. For international germplasm exchange, zygotic embryos inoculated in vitro in plastic test tubes or endosperm cylinders containing embryos in plastic bags are used. For in vitro culture, embryos are inoculated on semi-solid medium supplemented with sucrose and activated charcoal and placed in the dark, and then transferred to light conditions with the same (solid or liquid) medium once the first true leaf is visible and the root system has started developing.

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Protein Fractions.

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Yajun; Zhang, Yufeng; Xu, Jianguo; Gao, Gang

    2018-03-20

    Coconut cake is an abundant and good potential edible protein source. However, until now it has not been extensively used in the food industry. To promote its usage, the characterization, nutrition value and antioxidant activity of coconut cake protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2) were studied. Results revealed that all the albumin, globulin, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 fractions showed a high nutrition value. The prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 all exhibited good radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the globulin and prolamine showed high ion chelating ability (89.14-80.38%). Moreover, all the fractions except glutelin-2 could effectively protect DNA against oxidative damage. Several peptides containing five to eight amino acids with antioxidant activity were also identified by LC-MS/MS from the globulin and glutelin-2 fractions. The results demonstrated that the coconut cake protein fractions have potential usages in functional foods.

  7. Shelf life studies of oil samples of coconut ( Cocos nucifera ) in Ghana

    Two samples A and B of the oil of coconut (Cocos nucifera) were stored for 3 months under ambient conditions (24-28 oC). The changes in the levels of free fatty acid and peroxide values were monitored at monthly intervals in the 3-month period. During this period, the free fatty acid (calculated as lauric acid) rose from 0.2 ...

  8. Characteristics of lipase isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera linn ...

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Lipase from coconut plant grown under complete nutrient conditions showed ... 35°C and had a broad optimum pH of 7.5 – 8.5. Key words: Lipase .... inhibited by the ex- cess of substrate concentration or change of physio-.

  9. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Masa, Dina B

    2003-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. The significantly low-GI (cake (GI 51.8 (sem 3.3)), with 200-250 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour/kg had GI ranging from 61.3 to 71.4. Among the test foods, pan de sal (GI 87.2 (sem 5.5)) and multigrain loaf (GI 85.2 (sem 6.8)) gave significantly higher GI with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively (Pflour/kg respectively gave a GI ranging from 62.7 to 71.6 and did not differ significantly from the test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour. In conclusion, the GI of coconut flour-supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of coconut flour and this may be due to its high dietary fibre content. The results of the present study may form a scientific basis for the development of coconut flour as a functional food. However, the fat content of coconut flour-supplemented food should always be considered to optimize the functionality of coconut fibre in the proper control and management of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  11. Antimicrobial properties of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk: An extrapolation to oral health.

    Jose, Maji; Cyriac, Maria B; Pai, Vidya; Varghese, Ipe; Shantaram, Manjula

    2014-07-01

    Brushing the teeth with fibrous husk of Cocos nucifera (coconut) is a common oral hygiene practice among people of rural areas of South India. However, the probable antimicrobial properties of this plant material against common oral pathogens have not been proved scientifically. Therefore, the present study was designed. Alcoholic extract of the husk of Cocos nucifera was prepared and the antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like cariogenic bacteria, periodontal pathogens, and candidal organisms were performed by the Agar Well Diffusion Method. The results obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD). The alcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera showed a significant concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity, expressed as a zone of inhibition with respect to all tested organisms except Actinomyces species. The inhibitory effect was more significant, with a majority of cariogenic organisms and Candida, with a zone of inhibition ranging from 4.6 mm to 16.3 mm. However, the effect was lesser with Cocos nucifera compared to chlorhexidine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 50 mg/ml to 75 mg/ml. Cocos nucifera has a significant inhibitory action against common oral pathogens, indicating the presence of highly effective antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, it is proved that its use can contribute to oral health to a great extent. Identification of these active compounds provides the scope for incorporating it into a modern oral care system, so as to control oral diseases.

  12. Analgesic effect of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L liquid smoke on mice

    Meircurius Dwi C.S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs can be used to eliminate pain by inhibiting the activity of conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. The chemical compositions of coconut shell are cellulose, pentosan, lignin, solvent extraction, uronat anhydrous, nitrogen, and water. One active ingredient in coconut shell is phenyl propanoid (consisting in lignin structure and guaicol. Phenyl propanoid and guaicol are phenolic compounds that can be used as antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and analgesic. Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L contains phenolic compound is believed able to bind a component conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the analgesic effect of liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental research, conducted on 2-3 months old male mice (Mus musculus with 20-30 grams of weight. There were control group and treatment groups each of which had seven mice. Control group was orally given 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of distilled water, after 30 minutes 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of acetic acid 0.6% was delivered via intraperitoneal injection. The treatment groups were given liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100% respectively. The analgesic effect was then determined by decreasing of writhing reflex on mice recorded every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: There were significant differences of writhing reflexes in the treatment groups given liquid smoke of coconut shell with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. The higher concentration of liquid smoke the higher its analgesic effect. Conclusion: Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L has analgesic effect.Latar belakang: Salah satu mekanisme obat yang digunakan untuk menghilangkan rasa nyeri adalah menghambat aktivitas konversi asam arakhidonat menjadi prostaglandin. Komposisi kimia tempurung kelapa terdiri dari

  13. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  14. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-12-01

    Cryopreservation of coconut can be used as a strategy to back up the establishment of living collections which are expensive to maintain and are under constant threat from biotic and abiotic factors. Unfortunately, cryopreservation protocols still need to be developed that are capable of producing a sizeable number of field-grown plants. Therefore, we report on the development of an improved cryopreservation protocol which can be used on a wide range of coconut cultivars. The cryopreservation of zygotic embryos and their recovery to soil-growing plants was achieved through the application of four optimised steps viz.: (i) rapid dehydration; (ii) rapid cooling; (iii) rapid warming and recovery in vitro and (iv) acclimatization and soil-supported growth. The thermal properties of water within the embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to ensure that the freezable component was kept to a minimum. The feasibility of the protocol was assessed using the Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD) cultivar in Australia and then tested on a range of cultivars which were freshly harvested and studied in Indonesia. The most efficient protocol was one based on an 8-h rapid dehydration step followed by rapid cooling step. Best recovery percentages were obtained when a rapid warming step and an optimised in vitro culture step were used. Following this protocol, 20% (when cryopreserved 12 days after harvesting) and 40% (when cryopreserved at the time of harvest) of all MYD embryos cryopreserved could be returned to normal seedlings growing in soil. DSC showed that this protocol induced a drop in embryo fresh weight to 19% and significantly reduced the amount of water remaining that could produce ice crystals (0.1%). Of the 20 cultivars tested, 16 were found to produce between 10% and 40% normal seedlings while four cultivars generated between 0% and 10% normal seedlings after cryopreservation. This new protocol is applicable to a wide range of coconut

  15. Extraction and characterization of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. coir dust

    A. U. Israel1,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the characterization and extraction of coconut coir dust using water, acetone, acetone/water (70/30, (50/50 respectively. The acetone extract of the coir dust was phytochemically screened for tannins, polyphenols,flavanoids, phlobatannins. The moisture, ash, lignin, and cellulose contents of the coir dust were determined bymeasuring the cation exchange capacity (CEC and the pH were found to be 2.39 mmol g-1 and 6.4 respectively. The degree ofswelling of coir dust increased with increased solvent contact time. The percentage extract showed the best solvent systemto be acetone/water (70/30. In all the solvent systems, the smaller the particle size of coir dust, the greater the amount ofextract. The phytochemical screening of the acetone extract indicated significant amount of tannins, flavanoids and otherpolyphenols in coir dust.

  16. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos by vitrification.

    Sajini, K K; Karun, A; Amamath, C H; Engelmann, F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of preculture conditions, vitrification and unloading solutions on survival and regeneration of coconut zygotic embryos after cryopreservation. Among the seven plant vitrification solutions tested, PVS3 was found to be the most effective for regeneration of cryopreserved embryos. The optimal protocol involved preculture of embryos for 3 days on medium with 0.6 M sucrose, PVS3 treatment for 16 h, rapid cooling and rewarming and unloading in 1.2 M sucrose liquid medium for 1.5 h. Under these conditions, 70-80 survival (corresponding to size enlargement and weight gain) was observed with cryopreserved embryos and 20-25 percent of the plants regenerated (showing normal shoot and root growth) from cryopreserved embryos were established in pots.

  17. An Overview of Phytoconstituents, Biotechnological Applications, and Nutritive Aspects of Coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Cocos nucifera is one of the highest nutritional and medicinal value plants with various fractions of proteins which play a major role in several biological applications such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-neoplastic, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. This review is focused on several biotechnological, biomedical aspects of various solvent extracts collected from different parts of coconut and the phytochemical constituents which are present in it. The results obtained from this source will facilitate most of the researchers to focus their work toward the process of diagnosing diseases in future.

  18. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  19. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India

    Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  20. Complete Sequence and Analysis of Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) Mitochondrial Genome.

    Aljohi, Hasan Awad; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhao, Yuhui; Zeng, Jingyao; Alamer, Ali; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alawad, Abdullah O; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important crops in tropics, serving as an important source of food, drink, fuel, medicine, and construction material. Here we report an assembly of the coconut (C. nucifera, Oman local Tall cultivar) mitochondrial (mt) genome based on next-generation sequencing data. This genome, 678,653bp in length and 45.5% in GC content, encodes 72 proteins, 9 pseudogenes, 23 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs. Within the assembly, we find that the chloroplast (cp) derived regions account for 5.07% of the total assembly length, including 13 proteins, 2 pseudogenes, and 11 tRNAs. The mt genome has a relatively large fraction of repeat content (17.26%), including both forward (tandem) and inverted (palindromic) repeats. Sequence variation analysis shows that the Ti/Tv ratio of the mt genome is lower as compared to that of the nuclear genome and neutral expectation. By combining public RNA-Seq data for coconut, we identify 734 RNA editing sites supported by at least two datasets. In summary, our data provides the second complete mt genome sequence in the family Arecaceae, essential for further investigations on mitochondrial biology of seed plants.

  1. Conservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm at sub-zero temperature.

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2012-01-01

    Protocols are proposed for the low (-20 degree C) and ultra-low (-80 degree C) temperature storage of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) embryos. A tissue dehydration step prior to storage, and a rapid warming step upon recovery optimized the protocol. The thermal properties of water located within embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the most efficient version of the protocol, embryos were dehydrated under a sterile air flow in a dehydration solution containing glucose (3.33 M) and glycerol (15 percent) for 16 hours. This protocol decreased the embryo water content from 77 to 29 percent FW and at the same time reduced the amount of freezable water down to 0.03 percent. The dehydrated embryos could be stored for up to 3 weeks at -20 degree C (12 percent producing normal plants upon recovery) or 26 weeks at -80 degree C (28 percent producing normal plants upon recovery). These results indicate that it is possible to store coconut germplasm on a medium term basis using an ultra-deep freezer unit. However for more efficient, long term storage, cryopreservation remains the preferred option.

  2. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    P. P. Preetha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight. Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

  3. Comportamento de cinco genótipos de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. na fase de germinação e de crescimento de mudas, sob diferentes sistemas de produção Behavior of five genotypes of coconut tree (Cocos nucifera L. in the phase of germination and seedling growth, under different systems of production

    WALDIR SEBASTIÃO DE FARIA

    2002-08-01

    60 dias de viveiro, e maior número de folhas.With the objective to evaluate the performance of five genotypes of dwarf and hybrids of coconut tree: dwarf green of Jiqui (AVeJ, red dwarf of Gramame (AVG, dwarf yellow of Malaysia (AAM, hybrid of red dwarf Gramame x giant Brazil of Forte beach (AVG x GBrPF and the hybrid of dwarf yellow of Gramame x giant of the African west (AAG x GOA, in the germination and growth stage, in different production systems, an experiment was carried out in August of 1998, in the Experimental Station of the Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária of the Universidade Federal of Mato Grosso, located in Santo Antônio de Leverger. It was evaluated the performance of five genotypes of coconut tree in the germination and growth stage of seedlings originated from seeds placed in the horizontal and vertical positions, and kept at 50% of shade or full sun. Those factors were combined factorially, resulting in 20 treatments, which were arranged in the completely randomized design. The evaluated characteristics were: accumulated germination, percentage of germination, percentage of seedling capable of being transplanted for the field, seedling height, number of leaves, circumference of the girth, weight of the seedling and weight of the aerial part. The hybrid (AAG x GOA and the AVG presented, respectively, larger and smaller values for the characteristics: germination percentage, percentage of seedling capable of being transplanted for the field, number of leaves, circumference of the girth and of the seedling heights to the 30, 60 and 90 days of nursery. The seedlings of larger weights corresponded to the hybrid (AVG x GBrPF, and the one of smaller weights, to the AAM. The hybrid AVG x GBrPF produced seedlings that presented heavier aerial part and AVG the lightest. The seedlings produced from the seeds under shade of 50% presented larger heights and weights. The seeds germinated in the horizontal position produced seedlings higher to the

  4. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola', associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique.

    Harrison, Nigel A; Davis, Robert E; Oropeza, Carlos; Helmick, Ericka E; Narváez, María; Eden-Green, Simon; Dollet, Michel; Dickinson, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the taxonomic position and group classification of the phytoplasma associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique were addressed. Pairwise similarity values based on alignment of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (1530 bp) revealed that the Mozambique coconut phytoplasma (LYDM) shared 100% identity with a comparable sequence derived from a phytoplasma strain (LDN) responsible for Awka wilt disease of coconut in Nigeria, and shared 99.0-99.6% identity with 16S rRNA gene sequences from strains associated with Cape St Paul wilt (CSPW) disease of coconut in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Similarity scores further determined that the 16S rRNA gene of the LYDM phytoplasma shared coconut LYDM phytoplasma strains from Mozambique as novel members of established group 16SrXXII, subgroup A (16SrXXII-A). Similarity coefficients of 0.97 were obtained for comparisons between subgroup 16SrXXII-A strains and CSPW phytoplasmas from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. On this basis, the CSPW phytoplasma strains were designated members of a novel subgroup, 16SrXXII-B.

  5. Batrachedra nuciferae, an inflorescence-feeding moth associated with coconut, Cocos nucifera, and palmiste, Roystonea oleracea, in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Cock, Matthew J W

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Batrachedra nuciferae Hodges (Lepidoptera: Batrachedridae) was the first phytophagous insect to be reported from inflorescences of coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), in Trinidad, West Indies. At that time, it was suggested to be an introduced species contributing to decreasing coconut yields on the island and potentially a threat to other palms. In this preliminary study, inflorescences of coconut, seven indigenous palms, and six exotic ornamental palms were surveyed in several areas of Trinidad. Caterpillars of more than 10 species of Lepidoptera were found and reared through to the adult stage. Batrachedra nuciferae was positively identified. It was concluded that the caterpillars of B. nuciferae feed on pollen in the male flowers of coconut and palmiste or royal palm, Roystonea oleracea (Jacquin) O.F. Cook. There was no evidence that B. nuciferae bred on any of the other palms surveyed, but it is not conclusive that they do not do so. A parasitoid, Apanteles (sensu lato) sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), of B. nuciferae was reared. On available information, B. nuciferae is more likely to be an indigenous species that has hitherto been overlooked than an introduced species. In view of what is known about damage-yield relationships and biological control agents, B. nuciferae is unlikely to cause yield losses to coconut, so control measures are not justified.

  6. Exploring the influence of sterilisation and storage on some physicochemical properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Awua, Adolf K; Doe, Edna D; Agyare, Rebecca

    2011-10-27

    Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera L) water is a clear, sterile, colourless, slightly acidic and naturally flavoured drink, mostly consumed in tropical areas. It is a rich source of nutrients and has been used for medical purposes. This study was designed to investigate changes in selected characteristics of coconut water after autoclaving, gamma irradiation and storage. Also, the study was designed for assessing the possibility of measuring the growth of bacterial in fresh, stored or sterilised coconut water using turbidity measurements (at wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm) or by dry biomass determinations. Portions of coconut water aseptically extracted from the matured fruit, (average pH of 6.33 ± 0.17) were either stored at 4°C, autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min., or irradiated with gamma rays at 5 kGy. Subsequent changes in selected characteristics were determined. Autoclaving, gamma irradiation and long term storage of coconut water at 4°C resulted both in the development of a pale to intense yellow colour and changes in turbidity. After storage, the dry matter content of fresh, autoclaved and irradiated coconut water by 52.0%, 23.5% and 5.0% respectively. There were also significant differences in the UV spectra before and after sterilisation and during the storage of the coconut water. Although changes in total carbohydrates were observed, they were not significant (p > 0.05). The enormous differences in the characteristics before and after storage suggests that the use of turbidity and dry biomass measurements for measuring the growth of bacteria in fresh, autoclaved and gamma irradiated coconut water before storage is practicable without any possibility of interference by the innate turbidity, colour and dry matter of the coconut water. However, this is not practicable after storing the coconut waters at 4°C, since there were increases in the turbidity and dry matter of the coconut water to levels that will mask the turbidity of a growing bacteria

  7. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  8. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Yong, Jean W H; Ge, Liya; Ng, Yan Fei; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2009-12-09

    Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  9. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers

    2010-01-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (He ) and observed heterozygosity (Ho ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at θ^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was ta = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities. PMID:21637579

  10. A cultura do coco: uma análise econômica Coconut cultivation: an economical analysis

    Mônica de Moura Pires

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O coqueiro é uma planta de clima tropical, sendo cultivado em cerca de 90 países, destacando-se o continente asiático na produção e comercialização do produto in natura e nos subprodutos. Podem-se aproveitar diversas partes da planta, como o fruto, as folhas, a inflorescência, entre outros produtos e subprodutos. O Brasil possui condições especiais que favorecem a adaptação e o desenvolvimento da cultura do coco. Dentre as principais regiões brasileiras produtoras, o Nordeste destaca-se, produzindo cerca de 80% de toda a produção nacional. A Bahia destaca-se como um dos principais produtores e consumidores. O município de Ilhéus vem expandindo a produção ao longo do tempo, em função do fluxo de turistas e de iniciativas de diversificar a agricultura regional. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar e avaliar, econômica e financeiramente, os diferentes níveis tecnológicos adotados pelos produtores de coco no município de Ilhéus. Neste estudo, utilizou-se de levantamento de corte seccional (cross-section para o qual foram aplicados vinte questionários junto aos produtores, selecionados por meio do critério de amostra intencional, segundo a técnica survey. Por meio dessas informações, foram calculados os indicadores financeiros (VPL, TIR, B/C e a análise de sensibilidade. Nota-se que os três níveis tecnológicos adotados no município apresentam receitas positivas; no entanto, a tecnologia III é a que se mostra mais eficiente. Os resultados, para as tecnologias I, II e III, do VPL são de R$ 4.857,04; R$ 20.782,38, e R$ 47.931,22, respectivamente; para a TIR, de 43%, 80% e 87%, sucessivamente. A relação B/C foi de 2,32 (Tecnologia I, 3,24 (Tecnologia II e 2,89 (Tecnologia III. Tais resultados indicam que as tecnologias adotadas são econômica e financeiramente viáveis. No entanto, o produtor poderia realizar maior exploração do potencial da atividade, gerando maior lucratividade.Coconut is a tropical tree

  11. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola’, a novel taxon associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique

    In this study, the taxonomic position and group classification of the phytoplasma associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique were addressed. Pairwise sequence similarity values based on alignment of near full-length 16SrRNA genes (1530 bp) reve...

  12. Produção de nanopartículas de Al2O3 utilizando água de coco maduro (coco seco Production of Al2O3 nanoparticles employing mature coconut water (dried coconut

    V. K. S. Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propõe o emprego de uma nova rota de produção de nanopartículas para aplicação em indústria cerâmica. Esta rota, conhecida como rota sol-gel proteico, usualmente utiliza água de coco verde para dissolver os sais precursores, em substituição aos alcóxidos metálicos empregados no processo convencional. No entanto, não existem relatos da utilização da água de coco maduro, geralmente descartada pelas indústrias de processamento de coco, para fabricação de nanopartículas. Nanopartículas de Al2O3 foram produzidas através da rota sol-gel proteico utilizando água de coco maduro como fluido precursor molecular e foram caracterizadas por meio de análises termogravimétrica-térmica diferencial, difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de força atômica. Amostras com água de coco verde também foram produzidas e usadas como referência. A fase γ-Al2O3 foi obtida após calcinação a 700 °C, permanecendo estável após calcinação a 1200 °C. Observou-se um aumento no tamanho das partículas à medida que a temperatura de calcinação aumentava, sendo os tamanhos estimados em ~ 400 nm para as amostras calcinadas a 1200 °C.The present work proposes a new preparation route of nanoparticles to be used in the ceramic industry. This new route, known as proteic sol-gel, usually employs green coconut water to dissolve the precursor salts, instead of conventional metal alcoxides. However there are no reports about the employment of water from mature coconut in the preparation of nanoparticles, which is usually disposed in the coconut processing industry. Al2O3 nanoparticles were produced via proteic sol-gel route using mature coconut water and were characterized through DTA/TG and XRD measurements and SEM and AFM images. The γ-Al2O3 phase was obtained after calcination at 700 °C, and was stable even after calcination at 1200 °C. An increase in particle size while the temperature

  13. Crystal structure of cocosin, a potential food allergen from coconut (Cocos nucifera) (abstract)

    RATIONALE: Coconut allergy cases have been reported, but only one coconut allergen has been identified. The 11S seed storage proteins belong to one of a few protein families that contain known food allergens in many food of plant sources. Cocosin, the 11S protein from cocosin remains to be character...

  14. Development of a heavy metal sorption system through the P=S functionalization of coconut (Cocos nucifera) fibers.

    de Sousa, Dayane Almeida; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; da Costa Nogueira, Márcio; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic residues are interesting materials for the production of heavy metal adsorbents for aquatic systems. Whole fibers taken from coconut (Cocos nucifera) husks were functionalized with the thiophosphoryl (P=S) group by means of the direct reaction with Cl(3)PS, (CH(3)O)(2)ClP=S or (CH(3)CH(2)O)(2)ClP=S in order to obtain an adsorptive system for 'soft' metal ions, particularly Cd(2+). These functionalized fibers (FFs) were characterized by means of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and acid-base titration. Adsorption isotherms for Cd(2+) fitted the Langmuir model, with binding capacities of 0.2-5 m mol g(-1) of FF at 25 degrees C.

  15. Carbohydrate measuvements on four brands of coconut water Teores de glicídios em quatro marcas de água de coco

    Hernete de Jesus Santos Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of water from dry coconuts to produce long-life coconut water, using a 20% mixture of green coconut water in order to reach the quality standard demanded by Brazilian customers, has been done since 2000. That is one more alternative for the by products from Cocos nucifera L. processing industries, introducing marketing advantages like: better storage, longer shelf life, transportation, and visual quality to the customer. Packed with ultrasonic Swedish technology, coconut water has been already commercialized in establishments in Southeastern Brazil. In this work, carbohydrate contents of four coconut water brands and the natural coconut water were comparatively analyzed, and the contents of fructose, glucose, sucrose, total sugars, and reducing sugars were determined. The coconut water used in this research was bought in Lavras, Minas Gerais St., as well as the green coconut water, which was used as a control. The statistical design was completely randomized, and the treatments were five brands with five replicates. The analyses were performed in the Biochemistry laboratory, of UFLA's Chemistry Department. Two out of four commercial brands, brands B and D, did not achieve the quality standards cited in the literature.O aproveitamento da água de coco seco, para a produção de água de coco longa-vida com uma mistura de 20% de água de coco verde, para atingir o padrão de qualidade exigido pelo consumidor brasileiro, vem sendo utilizado desde 2000. Trata-se de mais uma alternativa para as indústrias de processamento dos produtos derivados dos frutos de Cocos nucifera L., apresentando vantagens mercadológicas como: facilidade de estocagem, maior vida de prateleira, transporte e exposição ao consumidor. Embalada com tecnologia sueca ultra-sônica, já está sendo comercializada em estabelecimentos de gêneros alimentícios também na região sudeste do Brasil. Com este trabalho, analisou-se comparativamente o teor de glicídios de

  16. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos does not induce morphological, cytological or molecular changes in recovered seedlings.

    Sisunandar; Rival, Alain; Turquay, Patricia; Samosir, Yohannes; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the fidelity of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plants recovered from cryopreservation. Zygotic embryos from various different cultivars were cryopreserved following four successive steps, namely: rapid dehydration, rapid freezing, rapid thawing and in vitro recovery followed by acclimatization. At the end of the acclimatization period, the seedlings were compared to counterparts of the same age, which were produced from non-cryopreserved embryos. Both series were submitted to morphological, cytological and molecular comparisons. No significant differences in terms of growth rates could be measured. In addition, no morphological variation could be detected through the measurement of shoot elongation rates, production of opened leaves, and the number and total length of primary roots. Karyotype analysis revealed the same chromosome number (2n = 32) in all studied cultivars independently of cryopreservation. No significant differences could be observed between control and cryopreserved material concerning the type of chromosomes, the length of the long and short arms, the arm length ratio and the centromeric index. However, idiogram analysis did show a greater number of black banding on chromosomes isolated from cryopreserved material. Genetic and epigenetic fidelity was assessed through microsatellite (SSR) analysis and global DNA methylation rates; no significant differences would be observed between genomic DNAs isolated from seedlings originating from cryopreserved embryos and respective controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that the method of cryopreservation under study did not induce gross morphological, genetic or epigenetic changes, thus suggesting that it is an appropriate method to efficiently preserve coconut germplasm.

  17. Lime and fertilizer recommendation system for coconut trees

    Gustavo Nogueira Guedes Pereira Rosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer recommendation to most agricultural crops is based on response curves. Such curves are constructed from field experimental data, obtained for a particular condition and may not be reliable to be applied to other regions. The aim of this study was to develop a Lime and Fertilizer Recommendation System for Coconut Crop based on the nutritional balance. The System considers the expected productivity and plant nutrient use efficiency to estimate nutrient demand, and effective rooting layer, soil nutrient availability, as well as any other nutrient input to estimate the nutrient supply. Comparing the nutrient demand with the nutrient supply the System defines the nutrient balance. If the balance for a given nutrient is negative, lime and, or, fertilization is recommended. On the other hand, if the balance is positive, no lime or fertilizer is needed. For coconut trees, the fertilization regime is divided in three stages: fertilization at the planting spot, band fertilization and fertilization at the production phase. The data set for the development of the System for coconut trees was obtained from the literature. The recommendations generated by the System were compared to those derived from recommendation tables used for coconut crop in Brazil. The main differences between the two procedures were for the P rate applied in the planting hole, which was higher in the proposed System because the tables do not pay heed to the pit volume, whereas the N and K rates were lower. The crop demand for K is very high, and the rates recommended by the System are superior to the table recommendations for the formation and initial production stage. The fertilizer recommendations by the System are higher for the phase of coconut tree growth as compared to the production phase, because greater amount of biomass is produced in the first phase.

  18. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  19. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. genetic improvement in Vanuatu: overview of research achievements from 1962 to 2002

    Labouisse Jean-Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Compared to higher-yielding hybrids, the improved VTT populations offer the advantage of being totally tolerant of coconut foliar decay and of being reproducible by farmers themselves. The merits of setting up decentralized seed gardens in the Vanuatu archipelago from improved populations at the research station, or from locally surveyed material, are discussed.

  20. Structural characterization of lignin isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers.

    Rencoret, Jorge; Ralph, John; Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Ángel T; del Río, José C

    2013-03-13

    The structure of the isolated milled "wood" lignin from coconut coir has been characterized using different analytical methods, including Py-GC/MS, 2D NMR, DFRC, and thioacidolysis. The analyses demonstrated that it is a p-hydroxyphenyl-guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) lignin, with a predominance of G units (S/G ratio 0.23) and considerable amounts of associated p-hydroxybenzoates. Two-dimensional NMR indicated that the main substructures present in this lignin include β-O-4' alkyl aryl ethers followed by phenylcoumarans and resinols. Two-dimensional NMR spectra also indicated that coir lignin is partially acylated at the γ-carbon of the side chain with p-hydroxybenzoates and acetates. DFRC analysis showed that acetates preferentially acylate the γ-OH in S rather than in G units. Despite coir lignin's being highly enriched in G-units, thioacidolysis indicated that β-β' resinol structures are mostly derived from sinapyl alcohol. Finally, we find evidence that the flavone tricin is incorporated into the coconut coir lignin, as has been recently noted for various grasses.

  1. Effect of microwave drying and oven drying on the water activity, color, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Cortez-García, Rosa María; Plazola-Jacinto, Carla Patricia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    The coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64.2 mg GAE/g dry wt and significant higher than observed after OD and MD of 35.8 and 45.5 mg GAE/g dry wt, respectively. Ten phenols were identified in fresh and dehydrated coconut husks. The husk MD showed an increase in the content of gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and syringic acids and epicatechin compared with the fresh; while coconut husk OD and MD, showed a decrease in the content of vanillic acid, vanillin, catequin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity decreased after both OD and MD. However, MD resulted in a better antioxidant activity in husk than OD. MD of husk resulted into better retention of preserved color, TPC and TFC than OD.

  2. Aclimatização de bastão-do-imperador (Etlingera elatior em substratos à base de coco = Ginger flower (Etlingera elatior acclimation in coconut-based substrates

    Adriane Marinho de Assis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aclimatização é uma etapa da micropropagação que inspira cuidados, pela dificuldade de transferir com sucesso as plântulas in vitro para a casa-de-vegetação. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de coco durante a aclimatização de bastão-do-imperador. As mudas, obtidas de cultivo in vitro, apresentavam,inicialmente, altura média de 6,2 + 0,4 cm. Foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 70% de luminosidade. Os tratamentos foram: areia, coco em pó, coco desfibrado, coco em pó + areia, coco desfibrado + areia e coco em pó + coco desfibrado. Cinco meses após o transplantio avaliaram-se as variáveis proporção desobrevivência, altura da parte aérea, massa fresca, número de brotos, massa seca das raízes e pH dos substratos. Os substratos areia, coco em pó + areia e coco desfibrado + areia proporcionaram os melhores resultados para todas variáveis acima descritas, sendo recomendados para a aclimatização de bastão-do-imperador.Acclimation is a stage in micro-propagation that requires special attention due to the difficult process involving the successful transfer of in vitro plantlets to the greenhouse. The objective of this work was to assess the efficacy of coconut-based substrates in ginger flower acclimation. Seedlings from in vitro cultivation initially presented an average height of 6.2 ± 4 cm. They were grown in polypropylene vases kept in a nursery, with 70% of light. The following treatments were used: sand, coconut powder, de-fiberedcoconut, coconut powder + sand, de-fibered coconut + sand, and coconut powder + defibered coconut. Five months after transplantation, the following variables were analyzed: survival rate, aerial part height, fresh matter, number of seedlings, root dry matter, and substrate pH. Sand, powder coconut + sand and de-fibered coconut + sand showed the best results for all variables analyzed, and they are recommended for ginger

  3. Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut ...

    Management of coconut (Cocos nucifera) lethal yellowing disease (CLYD), which has killed about eight million coconut trees in Mozambique, has proved challenging. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of farming practices and related history, on the CLYD incidence in Mozambique. The methodology ...

  4. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  5. Coconut husk meal in diets for tambaqui (“Colossoma macropomum” Farelo de coco em dietas para o tambaqui ("Colossoma macropomum"

    Igo Gomes Guimarães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate growth performance and economic viability of tambaqui fed different levels of coconut husk meal (0;25;50 and 100. Thus, a 60-day feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels of coconut husk meal on growth performance of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and economic viability. One hundred and twenty tambaqui fingerlings with 7.71±0.17g were randomly assigned to 24 150L-aquaria in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and six replication. Diets were formulated to contain the same content of protein (26% CP, digestible energy (3200kcal DE/kg diet and crude fiber (8.51% differing only on the coconut husk meal replacement levels which were 0% (control diet, 25, 50 and 100%. Although no effect of coconut husk meal inclusion were observed for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and fillet yield, a negative and positive linear regression was significant for hepatossomatic and fat visceral indexes, respectively. The use of coconut husk meal in diets for tambaqui did not affect growth performance and carcass quality parameters. However, it is recommended the replacement of soybean meal to coconut husk meal up to 25% based on the economic evaluation of the diets.Avaliou-se com este trabalho o desempenho produtivo e econômico do tambaqui alimentado com rações que continham 0, 25, 50 e 100% de farelo de coco em substituição ao farelo de soja. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, para avaliar o efeito de dietas com níveis crescentes de farelo de coco sobre o desempenho do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, características de carcaça e na viabilidade econômica. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos com peso médio inicial de 7,71±0,17g distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 aquários de 150L. As dietas formuladas foram isoprot

  6. Parisoschoenus obesulus Casey (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is not a pest of young coconut tree fruits

    Moura, Jose I.L.; Sgrillo, Ricardo B.; Valle, Raul R.; Delabie, Jacques H.C.; Ferreira, Joana M.S.; Almeida, Alex-Alan F. de; Cividanes, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if Parisoschoenus obesulus Casey only attacks naturally aborting coconuts and, consequently, is not a pest of young fruits of coconut tree. Aiming to test this hypothesis, inflorescences at diverse stages of physiological development were offered to individuals of P. obesulus. The Results showed that only aborting fruits were colonized by P. obesulus corroborating the established hypothesis. (author)

  7. Pó de coco como substrato para produção de mudas de tomateiro Coconut coir fiber as a potting media for tomato seedling production

    Elineide B. Silveira

    2002-06-01

    , quatro isolados de Pseudomonas fluorescentes, cinco isolados de Bacillus spp. e a mistura dos isolados Trichoderma + Pseudomonas fluorescentes + Bacillus. As suspensões foram adicionadas dois dias antes do plantio, na concentração de 0,52 A e 5 x 10(6 conídios/mL para bactérias e fungos, respectivamente. O incremento da população microbiana dos substratos não promoveu o crescimento das plântulas de tomateiro. Conclui-se que a utilização de pó de coco em mistura com outros substratos, principalmente com o PlantmaxÒ, é viável barateando o custo de produção de mudas de tomateiro.The production of seedlings is very important in the horticultural transplant industry and depends on the substrate utilization. The use of coconut coir fiber alone was evaluated or in combination with other potting media to produce transplants of tomato cv. 'Santa Adélia'. Cococnut coir fiber potting media PlantmaxÒ and earthworm castings were tested separated and in volumetric combinations: PlantmaxÒ + cocunut coir fiber, worm cast + cocunut coir fiber, PlantmaxÒ + earthworm casting and PlantmaxÒ + coconut coir fiber + earthworm casting, evaluating the variables germination 10 days after planting, leaf number, plant height, shoot fresh matter and shoot dry matter at 25 days after planting. The mixed substrates were superior to those from single components mainly PlantmaxÒ + coconut coir fiber + earthworm casting. The indigenous microbial population in each one of the three substrates was quantified in relation to the variables total bacteria, total fungi, fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus and Trichoderma. In coconut coir fiber and earthworm casting the bacterial population surpassed the fungal. Earthworm casting and coconut coir fiber showed respectively higher population of total bacteria (240.56 x 10(4 UFC/g of dry substrate and total fungi (86.98 x 10(4 UFC/g of dry substrate. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were detected in earthworm casting (1.65 x 10(4 UFC/g of dry

  8. Transcriptomics-based analysis using RNA-Seq of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) leaf in response to yellow decline phytoplasma infection.

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Cahill, David M; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Ziemann, Mark; Rookes, James; Naderali, Neda

    2015-10-01

    Invasive phytoplasmas wreak havoc on coconut palms worldwide, leading to high loss of income, food insecurity and extreme poverty of farmers in producing countries. Phytoplasmas as strictly biotrophic insect-transmitted bacterial pathogens instigate distinct changes in developmental processes and defence responses of the infected plants and manipulate plants to their own advantage; however, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying host-phytoplasma interactions. Further, phytoplasma-mediated transcriptional alterations in coconut palm genes have not yet been identified. This study evaluated the whole transcriptome profiles of naturally infected leaves of Cocos nucifera ecotype Malayan Red Dwarf in response to yellow decline phytoplasma from group 16SrXIV, using RNA-Seq technique. Transcriptomics-based analysis reported here identified genes involved in coconut innate immunity. The number of down-regulated genes in response to phytoplasma infection exceeded the number of genes up-regulated. Of the 39,873 differentially expressed unigenes, 21,860 unigenes were suppressed and 18,013 were induced following infection. Comparative analysis revealed that genes associated with defence signalling against biotic stimuli were significantly overexpressed in phytoplasma-infected leaves versus healthy coconut leaves. Genes involving cell rescue and defence, cellular transport, oxidative stress, hormone stimulus and metabolism, photosynthesis reduction, transcription and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were differentially represented. Our transcriptome analysis unveiled a core set of genes associated with defence of coconut in response to phytoplasma attack, although several novel defence response candidate genes with unknown function have also been identified. This study constitutes valuable sequence resource for uncovering the resistance genes and/or susceptibility genes which can be used as genetic tools in disease resistance breeding.

  9. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age

  10. Distribution and ratios of 137Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications

    Robison, William L.; Brown, Patrick H.; Stone, Earl L.; Hamilton, Terry F.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low, ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg -1 . When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of 137 Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, 137 Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while 137 Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K-treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally low concentrations. However, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while 137 Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 (2.2 kg). Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K-fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). The 137 Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K-treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and 137 Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and 137 Cs in fronds as they age is logarithmic, but K

  11. Distribution and ratios of {sup 137}Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications

    Robison, William L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)], E-mail: robison1@llnl.gov; Brown, Patrick H. [University of California, Department of Plant Sciences, Davis, CA 95819 (United States); Stone, Earl L. [University of Florida (United States); Hamilton, Terry F.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low, ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K-treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally low concentrations. However, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 (2.2 kg). Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K-fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). The {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K-treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they

  12. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat.

    Gandhi, M; Aggarwal, M; Puri, S; Singla, S K

    2013-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  13. Fibra de coco e adubação foliar no crescimento e na nutrição de Cryptanthus sinuosus Coconut fiber and foliar fertilization on the growth and nutrition of Cryptanthus sinuosus

    Janie M Jasmim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de Cryptanthus sinuosus foram cultivadas em três substratos (mesocarpo de coco - MC; mesocarpo de coco lavado - MCL e xaxim-X, visando comparar o efeito da fibra de coco verde, como substrato, àquele da fibra de xaxim sobre o crescimento e teores de nutrientes das plantas, sob três níveis de adubação foliar: 50, 100 e 150% de solução contendo 210 mg L-1 de N, 31 mg L-1 de P e 234 mg L-1 de K. O experimento constou de um fatorial em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três plantas por parcela, uma planta por vaso e conduzido em casa de vegetação. O número de folhas, diâmetro da roseta, massa da matéria seca (MS de folhas e raízes e teores de nutrientes foram avaliados. As plantas cultivadas em X apresentaram valores de MS de folhas e de raízes mais altos que aquelas em MC, mas não diferiram estatisticamente daqueles observados nas plantas em MCL. As plantas cultivadas em MC e MCL apresentaram características semelhantes indicando que a alta condutividade elétrica encontrada no substrato MC não prejudicou o acúmulo de matéria seca. As plantas cultivadas em MC e MCL apresentaram menores teores foliares de N, P, S que as cultivadas em X, porém com coloração e arquitetura foliares mais atrativas. Os diferentes níveis de adubação utilizados não tiveram efeito diferenciado sobre as características de crescimento, nem sobre os teores de nutrientes nas plantas.Cryptanthus sinuosus plants were grown in three substrates (coconut mesocarp - MC, rinsed coconut mesocarp - MCL and tree fern fiber-X aiming to compare the effect of green coconut fiber as substrate with tree fern fiber on the plant growth and nutrient contents, under three foliar fertilization levels (50, 100 and 150% of a solution containing 210 mg L-1 of N, 31 mg L-1 of P and 234 mg L-1 of K. The experimental design was a factorial scheme of randomized blocks with four replications and three plants per plot, one plant per pot, and was

  14. Ascensão capilar de água em substratos de coco e de pinus Capillary water rise in coconut and pine bark substrates

    Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso da irrigação por capilaridade na produção de mudas em viveiros pode trazer vantagens ao uso de água e sua utilização adequada requer o conhecimento da capacidade de ascensão de água no meio de crescimento das raízes, atributo pouco estudado. Para avaliar esta condição fundamental, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a ascensão de água em substratos comerciais de coco e pinus, em dois padrões de tamanho de partículas e em duas condições de umidade, para indicar aquele que possua as melhores características físicas para aplicação na irrigação por capilaridade. Utilizou-se o método de ascensão capilar, com colunas desmontáveis de anéis preenchidas com substratos, avaliando-se os seguintes tempos de contato do fundo da coluna com a lâmina de água: 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 24 horas, com 10 repetições por tempo testado. Pelos resultados, observou-se que a maior ascensão capilar acumulada em 24 horas de ensaio foi obtida para os substratos de textura fina de coco e de pinus. Além disso, a hidrofobia do substrato de coco seco recomenda que as irrigações nesse material devem ter frequências maiores que substratos de pinus, evitando seu secamento. O substrato de pinus, por não apresentar esse comportamento, deve ter turnos de rega mais espaçados, principalmente sob textura fina. Devido à sua maior retenção de água e capacidade de elevação de água quando umedecido, o substrato fino de coco é mais adequado à irrigação por capilaridade em recipientes como tubetes.The capillary irrigation in nursery production could give advantages in water use and its correct application demands knowledge about capillary water rise through root growth media, an attribute poorly studied. This research had as objective to evaluate water capillary rise in commercial pine and coconut substrates for two particle size distributions and two moisture conditions, to indicate the substrate with the best physical

  15. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM EQUIPAMENTO PARA TRITURAÇÃO DE COCO VERDE / DEVELOPMENT OF AN EQUIPMENT FOR CRUSHING GREEN COCONUT

    R. H. Simonetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é responsável por cerca de 80% da produção de cocos na América do Sul. O resíduo de cascas de coco se transforma em um problema ambiental, uma vez que sua degradação pode ocorrer em até oito anos. Por outro lado, as fibras processadas podem se transformar em uma série de produtos utilizados na indústria da construção, automotiva e de insumo para agricultura ou jardinagem. O processamento da extração das fibras de coco verde ou seco é uma tarefa difícil exigindo trabalho árduo. A mecanização deste processo se faz necessária no sentido de melhorar a qualidade de vida do trabalhador deste segmento, facilitando o posterior aproveitamento das fibras e reduzindo o impacto ambiental do produto. Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver um equipamento triturador de cascas de coco. O princípio de funcionamento do triturador de coco foi baseado no acionamento de um rotor das facas, que efetua o processo de corte dos cocos, depositados no triturador. Visou-se obter um equipamento de utilização simples e prática, para que a trituração seja executada sem riscos. Foram executados ensaios de compressão para determinar a força de rompimento da fruta e também calculados os valores que deveriam ter o torque do motor a ser usado. O protótipo foi construído e testado. No teste, os cocos foram, em sua maioria, completamente triturados, indicando a eficiência da máquina.

  16. A Survey on Robotic Coconut Tree Climbers - Existing Methods and Techniques

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Sakthiprasad, K. M.; Sreekanth, M. M.; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela

    2017-08-01

    As the coconut palm growers are struggling with the acute shortage of human coconut tree climbers to climb and harvest the coconuts, many are working towards possible alternatives to help them handle this situation. In this study paper we analyse the problems associated with the shortage of human coconut tree climbers in -depth. We also present details of various existing mechanical models available in the market and have not yet solved this issue. Along with this we discuss how robotics and automation could be a possible solution for this entire problem. In this context we discuss about the features of such robotic system and also give suggestions on various unmanned robotic models that can be designed and implemented.

  17. Effect of addition of coconut water (Cocos nucifera) to the freezing media on post-thaw viability of boar sperm.

    Bottini-Luzardo, María; Centurión-Castro, Fernando; Alfaro-Gamboa, Militza; Aké-López, Ricardo; Herrera-Camacho, José

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment were to evaluate the addition of coconut water in natura to the freezing media, compare the effect of deionized water vs filtered water of coconut over the post-thaw seminal characteristics, and evaluate the effect of the deionized water and in natura coconut water on the seminal characteristics of boar sperm at different post-thaw times. Thirty-four ejaculates were used divided in three aliquots which received one of the following treatments (T): T1, LEY (bidistilled water, lactose, and egg yolk) and LEYGO (LEY + glycerol and Orvus ET paste); T2, LEY(A) (coconut deionized water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(A); and T3, LEY(B) (in natura coconut water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(B). Samples of boar semen were frozen according to the Westendorf method, thawed at 38°C, and evaluated at three incubation times (0, 30, and 60 min). Seminal characteristics assessed were motility (Mot), acrosomal integrity (AInt), membrane integrity (MInt), and mitochondrial activity (MAct). T1 showed a higher percentage of viable sperm than T3 (Mot 36.5 vs 5.4 %, AInt 61.8 vs 41.2 %, MInt 50.4 vs 41.3 %, and MAct 56.9 vs 50.5 %). T2 kept a higher percentage of viable sperm at all incubation times. In natura coconut water showed a detrimental effect over the viability of the frozen-thawed boar semen. Deionized coconut water improved the boar semen viability post-thaw, outperforming results of in natura coconut water.

  18. Isolation of the endosperm-specific LPAAT gene promoter from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and its functional analysis in transgenic rice plants.

    Xu, Li; Ye, Rongjian; Zheng, Yusheng; Wang, Zhekui; Zhou, Peng; Lin, Yongjun; Li, Dongdong

    2010-09-01

    As one of the key tropical crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a member of the monocotyledonous family Aracaceae (Palmaceae). In this study, we amplified the upstream region of an endosperm-specific expression gene, Lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAAT), from the coconut genomic DNA by chromosome walking. In this sequence, we found several types of promoter-related elements including TATA-box, CAAT-box and Skn1-motif. In order to further examine its function, three different 5'-deletion fragments were inserted into pBI101.3, a plant expression vector harboring the LPAAT upstream sequence, leading to pBI101.3-L1, pBI101.3-L2 and pBI101.3-L3, respectively. We obtained transgenic plants of rice by Agrobacterium-mediated callus transformation and plant regeneration and detected the expression of gus gene by histochemical staining and fluorometric determination. We found that gus gene driven by the three deletion fragments was specifically expressed in the endosperm of rice seeds, but not in the empty vector of pBI101.3 and other tissues. The highest expression level of GUS was at 15 DAF in pBI101.3-L3 and pBI101.3-L2 transgenic lines, while the same level was detected at 10 DAF in pBI101.3-L1. The expression driven by the whole fragment was up to 1.76- and 2.8-fold higher than those driven by the -817 bp and -453 bp upstream fragments, and 10.7-fold higher than that driven by the vector without the promoter. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that these promoter fragments from coconut have a significant potential in genetically improving endosperm in main crops.

  19. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  20. Impact of chemical treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut fibre (Cocos nucifera reinforced polypropylene composites

    Isiaka O. OLADELE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chemically treated coconut fibres were used to reinforce Homopolymer Polypropylene in order to ascertain the effect of the treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites produced. Coconut fibre was first extracted from its husk by soaking it in water and was dried before it was cut into 10 mm lengths. It was then chemically treated in alkali solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH in a shaker water bath. The treated coconut fibres were used as reinforcements in polypropylene matrix to produce composites of varied fibre weight contents; 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.%. Tensile and flexural properties were investigated using universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for 7 days. It was observed from the results that, NaOH treated samples gave the best tensile properties while KOH treated samples gave the best flexural and water repellent properties.

  1. Mudas de melancia produzidas com substrato à base de pó de coco e soluções nutritivas Watermelon seedlings produced with coconut powder and nutrient solutions

    Anamaria RP Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A escolha do substrato é uma das etapas mais importantes na produção de mudas e deve levar em consideração as exigências nutricionais das espécies cultivadas. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar substratos à base de pó de coco associado a soluções nutritivas para produção de mudas de melancia. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Semiárido em Petrolina (PE, em casa de vegetação em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições e arranjo fatorial 2 x 10 (cultivares de melancia e substratos. As cultivares utilizadas foram: Opara e Top Gun. A fibra de coco foi associada às seguintes soluções nutritivas: T1= testemunha composta de substrato comercial orgânico Plantmax® (SC, T2= pó de coco (PC, T3= pó de coco + solução melão (PC+SM, T4= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 12,5% (PC+SH 12,5%, T5= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 25% (PC+SH 25%, T6= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 50% (PC+SH 50%, T7= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 75% (PC+SH 75%, T8= pó de coco + solução de Hoagland e Arnon 100% (PC+SH 100%, T9= pó de coco + Aminoagro Mol (PC+AM, T10= pó de coco + Aminoagro Raiz (PC+AR. Foram realizadas oito aplicações de 10 mL de solução, iniciada no quarto dia após a semeadura (DAS quando também foi iniciada a avaliação de emergência de plântulas. Aos 24 DAS foram avaliados a massa fresca da parte aérea e da raiz, comprimento do sistema radicular, número de raízes no terço superior e teores de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas. A cv. Top Gun apresentou teores mais elevados de nutrientes, exceto para ferro e cobre. Os tratamentos T6, T7 e T8 permitiram teores de nutrientes nas plantas semelhantes ao substrato comercial Plantmax. De modo geral, as combinações de pó de coco associado à solução nutritiva de Hoagland e Arnon a 50, 75 e 100% e com Aminoagro raiz mostraram-se promissoras para a formação de

  2. The Effects of Cocos Nucifera (Coconut Shell on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Recycled Waste Aluminium Can Composites

    J.O. Agunsoye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry sliding wear behaviour and mechanical properties of recycled aluminium metal matrix composite reinforced with 5 and 10 % coconut shell particles (CSp has been investigated. The particle size of Cocosnucifera (coconut shell that were used ranges from 50-300µm. The wear behaviors of developed samples were investigated under varied loads and speed using pin on disc equipment. The samples were also subjected to tensile, impact and hardness test. The result shows that the additions of coconut shell particles improved the wear resistance of the recycled aluminium can/CSp composites at low Speed (2.36 m/s. However, with increase in Speed (4.72 m/s, an increase in the specific wear rates were observed. Increasing the coconut shell particles additions to the recycled waste aluminium cans (RWAlC reduced the impact resistance, hence the toughness of the RWAlC/CSp composite samples. However, the impact resistance of the composites increased as the Cocosnucifera particle size increased. The result of the filler size variation shows that decrease in filler particles size improved the tensile strength and yield strength of the developed aluminium metal matrix /CSp composite. The hardness of the composite increased with increased additions of the filler within the matrix.

  3. Use of coconut meal in slaughter pig diets Uso de farelo de coco nas dietas de suínos para abate

    Teresinha Marisa Bertol

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the swine bioeconomic performance and carcass characteristics, due to coconut meal (FC inclusion in diets, were evaluated. Twenty hybrid barrows, Landrace x Large White, with average weight of 19.7±2.9kg, at the beginning of diet supply, were used and slaughtered after 12 weeks with average weight of 89.2±5.2 kg and 149 days of age. The experiment was established at Escola Agrotecnica Federal in Sousa-PB. Increasing levels of coconut meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% replaced partially hominy feed and soybean meal in isoproteic, isocaloric and isolisinic diets. It was used a randomized block design with four treatments and five repetitions. The parameters evaluated were: feed consumption, final and slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weights, gross income and gross margin per carcass, percentage of weight loss due to chilling, hot and cold carcass yield and yields of main cuts (ham, sirloin, shoulder+picnic, belly+ribs and boston butt, backfat thickness, loineye area, carcass length and lean to fat ratio. It was concluded that 22.8 % of coconut meal may be included in slaughter swine diets, replacing partially hominy feed and soybean meal.Objetivou-se, por meio do experimento, avaliar o desempenho bioeconômico e as características de carcaça de suínos mediante à inclusão de farelo de coco (FC na ração. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados, híbridos Landrace x Large White, com 19,7±2,9 kg ao início do experimento e abatidos, após 12 semanas, com 89,2±5,2 kg e 149 dias de idade. O experimento foi realizado na Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Sousa-PB. Os níveis crescentes de farelo de coco (0%, 10%, 20% e 30% substituíram parcialmente o farelo residual de milho e o farelo de soja em dietas isoprotéicas, isocalóricas e isolisínicas. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo total de ração, os pesos (final, de

  4. Composition, physicochemical properties and thermal inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase from coconut (Cocos nucifera) water obtained from immature, mature and overly-mature coconut.

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Rusul, Gulam; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Composition, physicochemical properties and enzyme inactivation kinetics of coconut water were compared between immature (IMC), mature (MC) and overly-mature coconuts (OMC). Among the samples studied, pH, turbidity and mineral contents for OMC water was the highest, whereas water volume, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total phenolics content for OMC water were the lowest. Maturity was found to affect sugar contents. Sucrose content was found to increase with maturity, and the reverse trend was observed for fructose and glucose. Enzyme activity assessment showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in all samples was more heat resistant than peroxidase (POD). Compared to IMC and MC, PPO and POD from OMC water showed the lowest thermal resistance, with D83.3°C=243.9s (z=27.9°C), and D83.3°C=129.9s (z=19.5°C), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of monoglycerides, diglycerides, sterols, and free fatty acids in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) oil by 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    Dayrit, Fabian M; Buenafe, Olivia Erin M; Chainani, Edward T; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S

    2008-07-23

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( (31)P NMR) was used to differentiate virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached, deodorized coconut oil (RCO). Monoglycerides (MGs), diglycerides (DGs), sterols, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in VCO and RCO were converted into dioxaphospholane derivatives and analyzed by (31)P NMR. On the average, 1-MG was found to be higher in VCO (0.027%) than RCO (0.019%). 2-MG was not detected in any of the samples down to a detection limit of 0.014%. On the average, total DGs were lower in VCO (1.55%) than RCO (4.10%). When plotted in terms of the ratio [1,2-DG/total DGs] versus total DGs, VCO and RCO samples grouped separately. Total sterols were higher in VCO (0.096%) compared with RCO (0.032%), and the FFA content was 8 times higher in VCO than RCO (0.127% vs 0.015%). FFA determination by (31)P NMR and titration gave comparable results. Principal components analysis shows that the 1,2-DG, 1,3-DG, and FFAs are the most important parameters for differentiating VCO from RCO.

  6. Chemical composition of meat (kernel) and nut water of major coconut (cocos nucifera l.) cultivars at coastal area of Pakistan

    Wahid, A.; Ahmad, S.S.; Butt, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Three varieties of the coconut (Tall, Dwarf and Hybrid) were subjected to analyse for physicochemical properties of meat and nut water, Sodium (Na), Moisture %, Ash %, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Potassium (K), pH, Volatile matters, Caloric value (CV) and Total dissolved solids (TDS). The chemical analysis of Meat (mature and immature stage) showed high percentage of Mg and Na in study varieties. However, it was apparent that major portion of stored Ca, Mg, and Na were lodged in the nut water. The nutrients Na, K and Ca were high or less evenly distributed in the Kernel and Water, whereas there was nutrient a comparatively greater concentration of P and Mg in the Water. The K (56% to 81%) was higher in nut water as compared to other ones. The results showed Mg 45% to 70% and Na 1% to 53% in mature and immature meat, respectively. (author)

  7. Composição química, propriedades mecânicas e térmicas da fibra de frutos de cultivares de coco verde Chemical composition, thermal and mechanical properties for cultivars of immature coconut fibers

    Elisângela Corradini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo da água de coco verde, in natura ou industrializada, vem gerando um grande problema ambiental, devido ao destino final da casca dos frutos. Aproximadamente 85% do peso bruto do coco verde é constituído pelas cascas, que são acumuladas em lixões ou às margens de estradas. Como a minimização da geração desse resíduo implicaria a redução da atividade produtiva associada, o seu aproveitamento torna-se uma necessidade. Neste sentido, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as características da fibra de coco verde de diversos cultivares em função do ponto de colheita dos frutos, na composição química, nas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas, como forma de contribuir para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação na elaboração de novos materiais. Os resultados mostraram que a variação da composição química em função da cultivar de coco verde foi na faixa de 37,2 ± 0,8% a 43,9±0,7% e de 31,5±0,1% a 37,4±0,5% para os teores de lignina e celulose, respectivamente. A composição química não variou significativamente em função do ponto de maturação para a fibra da cultivar Anão-Verde-de-Jiqui (AVeJ. A fibra de cultivares de coco verde e AVeJ em diferentes pontos de maturação apresentaram propriedades térmicas e mecânicas semelhantes, as quais são próximas das propriedades das fibras de coco maduro, demonstrando, portanto, um potencial equivalente para serem utilizadas como reforço em matrizes poliméricas.The consumption of water of green coconut in natura or industrialized has generated a large amount of residues that are disposed in landfills or in roadside. The husks residues correspond to around 85% of the weight of the fruit and present slow decomposition process. This environmental problem requires alternative solutions. In order to assessing to potential of the immature (green coconut fibers to be used as reinforcement material in polymer matrices, the chemical composition, thermal and mechanical

  8. Inactivation kinetics of peroxidase from coconut waterCinética de inativação da peroxidase em água de coco

    Gabrielle Cardoso Reis Fontan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was study the thermal inactivation kinetics of the peroxidase enzyme (POD present in the green coconut water, being determined the parameters D values, z value and Q10, besides the Arrhenius’ activation energy (Ea to the process. Nine time/temperature binomials for the thermal treatment at three temperatures (75°C, 85°C and 95°C and maintenance times from 1min to 30 min, besides a control sample without thermal treatment. D values were obtained by linear regression, being equals to 833,3 min, 35,6min and 1,63min at 75°C, 85°C and 95°C, respectively, while the z value was equal to 7,4°C. These values demonstrate that POD of coconut water is thermal resistant to inactivation, being such processes strongly affected by temperature. Such fact is also verified by the high values of Ea (332,3 kJ/mol and Q10 (22,7, which indicate that a high amount of energy is required for the POD inactivation and an increase of temperature elevate the inactivation rate.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a cinética de inativação térmica da enzima peroxidase (POD presente na água de coco verde, determinando-se os valores dos parâmetros D, z e Q10, além da energia de ativação (Ea de Arrhenius para o processo. Foram avaliados nove binômios tempo/temperatura para o tratamento térmico em três temperaturas (75°C, 85°C e 95°C e tempos de manutenção variando de 1min a 30min, além da amostra sem tratamento térmico. Os valores de D foram determinados por meio de regressão linear, obtendo-se os valores de 833,3min., 35,6min. e 1,63min., para as temperaturas de 75°C, 85°C e 95°C, respectivamente, enquanto o valor de z foi igual a 7,4°C. Esses valores demonstraram que a POD da água de coco é resistente à inativação térmica, sendo tal processo fortemente afetado pela temperatura utilizada. Tal fato foi reforçado pelos altos valores da Ea (332,3kJ/mol e Q10 (22,7, que indicaram que uma alta quantidade de energia

  9. Fertilidade de substratos para mudas de mangabeira, contendo fibra de coco e adubados com fósforo = Fertility of substrata for mangabeira seedlings, containing coconut fiber and fertilized with phosphorus

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi executado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFPB,Areia, Estado da Paraíba, com objetivo de avaliar a fertilidade de substratos compostos por diferentes concentrações de fibra de coco (0 a 40%, esterco bovino (0 a 25%, terra vegetal (25 a 70%, 15% de areia e adubados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g L-1. Houveaumento das características químicas desejáveis do substrato com aumento da concentração de terra vegetal, fibra de coco e dose máxima do superfosfato triplo. A fibra de coco provocou aumento do teor de sódio nos substratos. Recomenda-se utilizar o substratoconstituído de 0 % de esterco, 46% de terra vegetal, 39% de fibra de coco, 15% de areia e 11 g L-1 de superfosfato triplo para obtenção dos máximos valores estimados de matéria orgânica, potássio, magnésio, cálcio e fósforo, e mínimo para H++Al+3 e sódio.This experiment was carried out at Centro de Ciências Agrárias of UFPB, Areia, state of Paraíba, whose objective was to evaluate thefertility of the substrata composed by concentrations of coconut fiber from 0 to 40%, manure bovine from 0 to 25.5%, soil from 25 to 70%, sand 15% and triple superphosphate between 0 and 11 g L-1. There was increase of the desirable chemical characteristics to thesubstratum with the increase of the concentration of soil, coconut fiber and maximum dose of the triple superphosphate. The coconut fiber increased the tenor of sodium in the substrata. It is recommended to use the concentrations of 0% of manure, 46% of soil, 39% of coconut fiber, 15% of sand and 11 g L-1 of triple superphosfate, to obtain the maxima estimated values of organic matter, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus, andminima for H++Al+3 and sodium.

  10. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  11. Ingestão de alimentos e digestibilidade aparente das frações fibrosas da torta de coco para ovinos = Feed intake and digestibility of fibrous fractions of coconut cake by sheep

    Lucival de Souza Junior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes de torta de coco (Cocos nucifera L. sobre a ingestão de alimentos e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido. Foram utilizados 16 ovinos não-castrados, com peso corporal médio de 28 kg (± 3,2 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo quatro tratamentos (0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2% PV de inclusão de torta de coco equatro repetições. Houve um período experimental de 21 dias com 14 dias de adaptação e sete dias de coleta de dados, em que se monitorou o fornecimento da dieta e a coleta total de fezes. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente ácido apresentou efeitos lineares e crescentes com a inclusão da torta de coco na dieta (44,9 a 57 e 30,57 a 40,32% para os níveis de 1,2% de inclusão, respectivamente. A fibra em detergente neutro apresentou comportamento quadrático, e o melhor nível de inclusão ocorreu com 0,89% e digestibilidade máxima da FDN de 59,39%. A torta de coco é uma excelente fonte de suplementação alimentar e pode contribuir no atendimento das demandas nutricionais para produção de carne e leite na Amazônia Oriental. This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of coconut cake (Cocos nucifera L. on feed intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. We used 16 non-castrated sheep with mean body weight of 28 kg (± 3.2 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2% BW of inclusion of coconut pie and four replications. There was a trial period of 21 days with 14 days of adaptation and 7 days of data collection, which monitored the supply of diet and total fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and acid detergent fiber effects were linear and increasing with the inclusion of coconut cake in the diet (44.9 to

  12. Produção de mudas de tomateiro em substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha Tomato seedlings production using substrates with coconut fiber and rock waste

    Regynaldo A Sampaio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar proporções dos resíduos fibra de coco (FC e pó de rocha de granito (RG como substratos na produção de mudas de tomateiro, cultivar Kada Gigante, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação na UFMG-ICA. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por uma testemunha e seis proporções de fibra de coco (FC e pó de rocha de granito (RG: T1 - Substrato comercial Hortimix®; T2 - 0% FC + 100% RG; T3 - 20% FC + 80% RG; T4 - 40% FC + 60% RG; T5 - 60% FC + 40% RG; T6 - 80% FC + 20% RG; T7 - 100% FC + 0% RG. O cultivo foi feito em bandeja de poliestireno expandido com células de 3,5 x 3,5 x 5,0 cm. Foram avaliados o diâmetro do coleto, a altura da planta, o índice de velocidade de emergência, a percentagem de emergência e a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Em praticamente todas as características avaliadas o substrato comercial foi superior aos substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha. Considerando-se apenas os substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha, as mudas com melhores características foram obtidas com a mistura de aproximadamente 70% em volume de fibra de coco.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the ratio of coconut fiber and rock waste, in the tomato seedling production (cultivar Kada Gigante, in Montes Claros, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with four replicates. The treatments were composed of a control and six ratios of coconut fiber (FC and rock waste (RG: T1 - Commercial Substrate Hortimix®; T2 - 0% FC + 100% RG; T3 - 20% FC + 80% RG; T4 - 40% FC + 60% RG; T5 - 60% FC + 40% RG; T6 - 80% FC + 20% RG; T7 - 100% FC + 0% RG. The cultivation was done in polystyrene trays with cells of 3.5 x 3.5 x 5,0 cm. Stem diameter, seedling height, emergency speed index, emergency percentage, root and aerial part of fresh and dry matter were evaluated. In

  13. Adubação de orquídeas em substratos com fibra de coco Fertilization of orchids in substrates with coconut fiber

    Tátila Lima do Amaral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, avaliar a eficiência de substratos e doses de adubação sobre o crescimento e teores foliares de nutrientes de híbridos de orquídeas do gênero Phalaenopsis. O estudo constou de dois experimentos conduzidos em substrato com fibra de coco industrializada (Sub 1 e não industrializada (Sub 2, em mistura com casca de Pinus e brita zero (1:1:1 v/v/v, em delineamento de blocos casualizados. O primeiro experimento, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo (06 e 12 meses, com cinco repetições, avaliou o híbrido RJ 343, nos dois substratos, sob quatro doses de adubo mineral (0; 0,9; 1,2; 1,5 g L-1 e dois tratamentos adicionais [aplicação foliar de Aminon® (0,5 ml L-1 na dose de 1,2 g L-1, no Sub 1 e Sub 2]. O segundo avaliou o híbrido RJ 84-2, nos dois substratos, com as mesmas doses de adubo mineral e aplicação foliar de Aminon® (0 e 0,5 ml L-1, em esquema de parcelas subsubsubdivididas no tempo (6 e 12 meses, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se número de folhas, área foliar, área superficial de raízes, massa seca de folhas, raízes e total, e teores foliares de N, P e K. O Aminon® não teve efeito sobre o crescimento dos híbridos. O aumento da adubação promoveu aumento de crescimento, exceto de raízes, sendo o maior crescimento observado sob a dose de 1,5 g L-1 de adubo mineral. O Sub 2 promoveu maior crescimento das plantas do híbrido RJ 343, enquanto o Sub 1 promoveu maior crescimento do híbrido RJ 84-2.The research objective was to evaluate the efficiency of substrates and fertilization levels on the growth and leaf nutrient contents of orchid hybrids of the genus Phalaenopsis. The study consisted of two experiments in carried out with industrialized coconut fiber (Sub 1 and non-industrialized coconut fiber (Sub 2, in mixture with Pinus bark and grade zero gravel (1:1:1 v/v/v in randomized blocks. The first experiment in a split-plot scheme in time (6 and 12 months with five replications

  14. Desempenho bioeconômico de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco Bioeconomic performance of growing - finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal

    José Evânio da Costa Siebra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados mestiços Landrace × Large White com 19,7 ± 2,9 kg de peso vivo inicial e 89,2 ± 5,8 kg de peso vivo final distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0, 10, 20 ou 30% de farelo de coco e cinco repetições. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, o ganho de peso médio diário, o consumo de ração médio diário e a conversão alimentar nas fases de crescimento (65 a 107 dias de idade e crescimento-terminação (65 a 149 dias de idade. Os parâmetros econômicos avaliados foram a receita bruta média, o custo médio da alimentação, a margem bruta média e a rentabilidade média. Os melhores resultados de ganho de peso médio diário e receita bruta média na fase de crescimento foram obtidos com o nível de 22,5% de farelo de coco na ração. Na fase de crescimento-terminação, a receita bruta média no período total indica que é possível incluir 22,4% de farelo de coco em dietas para suínos formuladas com farelo residual de milho e farelo de soja.The objective was to evaluate the performance of growing- finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal. Twenty crossbred Large White × Landrace barrows with initial 19.7 ± 2.9 kg BW and final 89.2 ± 5.8 kg BW were allotted to complete a randomized blocks design with four levels (0, 10, 20 or 30% of coconut meal and five replications. Performance traits, as average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in grower phase (65 to 107 days old and grower-finisher phase (65 to 149 days old were evaluated. Economic parameters evaluated were: average gross income, average feed cost, gross margin and average return. The best results of average weight daily gain and average gross income in the grower phase were obtained with the level of 22.5% of coconut meal in the diet. In grower

  15. De novo assembly and characterization of global transcriptome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) embryogenic calli using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Rajesh, M K; Fayas, T P; Naganeeswaran, S; Rachana, K E; Bhavyashree, U; Sajini, K K; Karun, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Production and supply of quality planting material is significant to coconut cultivation but is one of the major constraints in coconut productivity. Rapid multiplication of coconut through in vitro techniques, therefore, is of paramount importance. Although somatic embryogenesis in coconut is a promising technique that will allow for the mass production of high quality palms, coconut is highly recalcitrant to in vitro culture. In order to overcome the bottlenecks in coconut somatic embryogenesis and to develop a repeatable protocol, it is imperative to understand, identify, and characterize molecular events involved in coconut somatic embryogenesis pathway. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of coconut embryogenic calli, derived from plumular explants of West Coast Tall cultivar, was undertaken on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. After de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation, we have obtained 40,367 transcripts which showed significant BLASTx matches with similarity greater than 40 % and E value of ≤10(-5). Fourteen genes known to be involved in somatic embryogenesis were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of these 14 genes were carried in six developmental stages. The result showed that CLV was upregulated in the initial stage of callogenesis. Transcripts GLP, GST, PKL, WUS, and WRKY were expressed more in somatic embryo stage. The expression of SERK, MAPK, AP2, SAUR, ECP, AGP, LEA, and ANT were higher in the embryogenic callus stage compared to initial culture and somatic embryo stages. This study provides the first insights into the gene expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis in coconut.

  16. Indução de calo a partir de eixo embrionário de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. Callus induction from coconut embryogenic axis (Cocos nucifera L.

    Kicia Karinne Pereira Gomes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade de formação de calos a partir de tecidos originários do eixo embrionário de embriões zigóticos de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. em diferentes concentrações de 2,4-D. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (4 concentrações de 2,4-D x 5 segmentos do eixo embrionário. Os eixos embrionários foram excisados longitudinalmente dos embriões zigóticos e, em seguida, submetidos à assepsia com hipoclorito de sódio (0,2% por dois minutos, lavados com água destilada estéril e imersos por dois minutos em solução de ácido cítrico estéril (100 mg.L-1. Os eixos embrionários foram então seccionados em cinco segmentos correspondentes às posições A, B, C, D e E, e transferidos para placas de Petri contendo meio de cultura Y3, suplementado com quatro concentrações de 2,4-D (10-4; 1,36x10-4; 3,62x10-4 e 4,52x10-4 M, sacarose (50 g.L-1, carvão ativado (2,5 g.L-1 e vitaminas de Morel e Wetmore, mantidos em ambiente escuro, em temperatura de 25 ± 2ºC. Após 15 dias de inoculação, os segmentos A e B apresentaram 97,5% de explantes com calos friáveis na concentração de 10-4 M de 2,4-D, e 92,5% e 80%, respectivamente, na concentração de 1,36x10-4 M. O segmento E, em ambas as concentrações, apresentou 60% de calogênese. Após 30 dias de inoculação, os segmentos A e B apresentaram 100% e 97,5% de calogênese na concentração de 10-4 M, e 90% e 80%, respectivamente, na concentração de 1,36x10-4 M. Em ambas as concentrações, o segmento E apresentou de 55 a 57,5% de formação de calos. As concentrações de 2,4-D que melhor induzem calogênese, são as de 10-4 e 1,36x10-4 M. Os segmentos A, B e E apresentaram maior competência para calogênese.The ability of callus formation from the embryo axes of coconut in different concentrations of 2,4-D was evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4x5

  17. Determination of pesticides in coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water and pulp using modified QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS.

    Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; Talamini, Viviane; Facco, Janice de Fátima; Rizzetti, Tiele Medianeira; Prestes, Osmar Damian; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan

    2016-12-15

    The use of pesticides is directly linked to improvements in productivity and to the preservation of coconut palms. However pesticide analysis is necessary to determine whether pesticide residues in the food products containing coconut are within the maximum residue limits (MRLs), ensuring the quality of these products. This work aimed to develop a method for multiresidue determination of ten pesticides in coconut water and pulp using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. The method was effective in terms of selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, accuracy and precision, providing LOD of 3μgkg(-1), LOQ of 10μgkg(-1) and recoveries between 70 and 120% with RSD lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to 36 samples in which residues of carbendazim, carbofuran, cyproconazole and thiabendazole were found below the LOQ in coconut water and pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and Ectopic Expression of CoWRI1, an AP2/EREBP Domain-Containing Transcription Factor from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Endosperm, Changes the Seeds Oil Content in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Sun, RuHao; Ye, Rongjian; Gao, Lingchao; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Rui; Mao, Ting; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    Coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) is a key tropical crop and a member of the monocotyledonous family Arecaceae ( Palmaceae ). Few genes and related metabolic processes involved in coconut endosperm development have been investigated. In this study, a new member of the WRI1 gene family was isolated from coconut endosperm and was named CoWRI1 . Its transcriptional activities and interactions with the acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( BCCP2 ) promoter of CoWRI1 were confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid approaches, respectively. Functional characterization was carried out through seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis and endosperm-specific expression in rice. In transgenic Arabidopsis , high over-expressions of CoWRI1 in seven independent T2 lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative mRNA accumulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in either fatty acid biosynthesis or triacylglycerols assembly (BCCP2, KASI, MAT, ENR, FATA, and GPDH) were also assayed in mature seeds. Furthermore, lipid and fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 significantly increased. In two homozygous T2 transgenic rice lines (G5 and G2), different CoWRI1 expression levels were detected, but no CoWRI1 transcripts were detected in the wild type. Analyses of the seed oil content, starch content, and total protein content indicated that the two T2 transgenic lines showed a significant increase ( P oil content. The transgenic lines also showed a significant increase in starch content, whereas total protein content decreased significantly. Further analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed that palmitic acid (C16:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) increased significantly in the seeds of the transgenic rice lines, but oleic acid (C18:1) levels significantly declined.

  19. Viabilidade financeira de instalação de uma unidade de beneficiamento de cascas de coco verde = Financial feasibility of installing a processing unit of green coconut shell

    Vinícios Silveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A produção nacional de coco (Cocos nucifera destinada para o consumo de água in natura e industrializada no ano de 2014 foi de aproximadamente 1,5 bilhão de frutos. Toneladas de cascas foram, em sua maioria, descartadas nos lixões e aterros sanitários das cidades, desprezando, dessa forma, uma matéria prima potencial de alta aplicabilidade e baixo custo. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de apurar a viabilidade financeira a partir do levantamento dos custos de instalação de uma unidade de beneficiamento de cascas de coco verde para produção de pó e fibras brutas. A unidade será implantada no município de São Luís (MA. Os quesitos técnicos utilizados como referência foram desenvolvidos e testados pela Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária [Embrapa] Agroindústria Tropical. Para os cálculos de viabilidade foram utilizados, a partir do fluxo de caixa, os critérios financeiros valor presente líquido [VPL], payback descontado e taxa interna de retorno [TIR], além de análise de sensibilidade de cenários. O maior volume de capital destinou-se às instalações físicas da unidade, consumindo R$ 550.415,00, enquanto as máquinas e equipamentos tiveram dispêndios de R$ 284.650,00. O projeto é financeiramente atrativo, gerando VPL de R$ 361.458,00 e TIR de 16%, frente a uma taxa mínima de atratividade de 7,13%, ao passo que os recursos investidos serão retornados no sexto ano. O projeto é sensível às variações de preço dos produtos vendidos. = The national coconut (Cocos nucifera production for natural and industrialized water, in 2014, was approximately 1.5 billion fruits. Tons of shells was mostly discarded in dumps and landfills, undervaluing a raw material with potential applicability and low cost. This study aims to determine the financial viability of a coconut shell processing installation for coconut shells powder production and husk fiber in São Luís - Maranhão State. The Brazilian Agricultural

  20. Coconut Water

    ... water because the immature coconuts are green in color. Coconut water is different than coconut milk. Coconut milk is produced from an emulsion of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly ...

  1. Qualidade e teores de nutrientes de palmeira-rápis em substrato com fibra de coco Quality and nutrient content of lady palm in coconut fiber substrate

    Flávia dos S Alves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro substratos compostos de mistura de fibra de coco triturada (FC e substrato comercial Plantmax HT® (SC, nas proporções de 0, 25, 50 e 75% de FC, em vasos com capacidade para 35 L, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três vasos por parcela, com uma planta por vaso. A adubação das plantas foi feita alternando-se, a cada três meses, 25 g de 4-14-8 com 10 g de uréia por vaso, a partir do plantio e durante os 24 meses do período experimental. O crescimento foi avaliado medindo-se a altura da haste inicial (da base do caule à inserção da última folha completamente expandida, número de folhas da haste inicial, número de perfilhos, número de folhas dos perfilhos, altura dos perfilhos e teores de nutrientes da última folha completamente expandida da haste inicial. A qualidade foi avaliada através de análise sensorial visual, baseado nos critérios "gostei"(muito ou pouco e "compraria"(sim ou não. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos sobre as características de crescimento, exceto para o número de folhas da haste inicial. As plantas com melhor aceitação foram aquelas cultivadas na mistura com 50% FC e 50% SC. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintoma visual de deficiência de nutrientes, sendo os teores foliares encontrados em plantas sadias com padrão de qualidade para comercialização de: 17,80 - 18,29 g kg-1 de N; 0,66 - 0,81 g kg-1 de NO-3; 2,02 - 2,34 g kg-1 de P; 18,11 - 20,40 g kg-1 de K; 11,63 - 13,84 g kg-1 de Cl; 2,69 - 4,04 g kg-1 de Ca; 1,61 - 2,07 g kg-1 de S; 1,98 - 2,64 g kg-1 de Mg.It was evaluated the quality and nutrient content of lady palm in four substrates made up of a mixture of shredded coconut fiber (FC and commercial substrate Plantmax HT® (SC, in proportions of 0, 25, 50 and 75% of FC, in 35 liters containers, in a randomized block experiment with four replicates and three pots per plot, with one plant per pot. The plants were

  2. Proximity to encroaching coconut palm limits native forest water use and persistence on a Pacific atoll

    Krauss, Ken W.; Duberstein, Jamie A.; Cormier, Nicole; Young, Hillary S.; Hathaway, Stacie A.

    2015-01-01

    Competition for fresh water between native and introduced plants is one important challenge facing native forests as rainfall variability increases. Competition can be especially acute for vegetation on Pacific atolls, which depend upon consistent rainfall to replenish shallow groundwater stores. Patterns of sap flow, water use, and diameter growth of Pisonia grandis trees were investigated on Sand Islet, Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, during a period of low rainfall. Sap flow in the outer sapwood was reduced by 53% for P. grandis trees growing within coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) stands (n = 9) versus away from coconut palm (n = 9). This suggested that water uptake was being limited by coconut palm. Radial patterns of sap flow into the sapwood of P. grandis also differed between stands with and without coconut palm, such that individual tree water use for P. grandis ranged from 14 to 67 L day−1, averaging 47·8 L day−1 without coconut palm and 23·6 L day−1 with coconut palm. Diameter growth of P. grandis was measured from nine islets. In contrast to sap flow, competition with coconut palm increased diameter growth by 89%, equating to an individual tree basal area increment of 5·4 versus 10·3 mm2 day−1. Greater diameter growth countered by lower rates of water use by P. grandis trees growing in competition with coconut palm suggests that stem swell may be associated with water storage when positioned in the understory of coconut palm, and may facilitate survival when water becomes limiting until too much shading overwhelms P. grandis. 

  3. Ambiguous genetic relationships among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars: the effects of outcrossing, sample source and size, and method of analysis.

    A prior analysis of eight coconut cultivars with 15 microsatellite (SSR) markers drew unexpected relationships between two of the out-crossing tall cultivars evaluated: ‘Atlantic Tall’ and ‘Panama Tall’. We further investigated the relationships between these eight cultivars by increasing the number...

  4. Dinâmica do potencial matricial em substratos de pinus e coco sob ação da capilaridade Dynamics of matric potential on substrates of pine and coconut under the action of capillarity

    Carlos Vinícius G Barreto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho médio de partículas e a porosidade dos substratos condicionam as propriedades matriciais, interferindo na capacidade de retenção e de transmissão da ��gua no meio. O conhecimento desses atributos é fundamental em processos de irrigação por capilaridade, para que o molhamento atinja as camadas superiores dos recipientes com níveis de tensão de água facilmente disponível. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a ascensão de água por capilaridade para determinar a posição mais apropriada do nível de saturação na ascensão capilar em recipientes com substratos de coco e pinus, de textura grossa e fina. Foram efetuados experimentos avaliando a ascensão de água por capilaridade em colunas segmentadas preenchidas com os substratos. Os valores de umidade em cada segmento foram calculados gravimetricamente e relacionados aos de tensão estimados pela curva de tensão dos substratos. Os substratos com textura fina apresentaram melhor elevação de água por capilaridade, com melhor elevação da umidade em níveis de tensão de água disponível. O substrato de coco fino apresentou água disponível em todo o perfil do recipiente, enquanto o de pinus apresentou as camadas superiores do recipiente com água retida em tensões abaixo do ponto de murcha permanente. O substrato fino de coco apresentou os melhores resultados para aplicação na irrigação por capilaridade, permitindo recomendar o seu uso com o nível de saturação posicionado a cinco centímetros do fundo do recipiente por quinze minutos.The average particle size and porosity of substrates affects the matrix properties of root growth media, interfering in water holding and water conductivity capacity through substrates. The knowledge of these attributes is essential in capillary irrigation processes to allow the wetting front reaches upper layers under easily available water tension. The present work had the objective to study the water rise by

  5. Desenvolvimento e qualidade nutricional de mudas de mangabeiras cultivadas em substratos contendo fibra de coco e adubação fosfatada Development and nutritional quality of hancornia speciosa seedlings cultivated in mixture containing coconut fiber and fertilized with phosphorus

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a produção de mudas de qualidade, é necessária a utilização de substratos com propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas que condicionem a germinação adequada das sementes e o estabelecimento das mudas. Neste sentido, foi realizado um experimento no Centro de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a composição mineral de mudas de mangabeiras (Hancornia speciosa em substratos compostos por diferentes proporções de fibra de coco (0% a 40%, esterco bovino (0% a 25%, terra vegetal (25% a 70% e 15% de areia, fertilizados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g dm-3. A terra vegetal e a fibra de coco exerceram efeitos benéficos às mudas com o aumento de suas proporções no substrato. A adição do esterco e do superfosfato triplo inibiu a produção de matéria seca e a área foliar das mudas. Houve aumento dos teores de nutrientes nas mudas com o aumento da concentração de esterco nos substratos. Pela estimativa dos resultados, o substrato que proporciona maior crescimento e composição mineral mais equilibrada nas mudas de mangabeira deve ser constituído por 14% de esterco, 56% de terra vegetal, 15% de fibra de coco, 15% de areia e 4 g dm-3 de superfosfato triplo.In order to produce good quality seedlings it is necessary to use a mixture that presents appropriate physical, chemical and biological properties, which supplies the necessary conditions for the germination and the seedling's establishment. This experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Sciences Center, Paraíba Federal University (Brazil, whose objective was to evaluate the growth and the mineral composition of Hancornia speciosa seedlings in substrata composed by concentrations of coconut fiber from 0% to 40%, manure bovine from 0% to 25%, soil from 25% to 70%, sand 15% and triple superphosphate between 0 and 11 g dm-3. The soil and coconut fiber had beneficial effects on the H. speciosa

  6. Farelo de coco na ração de poedeiras comerciais: digestibilidade dos nutrientes, desempenho e qualidade dos ovos Coconut meal in laying hens diets: nutrients digestibility, performance and egg quality

    Raffaella Castro Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de farelo de coco (FC sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da ração, o desempenho e as características dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Cento e cinqüenta poedeiras com 76 semanas de idade foram pesadas e distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de seis aves por unidade experimental. Foram avaliadas cinco rações, uma testemunha, sem FC, e as demais com 5, 10, 15 e 20% de farelo de coco. As rações foram calculadas para serem isoprotéicas e isocalóricas. A inclusão do FC nas rações aumentou a quantidade de EE, FB e EB da ração. Os níveis de inclusão de FC tiveram efeito quadrático sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, N e EB e nos valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida para N (EMAn, que atingiram o máximo no nível de 15% de inclusão. As rações contendo 10, 15 e 20% de farelo de coco apresentaram valores de EMA e EMAn superiores aos obtidos com a ração sem FC. Os níveis de FC utilizados não afetaram a porcentagem de postura, o peso do ovo e a massa de ovo. O consumo de ração diminuiu e a conversão alimentar melhorou com a inclusão de 15 e 20% de FC. Considerando os resultados de digestibilidade da energia das rações, recomenda-se que a inclusão de farelo de coco em rações para poedeiras não deve ultrapassar o nível de 15%.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of coconut meal (CM in diets on nutrients digestibility, performance and egg characteristics of commercial laying hens. A total of 150 laying hens, with 76 weeks of age was weighed and allotted to a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates of six birds in each experimental unit. Five diets were evaluated, one control, without CM and the others with 5, 10, 15, and 20% of CM. Diets were formulated to be isoprotein

  7. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  8. Modificação da fibra de coco com polianilina e o seu uso como sensor de pressão Coconut fibers modified with polyaniline nanoparticles are used in pressure sensor

    Fernando G. de Souza Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por foco a modificação de fibras de coco, tornando-as materiais compósitos condutores de eletricidade. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma técnica de polimerização in situ, capaz de gerar nanopartículas de polianilina sobre a superfície de fibras tratadas. As fibras modificadas com polianilina foram caracterizadas por FTIR, UV-Vis, DRX e SAXS. Além disso, foram submetidas a ensaios eletromecânicos, com a finalidade de indicar quais condições de modificação são mais eficientes para a obtenção de um material sensível a esforços compressivos. Os resultados de sensibilidade a compressão sugerem que os materiais modificados com as menores quantidades de polianilina são os mais adequados para aplicações no campo de sensores de pressão de natureza resistiva, podendo ser utilizados no desenvolvimento de dispositivos inteligentes.Coconut fibers were covered with polyaniline in order to obtain electrically conductive composite materials. For this purpose aniline was polymerized in the presence of coconut fibers, leading to the formation of polyaniline nanoparticles over the surface of the fibers. The treated fibers were analyzed by FTIR, UV-Vis, DRX and SAXS, being also submitted to electromechanical assays, in order to find the best conditions for obtaining materials with optimal compressional sensitivity. The results suggest that materials obtained with smaller amounts of polyaniline are the most adequate for applications as resistive pressure sensors. This class of materials can be used in the development of intelligent devices.

  9. Influence of dietary fiber from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera) on the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Pillai, M G; Thampi, B S; Menon, V P; Leelamma, S

    1999-09-01

    The influence of dietary fiber from coconut kernel isolated by the neutral detergent fiber method on the antioxidant status in rats treated with the colon specific carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was studied in rats fed a high-fat diet for 15 weeks. The DMH-treated fiber group showed higher levels of lipid peroxides than the control group treated with DMH at the preneoplastic and neoplastic stages. Free fatty acid levels were found to decrease significantly in the DMH-treated control group, whereas it was near normal in the fiber groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity also were found to be increased in the liver, intestine, proximal colon, and distal colon. Glutathione levels in all the tissues studied showed significant decreases in the fiber group. The results suggest that coconut kernel fiber can protect cells from loss of oxidative capacity with the administration of the procarcinogen DMH.

  10. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SAND AND COCONUT SUBSTRATE IN URBAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PERFORMANCES COMPAREES DU SABLE ET DU SUBSTRAT DE COCO EN TRAITEMENT D’EAUX RESIDUAIRES URBAINES

    MARTINE KONE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban wastewater has been treated by infiltration-percolation on sand and on coconut substrate, in order to highlight their comparative performance. The pilots were fed to the hydraulic loading rate of 40 L·m-2·d-1 during three days a week and kept at rest the next four days. Parameters are measured on an average sample of 24 hours taken on the output of each pilot at the end of the third day of treatment. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD were respectively, 94.8 and 39.61 % with the sand and the coconut substrate while the average yields of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 were 99.01 and 98.12 %. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of fecal coliform bacteria were respectively, 98.8 and 91 %. Conductivities have increased by an average of 39.88 % with the sand and 4.65 % with coconut substrate.

  11. Improving the quality of matured coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water by low alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: antioxidant and volatile profiles.

    Zhang, Guanfei; Chen, Wenxue; Chen, Weijun; Chen, Haiming

    2018-03-01

    Matured coconut water (MCW) is a by-product in the coconut milk industry that is usually discarded due to its unpleasant flavor. In this study, low-alcohol coconut water (LACW) was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the quality of MCW. Volatile components and nonvolatile flavor-related elements were estimated to compare the qualities of the MCW and LACW. Besides measuring the kinetic changes, the levels of fructose, glucose, sucrose and ethanol contents were also determined. The results of the organic acid assays showed that tartaric, pyruvic and succinic acids were the primary organic acids present in LACW and increased significantly with fermentation. The resulting volatile composition assay indicated that esters, alcohols and fatty acids were significantly influenced by fermentation and yeast strains. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values increased significantly throughout the process, correlating with the enhancement of total phenolic content.

  12. Wood (Bagassa guianensis Aubl) and green coconut mesocarp (cocos nucifera) residues as textile dye removers (Remazol Red and Remazol Brilliant Violet).

    Monteiro, Mônica S; de Farias, Robson F; Chaves, José Alberto Pestana; Santana, Sirlane A; Silva, Hildo A S; Bezerra, Cícero W B

    2017-12-15

    In this work the efficiency of two lignocellulosic waste materials, wood residues and coconut mesocarp, were investigated as adsorbents towards two representative textile dyes (Remazol Red, RR and Remazol Brilliant Violet, RBV). The moisture, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, ash and fiber contents of both natural matrices were characterized. The materials were also characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis and thermogravimetry. The adsorption of dyes was monitored by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It was verified that both, coconut mesocarp (CM) and wood residues can act as effective adsorbents towards the investigated dyes. It is verified that the maximum adsorption capacity Γ M (mg g -1 ) for RBV and RR are 7.28 and 3.97 towards CM and 0.64 and 0.71 towrads SD. Furthermore, it was verified that the adsorption is strongly pH dependent and, as a general behavior, an increase in the pH value is associated with a decrease of the total amount of adsorbed dye. The adsorption of violet dye onto coconut mesocarp is well described by the Langmuir model, while all the remazol red fitted better with the Freundlich equation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Ethanolic Leaf Extract Reduces Amyloid-β (1-42) Aggregation and Paralysis Prevalence in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Independently of Free Radical Scavenging and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.

    Manalo, Rafael Vincent; Silvestre, Maries Ann; Barbosa, Aza Lea Anne; Medina, Paul Mark

    2017-04-21

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been the subject of several studies which have aimed to alleviate Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, focusing on in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. Here, we studied an underutilized and lesser-valued part of the coconut tree, specifically the leaves, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Coconut leaf extract (CLE) was screened for antioxidant and AChE inhibitory properties in vitro and therapeutic effects in two strains of transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) in muscle cells. CLE demonstrated free radical scavenging activity with an EC 50 that is 79-fold less compared to ascorbic acid, and an AChE inhibitory activity that is 131-fold less compared to Rivastigmine. Surprisingly, in spite of its low antioxidant activity and AChE inhibition, CLE reduced Aβ deposits by 30.31% in CL2006 in a dose-independent manner, and reduced the percentage of paralyzed nematodes at the lowest concentration of CLE (159.38 μg/mL), compared to dH₂O/vehicle (control). Phytochemical analysis detected glycosides, anthocyanins, and hydrolyzable tannins in CLE, some of which are known to be anti-amyloidogenic. Taken together, these findings suggest that CLE metabolites alternatively decrease AB 1-42 aggregation and paralysis prevalence independently of free radical scavenging and AChE inhibition, and this warrants further investigation on the bioactive compounds of CLE.

  14. effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed under ... Management of coconut (Cocos nucifera) lethal yellowing disease (CLYD), which has killed about eight million coconut ...... International Journal of Emerging.

  15. Caracterização de fibras de bananeira e de coco por ressonância magnética nuclear de alta resolução no estado sólido Characterization of banana and coconut fibers by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state

    Sandra R. Albinante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de ressonância magnética nuclear, RMN, de alta resolução no estado sólido permitiu um estudo detalhado da dinâmica molecular de fibras naturais, entre elas duas obtidas a partir do tronco de bananeira e outra, da fruta do coco. Utilizou-se a técnica de relaxação nuclear para avaliar os domínios relacionados às diferentes mobilidades dos componentes dessas fibras, tais como celulose, hemicelulose e lignina. Também foram realizados testes para a quantificação do teor de lignina por método químico. A partir dos tempos de relaxação e da curva de domínios, foi possível verificar que as fibras com alto teor de lignina possuem tempos maiores de relaxação, pois esse componente da fibra apresenta uma estrutura, mais rígida, de anéis aromáticos.High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, NMR, in the solid-state permitted a detailed molecular dynamic study of natural fibers, including two obtained from the banana tree stems and from coconut fruits. The nuclear relaxation technique was applied to evaluate the domains associated with different mobilities of the fiber components, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Experiments were also done to quantify the lignin content using a chemical method. From the relaxation times and the domain curves, fibers with higher lignin content were found to have higher relaxation times, because they present a more rigid structure with aromatic groups.

  16. Determinação direta de selênio em água de coco e em leite de coco utilizando espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica em forno de grafite Direct determination of selenium in coconut water and coconut milk using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Poliana C. Aleixo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is both essential and toxic to man and animals, depending on the concentration and the ingested form. Most fruits and vegetables are poor sources of selenium, but coconut can be a good selenium source. Samples were suspended (1 + 4 v/v in a mixture of tertiary amines soluble in water (10% v/v CFA-C. This simple sample treatment avoided contamination and decreased the analysis time. The standard additions method was adopted for quantification. The action of the autosampler was improved by the presence of the amines mixture in the suspension. A Varian model AA-800 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a graphite furnace and a GTA 100 autosampler was used for selenium determination in coconut water and coconut milk. Background correction was performed by means of the Zeeman effect. Pyrolytically coated graphite tubes were employed. Using Pd as chemical modifier, the pyrolysis and the atomization temperatures were set at 1400 and 2200ºC, respectively. For six samples, the selenium concentration in coconut water varied from 6.5 to 21.0 mug L-1 and in coconut milk from 24.2 to 25.1 mug L-1. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by an addition-recovery experiment and all recovered values are in the 99.5-102.3% range. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it can be directly applied without sample decomposition.

  17. Low-cost and eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil cake extract and its antibacterial activity.

    Govarthanan, Muthusamy; Seo, Young-Seok; Lee, Kui-Jae; Jung, Ik-Boo; Ju, Ho-Jong; Kim, Jae Su; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports the simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using coconut oil cake extract. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy peak at 3 keV confirmed the presence of silver. Transmission electron micrograph showed that nanoparticles are mostly circular with an average size of 10-70 nm. The results of the X-ray powder diffraction analysis (2θ = 46.2, 67.4 and 76.8) indicated the crystal nature of the AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicates that proteins present in the oilcake extract could be responsible for the reduction of silver ions. The synthesized AgNPs (1-4 mm) reduced the growth rate of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Aeromonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Citrobacter sp. isolated from livestock wastewater.

  18. 2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal from tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera) attenuates biofilm formation and quorum sensing-mediated virulence of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Sethupathy, Sivasamy; Nithya, Chari; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  19. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    Zheng, Kan; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Xirui

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China, and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut. The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk, roots, withered coconut leaves, coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut, mainly used for biogas extraction, direct combustion and power generation, brewing, pharmacy, and processing of building materials; the wastes generated ...

  20. Bebida mista com propriedade estimulante à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado Mixed drink with stimulating properties consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice

    Joelia Marques de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria de bebidas, uma alternativa para acrescentar valor nutricional ou simplesmente desenvolver novos sabores é a mistura de diferentes sucos de frutas na formulação de bebidas mistas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma bebida à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado (cajuína, com adição de cafeína, conferindo-lhe propriedades estimulantes. Foram avaliadas cinco formulações, com diferentes proporções de cajuína, tendo sido padronizados previamente o pH, teor de sólidos solúveis e cafeína. As formulações foram submetidas à caracterização físico-química (pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez, açúcares redutores, não redutores e totais e vitamina C, análises microbiológicas e avaliação sensorial de aceitação (atributos de cor, sabor, avaliação global e intenção de compra. Todas as formulações em estudo apresentaram boa aceitação sensorial, não havendo diferença entre as médias dos atributos avaliados. Na intenção de compra, a formulação mais aceita foi ACC 20 (20% de cajuína e 80% de água de coco. A incorporação de vitamina C na bebida através da adição da cajuína foi mais evidente até a formulação ACC 20. Os resultados indicaram que a formulação ACC 20 foi a mais viável para elaboração da bebida mista. Todas as formulações apresentaram padrões microbiológicos satisfatórios.In the beverage industry, an alternative to add nutritional quality or simply to develop new tastes is the blending of different kinds of fruit juices. The objective of this work was the development of blends consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice with the addition of caffeine so as to provide stimulating properties to the beverage. Five formulations with different concentration of clarified cashew apple juice and previously standardized for pH, total soluble solids and caffeine concentration were evaluated. The formulations were submitted to

  1. Concentração salina e fases de exposição à salinidade do meloeiro cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco Salt concentration and phases of exposure tosalinity of melon grown in coconut fiber substrate

    Nildo da Silva Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No semiárido, a escassez de água de boa qualidade faz com que os produtores utilizem água salobra para preparar a solução nutritiva. Com o objetivo de investigar a utilização de água salobra na irrigação de meloeiro (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco em casa de vegetação, plantas foram nutridas com soluções salinas de condutividades elétricas (CEs 1,1 (testemunha; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 aplicadas durante as fases: crescimento vegetativo (10-30 dias após o transplantio-DAT; florescimento (31-50 DAT e frutificação e maturação (51-70 DAT. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos arranjados em um esquema fatorial 4x3 (níveis de salinidade x tempo de exposição dos sais, com três repetições. Houve correlação na perda relativa por incremento de CEs das variáveis de crescimento e de produção do meloeiro em função da salinidade da solução nutritiva para cada fase de exposição. As soluções nutritivas preparadas com água salobra podem ser utilizadas no cultivo do meloeiro em substrato de fibra de coco com o mínimo de perdas relativas de massa média de frutos por incremento de CEs, quando aplicadas na fase de florescimento.Scarcity of good water quality in semiarid region causes producers to use brackish water to prepare the nutrient solution. In order to investigate the use of brackish water in irrigation of greenhouse-melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 grown in coconut fiber substrate, plants were irrigated with saltine nutrient solutions of electrical conductivities (ECs of 1.1 (control, 2.5, 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1, applied during the phases of vegetative growth (10-30 days after transplanting, DAT, flowering (31-50 DAT and fruiting and ripening (51-70 DAT. The design was completely randomized, with 12 treatments arranged in a 4x3 factorial design (salinity levels x exposure time of the salts, with three replications. There was a correlation in

  2. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L. Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC, Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs.

    Carina Mendes Loiola

    Full Text Available The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF, Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe and West African Tall (WAT; the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT; the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT; and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT, Tonga Tall (TONT and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  3. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  4. Physiochemical, energy characteristics and performance of coconut fiber in the sorption of diesel and bio diesel oils; Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas, energetica e desempenho da fibra de coco na sorcao de oleos diesel e biodiesel

    Oliveira, Adriana Ferla de [Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis, Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Palotina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: adrianaferla@ufpr.br; Leao, Alcides Lopes [Dept. de Recursos Naturais, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Caraschi, Jose Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Itapeva, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: carachi@itapeva.unesp.br; Oliveira, Luciano Caetano de [Curso de Agronomia, Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Palotina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: lucianocaetano@ufpr.br; Goncalves, Jose Evaristo [Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: evaristto@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Accidents involving oil spills and its derivatives on the soil and in hydric bodies are common and worrying once they endanger the quality of the ecosystem. An economical and efficient way of combating oil spills is the use of the sorption method using sorbent materials. There is a range of sorbent materials, however, the natural ones like biomass and vegetable fibers demonstrate interest due to the low cost and good sorbent capacity. There are works concerning the sorption of crude oil, however for diesel and bio diesel, which had their production increased, there is a little or even nothing exists in the literature. The aim of this work was to investigate the sorption capacity of coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera) confronting to the fuels, diesel and biodiesel and to compare them with the peat commercially used. The bio sorbents were also submitted to the physiochemical and energy characterization. Most of the tests were performed on the granulometric size range of {<=}180 {mu}m 180-425 {mu}m; 425-850 {mu}m e 850-3350 {mu}m. The coir fiber presented capacity of diesel and bio diesel sorption similar to the commercial sorbent made of peat. The determination of the calorific power of the bio sorbents shows that they can be used for energy generation before and after they are used as sorbents. This way, those materials can be used after studies of economical viability in this sector and still to increase the economy of the areas where they are abundant. (author)

  5. Physicochemical and functional properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L) cake dietary fibres: Effects of cellulase hydrolysis, acid treatment and particle size distribution.

    Zheng, Yajun; Li, Yan

    2018-08-15

    Effects of cellulase hydrolysis, acid treatment and particle size distribution on the structure, physicochemical and functional properties of coconut cake dietary fiber (DCCDF) were studied. Results showed that both the cellulase hydrolysis and acid treatment contributed to the structural modification of DCCDF as evident from XRD, FT-IR and SEM analysis. Moreover, the cellulase hydrolysis enhanced soluble carbohydrate content, water holding capacity (WHC) and swelling capacity (WSC), α-amylase inhibition activity (α-AAIR), glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of DCCDF; but it had undesirable effects on colour, oil holding capacity (OHC) and emulsifying capacity (EC). On other hand, acid treatment decreased the WHC, WSC and GDRI, but improved the colour, CEC, OHC and emulsion stability of DCCDF. Furthermore, the WHC, WSC and EC of DCCDF increased as the particle size reduced from 250 to 167 μm, while the GDRI, OHC, α-AAIR and emulsion stability decreased with decreasing particle size. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Seven WRKY Genes across the Palm Subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) Identifies Syagrus as Sister Group of the Coconut

    Meerow, Alan W.; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J.; Kuhn, David N.; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H.; Schnell, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the “abominable mysteries” of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for

  7. Safety assessment of widely used fermented virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera) in Malaysia: Chronic toxicity studies and SAR analysis of the active components.

    Ibrahim, Ahmad H; Khan, Md Shamsuddin Sultan; Al-Rawi, Sawsan S; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Majid, Aman Shah Bin Abdul; Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih R; Ji, Dan; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO. The haematology, biochemistry and histopathology of the treated rats were evaluated. The treated rats were safe with the dose of 5000 mg/kg in acute, sub-chronic and chronic indication. Abnormal clinical signs and morphology (gross necroscopy), changes of organ weight, anomalous haematology and biochemistry indexes were not found in comparison with the control (p > 0.05). In general, food and water intake were higher in the treated rats related to control. It was concluded that the presence of the antioxidant active compounds of FVCO might be the reason of safety. The structure activity relationship (SAR) provides a comprehensive mechanism to determine the safety that is the presence of the electron donating phenolic groups, carbonyl groups, and carboxylic acid in the ortho and meta position of the aromatic rings. The SAR showed the antioxidant properties of myristic acid and lauric acid determined by GC-MS analysis. This result suggests the safety of FVCO for chronic use, nutritional activity that FVCO formulation complies the requirements of regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of Antiglycation, Hypoglycemic, and Nephroprotective Activities of the Green Dwarf Variety Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Pinto, Isabella F D; Silva, Railmara P; Chaves Filho, Adriano de B; Dantas, Lucas S; Bispo, Vanderson S; Matos, Isaac A; Otsuka, Felipe A M; Santos, Aline C; Matos, Humberto Reis

    2015-07-01

    Coconut water (CW) is a natural nutritious beverage, which contains several biologically active compounds that are traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhea and rehydration. Several works with CW have been related with antioxidant activity, which is very important in the diabetic state. To evaluate the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective activities of CW, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were pre- and post-treated by gavage with CW (3 mL/kg), caffeic acid (CA) (10 and 15 mg/kg), and acarbose (Acb) (714 μg/kg) during a period of 16 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Amadori products in plasma and kidney homogenates were evaluated in all groups and used as parameters for the monitoring of the diabetic state. The results showed that rats of the CW+diabetic group had maintenance in blood glucose compared with the control group (P<.05) in addition to a decrease of HbA1c levels and increase of body weight when compared with the diabetic group rats (P<.05). The animals of the CA and CA+diabetic groups did not have significant variation of body weight (P<.05) during the experiment; however, they showed decrease in their HbA1c and urea levels in plasma as well as Amadori products in kidney homogenates when compared with the diabetic group (P<.05). Our results indicate that CW has multiple beneficial effects in diabetic rats for preventing hyperglycemia and oxidative stress caused by alloxan.

  9. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Kenyan coconut germplasm ...

    HP-PROBOOK

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... Genetic diversity and relationship among 48 coconut individuals (Cocos nucifera L.) collections from ... Cluster analysis was constructed using DARwin program version 6.0. ... effective crop improvement programme.

  10. Caracterização mecânica e morfológica de compósitos de polipropileno e fibras de coco verde: influência do teor de fibra e das condições de mistura Mechanical and morphological characterization of polypropylene and green coconut fiber composites: influence of fiber content and mixture conditions

    Marina H. Ishizaki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos de polipropileno com 10, 20 e 30% em volume de fibra de coco verde foram obtidos em câmara de mistura Haake, tendo como variáveis a temperatura de processamento e a velocidade de cisalhamento. O módulo de flexão e as características morfológicas dos diferentes compósitos obtidos foram avaliados e comparados com o polipropileno puro. Foi observado que a temperatura de 170 °C, a velocidade do rotor de 60rpm e o teor de fibra de coco verde de 30% forneceram o melhor desempenho quanto à flexão. Essas observações foram comprovadas pela análise da morfologia.Polypropylene composites containing 10, 20 and 30% in volume of green coconut fiber were prepared in a Haake chamber at various processing temperatures and shear rates. The flexural modulus and morphological characteristics of the composites were evaluated and compared with pure polypropylene. Optimization experiments indicated that a temperature of 170 °C, shear rate of 60rpm and green coconut fiber content of 30% showed the best properties by flexural modulus. These observations were confirmed by a morphology analysis.

  11. Ingestão de alimentos e digestibilidade aparente das frações fibrosas da torta de coco para ovinos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.10406 Feed intake and digestibility of fibrous fractions of coconut cake by sheep - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.10406

    Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes de torta de coco (Cocos nucifera L. sobre a ingestão de alimentos e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido. Foram utilizados 16 ovinos não-castrados, com peso corporal médio de 28 kg (± 3,2 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo quatro tratamentos (0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2% PV de inclusão de torta de coco e quatro repetições. Houve um período experimental de 21 dias com 14 dias de adaptação e sete dias de coleta de dados, em que se monitorou o fornecimento da dieta e a coleta total de fezes. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente ácido apresentou efeitos lineares e crescentes com a inclusão da torta de coco na dieta (44,9 a 57 e 30,57 a 40,32% para os níveis de 1,2% de inclusão, respectivamente. A fibra em detergente neutro apresentou comportamento quadrático, e o melhor nível de inclusão ocorreu com 0,89% e digestibilidade máxima da FDN de 59,39%. A torta de coco é uma excelente fonte de suplementação alimentar e pode contribuir no atendimento das demandas nutricionais para produção de carne e leite na Amazônia Oriental.This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of coconut cake (Cocos nucifera L. on feed intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. We used 16 non-castrated sheep with mean body weight of 28 kg (± 3.2 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2% BW of inclusion of coconut pie and four replications. There was a trial period of 21 days with 14 days of adaptation and 7 days of data collection, which monitored the supply of diet and total fecal collection. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and acid detergent fiber effects were linear and increasing with the inclusion of coconut cake in the diet (44.9 to

  12. Ácidos graxos da gema e composição do ovo de poedeiras alimentadas com rações com farelo de coco Yolk fatty acids and egg components from layers fed diets with coconut meal

    Suely Carvalho Santiago Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração e do tempo de alimentação de poedeiras comerciais, sobre os ácidos graxos da gema e os componentes do ovo. O delineamento foi em esquema fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de inclusão do FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% e dois tempos de alimentação (14 e 28 dias. Foram avaliados o peso e as porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca dos ovos, bem como os sólidos e lipídios totais e o perfil de ácidos graxos das gemas. A inclusão do FC e o tempo de alimentação influenciaram apenas a proporção de ácido mirístico na gema, que aumentou com a inclusão do FC aos 28 dias de alimentação. Os ácidos esteárico e oléico variaram somente com o tempo de alimentação, e as maiores concentrações foram obtidas aos 28 dias. A relação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados para ácidos graxos saturados da gema diminuiu a partir de 10% de inclusão e aumentou com o tempo de alimentação das aves. O uso de farelo de coco, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, não influencia a proporção dos componentes do ovo, apenas altera a concentração do ácido mirístico da gema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of coconut meal (CM inclusion in commercial layer diets and feeding time, on egg components and yolk fatty acid composition. The experiment followed a factorial design 5x2, with five levels of CM inclusion (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% and two feeding time (14 and 28 days. Parameters evaluated included: egg weight, and albumen, yolk and shell percentages, as well as solids, lipids and fatty acid profile of the yolk. The inclusion of CM and feeding time affected the yolk content of myristic acid which increased with CM level and with feeding time. The levels of stearic and oleic acids in the yolk varied with feeding time and were higher in the eggs after 28 days. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in yolk decreased, when dietary CM levels were

  13. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

  14. Avaliação da biodegradação de compósitos de poli(ε-caprolactona/fibra de coco verde Evaluation of biodegradation poly(ε-caprolactone/green coconut fiber

    Marcia C. A. M. Leite

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma classe de plásticos com destaque crescente são os polímeros biodegradáveis, como a Poli(ε-caprolactona (PCL. Quando esses polímeros são utilizados para elaboração de compósitos com fibras naturais, novas propriedades são agregadas. Existem vários métodos de modificação química da fibra para melhorar a adesão dessas fibras em matrizes poliméricas. Neste trabalho foi estudada a biodegradabilidade em solo simulado de compósitos de PCL/fibra de coco (antes e após a modificação química da fibra por reação de acetilação com avaliação da perda de massa e da modificação da morfologia. A espectroscopia na região do infravermelho mostrou a eficiência da reação de acetilação nas fibras. Os compósitos enterrados em solo simulado apresentaram perda de massa e a degradação das amostras foi confirmada pela modificação da morfologia observada através de análises como as Microscopias Óptica e Eletrônica de Varredura. O comportamento térmico dos compósitos, analisado por Calorimetria Diferencial de Varredura mostrou diferença no teor de cristalinidade da matriz com a incorporação da fibra.Biodegradable polymers such as poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL have received increasing attention. New properties are achieved when these polymers are used in composites with natural fibers. Several methods exist for the chemical modification of the fiber to improve adhesion to the polymer matrices. This work deals with the biodegradation in simulated soil of PCL/coconut fiber composites (before and after fiber chemical modification by acetylation - reaction with the evaluation of mass loss and morphology. Infrared spectroscopy has shown the efficiency of fiber acetylation. The composites buried in simulated soil presented weight loss. The degradation of the samples was confirmed by the morphology modification observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Microscopy analysis. The thermal properties analyzed with

  15. Efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco em rações para poedeiras comerciais Effect of inclusion of coconut meal in diets for laying hens

    Carlla Vivianny de Paula Braga

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento (112 dias foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração de 240 poedeiras com 43 semanas de idade, distribuídas em cinco tratamentos com oito repetições de seis aves por tratamento. Os tratamentos consistiram da inclusão de FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% em dietas isoprotéicas (16,5% PB e isocalóricas (2.800 kcal EM/kg. Consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, porcentagem de postura (%, peso do ovo (g, massa de ovo (g/ave/dia, conversão alimentar (kg de ração/kg de ovo e cor da gema (leque colorimétrico da Roche foram avaliados. O aumento do nível de FC na ração de 5 a 20% reduziu o consumo de ração, porém, apenas o nível de 20% foi significativamente menor que o controle. A produção de ovos e a massa de ovos diminuíram com o aumento do FC, mas esses resultados não diferiram daqueles obtidos com o nível zero de inclusão. A cor da gema diminuiu linearmente com a inclusão do FC e apresentou cor menos amarela que a dos ovos do grupo controle. Conclui-se que, em rações de poedeiras, o FC pode ser incluído em níveis de até 15%, desde que seja utilizada uma fonte de pigmentos.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of coconut meal (CM in diets for laying hens. Two hundred and forty laying hens at 43 weeks of age were assigned to a randomized block design, with five treatments and eight replicates of six birds per treatment. The treatments consisted of five isoprotein (16.5% CP and isocaloric (2,800 kcal ME/kg diets containing 0%, 5%; 10%; 15% and 20% CM. The experiment was carried out for 112 days and the variables studied were: feed intake (g/bird/day, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (kg feed/ kg egg and yolk color (Roche color fan. Birds feed intake decreased as CM increased in the diet. However this effect was significantly only among birds fed diets containing 0% and 20% CM. Although not significantly egg production and egg

  16. Adubação nitrogenada e potássica de bromeliáceas cultivadas em fibra de coco e esterco bovino Nitrogen and potassium fertilization of Bromeliaceae grown in coconut fiber and cattle manure

    Tatiana L do Amaral

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio e de potássio no crescimento e teor foliar de nutrientes de quatro bromeliáceas comerciais e propor uma formulação de adubação adequada para cada planta estudada. O experimento foi em esquema fatorial (4 x 4, sendo quatro doses de nitrogênio (0; 375; 562,6 e 750 mg de N L-1 e quatro doses de potássio (0; 468,8; 703,2 e 937,6 mg de K L-1, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições para Aechmea blanchetiana e Neoregelia 'Sheba' e três repetições para Orthophytum gurkenii e Vriesea gigantea, duas plantas por parcela. As mudas de Aechmea blanchetiana e Neoregelia 'Sheba' foram cultivadas em substrato composto por 50% de fibra de coco + 50% de esterco bovino; as de Orthophytum gurkenii e Vriesea gigantea, em 100% de fibra de coco. As doses de nitrogênio 0; 375; 562,6 e 750 mg de N L-1 e potássio 0; 468,8; 703,2 e 937,6 mg de K L-1 no substrato correspondem, respectivamente, a 0; 187,5; 281,3 e 375 mg N/planta e 0; 234,4; 351,6 e 468,8 mg K/planta. A adubação fosfatada foi fixa, 50 mg de P L-1 no substrato, correspondendo a 25 mg P/planta, exceto para Neoregelia 'Sheba', que foi inoculada com 25 mL/vaso do inóculo micorrízico misto (Glomus geosporum, Acaulospora laevis, Acaulospora mellea e não recebeu adubação fosfatada. A adubação com 305,1 mg N/planta foi a que proporcionou maior incremento na altura de Aechmea blanchetiana. Em Orthophytum gurkenii; a adubação com 250 mg N/planta proporcionou o maior número de folhas e o maior diâmetro da roseta. As adubações nitrogenada e potássica não beneficiaram o crescimento das plantas de Vriesea gigantea. Em Neoregelia 'Sheba', a dose de 315 mg N/planta causou maior incremento em altura e diâmetro da roseta.Levels of nitrogen and potassium fertilization were evaluated on leaf nutrient contents of four commercial bromeliads, to recommend a suitable fertilization formula for each kind of plant

  17. Cultivo de híbridos de pimentão amarelo em fibra da casca de coco Performance of yellow sweet peppers hybrids grown in coconut husk fiber

    Hamilton César de O Charlo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade de cinco híbridos de pimentão amarelo em ambiente protegido, utilizando fibra de casca de coco e fertirrigação. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco cultivares (Zarco, CLXP 1463, Línea, Matador e Eppo, e quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por onze plantas. O cultivo de pimentão foi feito em sistema aberto em vasos plásticos de 13 L, transplantando-se uma muda por vaso, as quais foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido. Adotou-se o espaçamento de 0,8 m entre fileiras simples, 1,10 m entre fileiras duplas e 0,5 m entre plantas. As plantas foram conduzidas com quatro hastes principais e tutoradas individualmente em forma de "V". A colheita dos frutos foi realizada quando estes atingiam o tamanho ideal e, no mínimo, 70% da coloração amarela. Avaliaram-se o comprimento e o diâmetro médio dos frutos, a relação comprimento/diâmetro, a espessura da polpa, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, o pH, o número de frutos por planta, a massa total de frutos por planta, o peso médio dos frutos, a produtividade total e comercial, e a classificação dos frutos. O híbrido CLXP 1463 produziu frutos de maior comprimento e diâmetro. Este híbrido apresentou menor número de frutos por planta, porém com maior massa. Para as características espessura da polpa, sólidos solúveis totais e pH não se verificou diferença significativa entre os híbridos. Os híbridos CLXP 1463, Eppo e Matador se mostraram promissores, com produtividades comerciais de 107,61; 102,62 e 95,31 t ha-1, respectivamente. Os híbridos CLXP 1463, Eppo, Línea e Matador apresentaram toda a produção classificada como Extra.The yield of five yellow sweet pepper hybrids was evaluated in protected cultivation, using coconut fiber and fertirrigation. The experiment was arranged in a randomized blocks design, with five cultivars (Zarco, CLX 1463, Línea, Matador and Eppo and four

  18. Adsorpsi Karbon Aktif dari Sabut Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera) Terhadap Penurunan Fenol

    Astriah Abdullah; Asri Saleh; Iin Novianty

    2013-01-01

    Coconut coir can be used as an activated carbon for phenol removal, because of carbon element which is containing in Coconut coir make it to own a potency as an activated carbon.  Research on activated carbon adsorption of phenol to the decline of coconut coir (Cocos nucivera) has been performed. This study begins with the dehydration and carbonization stage. Coconut coir activated carbon with 3 activator namely sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2). Coconut...

  19. PROCESSAMENTO DE CASCA E FIBRA DE COCO VERDE POR CARBONIZAÇÃO PARA AGREGAÇÃO DE VALOR / PROCESSING OF COCONUT SHELL AND FIBER FOR ADDING VALUE

    LUIS A. B. CORTEZ; JUAN M. M. PEREZ; JOSÉ D. ROCHA; RODRIGO A. JORDAN; HENRY R. M. MESA

    2009-01-01

    Atualmente o Brasil é o maior produtor de coco verde, com uma área plantada equivalente a 57 mil hectares, onde a maior parte da parte da produção (66,5%) se concentra na região Nordeste. O descarte do coco depois do consumo da água representa um problema para os sistemas de coleta e tratamento de lixo, pela sua lenta degradação devido ao alto teor de fibras. Neste trabalho são mostrados os resultados da pirólise lenta da fibra e da casca do coco verde. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um ...

  20. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    Mahmud, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly [in

  1. PROCESSAMENTO DE CASCA E FIBRA DE COCO VERDE POR CARBONIZAÇÃO PARA AGREGAÇÃO DE VALOR / PROCESSING OF COCONUT SHELL AND FIBER FOR ADDING VALUE

    LUIS A. B. CORTEZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente o Brasil é o maior produtor de coco verde, com uma área plantada equivalente a 57 mil hectares, onde a maior parte da parte da produção (66,5% se concentra na região Nordeste. O descarte do coco depois do consumo da água representa um problema para os sistemas de coleta e tratamento de lixo, pela sua lenta degradação devido ao alto teor de fibras. Neste trabalho são mostrados os resultados da pirólise lenta da fibra e da casca do coco verde. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um forno experimental de pequena capacidade, a uma temperatura de 350°C. Os resultados mostraram que o rendimento em carbono fixo foi de 74,43% para o endocarpo verde e 58,07% para o mesocarpo verde. O teor de cinzas, para as mesmas amostras, foi de 14,13% e 13,03%, respectivamente. Os teores de voláteis foram de 11,40% para o carvão obtido do endocarpo verde e, de 28,90% para o carvão obtido do mesocarpo verde. Ficou demonstrado que o resíduo do coco verde apresenta potencial para a produção de carvão vegetal. Porém ainda é preciso estudar o rendimento, utilizando para isto, sistemas em maior escala, avaliando também o emprego integral (casca e fibra, além de estudos econômicos que considerem os custos de logística e acondicionamento.Palavras Chaves: pirólise lenta, carbonização, resíduos de coco.

  2. Multifarious beneficial traits and plant growth promoting potential of Serratia marcescens KiSII and Enterobacter sp. RNF 267 isolated from the rhizosphere of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.).

    George, Priya; Gupta, Alka; Gopal, Murali; Thomas, Litty; Thomas, George V

    2013-01-01

    Two plant growth promoting bacteria designated as KiSII and RNF 267 isolated from the rhizosphere of coconut palms were identified as Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter sp. based on their phenotypic features, BIOLOG studies and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both bacteria exhibited phosphate solubilization, ammonification, and production of indole acetic acid, β-1, 3 glucanase activities and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase activity. They could also tolerate a range of pH conditions, low temperature and salinity (NaCl). In addition, S. marcescens KiSII exhibited N- fixation potential, chitinase activity, siderophore production and antibiotics production. Seed bacterization with these bacteria increased the growth parameters of test plants such as paddy and cowpea over uninoculated control in green house assay. In coconut seedlings, significant increase in growth and nutrient uptake accompanied with higher populations of plant beneficial microorganisms in their rhizospheres were recorded on inoculation with both the PGPRs. The present study clearly revealed that PGPRs can aid in production of healthy and vigorous seedlings of coconut palm which are hardy perennial crops. They offer a scope to be developed into novel PGPR based bioinoculants for production of elite seedlings that can benefit the coconut farming community and the coconut based ecology.

  3. Cocos nucifera coir-mediated green synthesis of Pd NPs and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest.

    Elango, Ganesh; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Irukatla Damodharan, Kasinathan; Elumalai, Kuppuswamy

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) was one of the versatile trees in tropical regions which also can act as a thrust quencher in all over the world. Cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help C. nucifera coir, Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were synthesized. Green-synthesized spherical-shape Pd NPs were over layered by secondary metabolites from C. nucifera coir extract and with an average particle size of 62 ± 2 nm, which were confirmed by morphological analysis. Eco-friendly mediated Pd NPs were further subjected to several biological applications like larvicidal against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and anti-feedent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against agricultural pest Callasobruchus maculates (C. maculates) and compared with C. nuciferacoir methanolic extract, which results in LC 50 value of 288.88 ppm and LC 90 value of 483.06 ppm using LSD-Tukey's test against dengue vector (A. aegypti). Cocos nucifera coir methanolic extract shows significant output while compared with Pd NPs towards anti-feedent assays; ovicidal activity and oviposition deterrent were discussed here.

  4. Thermophysical and rheological properties of dulce de leche with and without coconut flakes as a function of temperature Propriedades termofísicas e reológicas de doces de leite puro e adicionado de flocos de coco em função da temperatura

    Vanessa Camarinha Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dulce de leche (DL, a dairy dessert highly appreciated in Brazil, is a concentrated product containing about 70% m/m of total solids. Thermophysical and rheological properties of two industrial Brazilian Dulce de leche formulations (classic Dulce de leche and Dulce de leche added with coconut flakes 1.5% m/m were determined at temperatures comprised between 28.4 and 76.4 °C. In general, no significant differences (p Doce de leite é uma sobremesa láctea concentrada (cerca de 70% de sólidos muito apreciada no Brasil. Propriedades termofísicas e reológicas de duas formulações de doce de leite brasileiro (puro e adicionado de coco ralado a 1,5% em massa foram determinadas a temperaturas compreendidas entre 28,4 e 76,4 °C. No geral, a presença de flocos de coco não acarretou diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 nestas propriedades das duas formulações. A capacidade calorífica variou entre (2633,2 e 3101,8 J/kg.°C; a condutividade térmica entre (0,383 e 0,452 W/m°C; a massa específica entre (1350,7 e 1310,7 kg/m³; e enfim, a difusividade térmica entre (1,082 × 10-7 e 1,130 × 10-7 m²/s. O modelo de Bingham descreveu adequadamente o comportamento não Newtoniano dos dois produtos, com tensão crítica de escoamento variando entre (27,3 e 17,6 Pa e a viscosidade plástica de (19,9 a 5,9 Pa.s.

  5. Cocos nucifera L.

    AISA

    Coconut water weights, Brix degree, pH, dry matters and sugar contents were investigated. ... soluble sugar ; glycerol, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose and sucrose in coconut water. ...... water syrup fractions from two varieties of Nigerian.

  6. Pengaruh Variasi Penambahan Sari Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum Betaceum) Hasil Sambung Pucuk Dengan Lancing (Solanum Mauritianum) Pada Pembuatan Nata De Coco Dengan Menggunakan Acetobacter Xylinum

    Lubis, Adilah Wirdhani

    2015-01-01

    One of the benefit from coconut water is making nata de coco through phosphate pentose pathway by using Acetobacter xylinum bacteria. Making its became nata de coco by variation of Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) bud grafting yield with Lancing (Solanum mauritianum) produced red colour of nata de coco that it fermented for 14 days and had good nutrient value. The yield of this product was analyzed with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The variation volume of it used 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ...

  7. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-02-11

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type.

  8. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength

  9. PENGARUH MEDIUM PERENDAM TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK, MORFOLOGI, DAN KINERJA MEMBRAN NATA DE COCO

    Senny Widyaningsih

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nata de coco is bacterial cellulose which is produced by Acetobacter xylinum in fermentation process of coconut water. Based on its properties, nata de coco can be used as a membrane. Soaking medium in purification of nata de coco gel can influence structure, morphology, and performance of nata de coco membrane. First medium was NaOCl 0.05% and NaOH 5%, Second medium was ultrasonic. Third medium was NaOH 1% and CH3COOH 1%. Mechanical property were analysized based on its tensile strength. Morphology of membrane was analysized using SEM. Performance of membrane was determined based on its permeability. The result showed that nata de coco membrane which had the best value on mechanical properties, morphology, and performance was membrane in third medium.

  10. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in coconut palms infected with the lethal yellowing phytoplasma.

    Maust, B E; Espadas, F; Talavera, C; Aguilar, M; Santamaría, J M; Oropeza, C

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT Lethal yellowing (LY), a disease caused by a phytoplasma, is the most devastating disease affecting coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Mexico. Thousands of coconut palm trees have died on the Yucatan peninsula while plantations in Central America and on the Pacific coast of Mexico are severely threatened. Polymerase chain reaction assays enable identification of incubating palm trees (stage 0+, phytoplasma detected but palm asymptomatic). With the development of LY, palm trees exhibit various visual symptoms such as premature nut fall (stage 1), inflorescence necrosis (stages 2 to 3), leaf chlorosis and senescence (stages 4 to 6), and finally palm death. However, physiological changes occur in the leaves and roots prior to onset of visual symptoms. Stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and root respiration decreased in stages 0+ to 6. The number of active photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers decreased during stage 2, but maximum quantum use efficiency of PSII remained similar until stage 3 before declining. Sugar and starch concentrations in intermediate leaves (leaf 14) and upper leaves (leaf 4) increased from stage 0- (healthy) to stages 2 to 4, while root carbohydrate concentrations decreased rapidly from stage 0- to stage 0+ (incubating phytoplasma). Although photosynthetic rates and root carbohydrate concentrations decreased, leaf carbohydrate concentrations increased, suggesting inhibition of sugar transport in the phloem leading to stress in sink tissues and development of visual symptoms of LY.

  11. Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests

    Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

  12. Assessment of the genetic diversity of Kenyan coconut germplasm ...

    Genetic diversity and relationship among 48 coconut individuals (Cocos nucifera L.) collections from the Coastal lowland of Kenya were analyzed using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Diversity parameters were calculated using Popgene Software version 1.31. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.0408 ...

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as sister to the coconut

    The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous sister relationships. We used primers d...

  14. Coconut Model for Learning First Steps of Craniotomy Techniques and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Avoidance.

    Drummond-Braga, Bernardo; Peleja, Sebastião Berquó; Macedo, Guaracy; Drummond, Carlos Roberto S A; Costa, Pollyana H V; Garcia-Zapata, Marco T; Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi

    2016-12-01

    Neurosurgery simulation has gained attention recently due to changes in the medical system. First-year neurosurgical residents in low-income countries usually perform their first craniotomy on a real subject. Development of high-fidelity, cheap, and largely available simulators is a challenge in residency training. An original model for the first steps of craniotomy with cerebrospinal fluid leak avoidance practice using a coconut is described. The coconut is a drupe from Cocos nucifera L. (coconut tree). The green coconut has 4 layers, and some similarity can be seen between these layers and the human skull. The materials used in the simulation are the same as those used in the operating room. The coconut is placed on the head holder support with the face up. The burr holes are made until endocarp is reached. The mesocarp is dissected, and the conductor is passed from one hole to the other with the Gigli saw. The hook handle for the wire saw is positioned, and the mesocarp and endocarp are cut. After sawing the 4 margins, mesocarp is detached from endocarp. Four burr holes are made from endocarp to endosperm. Careful dissection of the endosperm is done, avoiding liquid albumen leak. The Gigli saw is passed through the trephine holes. Hooks are placed, and the endocarp is cut. After cutting the 4 margins, it is dissected from the endosperm and removed. The main goal of the procedure is to remove the endocarp without fluid leakage. The coconut model for learning the first steps of craniotomy and cerebrospinal fluid leak avoidance has some limitations. It is more realistic while trying to remove the endocarp without damage to the endosperm. It is also cheap and can be widely used in low-income countries. However, the coconut does not have anatomic landmarks. The mesocarp makes the model less realistic because it has fibers that make the procedure more difficult and different from a real craniotomy. The model has a potential pedagogic neurosurgical application for

  15. Evaluation of potential of adsorption of U, Th, Pb, Zn and Ni by coconut fibers; Avaliacao do potencial de adsorcao de U, Th, Pb, Zn e Ni pelas fibras de coco

    Monteiro, Raquel Almeida

    2009-07-01

    The residual biomass from agricultural activities has been evaluated as biosorbent for metals and organic composts from aqueous solutions, because of its adsorptive properties, low cost, abundance and to be a renewable resource. In this work, the efficiency of coir pith as biosorbent for the removal of U, Th, Pb, Zn e Ni ions from the aqueous solutions is presented. The coir pith is a by-product of the harvest of the coconut, a renewable natural source. The study was conducted by batch method. The influence of pH from 1 to 8, the dosage of the coir pith and the equilibrium time were studied. The adsorption of metal ions increased with the increase of pH and the dose. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium isotherm. The kinetic process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. The Gibbs free energy was calculated. In the concentration range of 100 mg.L{sup -1} - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Langmuir equation for Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} ions and the Freundlich equation for UO{sub 2} 2{sup +}, Th{sup 4+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions, and represented by the pseudo-second order model. The biosorption process for removal of metal ions from the solutions was considered spontaneous. The results were promising, showing perspectives of application of coir pith as biosorbent of U, Th, Pb, Zn and Ni ions in wastewater treatment processes. (author)

  16. Coconut Oil

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  17. Evaluation of a novel metal-organic framework as an adsorbent for the extraction of multiclass pesticides from coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.): An analytical approach using matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography.

    de Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; Wanderley, Kaline Amaral; Alves Júnior, Severino; Navickiene, Sandro

    2017-08-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and application of [Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate)(H 2 O) 2 ] n , Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.99 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.01 (H 2 O) 2 ] n , [Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.95 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.05 (H 2 O) 2 ] n , and [Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.9 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.1 (H 2 O) 2 ] n as sorbents for the extraction of multiclass pesticides from coconut palm. Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet diode array detection was used as the analysis technique, and the experiments were performed at one fortification level (0.1 μg/g). The recoveries were 47-67, 51-70, 58-72, and 64-76% for [Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate)(H 2 O) 2 ] n , Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.99 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.01 (H 2 O) 2 ] n , [Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.95 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.05 (H 2 O) 2 ] n , and [Zn(1,4-benzenelate) 0.95 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.05 (H 2 O) 2 ] n , and [Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.9 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.1 (H 2 O) 2 ] n , respectively, with relative standard deviation ranging from 1 to 7% (n = 3). Detection and quantification limits were 0.01-0.05 and 0.05-0.2 μg/g, respectively, for the different pesticides studied. The method developed was linear over the range tested (0.01-10.0 μg/g) with r 2  > 0.9991. A direct comparison of [Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.9 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.1 (H 2 O) 2 ] n with the commercially available neutral alumina showed that [Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.9 (NH 2 -1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) 0.1 (H 2 O) 2 ] n was a similar extracting phase for the pesticides investigated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Recomendação de adubação e calagem para coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. no Estado de São Paulo - 1ª. aproximação Fertilizer and lime recommendation for coconut (Cocos nucifera L. in the state of São Paulo, Brazil - 1st version

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a 1ª. aproximação da recomendação de adubação e calagem para coqueiro no Estado de São Paulo, visando à produção de água. O cultivo de coqueiro nesta região é recente, carecendo de recomendações técnicas. Esta recomendação foi elaborada a partir de resultados experimentais obtidos em campo e de informações disponíveis na literatura. A recomendação de adubação segue os padrões do Boletim Técnico 100 do Instituto Agronômico (SP. Nas tabelas apresentadas, as doses de fertilizantes são obtidas com base nos teores de P e K disponíveis no solo, na idade das plantas durante a formação do coqueiral (até 5 anos e, posteriormente (fase de produção, na produtividade esperada.The objective of this publication was to introduce the 1st version of fertilizer and lime recommendation for coconut cropped in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This recommendation was based on field results from an experiment and on literature review. The recommendation followed the guidelines of the Technical Bulletin 100, issued by Instituto Agronômico (SP, Brazil. Fertilizer rates are assessed based on soil available nutrients (P and K, plant age for young palms (up to 5 year and expected yield for adult palms (>5 year.

  19. Absorção e redistribuição de boro em coqueiro-anão-verde Boron absorption and redistribution in green dwarf coconut tree

    Leandro Glaydson da Rocha Pinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se ocorre redistribuição de boro em coqueiros (Cocos nucifera, quando a aplicação de ácido bórico é realizada na axila foliar ou no solo. Foram empregados os seguintes tratamentos com ácido bórico: 30 g aplicados sobre a axila da folha número 10; 60 g aplicados ao solo; e controle, sem aplicação. Foram realizadas duas aplicações de B, com um intervalo de cinco meses entre elas. A unidade experimental consistiu de duas plantas, com seis repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram determinados os teores de boro nas folhas 2, 6, 10, 14 e 18, aos dois e quatro meses após a primeira aplicação de ácido bórico, e aos dois e cinco meses após a segunda aplicação. O boro se redistribuiu pela planta de coqueiro, independentemente da forma de aplicação. A elevação do teor de boro nas folhas persistiu por mais tempo, quando a aplicação de ácido bórico foi feita ao solo. As doses de ácido bórico aplicadas não causaram fitotoxidade, mesmo quando a aplicaçãofoi repetida após um curto período.The aim of this work was to verify if boron redistribution occurs among the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera fronds, when boric acid is applied on frond axils or on soil. The treatments with boric acid were: 30 g applied on the axil of frond number 10; 60 g applied to the soil; and a control without boric acid application. The B applications were repeated after five-month interval. The experimental unit consisted of two plants, with six replicates, in a randomized complete block design. Boron contents were determined in fronds number 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18, two and four months after the first boric acid application, and two and five months after the second application. Boron was redistributed in coconut plants, regardless of the application form. Increases in boron concentration in fronds persisted longer when boric acid was applied to the soil. The applied doses of boric acid hadno

  20. APROVEITAMENTO DA CASCA DO COCO-VERDE (Cocos nucifera L. PARA PRODUÇÃO DE POLPA CELULÓSICA

    Mahalia Sojo Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coconut husk is a residue from consumption of coconut water. In coastal cities this residue has already become a big problem, because it is difficult to decompose. The present study aimed to evaluate the husk of the coconut ( Cocos nucifera L. for production of kraft pulp. The raw material was characterized and had its basic density, chemical composition, fiber size and proportion of anatomical elements analyzed. Pulping tests were conducted and one of them was chosen for repetition. In each pulping the alkali charge was variable in order to prepare an alkaline curve. The results from the pulping process show high levels of kappa number, low yields and low rejects content. The following characteristics of the material, low basic density (0.128 g/cm ³, high amount of extractives (33.68% and low proportion of fibers (22.11%, corroborate to these results. Thus, the production of pulp from the coconut husk by the kraft process, it is not an alternative technically feasible.

  1. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  2. Physiological and ionic changes in dwarf coconut seedlings irrigated with saline water

    The use of salt-tolerant plants is an important alternative to cope with the problem of salinity in semi-arid regions. The dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) has emerged as a salt-tolerant crop once established. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms that may contribute to t...

  3. Adsorpsi Karbon Aktif dari Sabut Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera Terhadap Penurunan Fenol

    Astriah Abdullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coconut coir can be used as an activated carbon for phenol removal, because of carbon element which is containing in Coconut coir make it to own a potency as an activated carbon.  Research on activated carbon adsorption of phenol to the decline of coconut coir (Cocos nucivera has been performed. This study begins with the dehydration and carbonization stage. Coconut coir activated carbon with 3 activator namely sulfuric acid (H2SO4, sodium hydroxide (NaOH and zinc chloride (ZnCl2. Coconut coir activated carbon in this study using a variable dose of 500 mg carbon, 1000 mg and 1500 mg. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of the water content, the adsorption capacity of phenol on activated carbon from coconut husk carbon activation results and determine the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon from coconut husk carbon in the adsorption of phenol. Activators most good at absorbing phenol is sodium hydroxide (NaOH with the absorption efficiency of 93.01% at a mass of 1.5 g.

  4. “One Step and Two Steps” freezing methods of dog’s semen in coconut water and ethylene glycol extender Métodos de congelamento "One Step" e "Two Steps" do sêmen de cães, diluído em solução de água de coco e etilenoglicol

    Marco Antonio da Rocha Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the influence of One Step and Two Steps freezing methods on dog’s spermatic viability. The experiment was performed using 20 ejaculates from 11 previously selected dogs which presented progressive motility over 70% and vigor equal or superior to 3. The samples were frozen in medium composed by coconut water and ethylene glycol as crioprotectant by the methods, One and Two Steps. After thawing, progressive motility, vigor, live spermatozoa percentage and plasmatic membrane integrity were evaluated. The results showed that there was no difference (P>0.05 in evaluated seminal characteristics. For progressive motility, the results (mean ± standard deviation were respectively for One and Two Steps, 47.3% ± 16.6% and 50.5% ±1 7.4%. As well as, the results for vigor, live spermatozoa percentage, plasmatic membrane integrity were 2.64 ± 0.67 and 2.9 ± 0.74; 52.2% ± 24.16 and 52.2% ± 24.48%; 15.27% ± 10.19% and 23.3% ± 11.6% for One and Two Steps methods, respectively. In conclusion, the One Step and Two Steps techniques can be used as semen cryopreservation methods in dog’s assisted reproduction and there is no difference between the evaluated characteristics of frozen-thawed semen using one or other technique.Objetivou-se, com este estudo, verificar a influência dos métodos de congelamento, One Step e Two Steps, na viabilidade espermática em cães. Foram utilizados 20 ejaculados de 11 cães, previamente selecionados, que apresentaram motilidade progressiva acima de 70% e vigor igual ou superior a três. As amostras foram congeladas em meio composto de água de coco e etilenoglicol, pelos métodos de One e Two Steps, e avaliadas após descongelamento, quanto à motilidade progressiva, vigor, porcentagem de espermatozóides vivos e integridade de membrana plasmática. Após o processo de diluição e congelamento One Step e Two Steps, verificou-se que não houve diferença (P>0,05 nas caracter

  5. CRIOPRESERVAÇÃO DE SÊMEN CANINO COM UM DILUIDOR À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO NA FORMA DE PÓ (ACP-106®: EFEITO DA TEMPERATURA DE ADIÇÃO DO GLICEROL (27 E 4°C CRYOPRESERVATION CANINE SEMEN USING A POWDERED COCONUT WATER EXTENDER (APC-106: EFFECT OF GLYCEROL TEMPERATURE ADDITION (27OC AND 4OC

    Daniel Couto Uchoa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objetivou-se comparar o efeito da temperatura de adição do glicerol sobre o sêmen canino diluído em água de coco na forma de pó (ACP-106® e criopreservado. Coletaram-se doze ejaculados, para avaliação da fração espermática, dividida em duas alíquotas. A primeira foi diluída em ACP-106® com 5% de gema de ovo e 6% de glicerol a 27°C (G27 e a segunda em ACP-106® com 5% de gema de ovo, com a glicerolização a 4°C (G4. As amostras foram congeladas, posteriormente, descongeladas e submetidas às avaliações de morfologia, integridade acrossomal, teste hipo-osmótico e percentual de vivos. Não se observou diferença entre as temperaturas de adição do glicerol em todos os parâmetros. Na análise computadorizada, também não se evidenciou diferença entre os grupos na motilidade total e progressiva, percentual de espermatozoides com velocidade rápida e média, e velocidade média da trajetória (VAP dos espermatozoides com velocidade rápida e média, sendo observadas, em G4 e G27, respectivamente, uma motilidade total de 24,45 ± 3,93% e 31,65 ± 3,87% e VAP dos espermatozoides rápidos de 91,24 ± 7,74µm/s e 106,25 ± 3,94µm/s. Conclui-se que a temperatura de adição do glicerol não influencia a qualidade pós-descongelação do sêmen canino diluído em ACP-106®.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: ACP-106®, cão, criopreservação, glicerol, sêmen. 

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of glycerol addition at two temperatures on canine semen extended and frozen with powdered coconut water extender (ACP-106®. Twelve ejaculates were collected, the sperm-rich fraction was evaluated and further divided into two aliquots. The first aliquot was extended in ACP-106® with 5% egg yolk and glycerol at 27ºC (G27 and the second one was also extended in ACP-106® with 5% egg yolk, with glycerol addition at 4ºC (G4. Samples were frozen, thawed and submitted to evaluations

  6. Avaliaçao de híbridos de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. para produção de frutos e de albúmen sólido fresco Performance of hybrids of coconut palm for production of fruits and solid fresh albumen

    Paulo Manoel Pontes Lins

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de seis híbridos de coqueiro para produção de frutos e de albúmen sólido fresco no Município de Moju, PA. Os híbridos avaliados foram: PB 121 (Anão-amarelo da Malásia x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 111 (Anão-vermelho de Camarões x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 141 (Anão-verde do Brasil x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 123 (Anão-amarelo da Malásia x Gigante de Renel; PB 132 (Anão-vermelho da Malásia x Gigante da Polinésia e PB 113 (Anão-vermelho de Camarões x Gigante de Renel, em delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Verificou-se, pela análise de variância, diferença significativa para tratamentos, resultante da heterogeneidade do material genético estudado. As fontes de variação ano e a interação anos x tratamentos foram também altamente significativas, evidenciando que o comportamento dos híbridos foi induzido por aquelas fontes de variação. Considerando o desempenho dos híbridos no período de 9 anos de avaliação para produção de frutos e de albúmen fresco, pode-se recomendar para plantio os híbridos PB 111, PB 113, PB 141 nas condições do Estado do Pará, com vistas a atender às indústrias (albúmen sólido, quanto à venda de cocos "in natura" para consumo de água.The performance of six hybrids of coconut palm were evaluated for fruit and solid fresh albumen production in Moju, State of Pará. The evaluated hybrids were: PB 121 (Dwarf Yellow of Malaysia x West African Giant; PB 111 (Dwarf Red of Cameron x West Afican Giant; PB 141 (Dwarf Green of Brazil x West Aficam Giant; PB 123 (Dwarf Yellow of Malaysia x Renel's Giant; PB 132 (Red Dwarf of Malaysia x (Giant from Polynesia; PB 113 (Dwarf Red of Cameron x Renel's Giant in hazard blocks and six repetitions. It was verified through variance analysis, significancy difference between treatments, as result of the heterogeneity of the studied genetic material. The sources of variation year and the interaction years x

  7. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  8. Calligraphy design for coconut garbage use

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Maulina, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coconut trees have contributed to the social life of mankind, ranging from basic personal needs such as food to the need to manage the environment. Human life requires not only food, but requires an artistic need. Certain art affects social life psychologically, and the human psychological condition is also influenced by the environment of life, especially garbage. A few of calligraphy art is designed based on using the garbage. Therefore, this paper aims to propose the calligraphy based on the use of natural garbage from coconut trees.

  9. Coconut Allergy Revisited

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.

  10. Morphologic evaluation of goat spermatozoa diluted and frozen in media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 or TRIS, stained by eosin-nigrosin and bromophenol blue AVALIAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES CAPRINOS DILUÍDOS E CONGELADOS EM MEIO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO EM PÓ (ACP-101 OU TRIS, CORADOS POR EOSINA-NIGROSINA E AZUL DE BROMOFENOL

    Arlindo Alencar de Araripe Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This aims of the work were: to evaluate in vitro the goat semen frozen in diluents media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101 and TRIS and, compare the bromophenol blue stain efficiency with the eosin-nigrosin stain. The ejaculateds were divided and diluted into PCW-101 and TRIS, frozed and thawed after 30 days. Spermatic morphology was evaluated, through semen smears stained by eosin-nigrosin (EN and bromophenol blue (BB. The morphologic parameters evaluated were: normal spermatozoa (N, head alteration (HA, intermediary piece alteration (IPA, tail alteration (TA, proximal citoplasmic drop (PCD, distal citoplasmic drop (DCD, and detached head (DH. There wasn’t significant difference in the observation of N between media, staining and their interactions after 5 minutes of thermo resistance test. After 120, the N was significantly influenced by media, where the TRIS presented better results. The incubation period of 120 minutes at 37ºC affect the spermatic morphology, increasing the HA percentages. The media based on TRIS promoted better protection from the cryoinjuries on frozen goat spermatozoa. BB staining was efficient on the fresh and post-thaw goat semen evaluation.

    KEY WORDS: Bromophenol blue, goat, powder coconut water; TRIS, spermatozoa.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a morfologia de espermatozoides caprinos frescos e congelados em meios à base de água de coco em pó (ACP-101 e TRIS, bem como comparar a eficiência dos corantes azul de bromofenol (AB e eosina-nigrosina (EN. Cada ejaculado foi dividido, diluído em ACP-101 e TRIS, congelado e, após trinta dias, descongelado. Analisou-se a morfologia espermática por esfregaços corados por EN e AB. Os parâmetros morfológicos foram: espermatozoides normais (N, alterações de cabeça (AC, de peça intermediária (API, de flagelo (AF, gotas citoplasmáticas proximal (GCP e distal (GCD e cabeça destacada (CD. Não se verificou diferença de N entre

  11. Microbiological testing and physical and chemical analysis of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water
    Avaliação microbiológico e caracterização físico-quimica de refrescos e água de coco

    F. B. PILÓ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water sold for immediate consumption in bars, restaurants and bakeries, and by street vendors in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microbial quality was determined by counting coliforms, yeasts, staphylococci and salmonellae. Total titratable acidity, pH and total soluble solids of these beverages were recorded. For coconut water samples, the total reducing sugar content was also determined. The “juices” collected included reconstituted orange, cashew and grape-fl avored juice powders and concentrated cashew juice. Sixty samples of these juices and 45 of coconut water were collected. More than half (55% of the juice samples did not comply with current Brazilian legislation, which states that there must be a total absence of coliforms in a 50 mL sample. Sixteen percent of the coconut water samples exceeded the bacterial count limits defi ned in Brazilian law, with thermotolerant coliform densities above 102 MPN / mL. The high levels of sugar and low pH found in the coconut water were possibly related to the high yeast counts in most samples. Forty-seven percent of coconut water samples showed staphylococcal counts above 103 CFU/mL. The numbers of thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts and staphylococci found suggest unsatisfactory hygienic practices during the preparation of these beverages. Salmonellae were not detected in any of the samples. The physical and chemical properties of the drinks varied among the samples. Our results suggest that both the reconstituted juices and coconut waters need better hygienic and sanitary control.

  12. Harvestable energy from the coconut palm

    Banzon, J A

    1984-01-01

    The harvestable energy from the coconut palm is in the form of husks, shells and oil from the nuts and the leaf petioles with a regular monthly production of a bunch of nuts and one leaf. From the known energy content of the husks, nut shells and petioles, the number of palm trees required to provide the total energy for domestic cooking at wood equivalent to 1-3 kg firewood per day ranges from 5-14 for husks, shells and petioles, or 15-47 if the material is first converted to charcoal. In order to provide diesel fuel containing 10% coconut oil and cope with the annual increase in such a demand, the coconut crop would have to increase at the rate of 1 nut per bunch per month from 3-11 nuts to 12 nuts over the next 8 years. Highest coconut sap yield in ethanol terms, amounts to 109 MJ/month per palm which equals the oil in a 20-nut fruit bunch, thus indicating possible greater energy harvest from coconut sap than from coconut oil.

  13. The development of 2 acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP in Thai aromatic coconut

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water and coconut meat from 1-9 month-old aromatic coconut fruit were used to monitor the development of the aromatic compound; 2 acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP concomitant with the development of each fruit part. 2-AP was also determined in other parts of fruit as well as in other parts of the tree. The aromatic coconut fruit development represented a double sigmoidal curve. The coconut water and coconut meat were detected when the fruit was two and five months old, respectively. Total soluble solids and titratable acidity increased as the fruit got older and reached the optimum taste when the fruit was 6-7 months old. 2-AP in coconut water and meat was found in fruit of 6 months of age at the earliest, then increased with fruit age, and it was found in all parts of the fruit and other parts of the tree in various amounts.

  14. Uso do diluente água de coco em pó (ACP-103® na conservação prolongada do sêmen do varrão: avaliação in vitro e in vivo Use of powder coconut water as extender (ACP-103® for boar semen longer preservation: in vitro and in vivo evaluations

    R. Toniolli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O sêmen de oito reprodutores foi coletado e de cada ejaculado separou-se um total de 1,75x10(9sptz, com concentração de 35x10(6sptz/mL. Usou-se o Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS como controle para testar o diluente água de coco em pó (ACP. O dia de coleta foi o dia zero (D0, sendo o sêmen conservado durante cinco dias, com análises diárias no D0 e nos quatro dias seguintes (D1, D2, D3 e D4. A avaliação da qualidade espermática baseou-se nos resultados do vigor espermático, da porcentagem de células móveis, da morfologia espermática, da integridade da membrana plasmática e dos resultados de fertilidade. As avaliações do vigor espermático (4,1 e da porcentagem de espermatozoides móveis (91% ficaram acima dos parâmetros mínimos exigidos (3,0 e 70% para sua utilização em programas de inseminação artificial, pois não houve influência sobre as variáveis analisadas pelo protocolo experimental. O resultado médio da resistência osmótica foi de 71,3% de espermatozoides com cauda enrolada. Não houve diferenças entre os dois diluentes testados para a característica células com acrossoma intacto (BTS = 67,1%; ACP = 71,2%. O sêmen diluído em ACP apresentou maior número de células vivas (77,7 % com membrana plasmática íntegra (74,2% após a conservação. A escolha do diluente ACP é aconselhável para uso de rotina em laboratórios que trabalhem com conservação de sêmen suíno. Apesar dos bons resultados in vitro obtidos com o diluente ACP, o BTS apresentou os melhores resultados de fertilidade, 86,7% e 96,7%, respectivamente.The semen of eight boars was collected and a total of 1.75x10(9 spermatozoa were separated from each ejaculate, obtaining a concentration of 35x10(6sptz/mL. The Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS was used as control, being tested the powder coconut water as extender (PCW. The day of collection was considered day zero (D0, and the semen was conserved for five days, with analyses on D0 and on

  15. Variabilidade espacial de atributos de solos em unidades de manejo em área piloto de produção integrada de coco Soil spatial variation and properties as related to manegement units in an experimental area of integrated coconut production

    João Bosco Vasconcellos Gomes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi, inicialmente, acessar as variações espaciais dos solos de parcelas experimentais de produção integrada do coco por meio do mapeamento detalhado dos solos e da construção de mapas de contorno de atributos do solo. Foram feitas observações, medições e coleta de amostras em microtrincheiras e perfis de solo. O teor de argila dos solos das microtrincheiras foi avaliado a campo pela sensação ao tato. Em todas as amostras foram realizadas análises físicas e químicas. Foram determinados granulometria (perfis, Al, Ca e Mg, acidez potencial, K e Na, pH, P disponível e C orgânico. Nas amostras dos perfis, foram determinados Fe, Al, Ti, P e Si pelo ataque sulfúrico. O Fe também foi determinado na fração argila, por extração com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de Na. Foi realizada difração de raios X da fração argila desferrificada. A construção de semivariogramas possibilitou a classificação e a comparação dos atributos do solo por meio do grau de dependência espacial destes. A elaboração dos mapas de contorno foi realizada pelo método interpolador de krigagem. A área mapeada corresponde a um topo amplo de tabuleiros costeiros, com uma depressão fechada no seu extremo sul. Do centro da depressão para fora dela seguem, em seqüência, Cambissolo Háplico textura argilosa, Latossolo Amarelo textura média/argilosa e Latossolo Amarelo textura média. Esses Latossolos são coesos em subsuperfície. Predominam atributos com elevado grau de heterogeneidade. Os valores médios de P, K e Ca + Mg estão influenciados por correções e adubações sistemáticas realizadas na área de plantio. Todas as variáveis analisadas apresentaram dependência espacial, expressa pelos modelos de semivariogramas. A análise da relação C0/(C0 + C1 revelou um grau de dependência espacial, de todas as variáveis, de moderado a forte. Os mapas de contorno detalharam diferenças que o mapa de solos já apontava

  16. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  17. Ocorrência do gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae atacando plantas de eucalipto em Minas Gerais Coconut tree grashopper, Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae feeding on eucalyptus trees in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os danos causados pelo gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae em plantas de eucalipto, no município de Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em junho de 2001. As amostragens foram realizadas, contando-se o número total de plantas por linha e o de plantas atacadas por classe de desfolha de 10%, a cada dez linhas de plantio, em cinco talhões de eucalipto com sinais de ataque desse gafanhoto. Calculou-se a porcentagem de desfolha por talhão e por planta de eucalipto. A porcentagem de desfolha por planta na área atacada foi de 3,70%, variando de 0,84 a 7,93%, enquanto a de plantas atacadas por talhão foi de 4,80%, variando de 1,88 a 11,54%. Os danos causados por E. cristata não justificaram medidas de controle, mas foram feitas avaliações para acompanhar a evolução do ataque desse inseto, cujas populações reduziram-se a níveis inexpressivos após 30 dias de sua constatação nesse plantio de eucalipto.Damage caused by the coconut tree grasshopper, Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae was evaluated in an eucalyptus plantation in Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in June 2001. Samplings were obtained by counting the number of plants per line and the number of defoliated plants in classes of 10% in 10 planting lines of five blocks of an eucalyptus plantation. Mean percentage of defoliation per plant in the area attacked by this pest was 3.70%, varying from 0.84 to 7.93%, while the number of plants attacked by eucalyptus block was 4.80%, varying from 1.88 to 11.54%. Damage by E. cristata did not justify control measures. Evaluation of this insect showed that its population was reduced to inexpressive numbers 30 days after it was found in this eucalyptus plantation.

  18. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  19. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  20. Antibacterial Effect of Carvacrol and Coconut Oil on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

    Božik M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils play a prominent role as flavouring agents and fragrances in the food and perfume industries. Carvacrol is a major component of various essential oils, such as oregano and thyme oils, and is responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA with a high antibacterial potential. Both carvacrol and MCFAs have been used empirically as antimicrobial agents. Here, we tested the inhibitory properties of carvacrol and coconut (Cocos nucifera L. oil containing a high percentage of MCFAs against 5 harmful bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus cecorum. Gas chromatography (GC-FID analysis of coconut oil showed a high concentration of lauric acid (41%. Microdilution antimicrobial assays showed that the combination of carvacrol and coconut oil had a stronger antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria than both agents separately. We conclude that carvacrol could significantly improve the antibacterial effect of coconut oil.

  1. Pattern of morphological variation and diversity of Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae) in Mexico.

    Zizumbo-Villarreal, D; Piñero, D

    1998-06-01

    The pattern of morphological variation of Cocos nucifera in Mexico was statistically and numerically evaluated. Forty-one populations were analyzed, using 17 morphological fruit characters. Principal components and cluster analyses indicated four main groups of coconut populations that showed high similarity with four different genotypes recently imported into Mexico from areas that could be the origin of Mexican coconut populations. These four genotypes were evaluated with regard to the lethal yellowing disease in Jamaica and showed a differential susceptibility. Therefore it is possible to speculate upon a difference in susceptibility of the Mexican genotypes. The analysis of correlation between morphological and geographical distances showed a high positive correlation that supports: (1) historical evidence that indicates early introductions of coconut from different regions of the world, (2) that on both coasts of Mexico two different patterns of dispersal were involved: continuous and in jumps. Collectively these results suggest that the impact of the lethal yellowing disease on coconut populations will vary depending on the specific area and the origin of its coconuts.

  2. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  3. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CESP) from mature coconut endosperm

    Panicker, Leelamma M; Usha, Rajamma; Roy, Samir; Mandal, Chhabinath

    2009-01-01

    Background In plants, proteases execute an important role in the overall process of protein turnover during seed development, germination and senescence. The limited knowledge on the proteolytic machinery that operates during seed development in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) prompted us to search for proteases in the coconut endosperm. Findings We have identified and purified a coconut endosperm protease (CESP) to apparent homogeneity. CESP is a single polypeptide enzyme of approximate molecular mass of 68 kDa and possesses pH optimum of 8.5 for the hydrolysis of BAPNA. Studies relating to substrate specificity and pattern of inhibition by various protease inhibitors indicated that CESP is a serine protease with cleavage specificity to peptide bonds after arginine. Purified CESP was often autolysed to two polypeptides of 41.6 kDa (CESP1) and 26.7 kDa (CESP2) and is confirmed by immunochemistry. We have shown the expression of CESP in all varieties of coconut and in all stages of coconut endosperm development with maximum amount in fully matured coconut. Conclusion Since the involvement of proteases in the processing of pre-proteins and maintenance of intracellular protein levels in seeds are well known, we suspect this CESP might play an important role in the coconut endosperm development. However this need to be confirmed using further studies. PMID:19426537

  4. Protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo development

    Islas-Flores, I.; Oropeza, C.; Hernandez-Sotomayor, S.M.T.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species

  5. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

  6. Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria

    Maria B Cyriac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The husk fibers of coconut (Cocos nucifera are reported to be used by people of rural areas of South India for daily cleaning their teeth. As the beneficial effects of this plant material, with respect to antimicrobial properties against common cariogenic bacteria, are not scientifically proven, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut was collected and aqueous extract was prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were performed by agar well diffusion method. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: Aqueous extract of coconut husk showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against different tested organisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 4.44 to 15.33 mms. However, the efficacy was less in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Inhibitory action against cariogenic bacteria exhibited by aqueous extract of coconut husk indicate presence of highly effective active compounds in these extracts, which can be identified and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries.

  7. Measurement of transpiration and biomass of coconut palm with tritiated water

    Vasu, K.; Wahid, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of transpiration rate and biomass of coconut palm have been made using tritiated water as a tracer. The method of tracer injection into the coconut trunk and the extraction of tritiated water from coconut leaves are outlined. The transpiration rate of the tree selected for the study was found to be 2.2 litres/hour with a total biomass of 172 kg. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber extract.

    Esquenazi, Daniele; Wigg, Marcia D; Miranda, Mônica M F S; Rodrigues, Hugo M; Tostes, João B F; Rozental, Sonia; da Silva, Antonio J R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2002-12-01

    The decoction of Cocos nucifera L. husk fiber has been used in northeastern Brazil traditional medicine for treatment of diarrhea and arthritis. Water extract obtained from coconut husk fiber and fractions from adsorption chromatography revealed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extract and one of the fractions rich in catechin also showed inhibitory activity against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1-ACVr). All fractions were inactive against the fungi Candida albicans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cryptococcus neoformans. Catechin and epicatechin together with condensed tannins (B-type procyanidins) were demonstrated to be the components of the water extract.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg−1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las características físico-químicas y la composición de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extraída de coco húmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los ácidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el índice de peróxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meq·O2Kg−1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de

  10. Asthma Picture Book - Why is Coco Orange?

    Coco the chameleon can't change colors, and his asthma is acting up. Read how Coco and his friends at Lizard Lick Elementary solve this mystery as they learn about air quality and how to stay healthy when the air quality is bad.

  11. Lovely clone of coconuts

    Branton, R.; Blake, J.

    1983-05-01

    It has taken over 10 years research and development to clone oil palms and coconut palms successfully. Unilever has recently built a tissue culture factory in England with a potential capacity for producing half a million clonal oil palms a year for export. Research on the cloning of coconut palms is reported here. Cloned palms may increase yields from oil palms by 20 to 30 percent and yields from coconut could be as high as five-fold over unselected stock. Improved yields would not only increase the yield of oil and copra but also the harvests of husk and shell which are immense potential sources of energy; the 1978 Philippine harvest of over 12 million nuts is equivalent in terms of energy to 3.8 billion litres of petrol (31 x 10/sup 12/ kcal).

  12. Characterisation of the volatile profile of coconut water from five varieties using an optimised HS-SPME-GC analysis.

    Prades, Alexia; Assa, Rebecca Rachel Ablan; Dornier, Manuel; Pain, Jean-Pierre; Boulanger, Renaud

    2012-09-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water is a refreshing tropical drink whose international market has recently been growing. However, little is yet known about its physicochemical composition, particularly its aroma. This study set out to characterise the volatile profile of water from five coconut varieties. Aroma compounds were characterised by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) analysis. An experimental design was established to optimise SPME conditions, leading to an equilibration time of 10 min followed by an extraction time of 60 min at 50 °C. Accordingly, immature coconut water from WAT (West African Tall), PB121 (MYD × WAT Hybrid), MYD (Malayan Yellow Dwarf), EGD (Equatorial Guinea Green Dwarf) and THD (Thailand Aromatic Green Dwarf) palms was analysed and described. Ketones were mainly present in the Tall and Hybrid varieties, whereas aldehydes were most abundant in the Dwarf palms. Tall coconut water was characterised by a high lactone content. THD exhibited a high ethyl octanoate level. The cluster analysis of the volatile fraction from the five coconut cultivars was found to be related to their genetic classification. The volatile compounds of immature coconut water from five varieties were characterised for the first time. Volatile profile analysis could be a useful tool for the selection of Dwarf coconut varieties, which are mainly consumed as a beverage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Silva, Edson Antonio da

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  14. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Edson Antonio da, E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  15. Gamma ray attenuation studies in concrete reinforced with coconut shells

    Vishnu, C.V.; Joseph, Antony

    2017-01-01

    Gamma ray absorption studies on wood in general is an area of interest. In Kerala, though coconut tree is a common plantation, a systematic study of gamma ray attenuation in coconut shell has not been reported. In the present study, we have made an attempt to carry out such measurements on coconut shells collected from Trichur district. Coconut shells in to the size of 4cm × 4cm was used in these studies and 662 KeV gamma ray counts were measured using 8K channel NaI(Tl) detector. Subsequently we extended these studies by reinforcing concrete with crushed coconut shells, arranged in a layer by layer fashion. Concrete is usually a choice for shielding nuclear radiations. The effect of reinforcing them with coconut shell is also an area of interest. We have carried out absorption studies by using two types of sand also in the concrete mixture. Common sand is not amply available and people use M-sand (Manufactured sand) instead. In the concrete blocks we selectively used common sand and m-sand and its effects on gamma absorption were also investigated. We have estimated both linear and mass attenuation coefficients and the half value layer (HVL) parameter was determined from them. We have noticed an increase in µ/ρ with increase in density of concrete, achieved through the reinforcement. (author)

  16. Nutritional value of whole coconut, coconut powder, and coconut fiber treated with sodium hydroxide for sheep

    José Cardoso de Araújo Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growing consumption of green coconut - fresh and industrialized - in Brazil generates a large volume of wastes and coproducts that justifies the search for alternatives for their use in animal feeding. The most limiting factor to the inclusion of these coproducts in ruminant diets is their high fiber content, which may restrict intake and performance. The present study determined the composition and in vitro dry matter degradability of whole coconut, coconut powder, and coconut fiber treated with sodium hydroxide (0%, 3%, and 6% and the effect of including whole coconut hydrolyzed with 6% sodium hydroxide at different concentrations (25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% in the diet on apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and feeding behavior of sheep. Alkalinization decreased the hemicellulose, NDF, and ADF contents of the evaluated coproducts. Whole coconut and coconut powder provided greater in vitro degradation of DM compared with coconut fiber, with highest values obtained with the inclusion of 6% sodium hydroxide. Inclusion of whole coconut in the diets did not affect the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF, but influenced weight gain, feed conversion, and apparent digestibility of DM and NDF. Regarding the feeding behavior of the animals, the inclusion of whole coconut in the diet only affected their rumination time. Whole coconut hydrolyzed with 6% NAOH can be included in diets for feedlot sheep at up to 35% without reducing intake or weight gain.

  17. Trees

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  18. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    Ray, P.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  19. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  20. 137 CS content in coconut water and copra in French Polynesia: contribution to the dose for population

    Poletiko, C.; Arnould, C.; Sarbach, J.; Bablet, J.P.; Ducousso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Coconut tree has the peculiarity to be a good integrator for alkaline metals. The isotope 137 of cesium, which was generated during previous atmospheric nuclear tests, has a high fission yield and a half-life of about 30 years; this nuclide is supposed to be still present in food chain in French Polynesia. In this food chain coconut water and coconut copra are ingested depending upon diet customs and areas of French Polynesia. For some islands, among local foodstuffs, cesium 137 content in coconut highly contributes to the dose. Spectrometry gamma results and annual doses calculation since 1966 are displayed. (author)

  1. Substratos no enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de figueira oriundas da desbrota Substrates in the rooting of fig tree herbaceous cuttings originated from the sprouting

    Rafael Pio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho teve-se como objetivo verificar o enraizamento de estacas de figueira oriundas da desbrota, por meio da utilização de diferentes substratos. Foram coletadas estacas herbáceas de figueira 'Roxo de valinhos', aproximadamente com 10 cm de comprimento, no momento da desbrota da figueira. As estacas com apenas duas folhas e sem gema apical foram acondicionadas em bandejas de polipropileno, contendo diferentes substratos: casca de pinus®, vermiculita®, fibra de coco®, plantmax®, solo + esterco bovino (1:1 v/v e tropstrato® . Posteriormente, as estacas foram colocadas em casa-de-vegetação, com umidade e temperatura controlada. Após 50 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, brotadas e mortas, número de folhas e raízes emitidas da estaca. Os substratos fibra de coco® e plantmax® promoveram melhores resultados.The present work had the objective to verify the rooting of fig tree cuttings originating from sprouting, through the use of different substrates. Herbaceous cuttings were collected of 'Roxo de valinhos' fig tree with 10 cm of length when the sprouting was happening. The cuttings with two leaves and not of the apical bud to conditioned in polypropylene trays containing different substrates: casca de pinus®, vermiculita®, coconut fiber®, plantmax®, soil + cow mature(1:1 v/v and tropstrato® . The cuttings were placed at greenhouse, under humidity and temperature control. After 50 days, the rooting, sprouting and death cutting percentage, the number of leaves and roots of each cutting were evaluated. The substrates coconut fiber® and plantmax® promoted better results.

  2. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  3. Analysis of Carrying Capacity of Agro-Ecosystem Coconut-Cattle in South Minahasa Regency

    AHS Salendu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Coconut plantation is very dominating in South Minahasa regency seen from its production of 49,907.33 tons in 2010. The land under coconut trees can be used for food crops or forage. The waste from food crops is the source of animal feed, while the livestock’s manure is used to improve soil fertility under coconut tree. The research objective was to analyse the carrying capacity of the agro-ecosystem of coconut-cattle. Regency and district were determined purposively. A total of 86 farmers as respondents were determined based on the ownership of at least 2 cattle and cattle selling experience. Data were analyzed using effective potential of livestock development and land capability index (IDD. The result showed that the maximum potential of land resources (PMSL was 30,872.94 animal unit (AU. The capacity increase in cattle population based on the soil resources was 18,208.94 AU. The maximum potential based on farmer house holds was 127,023.00 AU. The value of land capability index was 2.14. The conclusion was South Minahasa Regency was still potential for cattle development regarding land resources or workforce potentials. Development of cattle can be integrated with the coconut to maintain and improve agro-ecosystem sustainability of coconut plantation. Keywords: cattle, carrying capacity, agro-ecosystem, coconut Animal Production 14(1:56-62, January 2012

  4. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  5. De novo transcriptome sequence assembly from coconut leaves and seeds with a focus on factors involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Lee, Chueh-Pai; Fu, Jason L; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2014-09-04

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a symbol of the tropics and a source of numerous edible and nonedible products of economic value. Despite its nutritional and industrial significance, coconut remains under-represented in public repositories for genomic and transcriptomic data. We report de novo transcript assembly from RNA-seq data and analysis of gene expression in seed tissues (embryo and endosperm) and leaves of a dwarf coconut variety. Assembly of 10 GB sequencing data for each tissue resulted in 58,211 total unigenes in embryo, 61,152 in endosperm, and 33,446 in leaf. Within each unigene pool, 24,857 could be annotated in embryo, 29,731 could be annotated in endosperm, and 26,064 could be annotated in leaf. A KEGG analysis identified 138, 138, and 139 pathways, respectively, in transcriptomes of embryo, endosperm, and leaf tissues. Given the extraordinarily large size of coconut seeds and the importance of small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation during seed development in model plants, we used homology searches to identify putative homologs of factors required for RNA-directed DNA methylation in coconut. The findings suggest that RNA-directed DNA methylation is important during coconut seed development, particularly in maturing endosperm. This dataset will expand the genomics resources available for coconut and provide a foundation for more detailed analyses that may assist molecular breeding strategies aimed at improving this major tropical crop. Copyright © 2014 Huang et al.

  6. Pemanfaatan Limbah Virgin Coconut Oil (Blondo)

    Haerani, Haerani

    2010-01-01

    Coconuts and coconut oil have been traditional, staple foods of Asia, Africa, Central America and the Pacific Islands for thousands of years. Pacific Islanders, those who still eat traditional diets, have a reputation for good health and strong beautiful bodies. Many of these traditional diets obtain 30% to 60% of their calories from coconuts and coconut oil. They tend to have normal cholesterol levels and no cardiovascular disease. Prior to the early 1900s, coconut oil was an important dieta...

  7. PHILIPPINE COCONUT INDUSTRY AND THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Oniki, Shunji

    1992-01-01

    This study explores effects of Philippines' coconut policies on the performance in the international market. Analysis of the coconut sector found that the Philippine government successfully changed the structure of the coconut industry during the 1970's using a fund collected as coconut levies. Since the Philippines dominated the international trade market of coconut products, it could exercise dominant market power in the world trade, by integrating the domestic sector. However, the industri...

  8. Long-distance dispersal of the coconut palm by migration within the coral atoll ecosystem.

    Harries, Hugh C; Clement, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    The location of the original home of the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, and the extent of its natural dispersal are not known. Proponents of a South American origin must explain why it is not indigenous there and why it shows greatest diversity in southern Asia. Conversely, proponents of an Asian origin must explain why there are no Asian Cocoseae and why the closest botanical relative to Cocos is in South America. Both hypotheses share the common problems of how, when, where and in what directions long-distance dispersal occurred. These difficulties are resolved by accepting that C. nucifera originated and dispersed by populating emerging islands of the coral atoll ecosystem, where establishment conditions impose high selection pressures for survival. When lifted by wave action onto virtually sterile, soilless coralline rocks just above sea level and exposed to the full impact of the sun, seednuts must germinate, root and establish vigorous populations. The cavity within the nut augments the buoyancy provided by the thick husk, which in turn protects the embryo and, by delaying germination, simultaneously extends viability while floating and provides a moisture-retentive rooting medium for the young seedling. These adaptations allow coconuts to disperse widely through the coral atoll ecosystem. The monthly production of fruit and the long floating duration ensure that viable seednuts are always available in the lagoon to replace those destroyed by hurricanes and tsunamis, or to populate newly emerged coral atolls elsewhere. Long-distance dispersal is secondary, because it was the spontaneous, independent migration of coral polyps on a prolonged geological time scale that generated new coral atolls in new areas where the coconuts would be amongst the earliest inhabitants. The coconut palm became an intermittent, itinerant, pioneer endemic there, and also on suitable beaches on volcanic or large islands and continental coastlines.

  9. Cocos sahnii Kaul: A Cocos nucifera L.-like fruit from the Early ...

    2012-07-20

    Jul 20, 2012 ... rules of nomenclature (ICBN Article no. 42) the name of the ... of land-based natural resources, it provides almost all the necessities of .... described a Cocos fruit from the Palaeocene of Colombia. A comparative .... over water.

  10. Rearing technique and biological traits of Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) in coconut fruits

    Santana, S.W.J.; Barros, R.; Torres, J.B.; Gondim Junior, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Larvae of the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) develop in flowers and fruits of coconut, Cocos nucifera, causing precocious abscission of these structures and, hence, yield decrease. This work studied a feasible and suitable rearing technique for A. subrufella using fruits of coconut. We first determined the appropriate density of larvae to be reared per coconut fruit (among two, three, four or five larvae) and later tested the suitability of this rearing technique for three successive generations. The storage of egg and pupal stages during 0, 5, 10 and 20 days was also studied at 12 deg C. Based on the fertility life table parameters, the best results were achieved by rearing two or three larvae per fruit as they yielded the best net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of population increase. In addition, eggs and pupae of A. subrufella can be stored at 12 deg C up to five days with viability higher than 90%. Adult moths emerged from pupae stored for five days at 12 deg C produced an average of 219.4 eggs and lived 18.8 days. Storage periods for eggs and pupae over 10 days significantly reduced egg viability and adult fecundity, respectively. Thus, the technique in here described was shown to be suitable for the continuous rearing of A. subrufella in laboratory conditions. (author)

  11. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Cocos nucifera Linn. on streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Naskar, Sagar; Mazumder, Upal K; Pramanik, Goutam; Gupta, Malaya; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Islam, Aminul

    2011-12-08

    The plant Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae) is commonly known as coconut. Traditionally the juice of the young spadix when fresh is used in diarrhea and diabetes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidiabetic activity and effect on lipid profile as well as cardioprotective effect of hydro-methanol extract of Cocos nucifera (HECN) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 72 h of STZ (50 mg/kg, b.w. i.p.) administration, animals showing plasma sugar level more than 250 mg/dl were considered as diabetic rat. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured on 0th (after 72 h of STZ), 5th, 10th, and 15th day. On the 15th day all the animals were sacrificed and the serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme status were measured. HECN treated animals showed a significant reduction in FBG level as compared with diabetic control group. Serum enzyme level (SGOT, SGPT, SALP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme level such as CAT, GSH, SOD and cholesterol and triglycerides in the HECN treated groups were restored towards normal level as compared to diabetic control groups and the values were comparable with the standard groups (glibenclamide). Improvement in the FBG and the restoration of all other biomarker as well as enzymes indicates that HECN has very good antidiabetic activity with very low side effects and provides a scientific rationale for the use as an antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Visita al Parque Nacional Isla del Coco

    Malavassi, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    El Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, en Costa Rica, fue visitado por espacio de cinco días, en el año 1981, en el marco de una expedición organizada por el Servicio de Parques Nacionales y el Servicio de Patrullaje Marítimo del Ministerio de Seguridad Pública.

  13. Anti-emetic principles of Poria cocos.

    Tai, T; Akita, Y; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, K

    1995-12-01

    The triterpenes isolated from P. cocos and their derivatives were examined for anti-emetic activity. Some of these triterpenes inhibited emetic action induced by oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard frog. The triterpenes having an exomethylene group at C-24 showed anti-emetic activity to frogs.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Oliveira, L M B; Bevilaqua, C M L; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Barros, R S; Rodrigues, A C M; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Morais, S M; Lima, Y C; Vieira, L S; Navarro, A M C

    2009-01-22

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to in vitro and in vivo tests. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatching (EHT) and larval development tests (LDT) with Haemonchus contortus. The concentrations tested in the EHT were 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg ml(-1), while in the LDT they were 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg ml(-1). The in vivo assay was a controlled test. In this experiment, 18 sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into three groups (n=6), with the following doses administered: G1-400 mg kg(-1) LGCHF ethyl acetate extract, G2-0.2 mg kg(-1) moxidectin (Cydectin) and G3-3% DMSO. The worm burden was analyzed. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests were submitted to ANOVA and analyzed by the Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. The extract efficacy in the EHT and LDT, at the highest concentrations tested, was 100% on egg hatching and 99.77% on larval development. The parameters evaluated in the controlled test were not statistically different, showing that despite the significant results of the in vitro tests, the LGCHF ethyl acetate extract showed no activity against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

  15. Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second-generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast.

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Van de Velde, Miet; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Kerstens, Dorien; Sels, Bert F; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2017-11-01

    The residual biomass obtained from the production of Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) is a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. Even though coconut hydrolysates for ethanol production have previously been obtained, high-solid loads to obtain high sugar and ethanol levels remain a challenge. We investigated the use of a fed-batch regime in the production of sugar-rich hydrolysates from the green coconut fruit and its mesocarp. Fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained from green coconut or its mesocarp, containing 8.4 and 9.7% (w/v) sugar, resulted in 3.8 and 4.3% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. However, green coconut hydrolysate showed a prolonged fermentation lag phase. The inhibitor profile suggested that fatty acids and acetic acid were the main fermentation inhibitors. Therefore, a fed-batch regime with mild alkaline pretreatment followed by saccharification, is presented as a strategy for fermentation of such challenging biomass hydrolysates, even though further improvement of yeast inhibitor tolerance is also needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber ethanolic extract: antioxidant capacity and electrochemical investigation.

    Oliveira, Monika Bezerra dos Santos; Valentim, Iara Barros; de Vasconcelos, Camila Calado; Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; da Costa, João Gomes; Freitas, Mikael de Lima; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-02-01

    The present study aims to determine the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of husk fiber of four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties (yellow dwarf, green dwarf, giant and hybrid) and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of these extracts on a glassy carbon electrode and on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained for the hybrid (531 ± 24 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) and yellow dwarf (501 ± 29 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) varieties and the lowest was for the green dwarf variety with 58 ± 9 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH˙ radicals was in the order of giant > yellow dwarf > hybrid > green dwarf and the IC50 values varied from 8.6 to 55.9 μg mL(-1). All varieties showed reducing potential by the use of FRAP and CUPRAC methods, with the lowest performance obtained for the green dwarf variety. Additionally, through the use of mimetic biomembranes, ethanolic extracts of coconut husk were shown to protect lipids against oxidative damage independent of the variety. The main antioxidants identified in the extract of yellow dwarf variety by UPLC-MS were quercetin and catechin. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the ethanolic extracts on glassy carbon electrode confirmed the presence of easily oxidized compounds, and the high antioxidant capacity of the varieties. This capacity was expressed as mg quercetin equivalents g(-1) dry extract and ranged from 25.9 up to 53.5 mg QE g(-1). A poly-xanthurenic acid (poly-Xa)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) / glassy carbon modified electrode (poly-Xa/MWCNT/GCE) was used for this purpose. Our findings suggest that these extracts are potentially important antioxidant supplements for the everyday human diet, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, thereby aggregating value to the enormous amount of waste from the coconut industry, mostly used for burning purposes.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of six WRKY transcription factor loci across the spiny cocosoid palm subtribes Bactridinae and Elaeidinae (Areceaceae, Cocoseae),and comparison of several gene tree/species tree reconciliation approaches

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfamily Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor g...

  18. A database for coconut crop improvement.

    Rajagopal, Velamoor; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Devakumar, Krishnamurthy; Rajesh; Karun, Anitha; Niral, Vittal; Gopal, Murali; Aziz, Shamina; Gunasekaran, Marimuthu; Kumar, Mundappurathe Ramesh; Chandrasekar, Arumugam

    2005-12-08

    Coconut crop improvement requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. A database containing information on CG (coconut germplasm), CCI (coconut cultivar identification), CD (coconut disease), MIFSPC (microbial information systems in plantation crops) and VO (vegetable oils) is described. The database was developed using MySQL and PostgreSQL running in Linux operating system. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. http://www.bioinfcpcri.org.

  19. Influence of Production Variables on Eco-Friendly Briquettes from Coconut and Bambara Nut Shells

    O. A. Sotannde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of production variables on the properties of molasses-induced fuel briquettes from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc. shells. The milled samples of both raw materials were mixed with molasses at ratios 100:20, 100:25, 100:30 and 100:35 by weight respectively, and briquetted using a Jack press at an average pressure of 1.2KN/m2. A 3x4 factorial experiment in completely randomized design was used. The briquettes produced were subjected to both physical and combustion tests. The tests revealed that majority of the variations in briquette properties were largely influenced by the type of biomass residues used while molasses’ content also contributed significant effect atp < 0.05. Coconut shell briquettes had higher compressed density though lower in relaxed form (0.80 g·cm-3vs 0.78 g·cm-3 when compared to Bambara nut shell briquettes (0.77 g.cm-3vs0.75 g.cm-3. Both physical and combustion properties were significantly improved when both bio-residue mixtures were used. Briquettes from the mixtures had the highest average fixed carbon and heating values of 85.21% and 32.80 MJ·kg-1 respectively, though it was 83.83% and 32.12 MJ·kg-1for coconut shell briquette and 82.18% and 32.03 MJ·kg-1for Bambara nut shell briquette. Therefore, based on physical and combustion characteristics, the best Bambara nut briquettes and its mixture with coconut shell were produced when molasses content was 30%. In contrast, the best coconut shell briquette was produced when molasses content was 35%. These two level are therefore recommended for production of quality briquettes from these agro-residues.

  20. Visualization of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus contamination of coconut (Cocos nucifera) nutmeat (Copra) using ammonia treatment

    For many crops government regulations define mycotoxin contamination levels that reflect the primary determinants of quality, value and possible uses of crops. Quality can be raised by lowering the mycotoxin level through a remediation process. In the case of copra, the dried nutmeat of the coconu...

  1. Detection of aflatoxigenic aspergillus flavus contamination of coconut (cocos nucifera) nutmeat (copra) using ammonia treatment

    For many crops government regulations define mycotoxin contamination levels that represent the primary determinants of quality, value and possible uses of crops. Quality can be raised in some crops by lowering the mycotoxin level through removal of infected products. In the case of copra, the drie...

  2. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Ali, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  3. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  4. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  5. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and manufacture a coconut milk squeezer

    Wayan Surata, I.; Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Budyanto, D.; Yulianto, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    The process of cooking oil production generally is started by grating the ripe coconut meat, then pressing the grated meat to obtain coconut milk, and finally heating the coconut milk to obtain the cooking oil. Pressing mechanism to obtain coconut milk is a very important step and decisive in the process of producing cooking oil. The amount of milk produced depends on the pressure applied at the time of pressing grated coconut. The higher the pressure, the more milk is obtained. Some commercial mechanical pressing tools that available in the market are not efficient due to the working steps too much and take long time per cycle of work. The aims of this study was to design and manufacture a power screw squeezer for the collection of coconut milk. Power screw produces a compressive force in the cylinder to push and press the grated coconut until the end of the cylinder while the coconut milk and coconut dregs flow out simultaneously. Screw press was designed using straight shaft configuration with square profile. Performance test was done to investigate the actual capacity and yield of milk produced. The results showed that squeezer of grated coconut worked well with capacity an average of 13,63 kg/h and coconut milk yield of 58%.

  7. Coconut-based biosorbents for water treatment--a review of the recent literature.

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-10-15

    Biosorption is an emerging technique for water treatment utilizing abundantly available biomaterials (especially agricultural wastes). Among several agricultural wastes studied as biosorbents for water treatment, coconut has been of great importance as various parts of this tree (e.g. coir, shell, etc.) have been extensively studied as biosorbents for the removal of diverse type of pollutants from water. Coconut-based agricultural wastes have gained wide attention as effective biosorbents due to low-cost and significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of coconut-based biosorbents from vast literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants as available in the literature are presented. Available abundantly, high biosorption capacity, cost-effectiveness and renewability are the important factors making these materials as economical alternatives for water treatment and waste remediation. This paper presents a state of the art review of coconut-based biosorbents used for water pollution control, highlighting and discussing key advancement on the preparation of novel adsorbents utilizing coconut wastes, its major challenges together with the future prospective. It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on commercial scale, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Metal Soaps of Cocos nucifera ...

    This study investigated the extraction of Cocos nucifera seed oil (CSO) from Cocos nucifera seed using aqueous processing and the production of metal soaps from the oil and their characterization in terms of colour, pH, free caustic alkalinity, foaming power, foam stability, and corrosion inhibition test. The metal soaps of the ...

  9. CoCo design as a risk preventive tool

    Perotti, E.; Flannery, M.

    2011-01-01

    Contingent Convertible (CoCo) bonds have been suggested as a way to ensure that banks keep aside enough capital to help them through financial crises. This column proposes a market-triggered CoCo buffer to maintain risk incentives during periods of high leverage. It argues that this will also

  10. Pulsed electric field processing of functional drink based on tender coconut water (Cococus nucifera L. - nannari (Hemidesmus indicus blended beverage

    R. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. Nannari extract (Hemidesmus indicus L. ready-to serve (RTS blended beverage were optimised. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the levels of independent variables (levels of tender coconut water, nannari extract and sugar. The responses of pH, ºBrix, CIE colour (L*, a* and b* value and OAA were studied. The data obtained were analysed by multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. The developed blended beverage was processed using pulsed electric field (PEF with electric field 31.2 kV/cm, 20 pulse widths at 100 Hz frequency to minimise nutritional and sensory attributes losses and compared with conventional thermal pasteurization (96 ºC for 360 s with p-value of 8.03. Thermal pasteurization showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in colour value, radical scavenging activity and overall acceptability after treatment and also during storage, when compared to PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage. PEF treatment also achieved a 3.01 ± 0.69 log inactivation, similar to thermal pasteurization of native micro flora. PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage was stable up to 120 days under ambient storage condition (27-30 °C.

  11. Coconut endocarp and mesocarp as both biosorbents of dissolved hydrocarbons in fuel spills and as a power source when exhausted.

    Luis-Zarate, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Mayra Cecilia; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2018-04-01

    Health and environmental problems associated with the presence of toxic aromatic compounds in water from oil spills have motivated research to develop effective and economically viable strategies to remove these pollutants. In this work, coconut shell (endocarp), coconut fiber (mesocarp) and coconut shell with fiber (endocarp and mesocarp) obtained from coconut (Cocos nucifera) waste were evaluated as biosorbents of benzene, toluene and naphthalene from water, considering the effect of the solution pH (6-9) and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water (14 mg/L). In addition, the heat capacity of saturated biosorbents was determined to evaluate their potential as an alternative power source to conventional fossil fuels. Tests of N 2 physisorption, SEM, elemental and fiber analysis, ATR-FTIR and acid-based titrations were performed in order to understand the materials' characteristics, and to elucidate the biosorbents' hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism. Coconut fiber showed the highest adsorption capacities (222, 96 and 5.85 mg/g for benzene, toluene and naphthalene, respectively), which was attributed to its morphologic characteristics and to its high concentration of phenolic groups, associated with the lignin structure. The pH of the solution did not have a significant influence on the removal of the contaminants, and the presence of DOM improved the adsorption capacities of aromatic hydrocarbons. The adsorption studies showed biphasic isotherms, which highlighted the strong affinity between the molecules adsorbed on the biosorbents and the aromatic compounds remaining in the solution. Finally, combustion heat analysis of coconut waste saturated with soluble hydrocarbons showed that the heat capacity increased from 4407.79 cal/g to 5064.43 ± 11.6 cal/g, which is comparable with that of woody biomass (3400-4000 cal/g): this waste biomass with added value could be a promising biofuel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Hidrólisis del aceite de coco (Cocos nucífera L mediante enzimas estereoespecíficas y sin especificidad posicional.

    Rodríguez, R.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic fatty acid composition of coconut oil provides mainly short- and medium- chain fatty acids when incorporated to the diet. These fatty acids have nutritional advantages because their metabolic disposition allows the rapid obtention of energy, mainly at the hepatic level. The obtention of short- and medium- chain fatty acids from coconut oil as substrate, may be of importance because the different nutritional, pharmacological, and technological uses of these fatty acids. In the present work, the effect of two type of lipases on the hydrolysis of coconut oil was studied; a lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea showing no positional specificity, and a lipase from Mucor miehei with sn-1',3' specificity in its free and immobilized form (Lipozyme IM-20. The lipase from Candida cylindracea allows the hydrolysis of 85%-90% of the triacylglycerols after 47-50 hours, the fatty acid composition of the hydrolyzate being similar to the composition of the oil. The remaining monoacylglycerols show a prevalent composition of short- (C6-C8 -and medium- chain (C10-C14 fatty acids. Lipase from Mucor miehei allows 65% of hydrolysis, which is obtained after 30 hours of incubation when the free form of the lipase is assayed, and after 10 hours for the immobilized form (Lipozyme IM-20. The fatty acid composition of the hydrolyzate is similar for the two enzymes and different to the composition of the oil, being C8-C14 the most prevalent fatty acids. The remaining monoacylglycerol, as product of the action of both forms of the enzyme, is almost enterely composed by lauric acid (C12:0, implicating that the sn-2' position is the most favoured for this fatty acid in the coconut oil triacylglycerols. The usefulness of lipases for the obtention of especific fractions of some fatty acids is discussed. The utility of the lipase from Mucor miehei for the obtention enriched fractions of lauric acid, which can be liberated after

  13. Coconut processing technologies for rural transformation – Case study on coconut water vinegar

    6. Seeja Thomachan, Deepu Mathew and Habeeburrahman P. V.

    2010-01-01

    The role of coconut based technologies in social development of rural India is described based on the influence of coconut vinegar technology in the rural women of Malappuram district, Kerala state, India

  14. Cultivo de Cattleya Lindley (Orchidaceae em substratos alternativos ao xaxim = Alternative substrates for Cattleya (Orchidaceae cultivation to substitute the tree fern fiber

    Jorge Kaoro Yamakami

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo de um híbrido de Cattleya Lindley. Os substratos avaliados foram: xaxim; fibra de coco; casca de pínus + casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1v/v; casca de pínus+casca de arroz carbonizada (2:1v/v; casca de pínus+casca de arroz carbonizada (1:2v/v; casca de pínus e casca de arroz carbonizada. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 70% de luminosidade Os parâmetros avaliados um ano após o início do experimento foram: massa de matéria fresca total, altura da parte aérea, comprimento do pseudobulbo, comprimento da maior raiz, número de raízes, número de brotos, número de flores, pH e condutividade elétrica. O substrato constituído de fibra de coco proporcionou bons resultados, podendo ser considerado alternativo ao xaxim no cultivo deCattleya.The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates tosubstitute tree fern fiber for cultivation of hybrids from the Cattleya species. Seedlings were cultivated in polypropylene vases, kept in screen shadowed nursery by a 70% of lighting. The following substrates were evaluated: tree fern fibers; coconut fiber; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (1:1 v/v; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (2:1 v/v; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (1:2 v/v; pinus bark and carbonized rice hull. One year after the experiment, the followingparameters were evaluated: fresh matter mass, aerial part height, pseudobulb length, greater root length, number of buds, number of flowers, pH and electric conductivity. The substrate composed of coconut fiber showed better results, and can be used as the alternative substrate to tree fern fiber in the cultivation of Cattleya.

  15. New insulating particleboards from durian peel and coconut coir

    Khedari, J.; Charoenvai, S.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Building Scientific Research Center

    2002-03-01

    The development of new particleboards from tropical fruit peels with low thermal conductivity as a component of construction panels for energy conservation of building is the main purpose of this study. Durian (Durio zibethinus) peels and coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers were used as the raw material to manufacture particleboards. Two main parameters were investigated namely binder types, (UF 12%, PF 6% and IC 3%) and board density. In general, the effect of adhesive type on the properties of boards was not obvious whereas that of the density was more significant on most properties of boards. Experimental investigation indicated that the mechanical strength of all boards such as modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing board density, but it is still rather low. However, this decreased the dimensional stability, measured in term of thickness swelling, and thermal conductivity as well. Finally, as the raw materials are agriculture waste, manufacturing particleboards is therefore an economic and interesting option. Such natural particleboards with a low thermal conductivity could be utilized for specific applications as in insulating ceiling and walls.(author)

  16. Crab As A Coconut Oil Separating Agent

    Margino, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The role of sterilized and nonsterilized crab extract on the separation of coconut oil was examined using grated coconut meat as substrate. Sterilized crab extract was prepared by suspension and centrifugation of crushed crab and then filtrated using Millipore Utter. Sterilized crab extract has proteolytic activity but not lipolytic one. It was found that the sterilized crab extract supported the growth of proteolytic microbes, isolated from fermentation process of coconut oil. Both sterilize...

  17. Coconut Program Area Research Planning and Prioritization

    Aragon, Corazon

    2000-01-01

    The coconut industry is one of the country's major pillars in employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. However, local production problems, the expansion in coconut hectarage of neighboring countries, and recent developments in biotechnology research on other competing crops that have high lauric oil content might affect its long-term sustainability and viability. In a highly liberalized global trade environment, innovation and creativity in the country's coconut industry are neede...

  18. CoCo the colorful history of Tandy's underdog computer

    Pitre, Boisy G

    2013-01-01

    CoCo: The Colorful History of Tandy's Underdog Computer is the first book to document the complete history of the Tandy Color Computer (CoCo), a popular 8-bit PC series from the 1980s that competed against the era's biggest names, including the Apple II, IBM PC, and Commodore 64. The book takes you inside the interesting stories and people behind this unique, underdog computer.Both noted computer science and technology advocates, authors Pitre and Loguidice reveal the story of a pivotal period in the home computing revolution from the perspective of Tandy's CoCo. As these computers were sold i

  19. Substratos alternativos ao xaxim na produção de bromélia ornamental Alternative substrates to fern tree fiber in the production of ornamental bromeliad

    Shoey Kanashiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar substratos alternativos para o cultivo da bromélia Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker, para substituir com eficiência as misturas formuladas com o xaxim Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. Foram testados os substratos: casca de Pinus, casca de Eucalyptus, coxim, fibra de coco e xaxim, misturados com turfa e perlita, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1. O experimento foi realizado em condições de estufa com cobertura de polietileno, sombreada com tela a 70%. As bromélias foram cultivadas durante 435 dias, até o início do florescimento - estádio de comercialização. As variáveis analisadas foram as massas de matéria seca de: folhas, raiz, inflorescência, escapo floral e caule; além da massa de matéria seca total e a qualidade comercial. Os substratos formulados com xaxim ou casca de Pinus, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1, e com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, na proporção 2:7:1, foram as misturas que apresentaram os melhores resultados. Os substratos formulados com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, com 10% de turfa e 10% de perlita, na proporção 8:1:1, apresentaram os piores resultados.The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates for the cultivation of the bromeliad Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker, to substitute the formulated mixtures with fern tree fiber from Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. Tested substrates were: Pinus bark, Eucalyptus bark, coxim (made of coconut fiber, coir or fern tree fiber, mixed with peat and perlite, in the proportions 2:7:1, 5:4:1 and 8:1:1. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse covered with polyethylene and shaded with shade cloth 70%. The bromeliads were cultivated during 435 days, until the beginning of the flowering, when they were suitable for commercialization. The evaluated parameters were dry masses of leaf, root, inflorescence, floral scape, and stem, besides total dry mass and the commercial

  20. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Clara Lim-Sylianco; A.P. Guevara; L. Sylianco-Wu

    1992-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the f...

  1. Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water, and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%, hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids, water activity (0.14-0.58, lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil, and process yield (20.33-30.19%. All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.

  2. Coco is a dual activity modulator of TGFβ signaling

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Haremaki, Tomomi; Warmflash, Aryeh; Sorre, Benoit; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is a crucial regulator of developmental processes and disease. The activity of TGFβ ligands is modulated by various families of soluble inhibitors that interfere with the interactions between ligands and receptors. In an unbiased, genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes involved in ligand-dependent signaling, we unexpectedly identified the BMP/Activin/Nodal inhibitor Coco as an enhancer of TGFβ1 signaling. Coco synergizes with TGFβ1 in both cell culture and Xenopus explants. Molecularly, Coco binds to TGFβ1 and enhances TGFβ1 binding to its receptor Alk5. Thus, Coco acts as both an inhibitor and an enhancer of signaling depending on the ligand it binds. This finding raises the need for a global reconsideration of the molecular mechanisms regulating TGFβ signaling. PMID:26116664

  3. Spatial and spatiotemporal pattern analysis of coconut lethal yellowing in Mozambique.

    Bonnot, F; de Franqueville, H; Lourenço, E

    2010-04-01

    Coconut lethal yellowing (LY) is caused by a phytoplasma and is a major threat for coconut production throughout its growing area. Incidence of LY was monitored visually on every coconut tree in six fields in Mozambique for 34 months. Disease progress curves were plotted and average monthly disease incidence was estimated. Spatial patterns of disease incidence were analyzed at six assessment times. Aggregation was tested by the coefficient of spatial autocorrelation of the beta-binomial distribution of diseased trees in quadrats. The binary power law was used as an assessment of overdispersion across the six fields. Spatial autocorrelation between symptomatic trees was measured by the BB join count statistic based on the number of pairs of diseased trees separated by a specific distance and orientation, and tested using permutation methods. Aggregation of symptomatic trees was detected in every field in both cumulative and new cases. Spatiotemporal patterns were analyzed with two methods. The proximity of symptomatic trees at two assessment times was investigated using the spatiotemporal BB join count statistic based on the number of pairs of trees separated by a specific distance and orientation and exhibiting the first symptoms of LY at the two times. The semivariogram of times of appearance of LY was calculated to characterize how the lag between times of appearance of LY was related to the distance between symptomatic trees. Both statistics were tested using permutation methods. A tendency for new cases to appear in the proximity of previously diseased trees and a spatially structured pattern of times of appearance of LY within clusters of diseased trees were detected, suggesting secondary spread of the disease.

  4. Analisis Finansial Dan Strategi Pengembangan Usaha Serat Kelapa (Coco Fiber)

    Sitohang, Adolf Paskaris

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana proses produksi usaha serat kelapa, untuk menganalisis usaha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di Kecamatan Batang Kuis sudah layak atau tidak, untuk menjelaskan strategi pengembangan yang cocok untuk usaha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di Kecamatan Batang Kuis. Penentuan daerah penelitian dilakukan secara secara purposive (sengaja) dan metode pengambilan sampel adalah purposive sampling dengan pertimbangan bahwa responden/sampel penelitian adalah ...

  5. Investigation of Structure and Property of Indian Cocos nucifera L. Fibre

    Basu, Gautam; Mishra, Leena; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Structure and physico-mechanical properties of Cocos nucifera L. fibre from a specific agro-climatic region of India, was thoroughly studied. Fine structure of the fibre was examined by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), component analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. SEM shows prominent longitudinal cracks and micro-pores on the surface. XRD shows a low degree of crystallinity (45%), bigger crystallite size, and even the presence of appreciable amount of non-cellulose matter. FTIR reveals presence of large quantities of hydroxyl, phenolic and aldehyde groups. Component and thermal analyses indicates presence of cellulose and lignin as major components. Physical parameters reveal that, fibres are highly variable in length (range 44-305 mm), and diameter (range 100-795 µm). Mechanical properties of the fibre viz. breaking tenacity, breaking extensibility, specific work of rupture, and coefficient of friction were measured. Microbial decomposition test under soil reveals excellent durability of coconut fibre which makes it appropriate for the application in geotextiles. Mass specific electrical resistance of 4 Ω-kg/m2 indicates its enhanced insulation as compared to the jute.

  6. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  7. APROVEITAMENTO DO RESÍDUO DE COCO VERDE (Cocos nucifera L.) COMO SORVENTE EM DERRAMAMENTO DE PETRÓLEO EM AMBIENTE MARINHO

    Caldas, Alex Soares

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e avaliar o potencial da fibra de coco (Cocos nucifera L.) como sorvente em derramamento de petróleo no mar. Foi utilizado para simulação quatro reservatórios com 5L de água do mar, bombas de aeração para simular o efeito hidrodinâmico. Em três unidades foram adicionados 15mL de petróleo e 0,5g de fibra de coco (Cocos nucifera L.). Foram realizados na fibra de coco teste de flutuabilidade, densidade, microscopia eletrônica d...

  8. Analisis Kadar Protein Total Dan Non Protein Nitrogen Pada Air Dan Daging Buah Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera L.) Dengan Metode Kjeldahl

    Margata, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, coconut palm is one of the big contributors for the economy of the people and nation. As food, coconut water and coconut meat contain some nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, and also proteins. During maturation, changes in protein content of coconut water and coconut meat may happen. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of total protein and non protein nitrogen (NPN) in coconut water and coconut meat, and their changes in young and mature coconuts....

  9. Enzymatic aqueous technology for simultaneous coconut protein and oil extraction

    Coelho, Maria A. Z.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the following commercial enzymes were evaluated in the enzymatic extraction of oil and protein from coconut: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease. Preliminary experiments were carried out for selection of enzymes, enzyme concentration and incubation time. In order to verify the effects of pH and water/substrate ratio, a response surface methodology was applied based in a 32 full factorial experimental design. The pH is the most meaningful parameter on oil and protein extraction yields, with a significance level higher than 90%. The maximal extraction yields of oil and protein emulsion (83% was reached using Viscozyme L and subsequently Neutrase 1.5 MG at concentrations of 0.6% (w/w and 0.3% (w/w, respectively, total incubation time of 60 minutes, substrate/water ratio 1:6 and pH around 7 (no adjustment.En este trabajo diferentes enzimas hidroliticos fueron usados para la extracción de aceite y proteína de coco: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease producidos por Novo Nordisk. Experimientos preliminares fueron encaminados a la selección de los extractos enzimaticos, de las concentraciones de las enzimas y de los tiempos de incubación. La técnica de análisis de varianza, mediante un delineamiento factorial en tres niveles, fue usada para la optimización de los procesos con relación a los parámetros pH y razón sustrato/agua. Comparando con la extracción acuosa todos los enzimas hidroliticos incrementan la extracción de aceite y proteína vegetal de coco. Los coeficientes de correlación muestran que el pH fué el parámetro mas significativo (pViscozyme y Neutrase 0.6 % (w/w y 0.3 % (w/w, respectivamente, tiempo de incubación 30 minutos, razón sustrato/agua 1:6 y pH 7.

  10. Preliminary studies of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of coconut fibers.

    Almeida, Tarciana M; Bispo, Mozart D; Cardoso, Anne R T; Migliorini, Marcelo V; Schena, Tiago; de Campos, Maria Cecilia V; Machado, Maria Elisabete; López, Jorge A; Krause, Laiza C; Caramão, Elina B

    2013-07-17

    This work studied fast pyrolysis as a way to use the residual fiber obtained from the shells of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L. var. Dwarf, from Aracaju, northeastern Brazil). The bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis and the aqueous phase (formed during the pyrolysis) were characterized by GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOF-MS. Many oxygenated compounds such as phenols, aldehydes, and ketones were identified in the extracts obtained in both phases, with a high predominance of phenolic compounds, mainly alkylphenols. Eighty-one compounds were identified in the bio-oil and 42 in the aqueous phase using GC/qMS, and 95 and 68 in the same samples were identified by GC×GC/TOF-MS. The better performance of GC×GC/TOF-MS was due to the possibility of resolving some coeluted peaks in the one-dimension gas chromatography. Semiquantitative analysis of the samples verified that 59% of the area on the chromatogram of bio-oil is composed by phenols and 12% by aldehydes, mainly furfural. Using the same criterion, 77% of the organic compounds in the aqueous phase are phenols. Therefore, this preliminary assessment indicates that coconut fibers have the potential to be a cost-effective and promising alternative to obtain new products and minimize environmental impact.

  11. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. [Analysis of characteristics and problems of international trade of Poria cocos in China].

    Chi, Xiu-Lian; Yang, Guang; Ma, Shuai; Cheng, Meng; Que, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Poria cocos is one of medical materials frequently used in China and well marketed at home and abroad. Based on the analysis of exports and imports data of P. cocos, we found that large proportions of P. cocos were exported, while only a small proportions of those were imported in China between 2011 and 2016. During periods of these six years, the annual exporting trade of P. cocos in quantity significantly decreased, but that in dollars tend to increase slightly and the unit-prices of P. cocos significantly increased. Statistically, the average annual export trade of P. cocos from 2011 to 2016 in quantity and dollars were 9 279.73 tons and 35.454 million dollars, respectively. And the average annual export in unit-price was 4.14 dollars per kilogram. In total, P. cocos came from 29 provinces and exported to 44 countries through 21 ports. More than 98% of total exports of P. cocos were flew to the markets of countries in Asia, of which Hong Kong was the major partner in import trade of P. cocos. Large amount of P. cocos came from Guangdong province and exported mainly through Shenzhen port. Except the exports, China also imports P. cocos from other countries, among which Korea was the major country exports largest amount of P. cocos to China. And most of P. cocos were imported by Jilin province and mainly through Changchun port. To improve the export kinetic, quality and profits of P. cocos, and thus enhance the international competitiveness of the industry of P. cocos, Chinese governments should emphasize the researches on the products of P. cocos, broaden the demand space of the high-end customers, stimulate the high-end market grow in high speed and accelerate the process of standardization in future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Studies on coconut products utilization in the National Institute of Science and Technology

    Velasco, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review covering the composition of coconut husk, shell, water, and oil and studies on improving the processing of coconuts, especially the integrated coconut process and production of protein from coconut. 65 references.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10191 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl].

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10191 Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl]. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco...

  15. A model for acoustic absorbent materials derived from coconut fiber

    Ramis, J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a methodology is proposed for obtaining empirical equations describing the sound absorption characteristics of an absorbing material obtained from natural fibers, specifically from coconut. The method, which was previously applied to other materials, requires performing measurements of air-flow resistivity and of acoustic impedance for samples of the material under study. The equations that govern the acoustic behavior of the material are then derived by means of a least-squares fit of the acoustic impedance and of the propagation constant. These results can be useful since they allow the empirically obtained analytical equations to be easily incorporated in prediction and simulation models of acoustic systems for noise control that incorporate the studied materials.En este trabajo se describe el proceso seguido para obtener ecuaciones empíricas del comportamiento acústico de un material absorbente obtenido a partir de fibras naturales, concretamente el coco. El procedimiento, que ha sido ensayado con éxito en otros materiales, implica la realización de medidas de impedancia y resistencia al flujo de muestras del material bajo estudio. Las ecuaciones que gobiernan el comportamiento desde el punto de vista acústico del material se obtienen a partir del ajuste de ecuaciones de comportamiento de la impedancia acústica y la constante de propagación del material. Los resultados son útiles ya que, al disponer de ecuaciones analíticas obtenidas empíricamente, facilitan la incorporación de estos materiales en predicciones mediante métodos numéricos del comportamiento cuando son instalados formando parte de dispositivos para el control del ruido.

  16. Germinación del coco con tres tipos de cortes en Sandy Bay Sirpi, Costa Caribe Sur de Nicaragua

    Jhovany Jhoel Hooker Medina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la germinación del coco criollo (Cocos nucifera, utilizando 3 tipos de cortes (horizontal, transversal, vertical, en Sandy Bay Sirpi, municipio Desembocadura del Río Grande, el experimento fue unifactorial con un Diseño Experimental de Bloques Completamente al Azar (BCA, con 4 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas: tiempo promedio, porcentaje de germinación y de mortalidad entre los tratamientos y susceptibilidad al ataque de plagas y enfermedades, características morfológicas (tamaño embrión, grosor de hojas, tamaño raíces, las variables se sometieron a un análisis de varianza con un 95 por ciento de confianza. El mayor porcentaje de germinación de las nueces lo presento corte vertical con un porcentaje del 95, el segundo de corte transversal 83, seguido del corte horizontal 76 y testigo con 50: todos evaluados con una muestra de 60 nueces con los diferentes tratamientos. En índice de mortalidad a los 135 días de establecidos lo obtuvo el T4 (corte vertical con el porcentaje del 5; seguido por T3 (corte transversal con 16; T2 (corte horizontal con 23; y, T1 (testigo con 50. Respecto a la morfología el T4 obtuvo mejores promedios, tamaño del embrión (53.71 cm, grosor de hojas (5.72 cm, tamaño de raíces (29.55 cm, seguido el T3, T2 y T1. Se determinó que el mejor tratamiento para acelerar la germinación de la variedad del coco criollo Alto del Atlántico, corte vertical (T4, presentó mejores características y mayor cantidad de nueces germinadas en menos tiempo promedio. Abstract The germination of the native coconut (Cocos nucifera was evaluated using 3 types of cuts (horizontal, transversal, vertical at Sandy Bay Sirpi, Rio Grande estuary municipality, the experiment was univariate with an Experimental Block Design (BCA, with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The variables evaluated: mean time, percentage of germination and mortality among treatments and susceptibility to attack of pests and

  17. Utilización de ladrillos de adobe estabilizados con cemento portland al 6% y reforzados con fibra de coco, para muros de carga en Tampico

    Olivares Santiago, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article conclusions are presented about adobe bricks stabilized with 6% portland cement and reinforced with different percentages of coconut fibers. The author, has developed an experimental plan in laboratory and has built in situ several walls with different bricks, different joints and different orientations, to analyze the behaviour ofthe brick prototypes for the weather conditions in Tampico.En este artículo se presentan las conclusiones acerca del refuerzo Ide ladrillos de adobe, estabilizados con cemento portland al 6% con diferentes porcentajes de fibra de coco. El autol; para llegar a estas conclusiones, desarrolla un plan experimental en laboratorio asi como construye in situ muestras de muros con diferentes clases de ladrillos, diferentes uniones entre ellos y distintas orientaciones, para analizar el comportamiento de prototipos ante las condiciones climáticas de la zona de Tampico.

  18. Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber

    Mirelle Márcio Santos Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Population growth and the increasing search for healthy foods have led to a major consumption of coconut water and, hence, to an environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of green coconut husks. This lignocellulosic biomass has deserved attention of researchers concerning the seeking of new usages, as, for example, in renewable fuels production technologies. This study examines the potential of green coconut husk fibers as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The coconut fibers were pretreated through an alkaline method, hydrolyzed enzymatically and submitted to ethanol fermentation with commercial yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant loss of cellulose (4.42% in relation to the fiber and 17.9% concerning the original cellulose content, the alkaline pretreatment promoted an efficient solubilization of lignin (80%, turning the coconut fibers into a feasible raw material for 2G ethanol production studies. Enzymatic hydrolysis converted 87% of the sugars and the ethanolic fermentation consumed 81% of the substrate in the hydrolyzate, leading to a sugar to ethanol convertion efficiency of 59.6%. These results points out that green coconut husks are a promising alternative to the production of renewable energy.

  19. Effect of Coconut Fillers on Hybrid Coconut Kevlar Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    S. P. Jani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This project focuses on the conversion of naturally available coconut fibers and shells into a useful composite. In addition to it, some mechanical properties of the resultant composite is determined and also the effect of coconut shell fillers on the composite is also investigated. The few portion of the composite is incorporated with synthetic Kevlar fiber, thus the coconut fiber is hybridized to enhance the mechanical properties of coconut. In this work two types of composite is fabricate, kevelar coconut fibre (kc composite and kevelarcoco nut fibre coconut shell filler (kccsf composite. Coconut fibers have low weight and considerable properties among the natural fibers, while coconut fillers have a good ductile and impact property. The natural fibers and fillers are treated with Na-OH to make it free of organic impurities. Epoxy resin is used as the polymer matrix. Two composite are produced one with fillers and the other without the fillers using compression molding method. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption tests are done with ASTM standard. It is observed that that the addition of filler materials improves the adhesiveness of the fibers leading to the increase in the above mentioned properties. The density of the composite is also low hence the strength to weight ratio is very high. The water absorption test also showed that the resultant composite had a small adhesion to water and absorption of water.

  20. Experimental study on the strength parameter of Quarry Dust mixed Coconut Shell Concrete adding Coconut Fibre

    Matangulu Shrestha, Victor; Anandh, S.; Sindhu Nachiar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous mixture constitute of cement as the main ingredient with a different mix of fine and coarse aggregate. The massive use of conventional concrete has a shortfall in its key ingredients, natural sand and coarse aggregate, due to increased industrialisation and globalisation. To overcome the shortage of material, an alternate material with similar mechanical properties and composition has to be studied, as replacement of conventional concrete. Coconut shell concrete is a prime option as replacement of key ingredients of conventional concrete as coconut is produced in massive quantity in south East Asia. Coconut shell concrete is lightweight concrete and different research is still ongoing concerning about its mix design and composition in the construction industry. Concrete is weak in tension as compared to compression, hence the fibre is used to refrain the crack in the concrete. Coconut fibre is one of many fibres which can be used in concrete. The main aim of this project is to analyse the use of natural by-products in the construction industry, make light weight concrete and eco-friendly construction. This project concerns with the comparison of the mechanical properties of coconut shell concrete and conventional concrete, replacing fine aggregate with quarry dust using coconut fibre. M25 grade of concrete was adopted and testing of concrete was done at the age of 3, 7 and 28 days. In this concrete mix, sand was replaced completely in volumetric measurement by quarry dust. The result was analysed and compared with addition of coconut fibre at varying percentage of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. From the test conducted, coconut shell concrete with quarry dust has the maximum value at 4% of coconut fibre while conventional concrete showed the maximum value at 2% of coconut fibre.

  1. Elaboração e caracterização de doce de coco adicionado de diferentes concentrações de rapadura

    Luan Pedro Melo Azerêdo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapadura é o produto sólido obtido da concentração do caldo da cana-de-açúcar, muito procurada pelos consumidores, sendo sua utilização na elaboração de doces uma boa alternativa econômica para seu aproveitamento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade microbiológica e sensorial de três formulações de doce de coco. Os resultados mostram que a formulação mais aceita foi obtida a partir da concentração média de rapadura, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento do doce a base de rapadura por meio de procedimentos simples e de fácil aplicação pelos produtores.Preparation and characterization of doce de coco added to different concentrations of sugar cane productsAbstract: The brown sugar is the solid product obtained by concentration of the juice of cane sugar, very popular with consumers, and is used to manufacture candy good economic alternatives for their utilization. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological and sensory quality of three sweet coconut formulations. The results show that the most accepted formulation was obtained from the average concentration of brown sugar, contributing to the development of the sweet brown sugar base through simple procedures and easy to apply by producers.

  2. Pullulan production from coconut by-products by Aureobasidium ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Key words: Pullulan, Aureobasidium pullulans, coconut water, coconut milk, characterization, FT-IR. ... sugars such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, starch, or ... sate, cornmeal hydrolysates, corn syrup, fuel ethanol.

  3. Mestica calappa, the Coconut pearl, trick or true?

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    A bibliographic study is made of Mestica calappa, the Coconut pearl. It is concluded that if pearls do grow in coconuts, they are exceedingly rare, and the ones analyzed on structure and chemical composition were fake ones.

  4. Assessment of Fertility Status of Soils Supporting Coconut ( Cocus ...

    Coconut cultivation is mostly practiced in the Western and Central regions of Ghana. Information on the fertility status of the soils on which coconuts are grown and possible fertilizer recommendation is not common. Since coconut yield is generally related to the fertility status of the soil, a study was conducted to evaluate the ...

  5. Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells in ...

    Materials commonly used for preparation of activated carbons include coal and coconut shells. Ghana generates over 30,000 tonnes of coconut shells annually from coconut oil processing activities but apart from a small percentage of the shells, which is burned as fuel, the remaining is usually dumped as waste.

  6. Analisis Gaya Spesifik Pemotongan Sabut Kelapa Muda (Cocos nucifera

    Tika Hafzara S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To design a young coconut trimming machine, it’s important to analyze the cutting mechanism of young coconut husk. The aim of this study were to analyze the cutting mechanism of young coconut husk and generate mathematical model of specific cutting force. Sharpening angle, cutting angle and sharpened knife were optimized to get the lowest cutting force. Mathematical model has been generated to estimate the maximum cutting force for one side sharpened knife and two side sharpened knife with cutting angle (θ at 0Oand above 0O. Based on the analysis of this study, the type of knife that require the lowest cutting force is two side sharpened knife with sharpening angle (β = 10O and cutting angle (θ= 30O.

  7. Drag reduction of nata de coco suspensions in circular pipe flow

    Warashina, J.; Ogata, S.

    2015-04-01

    Reducing pipe friction by adding a drag-reducing agent has attracted interest as a means to reduce energy consumption. In addition to reducing drag, these agents are required to have a low environmental load and conserve natural resources. However, no drag-reducing agent currently satisfies both these conditions. We focused on nata de coco and found that the nata de coco fiber reduced drag by up to 25%. With respect to the mechanism of drag reduction by nata de coco fiber, the relationship between drag-reduction phenomena and the fiber form of nata de coco was investigated by visualization. We also found that the drag-reduction effect appeared to be due to the formation of networks of tangled fibers of nata de coco. However, drag reduction did not occur in the case in which fibers of nata de coco did not form networks.

  8. Incorporation of coconut shell based nanoparticles in kenaf/coconut fibres reinforced vinyl ester composites

    S, Abdul Khalil H. P.; Masri, M.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Fazita, M. R. N.; Azniwati, A. A.; Sri Aprilia, N. A.; Rosamah, E.; Dungani, Rudi

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a successful attempt has been made on enhancing the properties of hybrid kenaf/coconut fibers reinforced vinyl ester composites by incorporating nanofillers obtained from coconut shell. Coconut shells were grinded followed by 30 h of high energy ball milling for the production of nanoparticles. Particle size analyzer demonstrated that the size of 90% of obtained nanoparticles ranged between 15-140 nm. Furthermore, it was observed that the incorporation of coconut shell nanofillers into hybrid composite increased water absorption capacity. Moreover, tensile, flexural, and impact strength increased with the filler loading up to 3 wt.% and thereafter decrease was observed at higher filler concentration. However, elongation at break decreased and thermal stability increased in nanoparticles concentration dependent manner. Morphological analysis of composite with 3% of filler loading showed minimum voids and fiber pull outs and this indicated that the stress was successfully absorbed by the fiber.

  9. Uso da Fibra de Coco em Betão

    Gonçalves, Stephanie Assunção

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar as resistências à compressão axial, tração por compressão diametral e tração na flexão, módulos de elasticidade estático e dinâmico do betão reforçado com fibra de coco (BRFC), tendo como referência o betão preparado sem a adição de fibra. A escolha da fibra natural decorreu da necessidade de utilizar os resíduos gerados pelo consumo do coco verde. Sendo assim, este trabalho apresenta uma breve história do betão, suas propriedades, tipos de fibras...

  10. Rearing technique and biological traits of Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) in coconut fruits; Tecnica de criacao e aspectos biologicos de Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) em frutos de coqueiro

    Santana, S.W.J.; Barros, R.; Torres, J.B.; Gondim Junior, M.G.C., E-mail: jtorres@depa.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia e Entomologia

    2011-01-15

    Larvae of the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) develop in flowers and fruits of coconut, Cocos nucifera, causing precocious abscission of these structures and, hence, yield decrease. This work studied a feasible and suitable rearing technique for A. subrufella using fruits of coconut. We first determined the appropriate density of larvae to be reared per coconut fruit (among two, three, four or five larvae) and later tested the suitability of this rearing technique for three successive generations. The storage of egg and pupal stages during 0, 5, 10 and 20 days was also studied at 12 deg C. Based on the fertility life table parameters, the best results were achieved by rearing two or three larvae per fruit as they yielded the best net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of population increase. In addition, eggs and pupae of A. subrufella can be stored at 12 deg C up to five days with viability higher than 90%. Adult moths emerged from pupae stored for five days at 12 deg C produced an average of 219.4 eggs and lived 18.8 days. Storage periods for eggs and pupae over 10 days significantly reduced egg viability and adult fecundity, respectively. Thus, the technique in here described was shown to be suitable for the continuous rearing of A. subrufella in laboratory conditions. (author)

  11. hexane extracts of the husk of Cocos nucifera

    Jane

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... (Esquenazi, 2002) and in India, heating the coconut shells gives ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... sterilized molten Mueller-Hinton agar at 40°C to give final .... and 8 h, respectively, and transferred to 4.5 ml of nutrient broth.

  12. CEASEMT system: the COCO code. Automatic network of planar and three-dimensional structures

    Charras, Thierry; Hoffmann, Alain.

    1977-01-01

    COCO is a code written in Fortran IV for IBM 360; it is intended to meshing bi- or tri-dimensional structures: planar structures, shells and beams, pipes in space. The existence of a real language makes possible a simple flexible use of COCO. Due to its modular structure COCO can incorporate new feasibilities if needed. The elements can have 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 15, 20 vertices at will. COCO makes it possible to divide the network of the structure in independent sectors and gather them together through new numbering. Partial results can be verified at any time by listing or displaying them on a cathode screen [fr

  13. Properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from coconut ...

    The study revealed that the cellulose material compares favourably with Avicel PH 101 as well as official requirement specified in the British Pharmacopoeia 1993 for microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: Coconut fruit fibre, microcrystalline cellulose, powder properties. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol. 3 (1) 2006: ...

  14. Morphological and anatomical studies of the coconut

    Smit, E.H.D.

    1970-01-01

    In the northern part of the Peruvian coastal region coconut palms were discovered which in addition to normal fruits produce larger numbers of bicarpellate fruits than have been previously recorded.

    Deviations from the occurrence of 3 carpels in palm-fruits are discussed. In addition to the

  15. Investigation of sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut husk from aqueous solution using radiotracer technique

    Hasany, S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Chaudhary, M.H. [Nuclear Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2003-07-01

    The sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut (Cocos nucifera) husk has been studied using radiotracer technique. Maximum sorption (96%) of Hg(II) ions (7.39 x 10{sup -6} M) onto sorbent surface is achieved from 10{sup -3} M HNO{sub 3} solution in 30 min agitation time using 100 mg of coconut husk. The sorption data follow the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Sorption capacity (6.84{+-}0.45 mmol g{sup -1}) and sorption energy (10.6{+-}0.13 kJ mol{sup -1}) have been evaluated using these isotherms. Among the ions tested to monitor their influence on the sorption, Ba(II), fluoride and tartarate increased the sorption, while thiosulfate, bromide and thiocyanate reduced (< 63 > 26%) the sorption. The cations K(I), Ce(III), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Zr(IV) partially suppressed the sorption. The variation of sorption with temperature yields thermodynamic parameters {delta}H = -37.4{+-}2 kJ mol{sup -1} {delta}S = -105{+-}7 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and {delta}G = -2.58{+-}0.05 kJ mol{sup -1} at 298 K. The negative values of enthalpy and free energy reflect the spontaneous and exothermic nature of sorption, respectively. The selectivity studies of sorbent show that the coconut husk column can be used to separate Hg(II) ions from Se(IV), Zn(II), I(I) and Tc (VII). The sorbent has a potential in radiochemistry to separate gamma energies of {sup 203}Hg (279 keV) from {sup 75}Se (265 and 280 keV). (orig.)

  16. Investigation of sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut husk from aqueous solution using radiotracer technique

    Hasany, S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Chaudhary, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of Hg(II) ions onto coconut (Cocos nucifera) husk has been studied using radiotracer technique. Maximum sorption (96%) of Hg(II) ions (7.39 x 10 -6 M) onto sorbent surface is achieved from 10 -3 M HNO 3 solution in 30 min agitation time using 100 mg of coconut husk. The sorption data follow the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Sorption capacity (6.84±0.45 mmol g -1 ) and sorption energy (10.6±0.13 kJ mol -1 ) have been evaluated using these isotherms. Among the ions tested to monitor their influence on the sorption, Ba(II), fluoride and tartarate increased the sorption, while thiosulfate, bromide and thiocyanate reduced ( 26%) the sorption. The cations K(I), Ce(III), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Zr(IV) partially suppressed the sorption. The variation of sorption with temperature yields thermodynamic parameters ΔH = -37.4±2 kJ mol -1 ΔS = -105±7 J mol -1 K -1 and ΔG = -2.58±0.05 kJ mol -1 at 298 K. The negative values of enthalpy and free energy reflect the spontaneous and exothermic nature of sorption, respectively. The selectivity studies of sorbent show that the coconut husk column can be used to separate Hg(II) ions from Se(IV), Zn(II), I(I) and Tc (VII). The sorbent has a potential in radiochemistry to separate gamma energies of 203 Hg (279 keV) from 75 Se (265 and 280 keV). (orig.)

  17. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  18. Review of Coconut “Lethal Yellowing” type diseases Diversity, variability and diagnosis

    Dollet Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. can be affected by several types of Lethal Yellowing (LY diseases worldwide. Some of the syndromes are caused by phytoplasmas, small bacteria that are impossible to detect by light microscopy. Amplification of a given gene of the phytoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most convenient diagnosis method. The problem is that there are at least 28 “groups” of phytoplasmas and only one pair of primers -P1/P7- commonly used for PCR. As these primers belong to a very conserved gene, false positives are frequent. Consequently, alternative primers specific to one “strain” (or subgroup have to be used, such as LY-F/LY-R for the Caribbean LY, Rohde primers for LD Tanzania. Such specific primers are sometimes restrictive. Indeed, there is variability within each strain and the sequence of the primers has to be adapted to that variability. There are at least five LY subgroups. The subgroups can only be identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism or sequencing. In Africa, two subgroups of LY phytoplasmas have been identified so far.

  19. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Improving transcriptome de novo assembly by using a reference genome of a related species: Translational genomics from oil palm to coconut.

    Alix Armero

    Full Text Available The palms are a family of tropical origin and one of the main constituents of the ecosystems of these regions around the world. The two main species of palm represent different challenges: coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a source of multiple goods and services in tropical communities, while oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is the main protagonist of the oil market. In this study, we present a workflow that exploits the comparative genomics between a target species (coconut and a reference species (oil palm to improve the transcriptomic data, providing a proteome useful to answer functional or evolutionary questions. This workflow reduces redundancy and fragmentation, two inherent problems of transcriptomic data, while preserving the functional representation of the target species. Our approach was validated in Arabidopsis thaliana using Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella as references species. This analysis showed the high sensitivity and specificity of our strategy, relatively independent of the reference proteome. The workflow increased the length of proteins products in A. thaliana by 13%, allowing, often, to recover 100% of the protein sequence length. In addition redundancy was reduced by a factor greater than 3. In coconut, the approach generated 29,366 proteins, 1,246 of these proteins deriving from new contigs obtained with the BRANCH software. The coconut proteome presented a functional profile similar to that observed in rice and an important number of metabolic pathways related to secondary metabolism. The new sequences found with BRANCH software were enriched in functions related to biotic stress. Our strategy can be used as a complementary step to de novo transcriptome assembly to get a representative proteome of a target species. The results of the current analysis are available on the website PalmComparomics (http://palm-comparomics.southgreen.fr/.

  1. Improving transcriptome de novo assembly by using a reference genome of a related species: Translational genomics from oil palm to coconut.

    Armero, Alix; Baudouin, Luc; Bocs, Stéphanie; This, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The palms are a family of tropical origin and one of the main constituents of the ecosystems of these regions around the world. The two main species of palm represent different challenges: coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a source of multiple goods and services in tropical communities, while oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is the main protagonist of the oil market. In this study, we present a workflow that exploits the comparative genomics between a target species (coconut) and a reference species (oil palm) to improve the transcriptomic data, providing a proteome useful to answer functional or evolutionary questions. This workflow reduces redundancy and fragmentation, two inherent problems of transcriptomic data, while preserving the functional representation of the target species. Our approach was validated in Arabidopsis thaliana using Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella as references species. This analysis showed the high sensitivity and specificity of our strategy, relatively independent of the reference proteome. The workflow increased the length of proteins products in A. thaliana by 13%, allowing, often, to recover 100% of the protein sequence length. In addition redundancy was reduced by a factor greater than 3. In coconut, the approach generated 29,366 proteins, 1,246 of these proteins deriving from new contigs obtained with the BRANCH software. The coconut proteome presented a functional profile similar to that observed in rice and an important number of metabolic pathways related to secondary metabolism. The new sequences found with BRANCH software were enriched in functions related to biotic stress. Our strategy can be used as a complementary step to de novo transcriptome assembly to get a representative proteome of a target species. The results of the current analysis are available on the website PalmComparomics (http://palm-comparomics.southgreen.fr/).

  2. Workability and Compressive Strength for Concrete With Coconut Shell Aggregate

    Leman Alif Syazani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the compressive strength and workability of concrete added with coconut shells. Comparisons were made between conventional concrete with concrete mix coconut shell. In this study, the concretes were mixes with coconut shell by percentage of weight concrete which is 0%, 5%, and 10%. The coconut shell has been crushed first, then it was sieved, to get the optimum size which, that retained on the 5mm sieve and passing 10mm sieve. Experimental tests conducted in this study are slump test and compressive test. The results from this study are workability of concrete added with 0% and 5% of coconut shell has medium degree of workability compared to concrete added with 10% that has low workability. For the compressive strength, the concrete added with 5% and 10% of coconut shell has lower strength compared with normal concrete.

  3. Spatial distributions of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on coconut and their implications for development of efficient sampling plans

    Roda, A.; Nachman, G.; Hosein, F.

    2012-01-01

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica), an invasive pest of coconut, entered the Western hemisphere in 2004, then rapidly spread through the Caribbean and into Florida, USA. Developing effective sampling methods may aid in the timely detection of the pest in a new area. Studies were conducted...... to provide and compare intra tree spatial distribution of red palm mite populations on coconut in two different geographical areas, Trinidad and Puerto Rico, recently invaded by the mite. The middle stratum of a palm hosted significantly more mites than fronds from the upper or lower canopy and fronds from...

  4. Audrey Tautouga Coco jälgedes / Audrey Tautou ; intervjueerinud Lee Hanael

    Tautou, Audrey, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Näitlejanna mängib peaosa äsja esilinastunud eluloofilmis "Coco enne Chaneli" ("Coco avant Chanel", režissöör Anne Fontaine, Prantsusmaa 2009) ja on Chaneli moemaja parfüümi Chanel №5 reklaaminägu

  5. Méthode simple d'échange de germoplasme de cocotier (Cocos ...

    SARAH

    31 août 2014 ... Garcia BM, Malaurie B, Viltres PS, Campos CD, 2008. Efecto de distintas concentraciones de sacarosa en la conservacion in vitro de coco. (Cocos nucifera L.). Colombiana de. Biotecnología 2: 111-119. Frison EA, Putter CAJ, Diekmann (1993). FAO/IBPGRI. Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of.

  6. Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties of Crude Extract and Triterpenes from Poria cocos

    Tzu-Hsuan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poria cocos, Bai Fu Ling in Chinese, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes. However, its claimed benefits and mechanism are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect and action of P. cocos on type 2 diabetes. We first performed phytochemical analysis on the crude extract and factions of P. cocos. P. cocos crude extract at 50 mg/kg body weight or more significantly decreased blood glucose levels in db/db mice. Based on a bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation (BDFI strategy, chloroform fraction and subfractions 4 and 6 of the P. cocos crude extract possessed a blood glucose-lowering effect. Dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and pachymic acid were identified from the chloroform sub-fractions 4, 3, and 2, respectively. Dehydrotumulosic acid had anti-hyperglycemic effect to a greater extent than dehydrotrametenolic acid and pachymic acid. Mechanistic study on streptozocin- (STZ- treated mice showed that the crude extract, dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and pachymic acid of P. cocos exhibited different levels of insulin sensitizer activity. However, the P. cocos crude extract and triterpenes appeared not to activate PPAR-γ pathway. Overall, the data suggest that the P. cocos extract and its triterpenes reduce postprandial blood glucose levels in db/db mice via enhanced insulin sensitivity irrespective of PPAR-γ.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides...

  8. Vibrational analysis of coconut fiber-PP composites

    Gelfuso, Maria Virginia; Thomazini, Daniel; Souza, Júlio César Silva de; Lima Junior, José Juliano de

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have been studying coconut fibers due to its being a natural and renewable source. Moreover, coconut waste is discarded in landfills, bringing environmental problems because this material, although natural, takes time to be degraded. The use of natural fibers such as coconut fibers has become industrially attractive because of its low cost, high availability and desired mechanical properties for some applications, such as panels, ceilings, and partition boards and automotive ...

  9. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF CEARÁ’S COCONUT PRODUCTION

    Leandro Vieira Cavalcante

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to discuss the spatial dynamics of coconut production in the State of Ceará (Brazil while highlighting the spatialization of this process and the characterization of the coconut production spaces in Ceará’s territory. It also debates the effect agricultural activity has on the space production process, empirically evidenced from the coconut cultivation analysis.

  10. The morphology of coconut fiber surface under chemical treatment

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Wardana, I Nyoman Gede; Pratikto,; Irawan, Yudy Surya

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemical treatment on the coconut fiber surface morphology. This study is divided into three stages, preparation of materials, treatment and testing of coconut fiber. The first treatment is coconut fiber soaked in a solution of NaOH for 3 hours with concentration, respectively 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The second treatment is coconut fiber soaked in KMnO4 solution with a concentration of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% for 3 hours. The third ...

  11. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Reductive effects of poria cocos on radiation-induced damage

    Oh, Heon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2002-01-01

    In order to screen a radioprotective material from nontoxic natural products, the effects of Poria cocos (PC), known as a blood tonic of traditional Oriental herbs, were investigated in HL-60 cells and ICR mice. The water extract of PC was administrated to mice and then the mice were irradiated with - rays. The jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in mice irradiated with 12 Gy, 6.5 Gy, 2 Gy of -rays, respectively. The administration of the PC extract protected the jejunal crypts (p<0.005) and decreased the apoptosis frequency (p<0.05). The formation of endogenous spleen colony was increased but not significantly. The micronuclei (MN) formation and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) were investigated in HL- 60 cells irradiated 2 Gy of -rays. The frequency of MN was decreased (p<0.001) and the tail movement, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in the SCGE, was decreased in groups treated with PC extract (p<0.01) before exposure to-irradiation. These results indicated that PC protects stem cells and reduces DNA damage induced by -rays. Therefore, Poria cocos might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic product

  13. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-04-01

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evidence Based Decline in Coconut Productivity along the Coastline ...

    ... production in Tanzania due to implementation of the National Coconut Development Program (NCDP). However, since phasing out of NCDP in 2004, little is known and even less is documented on the status of coconut production and productivity in the country. This study was conducted along the coastal belt where more ...

  15. Assessment of nutritional status of soil supporting coconut (Cocus ...

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Assessment of nutritional status of soil supporting coconut ... Infact coconut plays a vital role in the ... A high fertility status of the supporting soils is required for high .... the amount/concentration of basic fertility elements of the.

  16. Characterization and diversity assessment in coconut collections of ...

    SUBDIC

    conservation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the aim to characterize morphological, biochemical and nut component traits and to assess the diversity among 24 exotic and six indigenous in coconut accessions conserved at World Coconut Germplasm. Centre (WCGC) in Andaman and Nicobar Islands ...

  17. Overview of the Epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing Disease ...

    It was also to compare the level of LYD susceptibility in the local West African Tall (WAT) variety and the MYD x VTT hybrid, recommended for replanting under the Coconut Sec-tor Development Project (CSDP). Structured survey questionnaires were administered for 15 months to obtain information on every CSPD coconut ...

  18. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  19. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

  20. Efecto de distintas concentraciones de sacarosa en la conservación in vitro de coco (cocos nuciferas L.

    Misterbino Borges García

    2008-07-01

    -1. A los 6 meses de cultivo se determinó el porcentaje de germinación, y a los 18 meses las siguientes variables: los porcentajes de supervivencia y enraizamiento, el número de hojas, la longitud y el grosor del vástago de las plántulas mantenidas in vitro. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con análisis de varianza de clasificación simple y prueba de comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que la incorporación de 60 g/l-1 de sacarosa en el medio Eeuwens es la más adecuada para la conservación de los recursos genéticos de coco (Cocos nucifera L en condiciones in vitro a partir de embriones cigóticos, donde se muestran los más altos porcentajes de supervivencia y el mayor vigor de las plántulas a los 18 meses de cultivo. Palabras clave: cultivo de tejidos; embriones cigóticos; recursos genéticos; Genetic resources; plant tissue culture; zygotic embryo.

  1. evaluation of growth of young coconut and nut yield of old coconut

    User

    nutrient status under coconut-cassava intercropping systems. Experiment I was ... farmer's income/ food security base and helps in weed control ... GenStat Discovery Edi- tion 3 statistical ..... nut, it did not impact on nut yield since it was not a limiting ... Evaluation of crop management options ... (1996). Manual on standard-.

  2. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other

  3. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  4. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  5. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  6. Helping to increase tree crops

    NONE

    1970-07-01

    Tree crops such as coffee, coconuts, palm oil, citrus fruits and cocoa are of major importance to the economies of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and may be a prime source of foreign exchange earnings. The search for ways to improve efficiently the yields of crops like these - now being aided by the Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization - thus has a clearly defined practical goal. D. Nethsinghe deals here with some of the work. (author)

  7. Helping to increase tree crops

    1970-01-01

    Tree crops such as coffee, coconuts, palm oil, citrus fruits and cocoa are of major importance to the economies of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and may be a prime source of foreign exchange earnings. The search for ways to improve efficiently the yields of crops like these - now being aided by the Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization - thus has a clearly defined practical goal. D. Nethsinghe deals here with some of the work. (author)

  8. A photovoltaic generator on coconut island

    Sheridan, N. R.

    A description is given of the design principles of a photovoltaic—diesel power generator that has been constructed on Coconut Island, Torres Strait, to supply a village of 130 people with 240 V: 50 Hz electricity. Even though the solar fraction is only 0.4, the system sets a precedent for Australia with an array size of 23 kW. The uniqueness arises, however, from the fact that it is a stand-alone, inverter-driven system of considerable size with a sine-wave output.

  9. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  10. Molecular identification of Lodoicea maldivica (coco de mer seeds

    Mok Chuen-shing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The edible endosperm of Lodoicea maldivica with the common name of coco de mer is used in Chinese medicine for treating cough. Native to Seychelles, Lodoicea maldivica seeds have commanded high prices for centuries due to its scarcity. This study aims to develop a molecular identification method for the authentication of Lodoicea maldivica seeds. Methods DNA was extracted from the sample. Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR systems were developed to amplify a region of the chloroplast DNA and the nuclear phosphoribulokinase (PRK region specific to Lodoicea maldivica respectively. DNA sequence of a sample was determined and compared with that of the Lodoicea maldivica reference material. Results The PRK gene of Lodoicea maldivica was successfully amplified and sequenced for identification. Conclusion A new molecular method for the identification of Lodoicea maldivica seeds in fresh, frozen or dried forms was developed.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  12. Pyrolysis of Coconut Shell: An Experimental Investigation

    E. Ganapathy Sundaram

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed-bed slow pyrolysis experiments of coconut shell have been conducted to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on the pyrolysis product yields. The effect of vapour residence time on the pyrolysis yield was also investigated by varying the reactor length. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at pyrolysis temperature between 400 and 600°C with a constant heating rate of 60°C/min and particle sizes of 1.18-1.80 mm. The optimum process conditions for maximizing the liquid yield from the coconut shell pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor were also identified. The highest liquid yield was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, particle size of 1.18-1.80 mm, with a heating rate of 60 °C/min in a 200 mm length reactor. The yield of obtained char, liquid and gas was 22-31 wt%, 38-44 wt% and 30-33 wt% respectively at different pyrolysis conditions. The results indicate that the effects of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the pyrolysis yield are more significant than that of heating rate and residence time. The various characteristics of pyrolysis oil obtained under the optimum conditions for maximum liquid yield were identified on the basis of standard test methods.

  13. Durability of coconut shell powder (CSP) concrete

    Leman, A. S.; Shahidan, S.; Senin, M. S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Anak Guntor, N. A.; Zuki, S. S. Mohd; Khalid, F. S.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Razak, N. H. S.

    2017-11-01

    The rising cost of construction in developing countries like Malaysia has led concrete experts to explore alternative materials such as coconut shells which are renewable and possess high potential to be used as construction material. Coconut shell powder in varying percentages of1%, 3% and 5% was used as filler material in concrete grade 30 and evaluated after a curing period of 7 days and 28days respectively. Compressive strength, water absorption and carbonation tests were conducted to evaluate the strength and durability of CSP concrete in comparison with normal concrete. The test results revealed that 1%, 3% and 5% of CSP concrete achieved a compressive strength of 47.65 MPa, 45.6 MPa and 40.55% respectively. The rate of water absorption of CSP concrete was recorded as 3.21%, 2.47%, and 2.73% for 1%, 3% and 5% of CSP concrete respectively. Although CSP contained a carbon composition of 47%, the carbonation test showed that CSP no signs of carbon were detected inside the concrete. To conclude, CSP offers great prospects as it demonstrated relatively high durability as a construction material.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Gene Involved in Triterpenoids Biosynthesis from Poria cocos

    Jianrong Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poria cocos (P. cocos has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine and triterpenoids are the most important pharmacologically active constituents of this fungus. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS is a key enzyme of triterpenoids biosynthesis. The gene encoding FPS was cloned from P. cocos by degenerate PCR, inverse PCR and cassette PCR. The open reading frame of the gene is 1086 bp in length, corresponding to a predicted polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 41.2 kDa. Comparison of the P. cocos FPS deduced amino acid sequence with other species showed the highest identity with Ganoderma lucidum (74%. The predicted P. cocos FPS shares at least four conserved regions involved in the enzymatic activity with the FPSs of varied species. The recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the recombinant FPS could catalyze the formation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP from geranyl diphosphate (GPP and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP. Furthermore, the expression profile of the FPS gene and content of total triterpenoids under different stages of development and methyl jasmonate treatments were determined. The results indicated that there is a positive correlation between the activity of FPS and the amount of total triterpenoids produced in P. cocos.

  15. Past and present uses of Nuclear techniques in Coconut Research

    Jayasekera, C.; Fernando, D.N.S.

    1995-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in the 1960's using radioactive phosphorous to study the physiological and growth process of the coconut palm. As a result valuable information on the effective root system and the uptake of fertilizer of the coconut palm, have been obtained. Accordingly precise recommendations on the placement and application of fertilizers were made. Investigations conducted by using stable carbon isotopes have shown the possibility to screen palms for high yield and water-use efficiency. Root water extraction pattern of coconut palms under different soil types and climatic conditions was studied by using neutron moisture probe

  16. Residues of 14C-chlorpyrifos in coconut by radiotracer techniques

    Tejada, A.W.; Calumpang, S.M.F.; Magallona, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    A coconut tree was root-infused with 5 g a.i. chlorpyrifos (Lorsban plus 1.4 uCi of 14 C-chlorpyrifos. Coconut samples both young and mature, were taken 24 h up to 60 days after root infusion. Analysis of the meat and water was done. The maximum uptake of chlorpyrifos equivalents was on the 13th day after root infusion both in mature and young fruit. The residue in water reached the peak on the 20th day after infusion and declined thereafter. A preharvest interval (PHI) of more than 60 days maybe recommended for safe consumption. The usual practice of storing copra in treated warehouses until it is processed into oil was simulated in the laboratory to determine the residues absorbed on the meat. Forty kg of copra with moisture content of 7-12% were stored in an improvised warehouse, i.e. 1 m x 1.5 m x 1 m wooden box, which was treated with 100 ml 1% a.i. Lorsban 50 WP plus 100 uCi 14 C-chlorpyrifos for protection against insects. Analysis showed that 14 C-chlorpyrifos equivalents ranged from 22.6 mg/kg on the 30th day to 8.2 mg/kg on the 90th day with a 63.7% reduction in residues. Bound residues were detected on samples stored for 60-90 days, with levels of 1.0 to 0.2 ug/g 14 C-chlorpyrifos equivalents. This is within the Maximum Residue Limit of 2 mg/kg set by FAO/WHO for chlorpyrifos in most agricultural commodities. Chlorpyrifos residues were also determined at various stages of refining and processing of crude coconut oil. It was subjected to alkali refining, bleaching and finally steaming. The residues were reduced by as much as 32.7%. (author). 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under shear

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Coconut shell used as aggregate in concrete production. • Coconut shell concrete beam behavior studied under shear. • Coconut shell concrete beam behavior are compared with control concrete beams. - Abstract: Lightweight concrete has been produced using crushed coconut shell as coarse aggregate. The shear behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with normal control concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the structural shear behavior, shear capacity, cracking behavior, deflection behavior, ductility, strains in concrete and in reinforcement. It was observed that the shear behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under shear loadings. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams

  18. Effects of Cocos Ridge Collision on the Western Caribbean: Is there a Panama Block?

    Kobayashi, D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Chichaco, E.; Abrego M, A. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Camacho, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    It has been recognized that the subduction and collision of the Cocos Ridge, a 2 km high aseismic ridge standing on >20 km thick oceanic crust of the Cocos plate, drives upper plate deformation in southern Central America. Recent studies of Global Positioning System (GPS) derived horizontal velocities relative to the Caribbean Plate showed a radial pattern centered on the Cocos Ridge axis where Cocos-Caribbean convergence is orthogonal, and margin-parallel velocities to the northwest. Models of the full three-dimensional GPS velocity field and earthquake slip vectors demonstrate low mechanical coupling along the Middle America subduction zone in Nicaragua and El Salvador, and a broad zone of high coupling beneath the Osa Peninsula, where the Cocos Ridge intersects the margin. These results suggest that Cocos Ridge collision may be the main driver for trench-parallel motion of the fore arc to the northwest and for uplift and shortening of the outer fore arc in southern Central America, whereby thickened and hence buoyant Cocos Ridge crust acts as an indenter causing the tectonic escape of the fore arc. These studies, however, were not able to constrain well the pattern of surface deformation east-southeast of the ridge axis due to a lack of GPS stations, and Cocos Ridge collision may be responsible for the kinematics and deformation of the proposed Panama block. Recent reinforcement of the GPS network in southeastern Costa Rica and Panama has increased the spatial and temporal resolution of the network and made it possible to further investigate surface deformation of southern Central America and the Panama block. We present a new regional surface velocity field for Central America from geodetic GPS data collected at 11 recently-installed and 178 existing episodic, semi-continuous, and continuous GPS sites in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. We investigate the effects of Cocos Ridge collision on the Panama block through kinematic block modeling. Published

  19. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  20. Rigid Polyurethane Foam Reinforced Coconut Coir Fiber Properties

    Mohd Azham Azmi

    2012-01-01

    This research work studied the properties of composite foam panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane (PU) foam in order to increase the properties of foam. This composite foam panels were fabricated by using polyurethane molded method. The polyurethane foam panels reinforced from 5 to 20wt% coconut coir were produced to investigate the physical and mechanical test via density test and three point bending test respectively. It was found that the density test resul...

  1. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN; SHAIFUL ADZNI SHARIFUDIN; AZLINA MANSOR; AINAA ABD KAHAR; KAMARIAH LONG

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which correspo...

  2. Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats

    El-Anany, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

    La hiperlipidemia

  3. Ketogenic Diet Based on Extra Virgin Coconut Oil Has No Effects in Young Wistar Rats With Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy.

    Melo, Isabelle T; M Rêgo, Elisabete; Bueno, Nassib B; Gomes, Tâmara C; Oliveira, Suzana L; Trindade-Filho, Euclides M; Cabral, Cyro R; Machado, Tacy S; Galvão, Jaqueline A; R Ataide, Terezinha

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) based on extra virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L., VCO), on the treatment of epileptic rats. Two sets of experiments were conducted. First, male Wistar rats underwent induction of status epilepticus (SE) with the administration of pilocarpine intraperitoneally 21 animals reached spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and were randomly allocated to the dietary regimens and video-monitored for 19 days. In the second experiment, 24 animals were randomized immediately after the induction of SE and followed for 67 days. Diets were as follows: Control (AIN-93G; 7% lipid), KetoTAGsoya (KD based on soybean oil; 69.79% lipid), and KetoTAGcoco (KD based on VCO; 69.79% lipid). There were no differences in the latency to the first crisis, total frequency, and duration of the SRS between groups in 2 experiments. The data suggest no effects of KD, with or without VCO, in rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. © 2018 AOCS.

  4. Fermentation of tender coconut water by probiotic bacteria Bacillus coagulans

    Aishwarya Singh Gangwar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water is currently being considered as an elixir for patients suffering from diseases like dengue and malaria as well as chikungunia to provide hydration properties to the body. It has become a popular beverage for many people owing to its palatability and high mineral content. In this study, the growth, survival and fermentation performance of the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans in coconut water was assessed in order to produce a novel non-dairy, probiotic beverage. The species was characterized on the basis of morphology, physiology and biochemical parameters and its probiotic attributes were assessed. Batch fermentations were carried out for 2 days at a constant 37°C, thereafter the samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. The results suggested that the specie produced lactic acid and was acid and bile tolerant. The pH and titratable acidity of probiotic fermented coconut water were found to be 4.4 and 0.53 % lactic acid, respectively. The viscosity of fermented coconut water increased significantly from an initial 5.13 mPa.s to 5.35 mPa.s because of the increase in soluble solids content due to exopolysaccharide production by B. coagulans during fermentation. Also, the overall acceptability score of probiotic coconut water was higher than tender coconut water, suggesting its feasibility for use as a probiotic beverage.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  6. Effect of integrated nutrient management on nut production of coconut and soil environment: a review

    Baloch, P.A.; Rajpar, I.

    2014-01-01

    With the adoption of new technology of intensive cropping with high yielding varieties, there is a considerable demand on soil for supply of nutrients. However, the native fertility of our soils is poor and cannot sustain high yields. Sustainable agricultural production incorporates the idea that natural resources should be used to generate increased output and incomes, without depleting the natural resources. The solution is application of integrated nutrient management (INM). It is the system, which envisages the use of organic wastes, biofertilisers and inorganic fertilizers in judicious combinations to sustain soil productivity. The conjunctive use of organic and inorganic sources improves soil health and helps in maximization production as it involves utilization of local sources and, hence turned to be rational, realistic and economically viable way of supply of nutrients. Coconut is a versatile tree and is the most popular home garden crop in the world. It is very beneficial for health because of its high nutrient management affects on its growth and yield characteristics to a great extent. This paper, therefore, presents a review on various aspects of INM used to improve soil environment, coconut growth and yield characters. (author)

  7. ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM MUDAS DE BERINJELA CULTIVADAS EM PÓ DE COCO VERDE

    Alexandre Bosco Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry through chemical caracterization of the coconut fiber powder and evaluate its effect on the absorption of nutrients in the as medium substrate on the production of eggplant seedling. The experiment was conducted for forty days under greenhouse, and it was used seeds of the Florida Market cultivar were cultivated in polyetilene strays with 54 cells and irrigated with nutritive solution two times for day. The substrates were used dust and fiber green coconut coir fibre, in the proportions of 100% of dust, 75% of dust + 25% of fiber and 50% of dust + 50% of fiber, washed and not washed; dry coconut coir fibre not washed; rind of green coconut grinded (fiber and dust mix from machine washed end not washed (fiber and dust mix from machine; commercial substrate not fertilized and control (green coconut coir fibre not washed and not fertilized. It was used a statistical randomized block design with eleven treatments and four replications, with 25 plants per replications. The chemical characterization of substrates was carried through and was valuated nutrient total contents of the plant upper parts. The best results were observed for the seedlings grown in dry coconut coir fibre not washed, followed by commercial substrate and green coconut coir fibre washed.

  8. Antimalarial Activity of Cocos nucifera Husk Fibre: Further Studies

    J. O. Adebayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimalarial and toxicity potentials of husk fibre extracts of five Nigerian varieties of Cocos nucifera were evaluated in vitro. The only active extract fraction, West African Tall (WAT ethyl acetate extract fraction, was then evaluated for its phytochemical constituents, antimalarial and toxicity potentials at varying doses (31.25–500 mg/kg body weight using various organ function indices. The results revealed that WAT ethyl acetate extract fraction (WATEAEF contained alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids and was active against Plasmodium falciparum W2 strain maintained in continuous culture, with a selectivity index of 30.3. The same extract fraction was active in vivo against Plasmodium berghei NK65, causing more than 50% reduction in parasitaemia on days 4 and 6 after inoculation at various doses administered. WATEAEF did not significantly alter (P>0.05 function indices of the liver and cardiovascular system at all doses administered but significantly increased (P<0.05 plasma creatinine concentration at 250 and 500 mg/Kg body weight compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that WATEAEF possesses antimalarial activity and may not adversely affect normal liver function nor predispose subjects to cardiovascular diseases but may impair normal kidney function at higher doses. Further studies are underway to isolate the active principles.

  9. Studi Kualitas Minyak Goreng dari Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera L.) melalui Proses Sterilisasi dan Pengepresan

    Nasruddin

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the cooking oil quality from raw material of grated coconut flesh . The grated coconut flesh is dried within oven at 35 °C to 50 °C temperature until its water content reached 5%. Grated coconut flesh with maximum water content of 5% was weighted with magnitude of 1000 g for each treatments. It was subsequently wrapped by using cloth for sterilization processs at 10 psi, 12.5 psi and 15 psi pressures as well as 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of sterilizat...

  10. Barking up the wrong tree: injuries due to falls from trees in Solomon Islands.

    Negin, Joel; Vizintin, Pavle; Houasia, Patrick; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C

    2014-12-11

    To investigate tree-related injuries in Solomon Islands by the types of trees involved, who is affected and the types of injuries caused. Descriptive case series of all cases of injuries related to trees presenting to the National Referral Hospital in Honiara from 1994 to 2011. Data were collected by the attending clinician using a Trauma Epidemiology form, which provides information on age, sex, cause of injury and type of fracture. Number of injuries by tree type, sex and age. Of the 7651 injuries in the database, 1107 (14%) were caused by falls from trees. Falls from coconut trees led to the highest number of injuries, followed by falls from mango, guava, apple and nut trees. Overall, 85% of injuries occurred in individuals aged trees, 77% of patients were aged tree types. Overall, 71% of injuries occurred among males. Of all injuries, 92% were fractures, 3% were dislocations and 5% were non-fracture, non-dislocation injuries. The arm (including wrist, elbow and hand) was the most common location of injury across all tree types. Distal radius fractures in the forearm were particularly common, as were ulna fractures. While mangos and guavas are undeniably delicious, the quest for their flesh can be hazardous. Children will always climb trees, but the search for food among children in lower-income settings may lead to higher rates of injury.

  11. Characterization of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities from Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae).

    Rinaldi, Sebastian; Silva, Davi O; Bello, Fabiana; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S; Matheus, Maria Eline; Fernandes, Patricia D

    2009-04-21

    Cocos nucifera cultivated in Brazil is known as "coco-da-Bahia" or "coqueiro-da-India". The tea from the husk fiber is widely used to several inflammatory disorders. Crude extract and fractions obtained from Cocos nucifera "common variety" were evaluated to test the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Crude extract (CE, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg), fraction 1 (F1, molecular weight lesser than 1 kDa, 1, 10, and 50mg/kg), fraction 2 (F2, molecular weight higher than 1 kDa, 1, 10, and 50mg/kg), and the references drugs morphine (5mg/kg), acetilsalicilic acid (200mg/kg), prometazine (30 mg/kg), and metisergide (5mg/kg) were evaluated on models of analgesia and inflammation. CE, F1, and F2 significantly develop peripheral and central antinociceptive activity but with less effect on supra-spinal regions of the brain. Administration of the opioid antagonist, naloxone (5mg/kg) inhibited the antinociceptive effect indicating that Cocos nucifera crude extract and fractions may be acting in opioid receptors. CE and F1 also inhibited rat paw edema induced by histamine, and serotonin. results demonstrated that Cocos nucifera and its fractions have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities which confirm the popular use of this plant in several inflammatory disorders.

  12. An Integrated Age Model for the Cocos Plate using IODP CRISP Drilling Data

    Baxter, A. T.; Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Sandoval, M. I.; Barckhausen, U.; Li, Y. X.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present an integrated age model for the incoming Cocos Plate sediments offshore Costa Rica. The data, collected over two IODP Expeditions (334 and 344), provides a medium- to high-resolution record from the initial formation of the ocean crust in the Miocene to the present day. This study provides >50 age control points for the CRISP sediments from Sites U1381 and U1414. Although the two sites are just 10 km apart, there are distinct differences in the sediment and tephra record. Most notable is the presence of a hiatus at Site U1381. The hiatus, which is seen at other sites on the Cocos Plate, but not at Site U1414, may be related to erosion due to bottom water currents, mass wasting from Cocos Ridge subduction or may be related to the closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS). Sediment accumulation rates in the Miocene are comparable to modern abyssal plain rates. However, an increase is observed in the Pleistocene, when detritus from the forearc basin appears at Site U1414 2 Ma, shortly after the initiation of Cocos Ridge subduction. A tectonic model is presented that reconstructs the Cocos Plate, from its formation at 23 Ma to the present day. Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) paleoceanographic events, such as the Miocene `carbonate crash' and the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene `biogenic bloom' observed at Site U1414, are also discussed.

  13. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein concentrate from by-product of coconut processing.

    Rodsamran, Pattrathip; Sothornvit, Rungsinee

    2018-02-15

    Coconut cake, a by-product from milk and oil extractions, contains a high amount of protein. Protein extraction from coconut milk cake and coconut oil cake was investigated. The supernatant and precipitate protein powders from both coconut milk and oil cakes were compared based on their physicochemical and functional properties. Glutelin was the predominant protein fraction in both coconut cakes. Protein powders from milk cake presented higher water and oil absorption capacities than those from oil cake. Both protein powders from oil cake exhibited better foaming capacity and a better emulsifying activity index than those from milk cake. Coconut proteins were mostly solubilized in strong acidic and alkaline solutions. Minimum solubility was observed at pH 4, confirming the isoelectric point of coconut protein. Therefore, the coconut residues after extractions might be a potential alternative renewable plant protein source to use asa food ingredient to enhance food nutrition and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  15. Analisis Finansial dan Strategi Pengembangan USAha Pengolahan Sabut Kelapa Menjadi Serat Kelapa (Coco Fiber) (Studi Kasus : Kecamatan Batang Kuis, Kabupaten Deli Serdang)

    Sitohang, Adolf Paskaris; Ayu, Salmiah, Sri Fajar

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk menjelaskan bagaimana proses produksi USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber), menganalisis USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber) sudah layak atau tidak, dan menjelaskan strategi pengembangan yang cocok untuk USAha serat kelapa (coco fiber) di daerah penelitian. Daerah penelitian ditentukan secara sengaja (purposive) berdasarkan pertimbangan tertentu, yaitu di Kecamatan Batang Kuis, Kabupaten Deli Serdang. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode teknik purposive sampli...

  16. Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) husk fiber aqueous extract.

    Alviano, Daniela S; Rodrigues, Karen F; Leitão, Suzana G; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Matheus, Maria Eline; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2004-06-01

    In the current study, the analgesic and free radical scavenging properties of an aqueous extract from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) were demonstrated by the use of in vivo and in vitro models. The orally administered Cocos nucifera aqueous extract (200 or 400 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. Tail flick and hot plate assays demonstrated that treatment of animals with this plant extract at 200 mg/kg induced attenuation in the response to a heat stimulus. A LD(50) of 2.30 g/kg was obtained in acute toxicity tests. Topic treatment of rabbits with the Cocos nucifera extract indicated that it does not induce any significant dermic or ocular irritation. In vitro experiments using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) photometric assay demonstrated that this plant extract also possesses free radical scavenging properties.

  17. Cabildo, negociación y vino de cocos: el caso de la villa de Colima en el siglo XVII

    Machuca Chávez, Claudia Paulina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available After a huge production of cocoa plantings during the Sixteenth century, the town of Colima in the New Spain lost this culturing because of climate difficulties and because of the preference that the Crown made on cocoa plantings in South America. For the benefit of its settlers, the arrival of “indios chinos”, an Asian community at the town of Colima permitted the development of a small industry based on a coconut drink —“vino de cocos”—, which became the most important economic activity during the Seventeenth century. Even when it was considered a “native drink” at first —and therefore forbidden— the town council of Colima was a fundamental institution in the negotiation with viceroys and the Real Audiencia of Mexico in order to get licenses that permitted not only its elaboration but also its distribution alongside a regional market.

    Después de una intensa producción de cacao durante el siglo XVI, la villa de Colima de la Nueva España sufrió la pérdida de este cultivo por causas climáticas y por el apoyo preferente de la Corona a los sembradíos de cacao en Sudamérica. Para el beneficio de sus habitantes, la llegada de “indios chinos” o asiáticos a la villa de Colima propició el desarrollo de una pequeña industria, la del vino de cocos, que a la postre se convertiría en la principal actividad económica de la villa durante todo el siglo XVII. Aunque en un principio se consideró como una “bebida de la tierra” —y por consiguiente, prohibida—, el Cabildo colimense fue una institución clave en la negociación con los virreyes y la Real Audiencia de México para conseguir licencias que permitieran no sólo su fabricación, sino su eventual distribución en el mercado regional novohispano.

  18. Árvores frutíferas nos quintais urbanos de Boa Vista, Roraima, Amazônia brasileira Fruit trees in urban home gardens of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia

    Rui Jorge da Conceição Gomes Semedo

    2007-01-01

    July 1, 2004. Thirty-six species (19 botanical families were observed in BEst, and 37 (20 families in BAsa, totaling 43 species (20 families. Thirty species (69.8% in 19 families (95% occurred in both neighborhoods, suggesting common fruit preferences. The three largest indices of preference value (IVP were coconut (Cocos nucifera L. - BEst: 19.4% and BAsa: 20.5%, mango (Mangifera indica L. - BEst: 14.9% and BAsa: 22.5% and rose-apple (Syzygium malaccence (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry - BEst: 10.5% and BAsa: 10.1%. All of them are exotic (originating in Southeast Asia and together had IVPs of 44.9% (BEst and 53.0% (BAsa. These results suggest that the cultivation of fruit trees in the home gardens of Boa Vista shows a pattern that concentrates choices in a few non-Amazonian species that are traditionally preferred because of their successful fruit production.

  19. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a processing...

  20. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  1. 46 CFR 148.04-21 - Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets).

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). 148.04-21 Section 148.04-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... § 148.04-21 Coconut meal pellets (also known as copra pellets). (a) Coconut meal pellets; (1) Must...

  2. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660 Section 573.660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil...

  3. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the...

  4. The influence of steaming and a ratio of grated coconut to water on the yield and quality of virgin coconut oil

    Rahmah, N. L.; Istikoma, R.; Kumalaningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    The quality of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) is determined by the quality of coconut milk. High quality of coconut milk can be obtained by proper handling of grated coconut as raw material. When coconut was shredded, the lipases are exposed which can hydrolyse the oil resulting free fatty acid (FFA).Steaming is a technique to inactivate lipases. In addition, a ratio of grated coconut to water and steaming duration are important factor to the VCO extraction. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain the best combination of steaming duration and suitable ratio of grated coconut to water in order to produce high quality VCO. The research design was Factorial Randomized Block Design consisted of 2 factors: steaming duration (5; 10; and 15 minutes) and grated coconut to water ratio (1:0; 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; and 1:4 w/v),each treatment was repeated twice. Parameters analyzed were FFA, moisture content, and yield values. The result showed that the best treatment was a treatment with 15 minutes steaming of grated coconut and 1:4 ratio of grated coconut to water. The best treatment VCO had characteristic as follows: FFA 0.054 %, moisture content 0.129 % and yield 17.563 %.

  5. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which corresponding to high sugar content in the substrates which is more than 14oBrix. Therefore, both substrates could be directly used for vinegar production without requirement of other carbon sources. However, coconut water which showed low Brix value need to be adjusted to 14oBrix by adding sucrose prior to the fermentation process. Substrates fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have yielded 7-8% of alcohol within 7-10 days aerobic incubation at room temperature. The alcoholic medium were then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation with Acetobactor aceti as inoculums and fermented for approximately 2 months to obtain at least 4% of acetic acid. Investigation on the effect of inoculum sizes and implementation of back-slopping technique were performed to improve the processing method for coconut water vinegar production. The results show that 10% of inoculum size was the best for acetic acid fermentation and the back-slopping technique has helped to reduce the process time of coconut water vinegar production.

  6. How does coconut oil affect cognitive performance in alzheimer patients?

    De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Sánchez Álvarez, Carmen; Selvi Sabater, Pablo; Bueno Cayo, Alma María; Sancho Castillo, Sandra; Rochina, Mariano Julián; Hu Yang, Iván

    2017-03-30

    Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative dementia in developed world. This fact, coupled with the lack cure, makes new no pharmacological therapeutic strategies such as nutrient management to investigate. In this regard, it stresses the possible influence of coconut oil as alternative energy source capable of stopping the progressively neuronal death that occurs in this disease. Objectives: To assess the cognitive impact of coconut oil in Alzheimer’s patients, and specifically in orientation, language-building, fixing, calculation-concentration and memory areas. Methods: Prospective, longitudinal, qualitative, analytical and experimental study through a clinical trial where 44 patients with Alzheimer’s in region of Ribera (Valencia), of which half was selected to receive during 21 days, 40 ml coconut oil daily divided between breakfast (20 ml) and food (20 ml). Before and after administration of the oil, they were evaluated through cognitive test Mini-Mental State Examination to determine possible changes. Results: It was observed in patients who received coconut oil, that cognitive improvement after completion of the intervention, statistically significant improved in the orientation and language-construction areas. Conclusions: Coconut oil appears to improve cognitive abilities of Alzheimer’s patients, with different intensity depending on the cognitive area.

  7. Revestimentos biodegradaveis para conservação do coco 'anão verde'

    Josane Maria Resende

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A água de coco verde é extremamente perecível após a colheita dos frutos e sua qualidade está diretamente relacionada às condições do ambiente de armazenagem. Portanto, são necessárias tecnologias que permitam a conservação do coco verde por um período superior a trinta dias para que o fruto possa ser exportado e comercializado mantendo a água em condições apropriadas para o consumo ao natural. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver revestimentos biodegradáveis para prolon...

  8. Characterization of deepwater invertebrates at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009, we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas around Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica using a manned submersible to survey the seafloor habitats. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas. We completed a total of 22 successful submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. With respect to invertebrates, our objectives were to gather quantitative information on species composition, density, distribution and habitat associations as well as to compare the invertebrate communities between the two sites. A total of 7 172 invertebrates were counted from analysis of the video collected on this project. Larger organisms were counted and placed into 27 taxonomic groups to characterize the deepwater invertebrate fauna of Las Gemelas Seamount and Isla del Coco National Park. The Shannon-Weiner Index for biodiversity (H’ was calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 for Isla del Coco and 0.07 ± 0.03 for Las Gemelas surveys. Although richness was fairly equal between the two sites, evenness was greater at Isla del Coco (J = 0.04 ± 0.006 when compared to Las Gemelas (J = 0.02 ± 0.01. This lower level of evenness in the community at Las Gemelas was a result of high densities of a few dominant species groups, specifically sea urchins and black corals. We also evaluated invertebrate percent cover at both Isla del Coco and Las Gemelas Seamount with respect to habitat type, slope and rugosity. Results indicated that highly rugose habitats contained the highest frequencies of all invertebrates at both sites, with the exception of glass sponges and polychaetes at Isla del Coco

  9. Cultivo de Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae) em substratos a base de coco

    Assis,Adriane Marinho de; Faria,Ricardo Tadeu de; Unemoto,Lilian Keiko; Colombo,Larissa Abgariani

    2008-01-01

    Entre os substratos utilizados no cultivo de orquídeas, a fibra de coco vem se destacando como promissor substituto do xaxim, material utilizado por muitos produtores e colecionadores de orquídeas, porém ameaçado de extinção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de coco, no cultivo da orquídea Oncidium baueri. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 50% de luminosidade. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de xaxim desf...

  10. Relative Efficiency of Brown Sugar Agroindustry in Kokap District, Kulon Progo Regency, D.I. Yogyakarta

    Wijayanti, Dian Eswin; Hartono, Slamet; Darwanto, Dwidjono Hadi

    2018-01-01

    Agriculture industry is the activity using agriculture product as raw material by further process become the result product and is conducted by packaging, saving to the distributor toward consumer. Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) is one of agriculture commodity that has good potential market in Kulon Progo. Besides sold as a fresh product, coconut tree also produced nira (liquid from palm tree) that is quite potential if it is further process become brown sugar (brown sugar) to increase economic val...

  11. Apendicularias (Urochordata y quetognatos (Chaetognatha del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Appendicularians (Urochordata and chaetognaths (Chaetognatha of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Iván Castellanos-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las apendicularias y quetognatos son miembros importantes del zooplancton pero poco estudiados en Costa Rica y no del todo en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacífico tropical este. Se recolectaron muestras epipelágicas de zooplancton de la zona oceánica (0-50m de la Isla del Coco, en noviembre de 2001 y sobre parches arrecifales en 2009. Se analizó la composición de especies de apendicularias y quetognatos presentes en 31 muestras. Nueve especies de apendicularias, y ocho especies de quetognatos fueron identificadas. Oikopleura longicauda fue la más abundante en el área estudiada (217organismos, representando el 65.56% del número total de apendicularias, seguida por Oikopleura rufescens, con 35 (10.57%. Todas las especies de apendicularias encontradas en este estudio son comunes en las aguas cálidas de los océanos, seis especies se registran aquí por primera vez en aguas de la Isla del Coco y dos son nuevos registros para Costa Rica. Entre los quetognatos, Flaccisagitta enflata fue la especie más común (85 ejemplares, representando el 50.6% del número total registrada en este estudio, seguida por Serratosagitta pacifica con 38 organismos (20.62%. Zonosagitta bedoti estuvó representada por un solo espécimen. Estas especies también se han registrado en las aguas tropicales del Pacífico oriental, pero seis especies son nuevos registros para Isla del Coco. Los datos sobre la distribución y morfología de las especies registradas se presentan junto con las claves para la identificación de los taxones en el área estudiada.Appendicularians and chaetognaths are important members of the zooplancton but little studied in Costa Rica and not at all at Isla del Coco Nacional Park, eastern tropical Pacific. Epipelagic (0-50m zooplankton samples from the oceanic area off Isla del Coco, were collected in November 2001, and over patch reefs in 2009. We analized the species composition of appendicularians and chaetognaths present in 31

  12. Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose

    Muhaimin, Sudiono, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose has been done. The aim of this research was to study of the effect of time and temperature to the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The various temperature of the hydrolysis process were 30 °C, 48 °C, 72 °C and 95 °C and the various time of the hydrolysis process were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 minutes. A quantitative analysis was done by measured the concentration of the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The result showed that the rate constant from the various temperature were 3.10-4 minute-1; 8.10-4 minutees-1; 84.10-4 minute-1, and 205.10-4 minute-1, and the energy activation was 7,69. 103 kJ/mol.

  13. Hypolipidemic effect of hemicellulose component of coconut fiber.

    Sindhurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    1998-08-01

    The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) isolated from coconut kernel was digested with cellulase and hemicellulase and the residual fiber rich in hemicellulose (without cellulose) and cellulose (with out hemicellulose) were fed to rats and compared with a fiber free group. The results indicate that hemicellulose rich fiber showed decreased concentration of total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol, while cellulose rich fiber showed no significant alteration. There was increased HMG CoA reductase activity and increased incorporation of labeled acetate into free cholesterol. Rats fed hemicellulose rich coconut fiber produced lower concentration of triglycerides and phospholipids and lower release of lipoproteins into circulation. There was increased concentration of hepatic bile acids and increased excretion of faecal sterols and bile acids. These results indicate that the hemicellulose component of coconut fiber was responsible for the observed hypolipidemic effect.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of coconut husk leachate using UASB-reactor.

    Neena, C; Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S

    2007-07-01

    Reffing of coconut husk, the majorprocess in quality coir fibre extraction, causes serious pollution with brackish water lagoons of Kerala. An attempt is made to treat the coconut husk leachate by using a laboratory scale UASB-reactor The experiment was conducted with loading of leachate from 1 kg of fresh coconut husk. The anaerobic treatment was done continuously The parameters like VFA, pH, COD and polyphenols were analysed regularly during the evaluation of the reactor performance. The polyphenol, VFA and COD were diminished gradually with time. The pH of the reactor during the study was found to be in the range of 6-8. The biogas production was increased with loading and about 82% of the total COD/kg husk could be converted to biogas. The maximum polyphenol loading in the reactor was reached to about 298.51 mg/l of husk.

  15. Gamma ray attenuation studies on concrete reinforced with coconut shells

    Vishnu, C.V.; Antony, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The fact that radiation could be harmful has led to the development of wide variety of shields to protect against it. For nuclear radiation shielding, a larger quantity of shielding material is required and therefore, the study of propagation of radiation flux in shielding materials is an essential requirement for shield design. Concrete has proven to be an excellent and versatile shielding material with well-established linear attenuation for neutrons and gamma rays. Coconut being naturally available, it can be used readily in concrete, still maintaining almost all the qualities of the original form of concrete. Concrete obtained using coconut shell as a coarse aggregate satisfies the requirements of concrete. Coconut shell aggregate possess acceptable strength which is required for structural concrete

  16. Deepwater fish assemblages at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009 we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas of the Isla del Coco Marine Conservation Area, Costa Rica and a nearby seamount using a manned submersible. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco. We completed a total of 22 submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. We surveyed habitats from 50-402m and observed more than 45 species of fishes, some of which have not yet been described and are likely new to science. The diversity of fish species in deep water at Isla del Coco National Park was lower than the diversity of fishes in shallow water, and eight species groups accounted for more than 95% of the total fish biomass. The combined density of all fish species was higher at Las Gemelas Seamount (253 fishes/100m² than at Isla del Coco National Park (138 fishes/100m². The combined density of fishes in habitats comprised primarily of bedrock or large boulders outcrops was more than three times as high at Las Gemelas Seamount as it was at Isla del Coco National Park. This discrepancy was caused by the extremely high concentration of Anthiinae fishes in rocky habitats at Las Gemelas Seamount. Densities of fishes in the other habitats were similar between the two sites. Similarly, when estimates of fish density were plotted by slope categories the density was much greater on steep slopes, which were usually comprised of rock habitats. Also, the density of fishes was greatest on high rugosity habitats. Results of these submersible surveys indicate that seamounts in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean may be an important source of biodiversity and that more quantitative surveys

  17. The Post-consumption Problem of Green Coconut in Brazil: Alternatives and Sustainability

    Adriana Pacheco Martins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This literature review explores the problem of post-consumption of green coconut in Brazil. It starts by offering an analysis of the general aspects of the coconut industry and its derivatives. It also highlights the origins of coconut by-products, as well as the impacts of the industry in rural and urban management. The properties and potential uses of coconut by-products are also evaluated. The review presents diverse theoretical approaches regarding the concept of sustainable development as applied to product design. Results reveal a wide range of potential applications of coconut by-products in the field of engineering, although there is still an evident lack of research into the management and logistics of the coconut production chain. We argue that the concept of sustainability must be interpreted broadly, but also objectively, in any future research in order to facilitate the sustainable consumption and post-consumption of the green coconut.

  18. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    Sarki, J., E-mail: sarksj@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Hassan, S.B., E-mail: hassbolaji@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S., E-mail: aigbodionv@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Oghenevweta, J.E. [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  19. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    Sarki, J.; Hassan, S.B.; Aigbodion, V.S.; Oghenevweta, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  20. Wake Me Up Before You CoCo : Implications of contingent convertible capital for financial regulation

    Chan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Contingent convertible capital (CoCo) is designed to improve the loss absorption capacity of the issuing bank without resorting to new equity or taxpayer-funded bailouts. However attractive they might seem to the regulator, they may have undesirable and unexpected consequences. This dissertation

  1. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO3NO

    Florian Vollnhals

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM, including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO5. Co(CO3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  2. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under flexure

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete. ► Behavior of coconut shell concrete under flexure. ► SEM images of cement, sand, coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete. ► Coconut shell hollow blocks and precast slabs are used in practice. - Abstract: Coconut shell has been used as coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. The flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Twelve beams, six with coconut shell concrete and six with normal control concrete, were fabricated and tested. This study includes the moment capacity, deflection, cracking, ductility, corresponding strains in both compression and tension, and end rotation. It was found that the flexural behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under flexural loadings. Under serviceability condition, deflection and cracking characteristics of coconut shell concrete are comparable with control concrete. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. The end rotations of the coconut shell concrete beams just prior to failure values are comparable to other lightweight concretes. Coconut shell concrete was used to produce hollow blocks and precast slab in 2007 and they are being subjected to some practical loading till today without any problems such as deflection, bending, cracks, and damages for the past five years

  3. Yogurt from Coconut and Tigernuts | Akoma | Journal of Food ...

    Yogurt was produced from milk obtained from coconut and tigernuts, singly, or in combination with fresh cow milk, by fermentation using starter cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (1:1 v/v) at 300C for 12h, and analyzed for its chemical, proximate and organoleptical qualities. The results ...

  4. Characterization and diversity assessment in coconut collections of ...

    Characterization and genetic diversity assessment among 30 conserved coconut accessions collected from Pacific Ocean Islands and Nicobar Islands for morphological traits, physico-chemical traits of tender nut water, leaf biochemical parameters and molecular characterization by using random amplified polymorphic ...

  5. Sorption of Lead (II Ions on Activated Coconut Husk

    Amin Jahangard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, various toxic chemicals/compounds have been widely detected at dangerous levels in drinking water in many parts of the world posing a variety of serious health risks to human beings. One of these toxic chemicals is lead, so this paper aimed to evaluate of efficiency coconut husk as cheap adsorbent for removal lead under different conditions. Methods: In the spring of 2015, batch studies were performed in laboratory (Branch of Hamadan, Islamic Azad University, to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and the effect of temperature on the adsorption capacity of coconut husk for removal lead from aqueous solution. Results: Optimum conditions for Pb (II removal were pH 6, adsorbent dosage 1g/100ml of solution and equilibrium time 120 min. The adsorption isotherm was also affected by temperature since the adsorption capacity was increased by raising the temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was better described by Freuindlich adsorption isotherm model. Conclusion: It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. Coconut husk-based activated carbon can be a promising adsorbent for removal of Pb from aqueous solutions.

  6. Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis ...

    Effect of Coconut ( cocus Nucifera ) and Palm Kernel ( eleasis Guinensis ) Oil Supplmented Diets on Serum Lipid Profile of Albino Wistar Rats. ... were fed normal rat pellet. At the end of the feeding period, animals were anaesthetized under chloroform vapor, dissected and blood obtained via cardiac puncture into tubes.

  7. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based ...

    Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques. An experimental ...

  8. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidative stability of coconut meat protein hydrolysates (CMPHs) in the gastrointestinal tract, and evaluate the changes in antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution of CMPHs during gastrointestinal (GI )digestion. Methods: A two-stage in vitro digestion ...

  9. Ivestigation of uranium adsorption by using coconut shell

    Aslani, M.A.A.; Akyil, S.; Aytas, S.; Eral, M.

    2001-01-01

    At the present study, we investigated the basic features of uranium uptake from dilute aqueous solution by using coconut shell and the effect of uranium on this adsorption phenomena. It has also been shown that the adsorption of uranium was affected with some factors such as pH, uranium concentration, and contact time

  10. Emission Characterization of Diesel Engine Run on Coconut Oil ...

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Diesel engine, diesel, coconut oil biodiesel, blends, emissions. Introduction ... Automobile exhaust ... power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and the increase in ... diesel fuel in terms of power and torque and none or ... gas analyzer (Motorscan 8050) made in Italy which .... different injection pressures.

  11. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  12. Binderless board and moulded products produced from whole coconut husks

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and efficient technology has been developed to produce high strength - high density board materials from whole coconut husks, without the addition of chemical binders. The board material has been shown to exhibit excellent properties, which are comparable with or even superior to commercial

  13. Qualidade do fruto verde de coqueiro em função da irrigação com água salina Quality of green coconut fruits in relation to salinity of irrigation water

    Miguel Ferreira Neto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados, neste trabalho, os efeitos de quatro níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (0,1, 5,0, 10,0 e 15,0 dS m-1 obtidos mediante adição de NaCl, na qualidade de frutos de coco (Cocos nucifera L. cultivar Anão Verde do Jiqui, com 3,5 anos de idade e na salinização do solo. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos inteiramente ao acaso, em solo de textura arenosa não salino, utilizando-se de sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, no município de Parnamirim, RN, durante o período de janeiro/2000 a março/2001. A qualidade do fruto foi avaliada com base no peso médio, volume de água, ºbrix, e composição iônica da água. A salinidade da água de irrigação reduziu o peso médio e o volume de água dos frutos, elevando o teor de açucares (ºbrix a concentração iônica expressa pela condutividade elétrica (CE da água do fruto. Os íons em maior concentração na água de coco foram o cloreto e o potássio. A CE do extrato de saturação do solo, 11 meses após iniciada a irrigação, aumentou até à profundidade de 0,80 m, em função da concentração salina da água de irrigação, atingindo valores superiores a 4 dS m-1 principalmente nos últimos dois níveis de CE (10 e 15 dS m-1.The effects of 4 levels of water salinity (0.1, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 dS m-1 obtained by addition of NaCl were studied on quality of 3.5 years old dwarf green coconut (Cocos nucífera L.. The experiment was carried out in a completly randomized block design in an initially non-saline sandy soil, using a micro sprinkler irrigation system in the municipality of Parnamirim-RN, Brazil, during the period of January 2000 to March 2001. The quality of fruit was evaluated by means of fruit weight, volume of water, ºbrix, and ionic composition of coconut water. The salinity of irrigation water reduced the mean weight and volume of fruit water but increased the ionic concentration expressed as electrical conductivity (EC of coconut water and sugar

  14. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk

    Rudy Agustriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut husk is classified as complex lignocellulosic material that contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and some other extractive compounds. Cellulose from coconut husk can be used as fermentation substrate after enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrary, lignin content from the coconut husk will act as an inhibitor in this hydrolysis process. Therefore, a pretreatment process is needed to enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. The objective of this research is to investigate the production of the glucose through dilute acid pretreatment and to obtain its optimum operating conditions. In this study, the pretreatment was done using dilute sulfuric acid in an autoclave reactor. The pretreatment condition were varied at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C and 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5% for temperature and acid concentration respectively. The acid pretreated coconut husk was then hydrolyzed using commercial cellulase (celluclast and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188. The hydrolysis time was 72 hours and the operating conditions were varied at several temperature and pH. From the experimental results it can be concluded that the delignification temperature variation has greater influence than the acid concentration. The optimum operating condition was obtained at pH 4 and 50°C which was pretreated at 100°C using 1.5% acid concentration. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012, Revised: 2nd October 2012, Accepted: 4th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Agustriyanto, A. Fatmawati, Y. Liasari. (2012. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 137-141. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141 ] | View in 

  15. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity.

    Harries, Hugh C

    2012-01-01

    This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely-but only where tides and currents were favourable-and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely-to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating-and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers related to fruit abscission and

  16. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity

    Harries, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. Scope This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Significance Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely—but only where tides and currents were favourable—and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely—to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating—and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers

  17. Deepwater fish assemblages at Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, Costa Rica

    Richard M. Starr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009 we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas of the Isla del Coco Marine Conservation Area, Costa Rica and a nearby seamount using a manned submersible. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco. We completed a total of 22 submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. We surveyed habitats from 50-402m and observed more than 45 species of fishes, some of which have not yet been described and are likely new to science. The diversity of fish species in deep water at Isla del Coco National Park was lower than the diversity of fishes in shallow water, and eight species groups accounted for more than 95% of the total fish biomass. The combined density of all fish species was higher at Las Gemelas Seamount (253 fishes/100m² than at Isla del Coco National Park (138 fishes/100m². The combined density of fishes in habitats comprised primarily of bedrock or large boulders outcrops was more than three times as high at Las Gemelas Seamount as it was at Isla del Coco National Park. This discrepancy was caused by the extremely high concentration of Anthiinae fishes in rocky habitats at Las Gemelas Seamount. Densities of fishes in the other habitats were similar between the two sites. Similarly, when estimates of fish density were plotted by slope categories the density was much greater on steep slopes, which were usually comprised of rock habitats. Also, the density of fishes was greatest on high rugosity habitats. Results of these submersible surveys indicate that seamounts in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean may be an important source of biodiversity and that more quantitative surveys

  18. Flowering Trees

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  19. Flowering Trees

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  1. Flowering Trees

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  2. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  3. DEKOMPOSISI SAMPAH JANUR KELAPA (Cocos nucifera L. DAN NIBUNG (Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack Ridl. DALAM LUBANG RESAPAN BIOPORI

    I Putu Candra Noviarta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increasing volume of garbage of Balinese Hindu’s offering is still a problem. The garbage, when it is decomposed however could be useful for fertilized. This organic litter can be decomposed in biopore. This research ainied to investigated the decomposition rate of C. nucifera and O. tigillarium litter in biopores. This research was conducted between February and July 2015. Garbage were collected from temples in Jembrana city and treated at Dangin Tukadaya village, Jembrana Distric. Sampels were arranged in a Factorial Randomized Blocked Sampling Design 2 factors i.e: treatments and times (1, 2, 3, 4 and 23 weeks. The result showed that decomposition rate 98,63% of cocos litter and 99,23% of oncosperma litter were decomposed in biopore on week 23 compared to 89,06% of cocos and 75,76 % of oncosperma litter in control. Decomposition mean rate is 9,33 %/week of cocos litter and 9,64 %/week of oncosperma litter were decomposed in biopore but in control is 7,85 %/week of cocos and 8,07 %/week of oncosperma litter. Total cocos and oncosperma litter decomposition took about 23,3 and 23,2 weeks in biopore but for control 25,8 and 30,4 weeks The number of millipedes (Harpaphe haydeniana as decomposer was found higher compared to other decomposers such as earth worms and molusca. Keywords: decomposition, biopore, decomposer, bali, cocos litter, oncosperma litter

  4. They say coconut oil can aid weight loss, but can it really?

    Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    There has in recent years, been much media speculation and consumer interest in the beneficial satiating properties of consuming coconut oil and its potential to aid weight loss. However, the media has primarily cited studies using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil. The current perspective looks at the research that is available on coconut oil. It examines if and how MCT-related research can be applied to coconut oil and if there is potential for coconut oil to aid weight loss. The current report indicates a lack of consistent evidence on the topic of coconut oil, satiety and weight loss. Given both the publicity and the increased consumption of coconut oil further research, particularly long-term clinical trials, in this area are warranted.

  5. Tree compression with top trees

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  6. Tree compression with top trees

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  7. Mapas de inundación por tsunamis en Playas del Coco y Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Zamora Sauma, Natalia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación presenta algunos de los resultados obtenidos por el proyecto "Mapa de inundación por tsunamis para Costa Rica, primera fase, Puntarenas y Playas del Coco". Muestra los resultados obtenidos con respecto a simulaciones realizadas. Explica información del ambiente tectónico de la zona. Finalmente, expone algunas de las acciones de reducción del riesgo de inundación por tsunami y mitigación This investigation includes some of the results obtained in the project "Flood Map by Tsunamis in Costa Rica, First Stage: Puntarenas and Playas del Coco." It shows the results obtained as a result of simulations. It explains information about the tectonic environment of the zone. Finally, it exposes some of actions to reduce tsunami flood risk and mitigation

  8. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice

    Chauhan, O. P.; Archana, B. S.; Singh, Asha; Raju, P. S.; Bawa, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 expe...

  9. Through Internal Control System, Jatirogo Organic Coconut Sugar Farmers Gained Access to the Export Market

    Setyowati, Theresia Eko

    2014-01-01

    By founding Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS, 1,554 farmer members now have stronger bargaining power in marketing organic coconut sugar. Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS has succeeded to export its organic gula semut. By obtaining international certifications (EU Regulation, NOP-USDA, and JAS), KSU Jatirogo sends organic gula semut to various countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European and Asian countries, by collaborating with KSU Jatirogo and exporting companies. ...

  10. Fermentative Extraction of Coconut Oil to Maintain a Quality of Medium Chain Fatty Acid

    Salahudin, Farid; Supriyatna, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Coconut oil is healthy vegetable oil because it contains Medium Chain Fatty Acid (MCFA). The used of bleaching agent and excessive heating in coconut oil process will produce low quality oil (rancid). Therefore, it is necessary to processing that does not use chemicals and excessive heating such as fermentation using microbe and enzyme. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of bromelin enzyme concentration and Saccharomyces cereviceae fermentation to MCFA content in coconut oil. Th...

  11. STUDY ON IMPACT AND TENSILE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH COCONUT SHELL AS COARSE AGGREGATE

    R. Ranjith*

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of coconut shell aggregate concrete (CSAC) namely splitting tensile strength, impact strength have been determined and a comparison is made with conventional granite aggregate concrete (CGAC) in the 30 days short-term experimental investigation. From the test results it is observed that coconut shell aggregate concrete has considerably sufficient strength. But the splitting tensile strength of coconut shell aggregate concrete is 50 % less than that of conventional gr...

  12. Apendicularias (Urochordata y quetognatos (Chaetognatha del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Iván Castellanos-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las apendicularias y quetognatos son miembros importantes del zooplancton pero poco estudiados en Costa Rica y no del todo en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacífico tropical este. Se recolectaron muestras epipelágicas de zooplancton de la zona oceánica (0-50m de la Isla del Coco, en noviembre de 2001 y sobre parches arrecifales en 2009. Se analizó la composición de especies de apendicularias y quetognatos presentes en 31 muestras. Nueve especies de apendicularias, y ocho especies de quetognatos fueron identificadas. Oikopleura longicauda fue la más abundante en el área estudiada (217organismos, representando el 65.56% del número total de apendicularias, seguida por Oikopleura rufescens, con 35 (10.57%. Todas las especies de apendicularias encontradas en este estudio son comunes en las aguas cálidas de los océanos, seis especies se registran aquí por primera vez en aguas de la Isla del Coco y dos son nuevos registros para Costa Rica. Entre los quetognatos, Flaccisagitta enflata fue la especie más común (85 ejemplares, representando el 50.6% del número total registrada en este estudio, seguida por Serratosagitta pacifica con 38 organismos (20.62%. Zonosagitta bedoti estuvó representada por un solo espécimen. Estas especies también se han registrado en las aguas tropicales del Pacífico oriental, pero seis especies son nuevos registros para Isla del Coco. Los datos sobre la distribución y morfología de las especies registradas se presentan junto con las claves para la identificación de los taxones en el área estudiada.

  13. Karakteristik Mekanik Panel Dinding dari Komposit Sabut Kelapa (Coco Fiber)-Sampah Plastik (Thermoplastics)

    Fajriyanto, Fajriyanto

    2009-01-01

    The research about utilization of coco fiber and thermoplastic waste to produce partition wall based on fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composites has been conducted. The research methodology used was experimental research method. There were three steps conducted in the research; the first, preparation of instruments and sampling of raw materials, the second, blending process for producing fiberboard composites, the third, mechanical-waterproof testing and analyzing of products. The obje...

  14. Endogenous isoprenoid and aromatic cytokinins in different plant parts of Cocos nucifera (L.)

    Sáenz, L.; Jones, L. H.; Oropeza, C.; Vláčil, D.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2003), s. 205-215 ISSN 0167-6903 Grant - others:Centro de Investigación(MX) 88207; Volkswagen Stiftung(DE) I/76 865 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:MSM 153100008 Keywords : Cocos nucifera * Cytokinin identification * Cytokinin quantification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.688, year: 2003

  15. Nutritional evaluation of structured lipid containing omega 6 fatty acid synthesized from coconut oil in rats.

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-06-01

    Coconut oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids, but deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Structured lipids (SL) enriched with omega 6 PUFA were synthesized from coconut oil triglycerides by employing enzymatic acidolysis with free fatty acids obtained from safflower oil. Rats were fed a diet containing coconut oil, coconut oil-safflower oil blend (1:0.7 w/ w) or structured lipid at 10% levels for a period of 60 days. The SL lowered serum cholesterol levels by 10.3 and 10.5% respectively in comparison with those fed coconut oil and blended oil. Similarly the liver cholesterol levels were also decreased by 35.9 and 26.6% respectively in animals fed structured lipids when compared to those fed on coconut oil or the blended oil. Most of the decrease observed in serum cholesterol levels of animals fed structured lipids was found in LDL fraction. The triglyceride levels in serum showed a decrease by 17.5 and 17.4% while in the liver it was reduced by 45.8 and 23.5% in the structured lipids fed animals as compared to those fed coconut oil or blended oil respectively. Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated that structured lipids had lower melting points and solid fat content when compared to coconut oil or blended oils. These studies indicated that enrichment of coconut oil triglycerides with omega 6 fatty acids lowers its solid fat content. The omega 6 PUFA enriched structured lipids also exhibited hypolipidemic activity.

  16. Variation of structures of ingredients of desiccated coconut during hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid at low temperature

    Jian XIONG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Owing to the high content of lignocellulose, desiccated coconut become a healthy material for dietary fiber supplementation. In this study, the changes in solubility of the fibers of desiccated coconut were evaluated. The changes of the pHs and weight losses were studied. Furthermore, variations of the ingredient structures of desiccated coconut by hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After hydrolysis 30 s, the pHs of all systems increased, while six hours later, the pH of only system with initial pH = 1.00 decreased. The decline of pH only existed in hydrolysis systems with initial pH = 1.00, there is no relevant with the quantities of desiccated coconut. The lower initial pH of hydrolysis system was, the less the intrinsic viscosity of the desiccated coconut after hydrolysis was, the small the crystallinity was. After hydrolysis, the microstructure of the desiccated coconut become looser, and the secondary structure of the coconut protein became more stable and ordered. The results suggest that the hydrolysis of desiccated coconut mainly occurred in the branched chain and the non-crystalline region of lignocellulose, which transforms some insoluble dietary fiber into soluble dietary fiber. This improves the nutritional value of desiccated coconut.

  17. Coconut oil attenuates the effects of amyloid-β on cortical neurons in vitro.

    Nafar, Firoozeh; Mearow, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation has been studied as an approach to ameliorating deficits associated with aging and neurodegeneration. We undertook this pilot study to investigate the effects of coconut oil supplementation directly on cortical neurons treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. Our results indicate that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ is rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Coconut oil co-treatment also attenuates Aβ-induced mitochondrial alterations. The results of this pilot study provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of coconut oil, or its constituents, on neuronal survival focusing on mechanisms that may be involved.

  18. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell.

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used and it can be seen that coconut shell pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: water loss, pyrolysis and pyrocondensation. The main components of coconut-shell oil are water (about 50 wt%), aromatic, phenolic, acid, ketone and ether containing compounds.

  19. Endogenous cytokinins in Cocos nucifera L. in vitro cultures obtained from plumular explants

    Sáenz, L.; Azpeitia, A.; Oropeza, C.; Jones, L.; Fuchsová, Květoslava; Spíchal, Lukáš; Strnad, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 11 (2010), s. 1227-1234 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649; GA AV ČR IBS5038351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Coconut palm * Somatic embryogenesis * Endogenous cytokinins Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2010

  20. Algunos poliquetos holoplanctónicos (Annelida: Polychaeta del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Soledad Jiménez-Cueto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los poliquetos holoplanctónicos no han sido estudiados en las aguas oceánicas adyacentes al Parque Isla del Coco. Se estudiaron estas formas pelágicas a partir del análisis de muestras de zooplancton recolectadas en esta área protegida. Las muestras fueron obtenidas mediante redes de plancton estándar (0.2-0.5mm de malla, 0.49m de diámetro de boca en arrastres horizontales y verticales en la isla oceánica Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Los poliquetos pelágicos de esta zona fueron analizados taxonómicamente. El material obtenido incluye representantes de seis especies y cinco familias: Alciopidae, Lopadorhynchidae, Tomopteridae, Polynoidae y Typhloscolecidae. Se presentan diagnosis breves, sino- nimias, análisis morfológicos comparativos, ilustraciones taxonómicas y la distribución conocida de las especies recolectadas en el plancton de Isla del Coco. El registro de Drieschia pellucida Moore es el primero en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; nuestro espécimen muestra algunas diferencias respecto a la descripción original. El resto de las especies han sido encontradas previamente en aguas del Pacífico Tropical Oriental y en el Domo de Costa Rica, pero son los primeros registros para esta área protegida.

  1. Strength Analysis of Coconut Fiber Stabilized Earth for Farm Structures

    Enokela, O. S.; P. O, Alada

    2012-07-01

    Investigation of the strength characteristic of soil from alluvial deposit of River Benue in makurdi stabilized with coconut fiber as a stabilizer was carried as local building material for farm structure. Processed coconut fibers were mixed with the soil at four different mix ratios of 1% fiber, 2% fiber, 3% fiber and 4% fiber by percentage weight with 0% fiber as control. Compaction test and compressive strength were carried out on the various stabilizing ratio. From the compaction test, the correlation between the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content is a second order polynomial with a coefficient of 63% obtained at1.91kg/m3and 20.0% respectively while the compressive strength test shows an optimum failure load of 8.62N/mm2 at 2%fibre:100% soil mix ratio at 2.16 maximum dry density.

  2. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  3. Transient Stress Waves in Study of Coconut Physical Properties

    Trnka, Jan; Dvořáková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2010), s. 19-25 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA201990701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : stress waves * double-pulse holography * coconut * exploding wires Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.505, year: 2010 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121567342/PDFSTART

  4. Treated Coconut Coir Pith as Component of Cementitious Materials

    Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Čáchová, Monika; Siddique, Jamal Akhter; Polozhiy, Kirill; Reiterman, Pavel; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper deals with utilization of raw and treated coir pith as potential component of cementitious composites. The studied material is coir pith originating from a coconut production. Its applicability as cement mixture component was assessed in terms of the physical properties of concrete containing different amount of coir pith. Basic physical properties, compressive and bending strength, and hygric transport characteristics as well as thermal properties belong among the studied...

  5. Kesejahteraan Karyawan PT. Royal Coconut Kabupaten Minahasa Utara

    Londa, Very Y; Kaunang, Markus; Karim, Dian Fitriani

    2015-01-01

    Employee welfare is a form of welfare services provided by the company to the employees who have given power, mind and their services. Company Parties have an obligation to make efforts to motivate employees to provide benefits that can improve employee productivity. Welfare programs provided by the company to employees of PT. Royal Coconut North Minahasa yet either. Using qualitative methodology, research results show that the well-being of employees is not a good idea due to the PT. Royal C...

  6. The Application of Coconut Fiber as Dissipative Silencer

    Madlan, M. A.; Ghazali, M. I.; Zaman, I.; Kasron, M. Z.; Ying, T. C.

    2017-01-01

    Heat ventilation air conditioning system (HVAC) is one of the ducting systems that broadly applied in the building. There are HVAC silencers in the market, however the sound absorptive material commonly used is mineral wool. In this research study, a sound absorptive material made of coconut fiber was tested to identify its performance as a potential replacement of green material for ducting silencer. The experiment was carried out in a testing apparatus that follows the BS EN ISO 11691:2009 standard. Different configurations of sound absorptive material and contents of coconut fiber were investigated in the study. The trend of insertion loss at 1/3 octave frequency was identified where at frequency below 3000Hz, the insertion loss of dissipative silencer is observed high at certain frequency with a very narrow range. At 3000Hz, the insertion loss of 4dB to 6dB is constant until 4000Hz and drops until 5000Hz before it increases again steadily up to 13dB at 10000Hz. A similar trend was observed for different configuration of sound absorptive material. Despite the configuration different, the outcome shows that the insertion loss is increasing with higher content of coconut fiber.

  7. Study on the transmission of coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Philippe René

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD vector in Ghana began from 1990 (1990-1997 ; 2002-2004 and did not give convincing results. From July 2005, new test standards were applied : shading, daily collections and releasing of insects at the less hot hours and use of various sizes of cages and test plants. More than 70,000 Myndus. adiopodoumeensis were introduced in cage for 28 months (520 adults/seedling/month. Controls in polymerase chain reaction (PCR on the five coconut of this Myndus cage and on 935 adults were always negative. The tests of transmission with M. adiopodoumeensis apparently not a vector of the disease were thus stopped. The phytoplasma of the CSPWD was identified by PCR in a coconut having received 4,380 Diostrombus (four species of Derbidae 4 months after the beginning of the test. This coconut never presented symptom of the disease 28 months later and all the successive PCR were negative. Auchenorrhyncha collected by sweeping on the adventitious plants in and around the plot during the day were also tested without success. The hypothesis of a ground transmission was also taken into account because of the presence of scale insects and nematodes.

  8. Transesterification of coconut oil for FAME production using ultrasound

    Supriadi, Eko; Marlinda, Lenny; Prajitno, Danawati Hari; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    To overcome energy crisis, the vegetable oils-derived biofuel can be chosen as an alternative to petroleum-based diesel. The transesterification of coconut oil in methanol with K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst using ultrasound-assisted to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as one of type biofuel was studied. The reaction occurred in batch reactor at a 9 : 1 molar ratio of methanol to coconut oil. The following reaction conditions were used in the catalytic test : concentration of catalyst to oil of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, the reaction time of 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 s, and the frequency ultrasonication of 20 and 40 KHz. At first, the preparation of K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was done and followed by transesterification process. After reaction, the phase separation and purification from impurities were done. Finally, FAME was analized based on this parameters, i.e., yield, density, viscosity, and flash point. FAME yield of 93.76% was obtained at the frequency ultrasonication of 40 kHz with K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst concentration to oil of 2.5 wt.% for 150 s. It's the best conditions for FAME production by transesterification of coconut oil using ultrasound-assisted.

  9. Adsorption of gold onto γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane grafted coconut pith

    Usman, M.; Akhtar, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate adsorption kinetic and adsorption thermodynamics of Au(III) ions onto γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane grafted coconut pith. The results from equilibrium adsorption were fitted in various adsorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich and the best fit for the experimental data was Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for virgin coconut pith (VCP) and the grafted coconut pith (GCP) were 256.41 and 285.59 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data was verified using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion model. The correlation results suggested that the pseudo-second-order model fits the experimental data well. A thermodynamic study revealed the endothermic nature of reaction due to positive enthalpy (?Ho) values and negative values of Gibbs free energy (?Go) describes the spontaneity of adsorption process. The regenerability of VCP and GCP adsorbents were investigated with NaOH (1.0 M).

  10. Sensory evaluation of gamma irradiated coconut cream powder

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Norimah Yusof; Zainab Harun

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation (5, 10 and 15kGy) and storage on the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. Ageing process was achieved using GEER oven at 60 degree C for seven days, which is equivalent to one-year storage at room temperature. The sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the level of acceptance on four parameters, namely odour, colour, creamy taste and overall acceptance. Twenty (20) taste panelists gave their score from scale] (least acceptable) to 5 (most acceptable). The results showed that there was a significant different (P 0. 05) in all the sensory properties. The sensory evaluation of stored samples showed that there was significant different (P>0.05) in odour, creamy taste, colour and overall acceptance compared to the control. Based on the overall acceptance, gamma irradiation as low as 5 kGy could affect the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. The possibility of using doses lower than 5 kGy for decontamination of coconut cream powder could be considered in the future study. The irradiated product was not acceptable after one-year storage. (Author)

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Nano cellulose from Coconut Fiber

    Nor Liyana Ahmad; Ishak Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Coconut husk fibers has been modified by some chemical treatments to extract cellulose nano crystals (CNC), which are alkali treatment, bleaching and acid hydrolysis using concentrated sulphuric acid. The effect of the treatments on the coconut husk fibers has been analysed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Meanwhile, the morphology observation and thermal stability of the fiber have been analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. The analyses show that the chemical modification could eliminate some of the lignin and hemicelluloses of the fiber. Nano cellulose extracted from acid hydrolysis has been analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to define the size of extracted nano cellulose. The cellulose nano crystals from coconut fibre has the average diameter and length in the range 13.7±6.2 nm and 172.3±8.4 nm, respectively. The obtained nano cellulose may have the potential applications in the fields of biomedical, oil adsorption, membrane, pharmaceutical and bio composites. (author)

  12. ALTERNATIVE TREE CROPS FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF THE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE POST-TSUNAMI IN THE COASTAL AREAS OF ACEH BARAT DISTRICT

    Wahyunto Wahyunto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree farming such as coconut, cocoa, coffee, rubber, and rambutan was dominant in the west coast of Aceh prior to tsunami. The farming is not only important for sustainable livelihood, but also for superior environmental protection. During the tsunami, considerable portion of this ‘green infrastructure’ was devastated. Therefore, a scientifically based land suitability evaluation is needed for supporting the redesign and  reconstruction of the tree-based farming. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the current physical condition of the area and develop recommendation of land suitability for tree crops farming in the area. Field survey for inventory and evaluation of land characteristics was conducted in 2006, 15 months after the tsunami. Land suitability evaluation was conducted by matching field survey data and soil sample analyses in every mapping unit with crop growth requirements. The land suitability map was further matched with the district development plan, existing land uses and land status. The resulted land use recommendation map showed that the marine ecosystem along the coastal line was most suitable for coconut, cacao, coffee, and casuarinas. The recommended tree crops for the ancient sandy beach were areca nut, coconut, rambutan, mango, rubber and oil palm; and for the alluvial ecosystem were coconut, cacao, areca nut, mango, and bread fruit. Peatland of less than 3 m thick was marginally suitable for oil palm and rubber, while those thicker than 3 m were recommended for conservation due to its fragile ecosystem. In the undulating tectonic plain, the suitable tree crops were rubber, oil palm, coconut, and rambutan.

  13. Tree Nut Allergies

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  14. Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; it is part of the largest national park of Costa Rica and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island has been visited since the 16th Century due to its abundance of freshwater and wood. Marine biodiversity studies of the island started in the late 19th Century, with an intense period of research in the 1930’s, and again from the mid 1990’s to the present. The information is scattered and, in some cases, in old publications that are difficult to access. Here I have compiled published records of the marine organisms of the island. At least 1688 species are recorded, with the gastropods (383 species, bony fishes (354 spp. and crustaceans (at least 263 spp. being the most species-rich groups; 45 species are endemic to Isla del Coco National Park (2.7% of the total. The number of species per kilometer of coastline and by square kilometer of seabed shallower than 200m deep are the highest recorded in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco is relatively well known, there are regions that need more exploration, for example, the south side, the pelagic environments, and deeper waters. Also, several groups of organisms, such as the flatworms, nematodes, nemerteans, and gelatinous zooplankton, have been observed around the Island but have been poorly studied or not at all.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; es parte del Parque Nacional más grande de Costa Rica y es un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial. La isla ha sido visitada desde el Siglo XVI por su abundancia de agua dulce y árboles. Estudios de biodiversidad marina de la isla empezaron a finales del Siglo XIX, con un intenso período de investigación en la década de 1930, y de nuevo desde mediados de la década de 1990 al presente. La información sobre organismos marinos se encuentra dispersa y en algunos casos en publicaciones

  15. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    2010-04-21

    ... Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical... ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This document is being... requirement of a tolerance for ``polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a...

  16. Flowering Trees

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  17. Flowering Trees

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  19. Flowering Trees

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  1. Talking Trees

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  2. Drawing Trees

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  3. Flowering Trees

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  4. Introducing COCOS: codon consequence scanner for annotating reading frame changes induced by stop-lost and frame shift variants.

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Haines, Jonathan L; Bush, William S

    2017-05-15

    Reading frame altering genomic variants can impact gene expression levels and the structure of protein products, thus potentially inducing disease phenotypes. Current annotation approaches report the impact of such variants in the context of altered DNA sequence only; attributes of the resulting transcript, reading frame and translated protein product are not reported. To remedy this shortcoming, we present a new genetic annotation approach termed Codon Consequence Scanner (COCOS). Implemented as an Ensembl variant effect predictor (VEP) plugin, COCOS captures amino acid sequence alterations stemming from variants that produce an altered reading frame, such as stop-lost variants and small insertions and deletions (InDels). To highlight its significance, COCOS was applied to data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Transcripts affected by stop-lost variants introduce a median of 15 amino acids, while InDels have a more extensive impact with a median of 66 amino acids being incorporated. Captured sequence alterations are written out in FASTA format and can be further analyzed for impact on the underlying protein structure. COCOS is available to all users on github: https://github.com/butkiem/COCOS. mariusz.butkiewicz@case.edu. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Influence of application strategy of coconut soap on the development of sooty blotch on apple

    Fuchs, J. G.; Haseli, A.; Tamm, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sooty blotch causes heavy losses in Swiss organic apple production. In 2000 and 2001 a late season application strategy with coconut soap (Biofa Cocana RF) was evaluated. Coconut soap reduced disease occurrence in ali experiments. However, the efficacy was much higher in 2000 than in 2001, probably due to a much higher disease pressure in 2001.

  6. Production process for high density high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Coconuts are typically growing in coastal areas of tropical countries. The husk is abundantly available as cheap residue from coconut production in many areas, which is known to yield the coarse coir fibre. In this project a simple and efficient technology has been developed to produce high

  7. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  8. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion.

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478-1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research.

  9. Wear rate and surface coating optimization of coconut coir-based ...

    The use of fuzzy logic for modeling surface parameters of coconut coir-based composite is the focus of this research paper. Natural fiber–polymer composite has been developed by combining coconut coir as a stimulator and polyester as a fixative. This sturdy material is resistant to scratches in the coating process on the ...

  10. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  11. Topical Coconut Oil in Very Preterm Infants: An Open-Label Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Strunk, Tobias; Pupala, Sameer; Hibbert, Julie; Doherty, Dorota; Patole, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    The immature fragile skin of preterm infants represents an inadequate protective barrier. The emollient and anti-infective properties of coconut oil make it a potentially beneficial topical agent for this population. Our aim was to evaluate feasibility, safety, and the effects of topical coconut oil on skin condition in very preterm infants. An open-label randomised controlled trial in preterm infants coconut oil (5 mL/kg) twice daily for 21 days, starting within 24 h of birth. The neonatal skin condition was the primary outcome, and was assessed using the Neonatal Skin Condition Score (NSCS) on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. The number of coconut oil applications was recorded to assess clinical feasibility and all enrolled infants were monitored for adverse effects of topical coconut application, such as skin irritation. A total of 72 infants born coconut oil was feasible and without adverse effects. The NSCS was maintained in the coconut oil group throughout the intervention period, but deteriorated from a median (IQR) of 3 (3-4) on day 1 to 4 (4-4) on day 21 in the control group (p = 0.01). There were no differences in common neonatal outcomes, including sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and mortality. Topical coconut oil maintained a better skin condition in very preterm infants without adverse effects. This simple, safe, and affordable intervention warrants further investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  13. Size of predatory mites and refuge entrance determine success of biological control of the coconut mite

    da Silva, F.R.; de Moraes, G.J.; Lesna, I.; Sato, Y.; Vasquez, C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Predators face the challenge of accessing prey that live in sheltered habitats. The coconut mite Aceriaguerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) lives hidden beneath the perianth, which is appressed to the coconut fruit surface, where they feed on the meristematic tissue. Its natural enemy, the

  14. AKTIVITAS HIDROLISIS ENZIM LIPASE DARI KENTOS KELAPA TERHADAP MINYAK KELAPA Hidrolysis Activity of Lipase Enzyme from Coconut Houstorium for Coconut Oil

    Mohammad Su’i

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study hydrolysis conditions of houstorium lipases enzyme using coconut oil as substrate. Hydrolysis conditions studied were substrate (coconut oil concentration, enzyme substrate ratio, duration of hydro- lysis and effect of stirring to hydrolysis. The results show  that lipase of coconut houstorium may be optimally used at a coconut oil concentration of 10 %, enzyme to substrate ratio of 3 : 10 (v/v and hydrolysis for 60 minutes with stirring. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari kondisi hidrolisis minyak kelapa yang optimum menggunakan enzim lipase dari kentos kelapa. Kondisi hidrolisis yang dipelajari meliputi konsentrasi substrat optium, perbandingan enzim : substrat dan lama hidrolisis yang optimum serta pengaruh pengadukan selama hidrolisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, hidrolisis minyak kelapa menggunakan enzim lipase kentos kelapa menghasilkan asam lemak bebas paling banyak pada kon- sentrasi substrat (minyak kelapa 10 %, perbandingan enzim : substrat yaitu 3 : 10 (v/v, lama hidroloisa 60 menit dan dilakukan pengadukan selama hidrolisis.

  15. An ecological study for Sri Lanka about health effects of coconut.

    Athauda, L K; Wickremasinghe, A R; Kumarendran, B; Kasturiratne, A

    2015-09-01

    An ecological correlation study was conducted to determine the association between consumption of coconut products and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in Sri Lanka. Data on coconut consumption patterns from 1961 to 2006 were abstracted from the FAO database, and mortality data from reports of the Department of Census and Statistics, and UN databases. Correlational and regression analyses were carried out. There was no increase in the per capita consumption of coconut products from 1961 to 2006 (range 54.1-76.2kg/ capita/year). The CVD death rates and the proportionate mortality rate due to CVD increased from 1961 to 2006. CVD death rates were significantly associated with per capita GDP, percentage of urban population, and elderly dependency ratio but not consumption of coconut products after adjusting for the other variables (R2=0.94). The results do not provide evidence at the population level that consumption of coconut products increases mortality due to cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Inductive effect of coconut water on germination of seeds and sprouting of corms of Dracontium grayumianum

    Patino Torres, Carlos; Mosquera Gamboa, Ferley; Gonzalez, Robert Tulio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the promotional effect of coconut water, gibberellic acid, cold stratification and mechanical scarification on seed germination of Dracontium grayumianum, and the effect of gibberellic acid and coconut water on the sprouting of corms of the same species. The seeds without the inductive treatment were unable to germinate, but the immersion in coconut water had significant effects, producing a germination rate of 50%, higher than the effect achieved with other treatments. The liquid endosperm of coconut also had favorable effect on the sprouting of corms under nursery conditions, like the treatment with gibberellic acid solution. This is the first report of the use of coconut water as a promoter of seed germination with high latency, which places this resource as an additional alternative, highly efficient, and cost-effective, for use in plant propagation strategies of species with seeds of deep dormancy.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N...-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-06-263, Chemical B; CAS No...

  18. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    Ahmad, Asiah; Abdul Rahman, Shyful Azizi; Nordin, Latiffah; Abdullah, Hazlina; Ruslan, Abdul Razak [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Agrotechnology and Bioscineces Div.; Taib, Mohd Idris [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Intelligent Group

    2004-07-01

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  19. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    Asiah Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Latiffah Nordin; Hazlina Abdullah; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Mohd Idris Taib

    2004-01-01

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  20. Observations on the Morphology, Pollination and Cultivation of Coco de Mer (Lodoicea maldivica (J F Gmel. Pers., Palmae

    Stephen Blackmore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a range of observations on the reproductive morphology, pollination biology and cultivation of Lodoicea maldivica (coco de mer, an endangered species with great ecological, economic and cultural importance. We review the history of study of this charismatic species. Morphological studies of the male inflorescence indicate its importance as a year-round food source to the Seychelles fauna. In situ observations suggest a number of potential biotic and abiotic pollination mechanisms including bees, flies, slugs, and geckos; trigonid bees are identified as the most likely potential natural pollinator. We outline a successful programme for ex situ pollination, germination, and cultivation of the coco de mer, highlighting the importance of temperature, humidity and light levels as well as maintaining an undisturbed environment. In combination with continued protection and monitoring, this advice may aid the future in situ and ex situ conservation of the coco de mer.

  1. Phylogenetic trees

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  2. Fibra da casca do coco verde como substrato agrícola

    Carrijo Osmar Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção comercial de mudas e o cultivo sem solo de hortaliças estão se tornando práticas comuns entre os olericultores. Vários materiais orgânicos como as turfas, resíduos de madeira, casca de pinus e de arroz parcialmente carbonizada ou não, ou materiais inorgânicos como areia, rochas vulcânicas, perlita, lã de rocha e a espuma fenólica já são utilizados como substratos, isoladamente ou em composição. A casca de coco verde que em muitas regiões causa transtorno ao serviço de limpeza pública pelo volume e pela dificuldade de decomposição produz uma fibra que pode ser utilizada como substrato. Para a produção da fibra, a casca de coco verde é picada, desfibrada, triturada, lavada e secada. Para o uso como substrato na produção de mudas, a fibra deve passar por um processo de compostagem. Este processo não é necessário para o uso como substrato em cultivo sem solo, mas no entanto, o substrato necessitará ser enriquecido com nutrientes em pré-plantio ou em fertirrigação. O uso do substrato da fibra de coco verde na produção de tomate em casa de vegetação, alcançou, em termos absolutos, 13,2 kg m-2 de frutos comerciais (média de 3 anos cerca de 7,3% mais que o segundo melhor substrato, o pó de serra com 12,3 kg m-2.

  3. Minimizing emission of carbon dioxide in the coconut processing

    Lozada, Ernesto P.

    1998-01-01

    About 90% of the world's coconut production is made into copra. There are 2-3 million smoke kilns which are used by the coconut farmers for making copra. It is estimated that these kilns emit carbon dioxide from 247 to 366 gram of carbon per kg of copra produced. From the world copra production of 10 M tons, the total carbon released in copra making range is 2-3 Tg(telegram=10 12 grams) or 2-3M tons of carbon per year. To minimize carbon dioxide emission in copra making, kilns with better combustion characteristics and heat utilization efficiencies must be used. One of the most promising alternative dryers is a direct-fired, natural draft dryer known as the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer. Developed at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, the dryer consist of a simple burner, a heat distributor and a drying bin. The burner combust coconut shell, corn cob, and wood pieces with extremely high efficiency thus minimizing fuel consumption and dramatically reducing the release of airborne pollutants. The resulting copra is practically smoke free. Tests have shown that carbon dioxide emissions from the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer are about half of that released by the traditional smoke kilns. Furthermore, the dryer emits lower concentrations of CO (50 ppm vs 2000-3000 ppm), of NO x (5 ppm vs 400 ppm), and SO x (5 ppm vs 400 ppm). When used widely, significant reductions in the emissions of greenhouse and acid rain gases from biomass combustion will be attained. (About 500 units of the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer are now in use in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea). (Author)

  4. Lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte. parte II: consumo hídrico do coqueiro anão verde irrigado Large-scale weighing lysimeter. part II: water requirements of the irrigated dwarf-green coconut

    Inajá F. Sousa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, como segunda parte de uma pesquisa realizada no Estado de Sergipe, objetiva determinar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultura na fase de crescimento do coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L., com base em medições lisimétricas e no modelo do balanço de energia, segundo a razão de Bowen. Obteve-se a evapotranspiração de referência pelo método de Penman-Monteith, na escala diária em todo o período experimental. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi programado para a automação da coleta de todos os sensores necessários à obtenção dos componentes do balanço de energia. O consumo hídrico do coqueiro durante a fase de crescimento é de 1.263,30 mm, com média diária de 3,90 mm d-1. O coeficiente de cultura nessa fase fenológica da palmeira varia entre 0,50 e 1,80, com média de 0,96.This paper, as Part II of a research carried out in Sergipe state, aims to determine evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L. based on lysimeter measurements and Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The reference evapotranspiration was obtained by the Penman-Monteith approach on daily-scale during the experimental period. The data acquisition system was used to obtain all data from the sensors necessary to determine the energy balance components. The water requirements of coconut palm during the phenological growth stage is 1263.30 mm, with daily average of 3.90 mm d-1. The crop coefficient during this phenological growth stage varies between 0.50 and 1.80, with daily mean of 0.96.

  5. Penambahan kelapa (Cocos nucifera dan kacang tolo (Vigna unguiculata terhadap nilai indeks glikemik singkong (Manihot utilissima

    Rini Astuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgound: The glycemic index (GI is a notion that defences the glycaemic potency of foods. Foods with low GI will be digested and turned into glucose gradually and slowly. As a result blood glucose peak will not be so high and its fluctuation relatively in short time. Although cassava is a good source of carbohydrate, it has a high GI and low protein. Its GI factor needs to be reduced by any efforts to make it a healthy alternative food in spite of rice. Objective: To analize the effect of adding coconut and black-eyed pea to the GI factor of cassava. Method: The study used experimental observation design. There were three groups of treatment with 9 persons in each goup. After fasting for 10 hours, blood glucose were tested and 50 g of true glucose were given. Blood glucose of the subjects were tested again after 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes giving true glucose. Next on the seventh day, they were given boiled cassava, cassava with coconut (sawut and cassava with black-eyed pea (gintul. After which their blood glucose were also tested. Results: GI factor of steam cassava, shredded cassava and shredded cassava with black-eyed pea (gintul was 100,40; 70,90; and 61,88; respectively. There was a significant difference of GI level between three products (p=0,031. Conclusion: Food processing by adding coconut and black-eyed pea has effect in reducing the GI level of cassava.

  6. Women Emancipation in the Early Twentieth Century in France Portrayed in Coco Before Chanel Movie

    HIKMAYANTI, INDAH

    2014-01-01

    Keywords : Women Movement, Liberal Feminism, France, Early TwentiethCentury, Coco Before ChanelWomen movement is a women's action to break down the patriarchy system which evolves in society. The patriarchy system states that women is minority in the society. Their role is only to take care of their family. They can not go to work outside and interact with others in the society. In France society, women and men have difference of right. French women then start the women movement to break the ...

  7. Extraccion de aceite de coco a partir de la copra por medio de disolventes quimicos

    J. Rosario Rivera Hernández; Juana María Lomelí Soto; Lorena Román Salinas; Francisco Vera Figueroa

    2001-01-01

    Acetato de Etilo, alcohol Isopropílico, Hexano, Tetracloruro de carbono y xileno, fueron usados como disolventes para extraer de la copra aceite de coco. Se aplicaron dos procedimientos de extracción sólido-líquido a la temperatura de ebullición de los disolventes, así mismo se efectuaron tres corridas de extracción a tiempos de 1.0, 1.5 y 2.0 hrs. los resultados de las extracciones aparecen en las tablas 1 y 2.

  8. COCO-1: model for assessing the cost of offsite consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity

    Haywood, S.M.; Robinson, C.A.; Heady, C.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes a new model, called COCO-1 (Cost Of Consequences Offsite), for assessing the offsite economic consequences of an accident involving the release of radioactive material. The costs calculated are a measure of the benefit foregone as a result of the accident, and in addition to tangible monetary costs the model attempts to include costs arising from the effect of the accident on individuals, for instance the disruption caused by the loss of homes. The approach has limitations, which are discussed, but offers a broadly applicable and robust technique for estimating the economic impact of most accidents. (author)

  9. Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro

    . Sulistiono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro had been done since June - November 2004 and December - 2005 February 2006.  Study was carried out in two locations namely Laboratory of Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu to study adult crab, and Laboratory of Ecobiology of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University to study crab in clomang stage.  Adult crabs were collected by using some fishing gears namely trap, net and directly using bamboo stick.  Domestication was done in rearing batch sized 1x1x1 m3 with artificial nests (30x15x15 cm3, and small batch for water (7x10x10 cm3.  While for clomang stage, crabs were reared in aquarium (80x40x40 cm3 with debris and small water batch.  Result showed that adult crab had a survival rate around 12.5-0%, and mortality around 50-87.5%.  A similar result was also in clomang stage, which was 12.5% for survival rate and 87.5% for mortality.  Adult coconut crab was preferred to feed coconut than other food likely vegetable and chick. Keywords: domestication, coconut crab, Birgus latro, food habit   ABSTRAK Penelitian awal mengenai kajian awal penangkaran kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan pada bulan Juni - November 2004 dan Desember 2005 Februari 2006.  Pelaksanaan penelitian di lakukan di dua tempat, yaitu Laboratorium Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu untuk percobaan kepiting dewasa, dan Laboratorium Ekobiologi Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan IPB Bogor,  untuk percobaan kepiting tahap klomang.  Kepiting dewasa ditangkap dengan menggunakan beberapa peralatan a.l. perangkap, jaring dan secara langsung dengan tongkat.  Penangkaran dilakukan di bak-bak peliharaan berukuran 1x1x1 m3 yang dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (30x15x15 cm3, dan bak kecil tempat air (7x10x10 cm3.  Sedangkan kepiting tahap klomang dipelihara di akuarium (80x40x40 cm3 yang diberi daun/serasah dan tempat air.  Hasil uji coba penangkaran

  10. Electron Tree

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  11. Flowering Trees

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  12. Coco Chanel. El éxito y la perdurabilidad de su marca, en relación con el liderazgo

    Buitrago Hernández, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo de investigación consiste en establecer si Coco Chanel puede ser considerada un líder, y de ser así se determinarán las características de su liderazgo. Coco Chanel además de ser una diseñadora exitosa que marcó tendencias entre 1901 y 1971, también fue una administradora que posicionó una marca y un estilo a nivel mundial. Lo anterior es particularmente relevante en una sociedad y en un tiempo en el que la gran mayoría de empresarios eran hombres. Para lograr el objetivo, ...

  13. Fertilidade de substratos para mudas de mangabeira, contendo fibra de coco e adubados com fósforo

    Dias,Thiago Jardelino; Pereira,Walter Esfrain; Sousa,Geocleber Gomes de

    2007-01-01

    Este experimento foi executado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFPB, Areia, Estado da Paraíba, com objetivo de avaliar a fertilidade de substratos compostos por diferentes concentrações de fibra de coco (0 a 40%), esterco bovino (0 a 25%), terra vegetal (25 a 70%), 15% de areia e adubados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g L-1). Houve aumento das características químicas desejáveis do substrato com aumento da concentração de terra vegetal, fibra de coco e dose máxima do superfosfato tri...

  14. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  15. Mini-cusab kiln for rapid small-scale manufacture of charcoal from scrub, coconut wood and coconut shells

    Little, E C.S.

    1978-05-01

    Following the development and operation of the mini-cusab kiln in New Zealand, FAO tested it successfully in the South Pacific where there is a glut of coconut wood, which has a very high moisture content. It is based on a 44 gallon drum and its construction and subsequent operation are described. It is designed to be supplied continuously with fuel until full of charcoal. The kilns have air ducts which are sealed with plugs as the level of charcoal formed by the continuous fueling rises within the kiln.

  16. The production of paper soaps from coconut oil and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) with the addition of glycerine as plasticizer

    Widyasanti, Asri; Miracle Lenyta Ginting, Anastasia; Asyifani, Elgina; Nurjanah, Sarifah

    2018-03-01

    Hand washing with soap is important because it is proven to clean hands from germs and bacteria. The paper soapswere made from coconut oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO) with the addition of glycerin as a plasticizer. The aims of this research were to determine both formulation of paper soap using coconut oil and VCO based with addition of glycerin, and to determine the quality of the paper soapswhich is a disposable hand soap. This research used laboratory experimental method using descriptive analysis. The treatments of this research were treatment A (paper soap without the addition of glycerin), treatment B (paper soap with the addition of glycerin 10% (w/w)), treatment C (paper soap with the addition of glycerin 15% (w/w)), treatment D (paper soap with the addition of glycerin of 20% (w/w)). Parameters tested were moisture content, stability of foam, pH value, insoluble material in ethanol, free alkali content, unsaponified fat, antibacterial activity test, and organoleptic test. The result of physicochemical characteristics for bothcoconut oil-paper soap and VCO-paper soap revealed that treatment C (the addition of glycerin 15% (w/w) was the best soap formulation. Coconut Oil papersoap 15% w/w glicerin had water content 13.72%, the content of insoluble material in ethanol 3.93%, the content of free alkali 0.21%, and the content of unsaponified fat 4.06%, pH value 10.78, stability of foam 97.77%, and antibacterial activity against S. aureus 11.66 mm. Meanwhile, VCO paper soap 15% w/w glicerin had the value of water content of 18.47%, the value stability of foam of 96.7%, the pH value of 10.03, the value of insoluble material in ethanol of 3.49%, the value of free alkali content 0.17%, the value of unsaponified fat 4.91%, and the value of inhibition diameter on the antibacterial activity test 15.28 mm. Based on Mandatory Indonesian National Standard of solid soap SNI 3532:2016 showed that both of paper soap had not been accorded with SNI 3532:2016, unless the

  17. Electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH of beverages and coconut water.

    Chavalittamrong, B; Pidatcha, P; Thavisri, U

    1982-09-01

    Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the need for intravenous therapy. Beverages (i.e. Cola, Sprite etc.) and coconut water may be used as sources of oral fluid when glucose-electrolyte solution is not available. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of these soft drinks, the basic data such as electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH were determined. The electrolytes of the beverages were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water, especially potassium. The osmolarity of the beverages, which were 693 mOsm/l, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (288 mOsm/l); pH of the beverages (3.1) was more acidic (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (5.4). While the sugar content of the beverages, which were 8.7 gm/dl, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (1.1 gm/dl). On comparison, all brands of beverages would give more calories than the coconut water however the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than any brand of soft drink beverage.

  18. Feasibility Study of Aseptic Homogenization: Affecting Homogenization Steps on Quality of Sterilized Coconut Milk

    Phungamngoen Chanthima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut milk is one of the most important protein-rich food sources available today. Separation of an emulsion into an aqueous phase and cream phase is commonly occurred and this leads an unacceptably physical defect of either fresh or processed coconut milk. Since homogenization steps are known to affect the stability of coconut milk. This work was aimed to study the effect of homogenization steps on quality of coconut milk. The samples were subject to high speed homogenization in the range of 5000-15000 rpm under sterilize temperatures at 120-140 °C for 15 min. The result showed that emulsion stability increase with increasing speed of homogenization. The lower fat particles were generated and easy to disperse in continuous phase lead to high stability. On the other hand, the stability of coconut milk decreased, fat globule increased, L value decreased and b value increased when the high sterilization temperature was applied. Homogenization after heating led to higher stability than homogenization before heating due to the reduced particle size of coconut milk after aggregation during sterilization process. The results implied that homogenization after sterilization process might play an important role on the quality of the sterilized coconut milk.

  19. COMPARISON OF PRETREATMENT STRATEGIES FOR CONVERSION OF COCONUT HUSK FIBER TO FERMENTABLE SUGARS

    Teck Y. Ding,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, coconut husk was employed as biomass feedstock for production of bioethanol, due to its abundance in Malaysia. Due to the complex structures of coconut husk, a pretreatment process is crucial in extracting fermentable sugars from the embedded cellulose matrix for subsequent ethanol fermentation process. The ground coconut husk was subjected to three different pretreatment processes inclusive of thermal, chemical, and microwave-assisted-alkaline techniques, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process. The composition profile of coconut husk was significantly altered upon the microwave-assisted-alkaline treatment as compared to the untreated sample, with the cellulose content increasing from 18-21% to 38-39% while lignin content decreased from 46-53% to 31-33%. Among the pretreatment methods applied, enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut husk pretreated by microwave-assisted-alkaline method recorded the highest yield of fermentable sugars, 0.279 g sugar/g substrate. SEM imaging showed the obvious and significant disruption of coconut husks’ structure after microwave-assisted-alkaline pretreatment. In conclusion, by employing suitable pretreatment technique in treating the lignocellulosic materials of coconut husk, the extracted fermentable sugar is a potential substrate for bioethanol production.

  20. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  1. Radiation processing of composite materials on the basis of coconut hair and plastics

    Owolabi, O.; Czvikovszky, T.

    1983-01-01

    Composite materials containing coconut hair as fibrous reinforcements and synthetic polyester resin as matrix were prepared. The coconut hair, together with the unsaturated polyester resin and other required ingredients (fillers, complexing agents, etc.) were pre-processed in a BRABENDER-type kneader or similar equipment to produce a bulk moulding compound ('BMC' or 'Premix') and later hot pressed for 10 minutes at 130 degC and 30 bars to produce sheets of 2 mm thickness. The tensile-, flexural- and impact strength of the sheets were measured and served as the main basis of comparison. The effect of increasing coconut hair percentage was studied. The effect of preirradiation of the coconut hair, pretreatment with hot sodium hydroxide solution and a combination of the two, to improve the coupling of the coconut hair and synthetic polyester were also studied. Composite materials were also made from a mixture of coconut hair and chopped glass fibers as reinforcements in the same BMC material. The radiation-treated coconut fiber gives a useful composite material for hot-press moulding. (author)

  2. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study.

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T P; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans . counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans . count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans .

  3. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P coconut water group (P coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation

    Jorge Miguel Schettino César

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvasted the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exame. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p <0.001, 4 and 2 (p = 0.03 and 5 and 2 (p = 0.01. The splenic scintigraphy was not different between groups. The ovarian tissue was better preserved in mature coconut water (p <0.007. CONCLUSION: the coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  5. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation.

    César, Jorge Miguel Schettino; Petroianu, Andy; Vasconcelos, Leonardo de Souza; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso; Soares, Cristina Duarte Vianna; de Oliveira, Amanda Lima

    2015-01-01

    to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvested the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exam. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p coconut water (p coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  6. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under torsion

    Gunasekaran, K.; Ramasubramani, R.; Annadurai, R.; Prakash Chandar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete production. • Behavior of coconut shell concrete under torsion. • Pre and post cracking behavior and analysis. • Torsional reinforcement and ductility. • Crack width and stiffness. - Abstract: This research investigates and evaluates the results of coconut shell concrete beams subjected to torsion and compared with conventional concrete beams. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with conventional concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the general cracking characteristics, pre cracking behavior and analysis, post cracking behavior and analysis, minimum torsional reinforcement, torsional reinforcement, ductility, crack width and stiffness. It was observed that the torsional behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of conventional concrete. Compare to ACI prediction, equation suggested by Macgregor is more conservative in calculating cracking torsional resistance. But for the calculation of ultimate torque strength ACI prediction is more conservative compared to the equation suggested by Macgregor. Indian standard is also conservative in this regard, but it was under estimated compared to ACI and Macgregor equations. Minimum torsional reinforcement in beams is necessary to ensure that the beam do not fail at cracking. Compared to conventional concrete specimens, coconut shell concrete specimens have more ductility. Crack width at initial cracking torque for both conventional and coconut shell concrete with corresponding reinforcement ratios is almost similar

  7. Utilization of Ripe Coconut Fiber in Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixes

    Mahabir Panda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA is a gap graded mix; characterized by higher proportion of coarse aggregate, lower proportion of middle size aggregate and higher proportion of mineral filler. In the present laboratory study, commonly available one conventional VG 30 bitumen and another modified binder, namely CRMB 60 have been used along with a non-conventional natural fiber, namely coconut fiber which is abundantly available in India to provide improved engineering properties and at the same time preventing the usual draining of binder in SMA. The role of a particular binder and fiber with respect to their concentrations in the mix is studied for various engineering properties. Marshall procedure has been followed to determine the optimum binder and optimum fiber contents and also to study the relative advantages of fiber addition in the SMA mixtures. Thereafter, the engineering properties under both static as well as repeated load conditions and moisture susceptibility characteristics have been studied. It is observed that only a marginal 0.3% coconut fiber addition brings significant improvement in the engineering properties of SMA mixes.

  8. Mechanical properties of epoxy/coconut shell filler particle composites

    Sapuan, S.M.; Harimi, M.; Maleque, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile and flexural properties of composites made from coconut shell filler particles and epoxy resin. The tensile and flexural tests of composites based on coconut shell filler particles at three different filler contents viz., 5%, 0% and 15%were carried out using universal tensile testing machine according to ASTM D 3039/D M-95a and ASTM D790-90 tensile respectively and their results were presented. Experimental results showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composites increased with the increase of the filler particle content. The composite materials demonstrate somewhat linear behavior and sharp structure for tensile and slight nonlinear behavior and sharp fracture of flexural testing. The relation between stress and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests were found to b linear with correlation factors of 0.9929 and 0.9973 respectively. Concerning the relation between the modulus and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests, it was found to be a quadratic relation with the same correlation factor approximated to 1. The same behavior was observed for the strain versus percentage of filler tensile and flexural tests, with the same correlation factor. (author)

  9. Molecular biology of Ganoderma pathogenicity and diagnosis in coconut seedlings.

    Kandan, A; Radjacommare, R; Ramanathan, A; Raguchander, T; Balasubramanian, P; Samiyappan, R

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Ganoderma boninense was tested on coconut seedlings under greenhouse conditions and infection confirmed by using immunological and molecular diagnostic tools. Desiccation of older leaves and the emergence of sporophores were observed from pathogen-inoculated seedlings, whereas a control seedling does not show any pathogenic symptoms. Mature sporophores were formed within 10-13 weeks after inoculation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against mycelial proteins of Ganoderma were used for detection of Ganoderma in infected field palm and seedlings through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. We adopted dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of Ganoderma from greenhouse and field samples. Under nucleic-acid-based diagnosis, G. boninense (167 bp) was detected from artificially inoculated seedlings and infected field palms by polymerase chain reaction. Apart from these, histopathological studies also support the Ganoderma pathogenicity in coconut seedlings. The pathogenicity test and combination of all the three diagnostic methods for Ganoderma could be highly reliable, rapid, sensitive and effective screening of resistance in planting material in the future.

  10. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the suburbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  11. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the su-burbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  12. Use of electron beam on aflatoxins degradation in coconut agar

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Aquino, Simone; Goncalez, Edlayne; Correa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The fungi Aspergillus flavus are capable of producing toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that is one of the most important human carcinogens, according to the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer'. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of electron beam irradiation on degradation of aflatoxin B1 present in laboratorial residues with a dose of 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. The fungi were cultivated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days and transferred to a coconut agar medium, incubated at a temperature of 25 deg C for 14 days to produce the laboratorial wastes (coconut agar) containing aflatoxins. The samples were conditioned in petri dish for radiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Electron Accelerator with 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. Aflatoxin B 1 was extracted with chloroform and separated on a thin layer chromatography plate (TLC) with chloroform: acetone (9:1). All the control and irradiated samples were analyzed in a Shimadzu Densitometer. The detection limit of this methodology is 0.1μg kg -1 . The results indicate that the irradiated samples had a reduction of 75.49 % in the analyzed dose. (author)

  13. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. POTENCIAL ANTIMICROBIANO DO ÓLEO DE COCO NO TRATAMENTO DE FERIDAS

    Lícia Caroline Tenório de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuevos medios de control de infección en heridas aparecen en salud pública por implicaciones en la atención, desarrollo de tecnologías y produtos relacionados con curación y control de microorganismos. La innovación tecnológica en tratamiento de herida basada en plantas con propiedades antimicrobianas y curación con etnobotânico informes. Estudio experimental in vitro, desarrollado en Laboratorio de Investigación del Cuidado de Heridas, entre marzo y septiembre de 2011, que investigó el potencial antimicrobiano del extracto de aceite de coco para prevención de infección y tratamiento de heridas, con três extractos de coco alagoano (dos artesanales y uno industrializado contra 14 microorganismos, para verificar la actividad antimicrobiana. Los extractos señalaron actividad frente a Staphylococcus aureus, sin embargo, para Staphylococcus epidermidis y Enterobacter cloacae sólo aceites artesanales. Hay necesidad de probar los extractos para purificación e identificación de sustancias inhibidoras de microorganismos, así como estudios in vivo en heridas utilizando modelo animal.

  15. Evaluación de impacto ambiental. Caso de estudio: Servicentro de combustible de Cayo Coco

    Ramón González Guevara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se analizan los impactos ambientales que ocasiona la construcción de un servicentro de combustibleen un ecosistema frágil, como lo es Cayo Coco. La metodología aplicada se fundamenta en la interacciónque existe entre las acciones de proyecto y los factores ambientales impactados; complementada con unanálisis multidisciplinario de grupos de expertos. Se demuestra la posibilidad de realización de este proyecto, deextraordinaria importancia económica para la región, condicionado a la ejecución de las actuaciones de protecciónal medio ambiente y el plan de control indicado.  In the work the environmental impacts are analyzed that causes the construction of a installation of fuel in afragile ecosystem, as it is Cayo Coco. The applied methodology is based in the existent interaction between theproject actions and the impacted environmental factors; supplemented with an analysis multidisciplinary ofexperts' groups. The possibility of execution of this project is demonstrated, of extraordinary economic importancefor the region, provided the protection performances are implemented to the environment and the plan ofsuitable control.

  16. CO-CO coupling on Cu facets: Coverage, strain and field effects

    Sandberg, Robert B.; Montoya, Joseph H.; Chan, Karen; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a DFT study on the effect of coverage, strain, and electric field on CO-CO coupling energetics on Cu (100), (111), and (211). Our calculations indicate that CO-CO coupling is facile on all three facets in the presence of a cation-induced electric field in the Helmholtz plane, with the lowest barrier on Cu(100). The CO dimerization pathway is therefore expected to play a role in C_2 formation at potentials negative of the Cu potential of zero charge, corresponding to CO_2/CO reduction conditions at high pH. Both increased *CO coverage and tensile strain further improve C-C coupling energetics on Cu (111) and (211). Since CO dimerization is facile on all 3 Cu facets, subsequent surface hydrogenation steps may also play an important role in determining the overall activity towards C_2 products. Adsorption of *CO, *H, and *OH on the 3 facets were investigated with a Pourbaix analysis. Here, the (211) facet has the largest propensity to co-adsorb *CO and *H, which would favor surface hydrogenation following CO dimerization.

  17. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Replanting/underplanting strategy for old coconut plantations in Papua New Guinea

    Ollivier Jean

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In most producing countries, the population of coconut palms is growing old, and ways of replacing them are rarely implemented to ensure that production is maintained and the future of the industry and its profitability are safeguarded. Rehabilitating/replanting coconut plantations and adopting appropriate intercropping systems is one of the main challenges to be taken up for the future of coconut in the Asia-Pacific region. The example of Papua New Guinea (PNG reveals one of the lowest yields per hectare among the countries in the Asia-Pacific zone. Almost 106,000 ha were planted between 1910 and 1940, amounting to around 40% of the current coconut plantings, hence 80 to 100,000 ha can be expected to disappear in the next twenty years. Faced with this forecast, the PNG Cocoa and Coconut Research Institute (PNG CCRI launched several operations, beginning with the creation of a coconut research centre on the PNG mainland: examination of a replanting strategy for old coconut plantings, based on hybrid planting material, distribution of improved planting material through the creation of a seed garden, and development of a system for controlling pest populations in high-risk zones. The experiments set up at the station are designed to optimize the felling date for old coconut palms, by measuring the effects of competition with the underplanted hybrids, and to determine from an economic point of view the best strategy to be applied for implementing rehabilitation and/or replanting programmes in old coconut plantings. This paper describes the results of these operations.

  19. The sugar cane and the coconut palm: research and development sources for environmental improvement

    Laine, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two plants that were important in the past for the human development in tropical areas: the sugar cane and the coconut palm, being considered now as possible solution for environmental problems. The sugar cane can be considered as a precursor plant to obtaine recyclable combustible, able to correct along the time the hothouse effect happening at global level. As for the coconut palm, it has been demonstrated that the shell of the coconut palm is one of the best raw materials for the preparation of activated coal, an absorbent material used in environmental protection applications [es

  20. KAJIAN PELEPAH KELAPA SEBAGAI SERAT KOMPOSIT (STUDY OF COCONUT BRANCH AS COMPOSITE FIBER)

    Seno Darmanto; Windu Sediono; Bambang Setyoko; Murni Murni

    2012-01-01

    Research is done to analyze coconut branch fiber as car body composite. Analyzing is based onmaterial, composition, and strength of material. Research was done in laboratory. Coconut branchfiber is obtained by natural drying process and cutting to become fiber with ±0,5 mm of length.Reinforcement and binder is determined polyester resin. Coir (coconut fiber) have 1.15 kg/m3 ofdensity, 1.15 MPa of strength dan modulus elastisitas 4 – 6 GPa. And based on specimen and studyof litera...

  1. Market Potential of Pasteurized Coconut Water in the Philippine Beverage Industry

    Hanilyn Aguilar Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Trends in health and well-being are taking the lead in the beverage consumption movement.  The waning attractiveness of carbonated beverage may be attributed to the negative impression of the sugar content linking it to health problems.  Studies show that coconut water is found to be as effective as a sports drink for rehydration.  However, while coconut water may be an old commodity which is usually consumed as fresh, pasteurized coconut water (PCW) becomes a new entrant in the Philippine be...

  2. The effect of Co-Co3O4 coating on the electrochemical properties of Si as an anode material for Li ion battery

    Kang, Yong-Mook; Lee, Sang-Min; Sung, Min-Seok; Jeong, Goo-Jin; Kim, Joon-Sup; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of Si as an anode material for Li ion secondary batteries, a biphasic layer composed of Co and Co 3 O 4 was coated on Si particles by sol-gel method. Compared to Si, Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si showed the drastic improvement in several electrochemical properties, such as initial coulombic efficiency (55% → 88%), cyclic efficiency and cycle life. The comparison between Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si and heat-treated Si without the coating let us know that the improvement of electrochemical properties only results from Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer. Little changed cyclic properties (cyclic efficiency and cycle life) of Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si even at a higher charge-discharge rate insinuated that Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer plays a crucial role in maintaining the electronic contacts between particles and conducting parts. When trying to measure a thickness variation of the electrodes each containing Si and Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si as active materials, it was notified that Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer can accommodate the volume expansion of Si during Li + insertion, which has its original thickness almost recovered after Li + extraction

  3. The Potential of Coconut Shell Powder (CSP) and Coconut Shell Activated Carbon (CSAC) Composites as Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Absorbing Material

    Siti Nurbazilah Abdul Jabal; Seok, Y.B.; Hoon, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture waste is potentially useful as an alternative material to absorb and attenuate electromagnetic interference (EMI). This research highlights the use of coconut shell powder (CSP) and coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC) as raw materials with epoxy resin and amine hardener composite to absorb microwave signals over frequency of 1 - 8 GHz. In order to investigate the suitability of these raw materials as EMI absorbing material, carbon composition of the raw materials is determined through CHNS Elemental Analysis. The surface morphology of the raw materials in term of porosity is investigated by using TM3000 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The complex permittivity of the composites is determined by using high temperature dielectric probe in conjunction with Network Analyzer. From the result, the Carbon% of CSP and CSAC is 46.70 % and 84.28 % respectively. In term of surface morphology, the surface porosity of CSP and CSAC is in the range of 2 μm and 1 μm respectively. For the dielectric properties, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss factor for CSP and CSAC is 4.5767 and 64.8307 and 1.2144 and 13.8296 respectively. The materials more potentially useful as substitute materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorbing are discussed. (author)

  4. Investigation of a possible 18th century Dutch shipwreck on Christmas Island or the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    Ariese, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an unidentified 18th century Dutch shipwreck emerges periodically in books, letters and conversations about Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. An investigation of these sources indicated that different ships may be responsible for these rumours, but it is equally

  5. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Konan Y.L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades of Cocos nucifera (coconut, Elaeis guineensis (oil palm and Carapa procera (gobi were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 ± 37.0 mn and 74.6 ± 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 ± 30.0 mn and 60.8 ± 33.9 mn. On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8 % and 35.9 % for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7 % and 47.4 % against An. gambiae. Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less than the vaseline's.

  6. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.

    Konan, Y L; Sylla, M S; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-06-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Carapa procera (gobi) were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 +/- 37.0 mn and 74.6 +/- 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti) are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 +/- 30.0 mn and 60.8 +/- 33.9 mn). On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8% and 35.9% for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7% and 47.4% against An. gambiae). Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less) than the vaseline's.

  7. Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Panel Influenced by Treated and Untreated Coconut Fiber Addition

    Abdullah, Alida; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Anwar, Mohamed Iylia; Noor, Mazlee Mohd; Hussin, Kamarudin

    This project was conducted to produce a cement panel with the addition of treated and untreated coconut fiber in cement panel. Coconut fiber was added to replace coarse aggregate (sand) in this cement panel. In this project, the ratios used to design the mixture were 1:1:0, 1:0.97:0.03, 1:0.94:0.06, 1:0.91:0.09 (cement: sand: coconut fiber). The water cement ratio was constant at 0.55. The sizes of sample tested were, 160 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm for compression test, and 100 mm x 100 mm x 40 mm for density, moisture content and water absorption tests. After curing samples for 28 days, it was found that the addition of coconut fiber, further increase in compressive strength of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber. Moisture content of cement panel with treated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber whereas water absorption of cement panel with untreated coconut fiber increased with increasing content of coconut fiber. The density of cement panel decreased with the addition of untreated and treated coconut fiber.

  8. Crescimento inicial de mudas de Acacia mangium cultivadas em mantas de fibra de coco contendo substrato de lodo de esgoto

    Rômulo Fredson Duarte

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de Acacia mangium semeadas em "manta" de fibra de coco contendo substrato de lodo de esgoto. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 13 tratamentos e três repetições, distribuídos em esquema fatorial (6 x 2 + 1 com seis proporções de fibra de coco e resíduo agregante, combinados com substratos com e sem lodo de esgoto, mais o tratamento-controle (terra de subsolo. Foram avaliados o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a percentagem de emergência (EM e a altura das plantas aos 40 e 60 dias após a emergência. O tratamento- controle apresentou melhores resultados em relação ao IVE e EM quando comparado com os tratamentos utilizando "manta" de fibra de coco e resíduo agregante. Não houve diferença entre o controle e os tratamentos com "mantas" em altura das plantas aos 40 e 60 dias. Não foram observadas interações entre o tipo de substrato utilizado no semeio e as diferentes proporções de fibra de coco na "manta". A presença de lodo no substrato não influenciou o IVE e a EM, contudo verificou-se que o substrato sem lodo de esgoto proporcionou maior crescimento em altura das plantas. O uso de "mantas" contendo 50 e 100% de fibra de coco proporcionou maior crescimento às mudas de acácia em condições de campo.

  9. Ocurrence of the sea anemone Telmatactis panamensis (Verrill, 1869 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Fabián H. Acuña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemone fauna of Isla del Coco National Park (also known as Cocos Island Nacional Park, Pacific Costa Rica is poorly known. In the present work we report the first occurrence of the species Telmatactis panamensis. Individuals of this sea anemone (n=24 were collected at Chatham Bay intertidal and at 15m depth in Punta Ulloa, in both cases attached to rocks; during the expedition UCR-UNA-COCO-I in April 2010. We provide photographs of live individuals, external anatomy and an inventory of cnidae of the studied specimens. Possibly this species is extended to greater depth as observed by other authors in the Galápagos Islands.La fauna de anémonas de mar es prácticamente desconocida para el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (Costa Rica. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de la especie Telmatactis panamensis. Individuos de esta anémona de mar fueron colectados en el intermareal de Bahía Chatham y a 15m de profundidad en Punta Ulloa, en ambos casos adheridas a rocas; durante la expedición UCR-UNA-COCO-I en Abril de 2010. Se proveen fotografías de ejemplares vivos, datos de su anatomía externa y un inventario del cnidae de los especímenes estudiados. Posiblemente esta especie se extienda a mayor profundidad, tal como fue observado por otros autores para ejemplares de las Islas Galápagos.

  10. Extraction and characterization of cellulose microfibrils from agricultural residue –Cocos nucifera L

    Uma Maheswari, C.; Obi Reddy, K.; Muzenda, E.; Guduri, B.R.; Varada Rajulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to extract cellulose microfibrils from the agricultural residue of coconut palm leaf sheath using chlorination and alkaline extraction process. Chemical characterization of the cellulose microfibrils confirmed that the α-cellulose mass fraction increased from 0.373 kg kg −1 to 0.896 kg kg −1 after application of several treatments including dewaxing, chlorite delignification and alkaline extraction of hemicelluloses. Similarly, the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for leaf sheath and extracted cellulose microfibrils was found to be 42.3 and 47.7 respectively. The morphology of the cellulose microfibrils was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The cellulose microfibrils had diameters in the range of 10–15 μm. Fourier transform infrared and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the leaf sheath fibers. The thermal stability of the fibers was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis, which demonstrated that this thermal stability was enhanced noticeably for cellulose microfibrils. This work provides a new approach for more effective utilization of coconut palm leaf sheaths to examine their potential use as pulp and paper and reinforcement fibers in biocomposite applications. -- Highlights: ► Utilization of Coconut palm leaf sheath as an alternate material for cellulose extraction. ► Using an abundant natural waste for paper pulp, biofilms and composite applications. ► Cellulose microfibrils have higher cellulose content than the leaf sheath. ► FTIR and NMR were used to study fiber structural changes during several treatments. ► Thermal stability of microfibrils is higher than their respective leaf sheath.

  11. Flowering Trees

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  12. Flowering Trees

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  13. Flowering Trees

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  14. Flowering Trees

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  15. Flowering Trees

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  17. Flowering Trees

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  18. Flowering Trees

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  20. Flowering Trees

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.