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Sample records for cockroach involves protease-activated

  1. Protease activation involved in resistance of human cells to x-ray cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-Chang; Takahashi, Shuji; Karata, Kiyonobu; Kita, Kazuko; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    Little is known of proteases that play roles in the early steps of X-ray irradiation response. In the present study, we first searched for proteases whose activity is induced in human RSa-R cells after X-ray irradiation. The activity was identified as fibrinolytic, using 125 I-labeled fibrin as a substrate. Protease samples were prepared by lysation of cells with a buffer containing MEGA-8. RSa-R cells showed an increased level of protease activity 10 min after X-ray (up to 3 Gy) irradiation. We next examined whether this protease inducibility is causally related with the X-ray susceptibility of cells. Leupeptin, a serine-cysteine protease inhibitor, inhibited the protease activity in samples obtained from X-ray-irradiated RSa-R cells. Treatment of RSa-R cells with the inhibitor before and after X-ray irradiation resulted in an increased susceptibility of the cells to X-ray cell killing. However, the treatment of cells with other inhibitors tested did not modulate the X-ray susceptibility. These results suggest that leupeptin-sensitive proteases are involved in the resistance of human cells to X-ray cell killing. (author)

  2. Cockroach Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Allergist Search Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Cockroach Allergy Cockroaches are insects that live in many locations ... other children with asthma. What Is a Cockroach Allergy? Cockroaches contain a protein that is an allergen ...

  3. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  4. Diallylsulfide attenuates excessive collagen production and apoptosis in a rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis through the involvement of protease activated receptor-2

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    Kalayarasan, Srinivasan, E-mail: kalaivasanbio@gmail.com; Sriram, Narayanan; Soumyakrishnan, Syamala; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam, E-mail: sudhandiran@yahoo.com

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can be a devastating lung disease. It is primarily caused by inflammation leading to severe damage of the alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiology of PF is not yet been clearly defined, but studying lung parenchymal injury by involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may provide promising results. PAR-2 is a G-protein coupled receptor is known to play an important role in the development of PF. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of diallylsulfide (DAS) against ROS mediated activation of PAR-2 and collagen production accompanied by epithelial cell apoptosis. Bleomycin induced ROS levels may prompt to induce the expression of PAR-2 as well as extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), such as MMP 2 and 9, collagen specific proteins HSP-47, α-SMA, and cytokines IL-6, and IL-8RA. Importantly DAS treatment effectively decreased the expression of all these proteins. The inhibitory effect of DAS on profibrotic molecules is mediated by blocking the ROS level. To identify apoptotic signaling as a mediator of PF induction, we performed apoptotic protein expression, DNA fragmentation analysis and ultrastructural details of the lung tissue were performed. DAS treatment restored all these changes to near normalcy. In conclusion, treatment of PF bearing rats with DAS results in amelioration of the ROS production, PAR-2 activation, ECM production, collagen synthesis and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis during bleomycin induction. We attained the first evidence that treatment of DAS decreases the ROS levels and may provide a potential therapeutic effect attenuating bleomycin induced PF. - Highlights: • DAS inhibits PAR-2 activity; bleomycin stimulates PAR-2 activity. • Increase in PAR-2 activity is correlated with pulmonary fibrosis • DAS reduces pro-inflammatory activity linked to facilitating pulmonary fibrosis. • DAS inhibits apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

  5. Diallylsulfide attenuates excessive collagen production and apoptosis in a rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis through the involvement of protease activated receptor-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalayarasan, Srinivasan; Sriram, Narayanan; Soumyakrishnan, Syamala; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can be a devastating lung disease. It is primarily caused by inflammation leading to severe damage of the alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiology of PF is not yet been clearly defined, but studying lung parenchymal injury by involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may provide promising results. PAR-2 is a G-protein coupled receptor is known to play an important role in the development of PF. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of diallylsulfide (DAS) against ROS mediated activation of PAR-2 and collagen production accompanied by epithelial cell apoptosis. Bleomycin induced ROS levels may prompt to induce the expression of PAR-2 as well as extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), such as MMP 2 and 9, collagen specific proteins HSP-47, α-SMA, and cytokines IL-6, and IL-8RA. Importantly DAS treatment effectively decreased the expression of all these proteins. The inhibitory effect of DAS on profibrotic molecules is mediated by blocking the ROS level. To identify apoptotic signaling as a mediator of PF induction, we performed apoptotic protein expression, DNA fragmentation analysis and ultrastructural details of the lung tissue were performed. DAS treatment restored all these changes to near normalcy. In conclusion, treatment of PF bearing rats with DAS results in amelioration of the ROS production, PAR-2 activation, ECM production, collagen synthesis and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis during bleomycin induction. We attained the first evidence that treatment of DAS decreases the ROS levels and may provide a potential therapeutic effect attenuating bleomycin induced PF. - Highlights: • DAS inhibits PAR-2 activity; bleomycin stimulates PAR-2 activity. • Increase in PAR-2 activity is correlated with pulmonary fibrosis • DAS reduces pro-inflammatory activity linked to facilitating pulmonary fibrosis. • DAS inhibits apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells

  6. Per a 10 protease activity modulates CD40 expression on dendritic cell surface by nuclear factor-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, C; Kalra, N; Dwarakanath, B S; Gaur, S N; Arora, N

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease activity of Per a 10 from Periplaneta americana modulates dendritic cell (DC) functions by a mechanism(s) that remains unclear. In the present study, Per a 10 protease activity on CD40 expression and downstream signalling was evaluated in DCs. Monocyte-derived DCs from cockroach-allergic patients were treated with proteolytically active/heat-inactivated Per a 10. Stimulation with active Per a 10 demonstrated low CD40 expression on DCs surface (P Per a 10, suggesting cleavage of CD40. Per a 10 activity reduced the interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by DCs (P Per a 10, indicating that low CD40 expression is associated with low levels of IL-12 secretion. Active Per a 10 stimulation caused low nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in DCs compared to heat-inactivated Per a 10. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway suppressed the CD40 expression and IL-12 secretion by DCs, further indicating that NF-κB is required for CD40 up-regulation. CD40 expression activated the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), thereby suggesting its involvement in NF-κB activation. Protease activity of Per a 10 induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that showed no significant effect on CD40 expression by DCs. However, inhibiting p38 MAPK or NF-κB suppressed the secretion of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α by DCs. Such DCs further reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α by CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 reduces CD40 expression on DCs. CD40 down-regulation leads to low NF-κB levels, thereby modulating DC-mediated immune responses. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  7. DC type 2 polarization depends on both the allergic status of the individual and protease activity of Per a 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Chhavi; Gaur, S N; Bhati, Gaurav; Arora, Naveen

    2015-10-01

    Cockroach proteases are important risk factors for asthma development in predisposed individuals. In the present study, effect of allergic status of patients on DCs polarization in response to protease allergen Per a 10 was investigated. Cockroach-allergic, other-allergic patients and healthy individuals were selected following the guidelines of ATS/ARIA. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from the selected individuals and stimulated with Per a 10. Flow cytometric analysis showed a significantly high expression of CD80 and CD86 on DCs from cockroach-allergic patients after Per a 10 stimulation as compared to healthy individuals or other-allergic patients (PPer a 10 induced comparable level of CD83 expression on DCs from all the 3 groups, showing it was irrespective of the allergic status. CD40 expression was significantly low (PPer a 10 induced lower CD40 expression on DCs than the heat-inactivated Per a 10 (PPer a 10 stimulated DC cultures was significantly higher than in heat-inactivated Per a 10 (PPer a 10-stimulated DCs than heat-inactivated Per a 10-stimulated DCs. Per a 10-stimulated DCs from cockroach-allergic patients secreted high levels of IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α than that from healthy individuals or other-allergic patients (PPer a 10-stimulated DCs from cockroach-allergic patients induced increased secretions of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α and low IL-12 by T cells as compared to those from other groups (PPer a 10 allergen, polarization of DCs shifts toward type 2 in cockroach-allergic patients but not in the healthy individuals or other-allergic patients. In conclusion, both allergic status of the individual and protease activity of Per a 10 are important parameters that participate in DCs polarization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  9. Modelling active antennal movements of the American cockroach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pequeno-Zurro, Alejandro; Nitschke, Jahn; Szyszka, Paul

    2017-01-01

    lacking. Here we report on an integrated experimental and computational approach to investigate how sensory information affects antennal movements. We present a modelling approach to characterise the relationship between antennal searching movement of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana......Cockroach antennae are multimodal sensory appendages engaging in active olfactory and tactile sensing. They are involved in unisensory behaviours such as chemotaxis, thigmotaxis, obstacle negotiation and tactile orientation. Studies of multisensory capabilities mediated by the antennae are however...

  10. Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Li, Jian-Feng; Niu, Yajie; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Woody, Owen Z; Xiong, Yan; Djonović, Slavica; Millet, Yves; Bush, Jenifer; McConkey, Brendan J; Sheen, Jen; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2015-05-14

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play central roles in innate immune signalling networks in plants and animals. In plants, however, the molecular mechanisms of how signal perception is transduced to MAPK activation remain elusive. Here we report that pathogen-secreted proteases activate a previously unknown signalling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana involving the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, which function upstream of an MAPK cascade. In this pathway, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) functions as a novel scaffold that binds to the Gβ subunit as well as to all three tiers of the MAPK cascade, thereby linking upstream G-protein signalling to downstream activation of an MAPK cascade. The protease-G-protein-RACK1-MAPK cascade modules identified in these studies are distinct from previously described plant immune signalling pathways such as that elicited by bacterial flagellin, in which G proteins function downstream of or in parallel to an MAPK cascade without the involvement of the RACK1 scaffolding protein. The discovery of the new protease-mediated immune signalling pathway described here was facilitated by the use of the broad host range, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems.

  11. Detection of protease activity in cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoes, Martijn; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are involved in a wide variety of biologically and medically important events. They are entangled in a complex network of processes that regulate their activity, which makes their study intriguing, but challenging. For comprehensive understanding of protease biology and effective drug discovery, it is therefore essential to study proteases in models that are close to their complex native environments such as live cells or whole organisms. Protease activity can be detected by reporter substrates and activity-based probes, but not all of these reagents are suitable for intracellular or in vivo use. This review focuses on the detection of proteases in cells and in vivo. We summarize the use of probes and substrates as molecular tools, discuss strategies to deliver these tools inside cells, and describe sophisticated read-out techniques such as mass spectrometry and various imaging applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

  13. Characterization of the protease activity that cleaves the extracellular domain of β-dystroglycan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Di; Saito, Fumiaki; Saito, Yuko; Nakamura, Ayami; Shimizu, Teruo; Matsumura, Kiichiro

    2006-01-01

    Dystroglycan (DG) complex, composed of αDG and βDG, provides a link between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cortical cytoskeleton. Although the proteolytic processing of βDG was reported in various physiological and pathological conditions, its exact mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue using the cell culture system of rat schwannoma cell line RT4. We found that the culture medium of RT4 cells was enriched with the protease activity that degrades the fusion protein construct of the extracellular domain of βDG specifically. This activity was suppressed by the inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, but not by the inhibitors of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-13. Zymography and RT-PCR analysis showed that RT4 cells secreted MMP-2 and MMP-9 into the culture medium. Finally, active MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymes degraded the fusion protein construct of the extracellular domain of βDG. These results indicate (1) that RT4 cells secrete the protease activity that degrades the extracellular domain of βDG specifically and (2) that MMP-2 and MMP-9 may be involved in this process

  14. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  15. Inhibitory action of essential oils against proteases activity of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, M.C.; Zalazar, L.; Fuselli, S.L.; Ponce, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is a disease affecting the larva of Apis mellifera. The etiological agent is Paenibacillus larvae, which releases metalloproteases involved in the degradation of larval tissues. Through quorum sensing (QS) mechanism, bacteria are able to activate specific genes such as virulence factors. The exoproteases regulation of P. larvae could be associated with QS. A promising mechanism of AFB control is to block QS mechanism with essential oils (EO). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential presence of QS signals in the regulation of P. larvae proteases and the effect of seven EOs on the exoproteases activity of P. larvae. From growth curves and evaluation of the presence of proteases by milk agar plates assay, it was observed protease activity during the late exponential phase of growth. Early production of protease activity (15 hours earlier than control) was observed when a low density culture was incubated with late exponential spent medium (SM) suggesting the presence of factor(s) inducing this activity. SM was obtained by the ultrafiltration of P. larvae cultures on late growth phase and was free of proteases. Proteolytic activity was quantified on P. larvae cultures in presence of sublethal concentration of EO by azocasein method. The EOs, except S. chilensis EO, reduced significantly protease activity (more than 50%). We report for the first time evidence on the possible role of QS on P. larvae and the antiproteolytic activity of EOs (except for S. chilensis) on exoproteases, an interesting therapeutic strategy to control AFB.

  16. Inhibitory action of essential oils against proteases activity of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, M.C.; Zalazar, L.; Fuselli, S.L.; Ponce, A.G.

    2017-07-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is a disease affecting the larva of Apis mellifera. The etiological agent is Paenibacillus larvae, which releases metalloproteases involved in the degradation of larval tissues. Through quorum sensing (QS) mechanism, bacteria are able to activate specific genes such as virulence factors. The exoproteases regulation of P. larvae could be associated with QS. A promising mechanism of AFB control is to block QS mechanism with essential oils (EO). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential presence of QS signals in the regulation of P. larvae proteases and the effect of seven EOs on the exoproteases activity of P. larvae. From growth curves and evaluation of the presence of proteases by milk agar plates assay, it was observed protease activity during the late exponential phase of growth. Early production of protease activity (15 hours earlier than control) was observed when a low density culture was incubated with late exponential spent medium (SM) suggesting the presence of factor(s) inducing this activity. SM was obtained by the ultrafiltration of P. larvae cultures on late growth phase and was free of proteases. Proteolytic activity was quantified on P. larvae cultures in presence of sublethal concentration of EO by azocasein method. The EOs, except S. chilensis EO, reduced significantly protease activity (more than 50%). We report for the first time evidence on the possible role of QS on P. larvae and the antiproteolytic activity of EOs (except for S. chilensis) on exoproteases, an interesting therapeutic strategy to control AFB.

  17. Inhibitory action of essential oils against proteases activity of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Pellegrini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB is a disease affecting the larva of Apis mellifera. The etiological agent is Paenibacillus larvae, which releases metalloproteases involved in the degradation of larval tissues. Through quorum sensing (QS mechanism, bacteria are able to activate specific genes such as virulence factors. The exoproteases regulation of P. larvae could be associated with QS. A promising mechanism of AFB control is to block QS mechanism with essential oils (EO. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential presence of QS signals in the regulation of P. larvae proteases and the effect of seven EOs on the exoproteases activity of P. larvae. From growth curves and evaluation of the presence of proteases by milk agar plates assay, it was observed protease activity during the late exponential phase of growth. Early production of protease activity (15 hours earlier than control was observed when a low density culture was incubated with late exponential spent medium (SM suggesting the presence of factor(s inducing this activity. SM was obtained by the ultrafiltration of P. larvae cultures on late growth phase and was free of proteases. Proteolytic activity was quantified on P. larvae cultures in presence of sublethal concentration of EO by azocasein method. The EOs, except S. chilensis EO, reduced significantly protease activity (more than 50%. We report for the first time evidence on the possible role of QS on P. larvae and the antiproteolytic activity of EOs (except for S. chilensis on exoproteases, an interesting therapeutic strategy to control AFB.

  18. Site-SpecificCu Labeling of the Serine Protease, Active Site Inhibited Factor Seven Azide (FVIIai-N), Using Copper Free Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Troels E; Kristensen, Lotte K; Nielsen, Carsten H

    2018-01-01

    A method for site-specific radiolabeling of the serine protease active site inhibited factor seven (FVIIai) with64Cu has been applied using a biorthogonal click reaction. FVIIai binds to tissue factor (TF), a trans-membrane protein involved in hemostasis, angiogenesis, proliferation, cell migrati...

  19. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING Lactobacillus ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL RATE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunak Nafiqoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two Lactobacillus bacteria on protease activity and growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei. An experiment was conducted to examine protease activity and growth rate. The experiment consisted of two treatment tanks, the first tank was provided with artemia immersed in 2.6 x 1016 cfu/mL of bacteria solution, the second tank served as the control tank. After 20 days, the L. vannamei in the tank that received Lactobacillus have significantly different in growth, survival rate and protease activity (P<0.05 compared to the control, but no significant difference between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum treatments. Within the digestive organ, protease activity of hepatopancreas and stomach demonstrated significant higher activity (P<0.05 compared to the intestine.

  20. Targeting protease activated receptor-1 with P1pal-12 limits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; Duitman, Janwillem; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; von der Thüsen, Jan; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating fibrotic diffuse parenchymal lung disease which remains refractory to pharmacological therapies. Therefore, novel treatments are urgently required. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates critical

  1. Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by Mimosa pudica root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, K S; Mohanakumari, H P; Nagaraju, S; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2004-06-01

    The aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities of Indian snakes (Naja naja, Vipera russelii and Echis carinatus) venom. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L.) and screening for protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    de Azevedo Santiago, Andr? Luiz Cabral Monteiro; de Souza Motta, Cristina Maria

    2008-01-01

    Mucorales were isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity.

  3. Horizontal transfer of bait in the German cockroach: indoxacarb causes secondary and tertiary mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Scherer, Clay W; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    Horizontal transfer of indoxacarb in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), was examined under laboratory conditions. Results show that a single bait-fed adult cockroach (i.e., the donor) transferred indoxacarb to numerous primary recipients (secondary mortality),which then became secondary donors. These recipients subsequently became donors to other cockroaches and caused significant mortality in other members of the aggregation, resulting in tertiary kill. Indoxacarb was effectively transferred among adult cockroaches and resulted in significant secondary mortality. When adult males served as donors and vectored the insecticide to adult males, the donor:recipient ratio affected the mortality of the recipients and the rate of secondary mortality increased with increasing the ratio of donors to recipients. Furthermore, secondary mortality in the untreated cockroaches was significantly affected by the freshness of excretions from the donors, the presence of alternative food, and the duration of contact between the donors and the recipients. Ingested indoxacarb was most effectively translocated when the recipients interacted with freshly symptomatic donors in the absence of alternative food. The transfer of indoxacarb continued beyond secondary mortality and resulted in significant tertiary mortality. Excretions from a single bait-fed adult killed 38/50 (76%) nymphs within 72 h. The dead nymphs then vectored indoxacarb to 20 adult males and killed 16/20 (81%) recipients within 72 h. Behavioral mechanisms involved in the horizontal transfer of indoxacarb may include: contact with excretions, necrophagy, emetophagy, and ingestion of other excretions that originate from the donors.

  4. Vectorial Potential of Cockroaches in Transmitting Parasites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infectious pathogens, control measures instituted in toilets, kitchens; and targeting especially the females and both stages of ... Cockroaches are among the most notorious pests of premises, they ..... Bacterial of cockroaches in relation to urban.

  5. Effects of protease-activated receptor 1 inhibition on anxiety and fear following status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovyk, Ruslan; Lunko, Oleksii; Fedoriuk, Mihail; Isaev, Dmytro; Krishtal, Oleg; Holmes, Gregory L; Isaeva, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE. We showed that SE induces a chronic decrease in the animals' anxiety-related behavior and an increase of locomotor activity. PAR1 inhibition after SE abolished the alteration of the anxiety level but does not affect the increase of locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Moreover, while PAR1 inhibition produces an impairment of memory recall in the context fear conditioning paradigm in the control group, it substantially improves contextual and cued fear learning in rats experiencing SE. These data suggest that PAR1-dependent signaling is involved in the mechanisms underlying emotional disorders in epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of protease activity in milk by continuous flow high-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martín, O

    2003-03-01

    High-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) is a non-thermal food processing technology that is currently being investigated to inactivate microorganisms and certain enzymes, involving a limited increase of food temperature. Promising results have been obtained on the inactivation of microbial enzymes in milk when suspended in simulated milk ultrafiltrate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous HIPEF equipment on inactivating a protease from Bacillus subtilis inoculated in milk. Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 866 micros of squared wave pulses at field strengths from 19.7 to 35.5 kV/cm, using a treatment chamber that consisted of eight colinear chambers connected in series. Moreover, the effects of different parameters such as pulse width (4 and 7 micros), pulse repetition rates (67, 89, and 111 Hz), and milk composition (skim and whole milk) were tested. Protease activity decreased with increased treatment time or field strength and pulse repetition rate. Regarding pulse width, no differences were observed between 4 and 7 micros pulses when total treatment time was considered. On the other hand, it was observed that milk composition affected the results since higher inactivation levels were reached in skim than in whole milk. The maximum inactivation (81%) was attained in skim milk after an 866-micros treatment at 35.5 kV/cm and 111 Hz.

  7. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Buch

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep. Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory.

  8. Energetic Cost of Subacute Chlorpyrifos Intoxication in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The energetic cost of a sublethal treatment with chlorpyrifos was estimated by use of direct microcalorimetry to measure metabolic heat in susceptible and resistant strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. Moreover, one of the detoxifcation enzyme systems known to be involved...... in detoxifcation of chlorpyrifos, glutathione-S-transferase, was measured. Individual cockroaches were exposed for 20 min on a glass-surfaces treated with 1.14 ...  g/cm2 of chlorpyrifos. There was no difference in glutathione-S-transferase activity of susceptible or resistant strains after the treatment. The heat...

  9. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vršanský

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae, whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  10. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  11. An efficient method to eliminate the protease activity contaminating commercial bovine pancreatic DNase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tien; Lee, Hak Jin; Jin, Hyung Jong

    2015-08-15

    A method was developed to eliminate the proteases contaminating commercial DNase I, which can cause degradation of target protein during the purification process. Bio Basic DNase stock solution (in Tris-HCl buffer [pH 8.0] containing 5mM CaCl2) was first incubated at 50 °C to generate autolysis of proteases and zymogens, leading to a significant reduction in protease activity while preserving DNase activity. The residual protease activity was completely inhibited by further incubation with 2mM PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) or 2× S8830 inhibitor cocktail. This approach could be readily applicable to eliminate the protease activity in any DNase products or during the preparation of commercial DNase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Esterase and protease activities of Bacillus spp. from afitin, iru and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrophoretic profiles of fermented African locust bean protein (ALBP), using strains presenting the highest protease activities in casein agar, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to select strains with good ability to be used as starter cultures. All the Bacillus spp. tested showed esterase activity against tributyrin with high ...

  13. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced

  14. Pharmacological targeting of protease-activated receptor 2 affords protection from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Lin (Cong); J. von der Thusen (Jan); J. Daalhuisen (Joost); M. Ten Brink (Marieke); B. Crestani (Bruno); T. van der Poll (Tom); K. Borensztajn (Keren); C. Arnold Spek (C.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease that remains refractory to therapy. Despite increasing evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) contributes to fibrosis, its importance in pulmonary fibrosis is under debate. We addressed

  15. Pharmacological Targeting of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Affords Protection from Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease that remains refractory to therapy. Despite increasing evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) contributes to fibrosis, its importance in pulmonary fibrosis is under debate. We addressed whether PAR-2

  16. Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Induces VEGF Independently of HIF-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.G.; Riis, Simone Elkjær; Frøbert, O.

    2012-01-01

    Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) can promote angiogenesis through secretion of proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In other cell types, it has been shown that induction of VEGF is mediated by both protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and hypoxia inducible fact...

  17. Deletion of protease-activated receptor 2 prolongs survival of scrapie-inoculated mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, R.; Olejár, Tomáš; Janoušková, O.; Holada, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 9 (2012), s. 2057-2061 ISSN 0022-1317 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : protease-activated receptor (PAR2) * scrapie * neurodegenerative disorders Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2012

  18. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L.) and screening for protease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; de Souza Motta, Cristina Maria

    2008-01-01

    Mucorales were isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity. PMID:24031292

  19. Role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptors in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlinski, Rafal; Pedersen, Brian; Schabbauer, Gernot; Tencati, Michael; Holscher, Todd; Boisvert, William; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Frank, Rolf Dario; Mackman, Nigel

    2004-02-15

    Sepsis is associated with a systemic activation of coagulation and an excessive inflammatory response. Anticoagulants have been shown to inhibit both coagulation and inflammation in sepsis. In this study, we used both genetic and pharmacologic approaches to analyze the role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptors in coagulation and inflammation in a mouse endotoxemia model. We used mice expressing low levels of the procoagulant molecule, tissue factor (TF), to analyze the effects of TF deficiency either in all tissues or selectively in hematopoietic cells. Low TF mice had reduced coagulation, inflammation, and mortality compared with control mice. Similarly, a deficiency of TF expression by hematopoietic cells reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced coagulation, inflammation, and mortality. Inhibition of the down-stream coagulation protease, thrombin, reduced fibrin deposition and prolonged survival without affecting inflammation. Deficiency of either protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) or protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) alone did not affect inflammation or survival. However, a combination of thrombin inhibition and PAR-2 deficiency reduced inflammation and mortality. These data demonstrate that hematopoietic cells are the major pathologic site of TF expression during endotoxemia and suggest that multiple protease-activated receptors mediate crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation.

  20. Protease-activated receptor-1 impairs host defense in murine pneumococcal pneumonia: a controlled laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Marcel; van't Veer, Cornelis; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is expressed by multiple cell types present in the lungs and can be activated by various proteases generated during acute inflammation. The cellular effect of PAR-1

  1. Live-Cell Imaging of Protease Activity: Assays to Screen Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Anita; Ji, Kyungmin; Sameni, Mansoureh; Mazumder, Samia H; Xu, Yong; Moin, Kamiar; Sloane, Bonnie F

    2017-01-01

    Methodologies to image and quantify the activity of proteolytic enzymes have been developed in an effort to identify protease-related druggable pathways that are involved in malignant progression of cancer. Our laboratory has pioneered techniques for functional live-cell imaging of protease activity in pathomimetic avatars for breast cancer. We analyze proteolysis in the context of proliferation and formation of structures by tumor cells in 3-D cultures over time (4D). In order to recapitulate the cellular composition and architecture of tumors in the pathomimetic avatars, we include other tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, microvascular endothelial cells). We also model noncellular aspects of the tumor microenvironment such as acidic pericellular pH. Use of pathomimetic avatars in concert with various types of imaging probes has allowed us to image, quantify, and follow the dynamics of proteolysis in the tumor microenvironment and to test interventions that impact directly or indirectly on proteolytic pathways. To facilitate use of the pathomimetic avatars for screening of therapeutic modalities, we have designed and fabricated custom 3D culture chambers with multiple wells that are either individual or connected by a channel to allow cells to migrate between wells. Optical glass microscope slides underneath an acrylic plate allow the cultures to be imaged with an inverted microscope. Fluid ports in the acrylic plate are at a level above the 3D cultures to allow introduction of culture media and test agents such as drugs into the wells and the harvesting of media conditioned by the cultures for immunochemical and biochemical analyses. We are using the pathomimetic avatars to identify druggable pathways, screen drug and natural product libraries and accelerate entry of validated drugs or natural products into clinical trials.

  2. Protease-activated receptor-2 activation exaggerates TRPV1-mediated cough in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Raffaele; Andre, Eunice; Amadesi, Silvia; Dinh, Thai Q; Fischer, Axel; Bunnett, Nigel W; Harrison, Selena; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Trevisani, Marcello

    2006-08-01

    A lowered threshold to the cough response frequently accompanies chronic airway inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanism(s) that from chronic inflammation results in a lowered cough threshold is poorly understood. Irritant agents, including capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, and citric acid, elicit cough in humans and in experimental animals through the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) activation plays a role in inflammation and sensitizes TRPV1 in cultured sensory neurons by a PKC-dependent pathway. Here, we have investigated whether PAR2 activation exaggerates TRPV1-dependent cough in guinea pigs and whether protein kinases are involved in the PAR2-induced cough modulation. Aerosolized PAR2 agonists (PAR2-activating peptide and trypsin) did not produce any cough per se. However, they potentiated citric acid- and resiniferatoxin-induced cough, an effect that was completely prevented by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. In contrast, cough induced by hypertonic saline, a stimulus that provokes cough in a TRPV1-independent manner, was not modified by aerosolized PAR2 agonists. The PKC inhibitor GF-109203X, the PKA inhibitor H-89, and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin did not affect cough induced by TRPV1 agonists, but abated the exaggeration of this response produced by PAR2 agonists. In conclusion, PAR2 stimulation exaggerates TRPV1-dependent cough by activation of diverse mechanism(s), including PKC, PKA, and prostanoid release. PAR2 activation, by sensitizing TRPV1 in primary sensory neurons, may play a role in the exaggerated cough observed in certain airways inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Monitoring single protease activities on triple-helical collagen molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzar, Raj; Froberg, James; Srivastava, D. K.; Choi, Yongki

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a particular family of proteases, play a pivotal role in degrading the extracellular matrix (ECM). It has been known for more than 40 years that MMPs are closely involved in multiple human cancers during cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms of MMP activity are far from being understood. Here, we monitored enzymatic processing of MMPs with two complementary approaches, atomic force microscopy and nanocircuits measurements. AFM measurements demonstrated that incubation of collagen monomers with MMPs resulted in a single position cleavage, producing 3/4 and 1/4 collagen fragments. From electronic monitoring of single MMP nanocircuit measurements, we were able to capture a single cleavage event with a rate of 0.012 Hz, which were in good agreement with fluorescence assay measurements. This work was supported financially by the NIGMS/NIH (P30GM103332-02) and ND NASA EPSCoR RID Grant.

  4. Pyrethroid resistance and cross-resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Appel, A G; Moar, W J; Liu, N

    2001-11-01

    A German cockroach (Blatella germanica (L)) strain, Apyr-R, was collected from Opelika, Alabama after control failures with pyrethroid insecticides. Levels of resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Apyr-R (97- and 480-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, ACY) were partially or mostly suppressed by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), suggesting that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these two pyrethroids in Apyr-R. However, incomplete suppression of pyrethroid resistance with PBO and DEF implies that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance. Injection, compared with topical application, resulted in 43- and 48-fold increases in toxicity of permethrin in ACY and Apyr-R, respectively. Similarly, injection increased the toxicity of deltamethrin 27-fold in ACY and 28-fold in Apyr-R. These data indicate that cuticular penetration is one of the obstacles for the effectiveness of pyrethroids against German cockroaches. However, injection did not change the levels of resistance to either permethrin or deltamethrin, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of cuticular penetration may not play an important role in pyrethroid resistance in Apyr-R. Apyr-R showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid, with a resistance ratio of 10. PBO treatment resulted in no significant change in the toxicity of imidacloprid, implying that P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxication is not the mechanism responsible for cross-resistance. Apyr-R showed no cross-resistance to spinosad, although spinosad had relatively low toxicity to German cockroaches compared with other insecticides tested in this study. This result further confirmed that the mode of action of spinosad to insects is unique. Fipronil, a relatively new insecticide, was highly toxic to German cockroaches, and the multi-resistance mechanisms in Apyr-R did not confer significant cross-resistance to this compound. Thus, we propose

  5. [Protease activity of microflora in the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropaeva, E A; Baĭrakova, A L; Bichucher, A M; D'iakov, V L; Kozlov, L V

    2008-01-01

    Microbial spectrum and non-specific as well as specific IgA1 protease activity of isolated microorganisms were investigated in gingival liquid of patients with periodontitis. Microorganisms from the gingival liqud of these patients belonged to conditional-pathogenic obligate and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. 24 strains of microorganisms have been identified. Nonspecific proteolytic activity was found in the following microorganisms: Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Aerococcus viridans, Bifidobacterium longum, Neisseria subflave, Streptococcus parvulus, Eubacterium alactolyticum, Lactobaccilus catenoforme, Bacillus spp. Specific IgA1-protease activity and lack of proteolytic activity towards IgG was found in Streptococcus acidominimus, Streptococcus hansenii, Streptococcus salivarius, Leptotrychia buccalis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Neisseria sicca. No proteolytic activity was found in cultivation medium of Eubacterium alactolyticum (1 strain), Prevotella buccalis, Aerococcus viridans and Streptococcus sanguis.

  6. Cell-based fluorescence assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindsten, K.; Kondrová, Taťána; Konvalinka, Jan; Masucci, M. G.; Dantuma, N. P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2001), s. 2616-2622 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/98/1559 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 75195-540801; ECTM(XE) ERBFMRXCT960026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : HIV-1 * protease activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.562, year: 2001

  7. Comparative characterization of protease activity in cultured spotted rose snapper juveniles (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emyr Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial characterizations of digestive proteases were studied in three life stages of spotted rose snapper: early (EJ, middle (MJ and late juvenile (LJ with corresponding average weights of 21.3 ± 2.6 g (3 months after hatching, MAH, 190 ± 4.4 g (7 MAH, and 400 ± 11.5 g (12 MAH. At sampling points, the digestive tract was dissected into the stomach (St, pyloric caeca (PC, and the intestine in three sections (proximal (PI, middle (MI and distal intestine (DI. The effect of pH and temperature and specific inhibitors were evaluated for acid and alkaline proteases. Total acid and alkaline protease activity showed a tendency to increase with juvenile life stage of fish while trypsin activity decreased. Differences were found in acid and alkaline protease activities at different pH and temperatures during juvenile stages. Pepstatin A inhibited total activity in the stomach extract in all juvenile stages. Activity in total alkaline protease inhibition was significantly higher in EJ using TLCK, PMSF, SBTI, Phen and Ovo than in MJ and LJ, while no significant differences were found with TPCK inhibition. Therefore increases in protease activities with fish growth through juvenile stages in which a substitution or diversification in the type of alkaline enzymes exist. These results lead a better comprehension of changes in digestive potential of Lutjanidae fish.

  8. A novel protease activity assay using a protease-responsive chaperone protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sao, Kentaro; Murata, Masaharu; Fujisaki, Yuri; Umezaki, Kaori; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki; Hashizume, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Protease activity assays are important for elucidating protease function and for developing new therapeutic agents. In this study, a novel turbidimetric method for determining the protease activity using a protease-responsive chaperone protein is described. For this purpose, a recombinant small heat-shock protein (sHSP) with an introduced Factor Xa protease recognition site was synthesized in bacteria. This recombinant mutant, FXa-HSP, exhibited chaperone-like activity at high temperatures in cell lysates. However, the chaperone-like activity of FXa-HSP decreased dramatically following treatment with Factor Xa. Protein precipitation was subsequently observed in the cell lysates. The reaction was Factor Xa concentration-dependent and was quantitatively suppressed by a specific inhibitor for Factor Xa. Protein aggregation was detected by a simple method based on turbidimetry. The results clearly demonstrate that this assay is an effective, easy-to-use method for determining protease activities without the requirement of labeling procedures and the use of radioisotopes.

  9. A novel protease activity assay using a protease-responsive chaperone protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sao, Kentaro [Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Murata, Masaharu, E-mail: m-murata@dem.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Fujisaki, Yuri; Umezaki, Kaori [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki [Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Future Chemistry, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hashizume, Makoto [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2009-06-05

    Protease activity assays are important for elucidating protease function and for developing new therapeutic agents. In this study, a novel turbidimetric method for determining the protease activity using a protease-responsive chaperone protein is described. For this purpose, a recombinant small heat-shock protein (sHSP) with an introduced Factor Xa protease recognition site was synthesized in bacteria. This recombinant mutant, FXa-HSP, exhibited chaperone-like activity at high temperatures in cell lysates. However, the chaperone-like activity of FXa-HSP decreased dramatically following treatment with Factor Xa. Protein precipitation was subsequently observed in the cell lysates. The reaction was Factor Xa concentration-dependent and was quantitatively suppressed by a specific inhibitor for Factor Xa. Protein aggregation was detected by a simple method based on turbidimetry. The results clearly demonstrate that this assay is an effective, easy-to-use method for determining protease activities without the requirement of labeling procedures and the use of radioisotopes.

  10. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  11. Effectiveness of an integrated pest management intervention in controlling cockroaches, mice, and allergens in New York City public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-08-01

    Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences.

  12. The First Report of Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa, in Ahvaz, South-western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vazirianzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa is known as a carrier of pathogenic bacteria in urban environments, but its role is not well documented regarding the carriage of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach in Ahvaz, south west of Iran.Totally 39 cockroaches were collected from kitchen area of houses and identified. All specimens were cultured to isolate the bacterial agents on blood agar and MacConky agar media. The microorganisms were identified using necessary differential and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for isolated organisms by Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion according to NCLI guideline, using 18 antibiotics.From the 39 collected S. langipalpa, 179 bacterial agents were isolated, 92 of alimentary ducts and 87 of external body surfaces. Isolated bacteria from cockroaches were identified as Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus species. The pattern resistance rates were determined for gram negative bacilli and gram positive cocci regarding 18 antibiotics.The brown-banded cockroach can be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and increases the possibility of contacting human environment to drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, the potential of removing this insect should be improved. This is the first original report of drug resistant bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach of Iran.

  13. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity; Mediacao dos receptores ativados por proteases (PARs) em atividades biologicas da giroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-07-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH{sub 2}, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  14. The role of protease-activated receptor type 2 in nociceptive signaling and pain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrózková, Petra; Paleček, Jiří; Špicarová, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 357-367 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH12058; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11138S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15279; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : protease-activated receptor (PAR2) * signaling pathways * nociception * pain * spinal cord Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  15. Noninvasive High-Throughput Single-Cell Analysis of HIV Protease Activity Using Ratiometric Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Gaber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To effectively fight against the human immunodeficiency virus infection/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic, ongoing development of novel HIV protease inhibitors is required. Inexpensive high-throughput screening assays are needed to quickly scan large sets of chemicals for potential inhibitors. We have developed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based, HIV protease-sensitive sensor using a combination of a fluorescent protein pair, namely mCerulean and mCitrine. Through extensive in vitro characterization, we show that the FRET-HIV sensor can be used in HIV protease screening assays. Furthermore, we have used the FRET-HIV sensor for intracellular quantitative detection of HIV protease activity in living cells, which more closely resembles an actual viral infection than an in vitro assay. We have developed a high-throughput method that employs a ratiometric flow cytometry for analyzing large populations of cells that express the FRET-HIV sensor. The method enables FRET measurement of single cells with high sensitivity and speed and should be used when subpopulation-specific intracellular activity of HIV protease needs to be estimated. In addition, we have used a confocal microscopy sensitized emission FRET technique to evaluate the usefulness of the FRET-HIV sensor for spatiotemporal detection of intracellular HIV protease activity.

  16. Noninvasive High-Throughput Single-Cell Analysis of HIV Protease Activity Using Ratiometric Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Rok; Majerle, Andreja; Jerala, Roman; Benčina, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    To effectively fight against the human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, ongoing development of novel HIV protease inhibitors is required. Inexpensive high-throughput screening assays are needed to quickly scan large sets of chemicals for potential inhibitors. We have developed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, HIV protease-sensitive sensor using a combination of a fluorescent protein pair, namely mCerulean and mCitrine. Through extensive in vitro characterization, we show that the FRET-HIV sensor can be used in HIV protease screening assays. Furthermore, we have used the FRET-HIV sensor for intracellular quantitative detection of HIV protease activity in living cells, which more closely resembles an actual viral infection than an in vitro assay. We have developed a high-throughput method that employs a ratiometric flow cytometry for analyzing large populations of cells that express the FRET-HIV sensor. The method enables FRET measurement of single cells with high sensitivity and speed and should be used when subpopulation-specific intracellular activity of HIV protease needs to be estimated. In addition, we have used a confocal microscopy sensitized emission FRET technique to evaluate the usefulness of the FRET-HIV sensor for spatiotemporal detection of intracellular HIV protease activity. PMID:24287545

  17. Salmon trypsin stimulates the expression of interleukin-8 via protease-activated receptor-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Anett K.; Seternes, Ole-Morten; Larsen, Merethe; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Bang, Berit

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we focus on salmon trypsin as an activator of inflammatory responses in airway cells in vitro. The rationale behind the investigation is that salmon industry workers are exposed to aerosols containing enzymes, which are generated during industrial processing of the fish. Knowing that serine proteases such as trypsin are highly active mediators with diverse biological activities, the stimulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the role of protease-activated receptors (PAR) in inflammatory signal mediation were investigated. Protease-activated receptors are considered important under pathological situations in the human airways, and a thorough understanding of PAR-induced cellular events and their consequences in airway inflammation is necessary. Human airway epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to trypsin isolated from fish (Salmo salar), and we observed that purified salmon trypsin could generate secretion of IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PAR-2 activation by salmon trypsin is coupled to an induction of NF-κB-mediated transcription using a PAR-2 transfected HeLa cell model. Finally, we show that the release of IL-8 from A549 following stimulation with purified salmon trypsin is mediated through activation of PAR-2 using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The results presented suggest that salmon trypsin, via activation of PAR-2, might influence inflammation processes in the airways if inhaled in sufficient amounts

  18. Alveolar Macrophages Play a Key Role in Cockroach-Induced Allergic Inflammation via TNF-α Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Young; Sohn, Jung Ho; Choi, Je-Min; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Chein-Soo; Lee, Joo-Shil; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    The activity of the serine protease in the German cockroach allergen is important to the development of allergic disease. The protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, which is expressed in numerous cell types in lung tissue, is known to mediate the cellular events caused by inhaled serine protease. Alveolar macrophages express PAR-2 and produce considerable amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We determined whether the serine protease in German cockroach extract (GCE) enhances TNF-α production by alveolar macrophages through the PAR-2 pathway and whether the TNF-α production affects GCE-induced pulmonary inflammation. Effects of GCE on alveolar macrophages and TNF-α production were evaluated using in vitro MH-S and RAW264.6 cells and in vivo GCE-induced asthma models of BALB/c mice. GCE contained a large amount of serine protease. In the MH-S and RAW264.7 cells, GCE activated PAR-2 and thereby produced TNF-α. In the GCE-induced asthma model, intranasal administration of GCE increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell infiltration, productions of serum immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13 and TNF-α production in alveolar macrophages. Blockade of serine proteases prevented the development of GCE induced allergic pathologies. TNF-α blockade also prevented the development of such asthma-like lesions. Depletion of alveolar macrophages reduced AHR and intracellular TNF-α level in pulmonary cell populations in the GCE-induced asthma model. These results suggest that serine protease from GCE affects asthma through an alveolar macrophage and TNF-α dependent manner, reflecting the close relation of innate and adaptive immune response in allergic asthma model. PMID:23094102

  19. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L

    2011-06-15

    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  20. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  1. Aspartic protease activities of schistosomes cleave mammalian hemoglobins in a host-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficiency of digestion of hemoglobin from four mammalian species, human, cow, sheep, and horse by acidic extracts of mixed sex adults of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Activity ascribable to aspartic protease(s from S. japonicum and S. mansoni cleaved human hemoglobin. In addition, aspartic protease activities from S. japonicum cleaved hemoglobin from bovine, sheep, and horse blood more efficiently than did the activity from extracts of S. mansoni. These findings support the hypothesis that substrate specificity of hemoglobin-degrading proteases employed by blood feeding helminth parasites influences parasite host species range; differences in amino acid sequences in key sites of the parasite proteases interact less or more efficiently with the hemoglobins of permissive or non-permissive hosts.

  2. Rheumatic Disease: Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Synovial Joint Pathobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal McCulloch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2 is one member of a small family of transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are activated via cleavage of their N terminus by serine proteases (e.g., tryptase, unveiling an N terminus tethered ligand which binds to the second extracellular loop of the receptor. Increasing evidence has emerged identifying key pathophysiological roles for PAR2 in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA. Importantly, this includes both pro-inflammatory and destructive roles. For example, in murine models of RA, the associated synovitis, cartilage degradation, and subsequent bone erosion are all significantly reduced in the absence of PAR2. Similarly, in experimental models of OA, PAR2 disruption confers protection against cartilage degradation, subchondral bone osteosclerosis, and osteophyte formation. This review focuses on the role of PAR2 in rheumatic disease and its potential as an important therapeutic target for treating pain and joint degradation.

  3. Detection of protease activity by fluorescent protein FRET sensors: from computer simulation to live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryashchenko, Alexander S.; Khrenova, Maria G.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2018-04-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors are widely used for the detection of protease activity in vitro and in vivo. Usually they consist of a FRET pair connected with a polypeptide linker containing a specific cleavage site for the relevant protease. Use of the fluorescent proteins as components of the FRET pair allows genetic encoding of such sensors and solves the problem of their delivery into live cells and animals. There are several ways to improve the properties of such sensors, mainly to increase FRET efficiency and therefore the dynamic range. One of the ways to achieve this is to use a non-fluorescent chromoprotein as an acceptor. Molecular dynamic simulations may assist in the construction of linker structures connecting donor and acceptor molecules. Estimation of the orientation factor κ 2 can be obtained by methods based on quantum theory and combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approaches. The linker can be structured by hydrophobic interactions, bringing it into a closed conformation that shortens the distance between donor and acceptor and, consequently, increases FRET efficiency. We analyzed the effects of different linker structures on the detection of caspase-3 activity using a non-fluorescent acceptor. Also we have constructed the Tb3+- TagRFP sensor in which a complex of the terbium ion and terbium-binding peptide is used as a donor. This allowed us to use the unique property of lanthanide ions—fluorescence lifetime up to milliseconds—to perform measurements with time delay and exclude the nanosecond-order fluorescence. Using our systems as a starting point, by changing the recognition site in the linker it is possible to perform imaging of different protease activity in vitro or in vivo.

  4. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  5. The coagulation factor Xa/protease activated receptor-2 axis in the progression of liver fibrosis : a multifaceted paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; von der Thusen, Jan H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Activation of the coagulation cascade during liver fibrosis: a puzzling paradox Protease-activated receptors: the link between coagulation cascade activation and liver fibrosis Expression and distribution of human PAR-2 in normal and pathological liver tissue FXa signalling on PAR-2

  6. Skeletal muscle protease activities in the early growth and development of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila A; Kantserova, Nadezda P; Kaivarainen, Elena I; Krupnova, Marina Yu; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    Growth-related dynamics of intracellular protease activities in four year classes of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. 1758) parr and smolts inhabiting salmon rivers of northwestern Russia (the White Sea basin) were studied. Cathepsin B, cathepsin D, proteasome, and calpain activities in the skeletal muscles of salmon were assessed to investigate their relative contribution to the total protein degradation as well as to young fish growth process. It was confirmed that calpain activity dominates in salmon muscles while proteasome plays a minor role, in contrast to terrestrial vertebrates. Calpain and proteasome activities were maximal at the early post-larval stage (in parrs 0+) and declined with age (parrs 1+ through 2+) dropping to the lowest level in salmon smolts. Annual growth increments and proteolytic activities of calpains and proteasome in the muscles of salmon juveniles changed with age in an orchestrated manner, while lysosomal cathepsin activities increased with age. Comparing protease activities and growth increments in salmon parr and smolts we suggested that the partial suppression of the protein degradation could be a mechanism stimulating efficient growth in smoltifying salmon. Growth and smoltification-related dynamics of protease activities was quite similar in salmon populations from studied spawning rivers, such as Varzuga and Indera; however, some habitat-related differences were observed. Growth increments and protease activities varied in salmon parr 0+ (but not on later ages) inhabiting either main rivers or small tributaries apparently due to habitat difference on the resources for fish growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 in individuals with healthy gingiva and chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasankari Thilagar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protease-activated receptors (PAR-1 and PAR-2 are found to be immensely exhibited in the periodontal tissues. These receptors are involved in the inflammatory and repair processes. Activation of PARs is mainly by the bacterial and endogenous enzymes. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in initiating periodontal inflammation and to immunolocalize these receptors in the gingival tissues of healthy and chronic periodontitis individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients were selected for this study, of which 25 were healthy controls and 25 were chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival tissues were excised from the marginal gingiva and interdental papilla under local anesthesia (xylocaine with 2% adrenaline during crown lengthening procedure or during periodontal therapy depending on the respective groups. Immunohistochemical analyses of PARs were done by staining the samples with hematoxylin and eosin and with primary and secondary antibody for PAR-1 and PAR-2. Results: The Hematoxylin and Eosin staining showed more inflammatory changes in the periodontitis group compared to healthy gingiva. In chronic periodontitis, PAR-1-positive cells were seen in the basal layer with a weak expression and were showing negative expression in the superficial layer. In consideration of PAR-2, there was a very strong expression up to the superficial layer of the epithelium, compared to PAR-1. On comparing the intensity of staining in the connective tissue of chronic periodontitis sample, there was an increased expression of PAR-2 compared with PAR-1. A low positive expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2 was observed in the epithelium and connective tissue of the healthy tissues. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrated the role of PAR-1 and 2 in periodontal inflammation.

  8. Protease-activated receptor-2 stimulates intestinal epithelial chloride transport through activation of PLC and selective PKC isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Jacques Q; Moreau, France; MacNaughton, Wallace K

    2009-06-01

    Serine proteases play important physiological roles through their activity at G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs). We examined the roles that specific phospholipase (PL) C and protein kinase (PK) C (PKC) isoforms play in the regulation of PAR(2)-stimulated chloride secretion in intestinal epithelial cells. Confluent SCBN epithelial monolayers were grown on Snapwell supports and mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (I(sc)) responses to basolateral application of the selective PAR(2) activating peptide, SLIGRL-NH(2), were monitored as a measure of net electrogenic ion transport caused by PAR(2) activation. SLIGRL-NH(2) induced a transient I(sc) response that was significantly reduced by inhibitors of PLC (U73122), phosphoinositol-PLC (ET-18), phosphatidylcholine-PLC (D609), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; LY294002). Immunoblot analysis revealed the phosphorylation of both PLCbeta and PLCgamma following PAR(2) activation. Pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors of PKC (GF 109203X), PKCalpha/betaI (Gö6976), and PKCdelta (rottlerin), but not PKCzeta (selective pseudosubstrate inhibitor), also attenuated this response. Cellular fractionation and immunoblot analysis, as well as confocal immunocytochemistry, revealed increases of PKCbetaI, PKCdelta, and PKCepsilon, but not PKCalpha or PKCzeta, in membrane fractions following PAR(2) activation. Pretreatment of the cells with U73122, ET-18, or D609 inhibited PKC activation. Inhibition of PI3K activity only prevented PKCdelta translocation. Immunoblots revealed that PAR(2) activation induced phosphorylation of both cRaf and ERK1/2 via PKCdelta. Inhibition of PKCbetaI and PI3K had only a partial effect on this response. We conclude that basolateral PAR(2)-induced chloride secretion involves activation of PKCbetaI and PKCdelta via a PLC-dependent mechanism resulting in the stimulation of cRaf and ERK1/2 signaling.

  9. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Hong, Mo-Na [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Chen, Qi-Zhi [Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Han, Wei-Qing, E-mail: whan020@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Gao, Ping-Jin, E-mail: gaopingjin@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-29

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to adventitial remodeling. We found that direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 with PAR1-AP and PAR2-AP led to AF activation, including proliferation and differentiation of AFs, extracellular matrix synthesis, as well as production of pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, PAR1 and PAR2 mediated Ang II-induced AF activation, since both PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists inhibited Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and production of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AFs. Finally, mechanistic study showed that Ang II, via Ang II type I receptor (AT1R), upregulated both PAR1 and PAR2 expression, and transactivated PAR1 and PAR2, as denoted by internalization of both proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 play a critical role in Ang II-induced AF activation, and this may contribute to adventitia-related pathological changes. - Highlights: • Direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 led to adventitial fibroblast (AF) activation. • PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists attenuated Ang II-induced AF activation. • Ang II induced the upregulation and transactivation of PAR1/PAR2 in AFs.

  10. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hong, Mo-Na; Chen, Qi-Zhi; Han, Wei-Qing; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to adventitial remodeling. We found that direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 with PAR1-AP and PAR2-AP led to AF activation, including proliferation and differentiation of AFs, extracellular matrix synthesis, as well as production of pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, PAR1 and PAR2 mediated Ang II-induced AF activation, since both PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists inhibited Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and production of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AFs. Finally, mechanistic study showed that Ang II, via Ang II type I receptor (AT1R), upregulated both PAR1 and PAR2 expression, and transactivated PAR1 and PAR2, as denoted by internalization of both proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 play a critical role in Ang II-induced AF activation, and this may contribute to adventitia-related pathological changes. - Highlights: • Direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 led to adventitial fibroblast (AF) activation. • PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists attenuated Ang II-induced AF activation. • Ang II induced the upregulation and transactivation of PAR1/PAR2 in AFs.

  11. The Distribution and Movement of American Cockroaches in Urban Niches of New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John C; Rabito, Felicia A; Werthmann, Derek; Fox, Mark

    2017-10-01

    American cockroaches are an important source of household allergens in tropical and semitropical climates. To determine which outdoor niches produce American cockroaches, traps were placed at 40 homes in New Orleans to collect nymphs. Nymphs were collected from the sewers, yards, and within the homes themselves. To compare sewers and yards as sources of cockroaches entering homes, adult cockroaches were collected, marked, and released into yards and sewers. No sewer-released cockroaches were collected in homes. Cockroaches released into yards were collected in the homes, suggesting that yards, rather than sewers, are a more important source niche. A field trial applying boric acid granules to the yard was performed in an effort to reduce entry of cockroaches. There was a significant reduction in the cockroach antigen collected in intervention homes compared with controls.

  12. Life style of people and surveillance of management related to cockroaches in Southern Punjab, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    NAEEM, Afifa; JALEEL, Waqar; SAEED, Qamar; ZAKA, Syed Muhammad; SAEED, Shafqat; NAQQASH, Muhammad Nadir; BAKHTAWAR, Marryam; AYUB, Waleed Bin

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are the major household pests which prefer humid areas for habitation i.e. bathrooms, kitchens, sewerage systems etc., where warmth, moisture and food are satisfactory. Cockroaches are responsible for transmitting microorganisms like pathogenic bacteria, virus and fungi. Some examples of common bacterial diseases of human beings transmitted by cockroaches are Pasteurellapestisand bubonic plague; Shigellaalkalescensand dysentery; Staphylococcus aureusand boils and abscesses; Shigel...

  13. A mild pulsed electric field condition that improves acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus LB-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najim, N; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of voltage for less than 1 s to fluid products placed between 2 electrodes. The effect of mild PEF on beneficial characteristics of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. A pilot plant PEF system (OSU-4M; The Ohio State University, Columbus) was used. The PEF treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5s, electric field strength of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs, flow rate of 60 mL/min, and 40.5°C PEF treatment temperature. Both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 subjected to mild PEF conditions were acid tolerant until the end of the 120 min of incubation, unlike the Lb. bulgaricus control, which was not acid tolerant after 30 min. The mild PEF-treated Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 reached the logarithmic phase of growth an hour earlier than the control. Mild PEF conditions studied significantly improved acid tolerance, exponential growth, and protease activity of both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 compared with the control. The mild PEF conditions studied can be recommended for pretreating cultures to enhance these desirable attributes. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of protease activated receptor-2 in lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, Israt; Fujimoto, Jiro; Alam, Syed Mahfuzul; Sato, Eriko; Tamaya, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) has been implicated in cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis in various tumors. Lymph node metastasis is an important patient prognostic factor for uterine cervical cancers. This prompted us to study the role of PAR-2 in lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers. Thirty patients underwent surgery for uterine cervical cancers. PAR-2 histoscores and mRNA levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Patient prognosis was analyzed with a 48-month survival rate. PAR-2 histoscores and mRNA levels significantly (P < 0.05) increased in 12 of 30 metastatic lymph node lesions from the corresponding primary tumor. The 48-month survival rate of the 12 patients with increased PAR-2 levels in metastatic lymph nodes was 42%, while the rate of the other 18 patients with no change in PAR-2 levels was 82%, regardless of histopathological type. PAR-2 might work on lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers, and is considered to be a novel prognostic indicator for uterine cervical cancers

  15. Protease-activated receptor 2 agonist increases cell proliferation and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIE, LIQUN; DUAN, ZEXING; LIU, CAIJU; ZHENG, YANMIN; ZHOU, JING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in the human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, and to evaluate its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. The expression of PAR-2 protein and mRNA in SW1990 cells was determined by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. MTT and cell invasion and migration assays, as well as semi-quantitative PCR and zymography analysis, were additionally performed. PAR-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the cells treated with trypsin or the PAR-2 activating peptide Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Lys-Val (SLIGKV) (P0.05). Trypsin and SLIGKV significantly promoted SW1990 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, trypsin and SLIGKV significantly increased the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and gelatinolytic activity (P<0.01) of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. In conclusion, PAR-2 is expressed in SW1990 cells. PAR-2 activation may promote the invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer cells by increasing MMP-2 expression. PMID:25452809

  16. Rapid method for measuring protease activity in milk using radiolabeled casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A rapid means to detect the presence of protease activity in raw milk could be useful in predicting keeping ability of products made from that milk. A 30-min assay has been developed and compared with three other methods of detecting protease. Casein, [methyl- 14 C]-methylated-alpha was purchased from a radioisotope supplier. Concentrations of substrate from 2 to 20 nCi gave counts per minute, which increased linearly when counted with the Charm analyzer. There was not a significant difference in counting times of 10, 20, or 30 min. A mixture of sodium acetate and acetic acid precipitated nonhydrolyzed substrate with an efficiency of 97%. Comparison of the [ 14 C] casein assay, a casein fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid procedure, and the Hull procedure using protease from psychrotrophic bacteria revealed that the [ 14 C] casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were roughly equivalent and that the radiometric procedure was 10 times more sensitive than the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay. The radiometric procedure was approximately 10(4) times more sensitive than the Hull procedure. The [ 14 C] casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were similar in time required, about 30 min, while the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay and Hull method required about 1 h plus reagent preparation time. The [ 14 C] casein procedure was most expensive per test; the other three were cheaper and similar to each other in cost

  17. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  18. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4: A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamariel Rwibasira Rudinga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs, including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  19. Protease-activated receptor 2 modulates proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Kamal; Cheng, Jun; Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Babkair, Hamzah; Essa, Ahmed; Saku, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Based on our previous finding that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) regulates hemophagocytosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, which induces their heme oxygenase 1-dependent keratinization, we have formulated a hypothesis that PAR-2 functions in wider activities of SCC cells. To confirm this hypothesis, we investigated immunohistochemical profiles of PAR-2 in oral SCC tissues and its functional roles in cell proliferation and invasion in SCC cells in culture. The PAR-2 expression modes were determined in 48 surgical tissue specimens of oral SCC. Using oral SCC-derived cell systems, we determined both gene and protein expression levels of PAR-2. SCC cell proliferation and invasive properties were also examined in conditions in which PAR-2 was activated by the synthetic peptide SLIGRL. PAR-2 was immunolocalized in oral SCC and carcinoma in situ cells, especially in those on the periphery of carcinoma cell foci (100% of cases), but not in normal oral epithelia. Its expression at both gene and protein levels was confirmed in 3 oral SCC cell lines including ZK-1. Activation of PAR-2 induced ZK-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. PAR-2-activated ZK-1 cells invaded faster than nonactivated ones. The expression of PAR-2 is specific to oral malignancies, and PAR-2 regulates the growth and invasion of oral SCC cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of proteases activity in intestine needs a sustainable acidic environment rather than a transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chang; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-10-01

    α-Chymotrypsin (α-CT) and trypsin are important components of the enzymatic barrier. They could degrade the therapeutic proteins and peptides, inhibit their activity consequently, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. Acidic agents, as one type of indirect protease inhibitors, have shown proof of concept in clinical trials. We report here the inactivated proteases due to acid influence can be reactivated immediately by environmental pH recovery regardless of how long the inactivation last. To keep the inactivation time of proteases for 4-5 h, we designed and prepared a sustained-release tablet containing citric acid (CA) which can effectively reduce the pH below 5.0 and maintain it for 5 h in the dissolution-reaction medium. The activity of α-CT and trypsin was quantified by analyzing the residual amount of their respective substrates BTEE and TAME. More than 80% of the substrates were survived in 5.0 h of incubation, whereas the common tablet inhibited the proteases activity for only two hours in the same experimental medium. It indicates that the sustained-release tablet loaded with CA can efficiently inhibit the α-CT and trypsin activity longer than the common tablet. The results will be beneficial for designing and formulating the peroral administration of peptide and protein drugs.

  1. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J López-Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  2. Evolutionary Convergence and Nitrogen Metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, Primary Endosymbiont of the Cockroach Blattella germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J.; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state. PMID:19911043

  3. There are more asthmatics in homes with high cockroach infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinho E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although asthma has been commonly associated with sensitivity to cockroaches, a clear causal relationship between asthma, allergy to cockroaches and exposure levels has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine whether asthma occurs more frequently in children living in homes with high cockroach infestation. The intensity of household infestation was assessed by the number of dead insects after professional pesticide application. Children living in these houses in the metropolitan area of Recife, PE, were diagnosed as having asthma by means of a questionnaire based on the ISAAC study. All children had physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one acute exacerbation in the past year. Children of both sexes aged 4 to 12 years who had been living in the households for more than 2 years participated in this transverse study and had a good socioeconomic status. In the 172 houses studied, 79 children were considered to have been exposed to cockroaches and 93 not to have been exposed. Children living in residences with more than 5 dead cockroaches after pesticide application were considered to be at high infestation exposure. Asthma was diagnosed by the questionnaire in 31.6% (25/79 of the exposed group and in 11.8% (11/93 of the non-exposed group (P = 0.001, with a prevalence ratio of 3.45 (95%CI, 1.48-8.20. The present results indicate that exposure to cockroaches was significantly associated with asthma among the children studied and can be considered a risk factor for the disease. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were the species found in 96% of the infested houses.

  4. Food-borne human parasitic pathogens associated with household cockroaches and houseflies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches and houseflies pose significant public health threat owning to their ability to mechanically transmit human intestinal parasites and other disease-causing microorganisms. This study aims at assessing the vectoral capacity of cockroaches and houseflies in the transmission of human intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasite external surface contamination of 130 cockroaches and 150 houseflies caught within dwelling places in Ilishan-Remo town, Ogun State, Nigeria was determined. Cockroaches (six parasite species were more contaminated than houseflies (four parasite species. The most prevalent parasites were Trichuris trichiura (74.0% and hookworm (63.0% in houseflies and cockroaches respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Taenia spp. isolated from cockroaches and houseflies (P < 0.05. There is high contamination of human intestinal parasites in cockroaches and houseflies in human dwelling places in the study area, thus they have the ability to transmit these parasites to unkempt food materials.

  5. Monocytes can be induced by lipopolysaccharide-triggered T lymphocytes to express functional factor VII/VIIa protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes can be induced by the model stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to produce and assemble on their surface functional Factor VII/VIIa. This protease was not induced in relatively purified monocytes alone following exposure to LPS; but was induced in the presence of Leu-3a positive helper/inducer T cells. The Factor VII/VIIa protease activity represented 35-40% of the potential initiating activity for the extrinsic coagulation pathway and ...

  6. Apical serine protease activity is necessary for assembly of a high-resistance renal collecting duct epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Mette; Svenningsen, Per; Tinning, Anne R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract AIM: We hypothesized that the serine protease prostasin is necessary for differentiation of a high resistance renal collecting duct epithelium governed by glucocorticoid. METHODS: Postnatal rat kidney and adult human kidney was used to study expression and localization of prostasin......-cadherin distribution did not change. CONCLUSION: Apical, GPI-anchored, lipid raft-associated serine protease activity, compatible with prostasin, is necessary for development of a high-resistance collecting duct epithelium....

  7. Fluorescently labeled inhibitors detect localized serine protease activities in Drosophila melanogaster pole cells, embryos, and ovarian egg chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Rasmus Kragh; Ono, S.; Powers, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    processes that they mediate. Until only recently, the tools to conveniently address the question of where and when serine proteases are active within complex tissues have been lacking. In order to detect spatially restricted serine protease activities in Drosophila embryos and ovaries we introduce...... activity localized to the oocyte-somatic follicle cell interface of the developing egg chamber. Our results suggest that this technique holds promise to identify new spatially restricted activities in adult Drosophila tissues and developing embryos....

  8. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  9. Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) to medically fungi: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, H

    2017-12-01

    Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Apixaban Enhances Vasodilatation Mediated by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 in Isolated Rat Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Villari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Apixaban (APX is a direct inhibitor of factor X (FXa approved for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and atrial fibrillation. Because FXa activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of FXa by APX may affect vasomotor function. The effect of APX was assessed in vitro, by wire myography, in rat mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs and basilar arteries challenged with vasoconstrictors [phenylephrine (PE; 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT], vasodilators [acetylcholine (ACh; sodium nitroprusside (SNP] or with the PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGRL. APX (10 μM reduced the vasoconstriction to PE and 5-HT while did not change the vasodilatation to ACh or SNP. SLIGRL induced concentration-dependent vasodilation in pre-constricted arteries, that was reduced by incubation with the NO inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA and abolished by endothelium removal. APX enhanced vasodilation to SLIGRL either in the presence or in the absence of L-NNA, but was ineffective in endothelium-denuded vessels. In preparations from heparin-treated rats (to inhibit FXa APX did not change the vasodilation to SLIGRL. FXa enzymatic activity, detected in mesentery homogenates from controls, was inhibited by APX, whereas APX-sensitive enzymatic activity was undetectable in homogenates from heparin-treated rats. Immunoblot analysis showed that incubation of MRA or aorta with APX increased the abundance of PAR-2, an effect not seen in MRA from heparin-treated rats or in endothelium-denuded aortas. In conclusion, inhibition of FXa by APX increases vasodilatation mediated by PAR-2. APX may act by inhibiting PAR-2 desensitization induced by endogenous FXa. This effect could be useful in the context of endothelial dysfunction associated to cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  12. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Arundhati; Clements, Debbie; Fisher, Andrew J; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which LAM cells and fibroblasts form lung nodules and it is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases cause cyst formation and tissue damage. On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein was expressed in LAM but not control lungs. Cathepsin K gene expression and protein and protease activity were detected in LAM-associated fibroblasts but not the LAM cell line 621-101. In lung nodules, cathepsin K immunoreactivity predominantly co-localized with LAM-associated fibroblasts. In vitro, fibroblast extracellular cathepsin K activity was minimal at pH 7.5 but significantly enhanced at pH 7 and 6. 621-101 cells reduced extracellular pH with acidification dependent on 621-101 mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and net hydrogen ion exporters, particularly sodium bicarbonate co-transporters and carbonic anhydrases, which were also expressed in LAM lung tissue. In LAM cell-fibroblast co-cultures, acidification paralleled cathepsin K activity, and both were reduced by sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (P ≤ 0.0001) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (P = 0.0021). Our findings suggest that cathepsin K activity is dependent on LAM cell-fibroblast interactions, and inhibitors of extracellular acidification may be potential therapies for LAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Selected food-borne parasites associated with cockroaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 20 (62.5%) were protozoa and 12 (37.5%) were helminthes from the houseflies while 19 (54.3%) were protozoa and 16 (45.7%) were helminthes from the cockroaches. The protozoa that were identified include; cysts of Balantidium coli, cysts of Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba Histolytica and Endolimax nana. Also ...

  14. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.

  15. Genetic diversity of Entamoeba: Novel ribosomal lineages from cockroaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Kawano

    Full Text Available Our current taxonomic perspective on Entamoeba is largely based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA from Entamoeba species identified in vertebrate hosts with minor exceptions such as E. moshkovskii from sewage water and E. marina from marine sediment. Other Entamoeba species have also been morphologically identified and described from non-vertebrate species such as insects; however, their genetic diversity remains unknown. In order to further disclose the diversity of the genus, we investigated Entamoeba spp. in the intestines of three cockroach species: Periplaneta americana, Blaptica dubia, and Gromphadorhina oblongonota. We obtained 134 Entamoeba SSU rDNA sequences from 186 cockroaches by direct nested PCR using the DNA extracts of intestines from cockroaches, followed by scrutinized BLASTn screening and phylogenetic analyses. All the sequences identified in this study were distinct from those reported from known Entamoeba species, and considered as novel Entamoeba ribosomal lineages. Furthermore, they were positioned at the base of the clade of known Entamoeba species and displayed remarkable degree of genetic diversity comprising nine major groups in the three cockroach species. This is the first report of the diversity of SSU rDNA sequences from Entamoeba in non-vertebrate host species, and should help to understand the genetic diversity of the genus Entamoeba.

  16. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach) following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1) the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2) the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds. Leg Regrowth Results First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (pbarbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement. Summary It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content. PMID:26824931

  17. Screening of phytochemicals against protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a promising target for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-02-01

    Drug resistance and drug-associated toxicity are the primary causes for withdrawal of many drugs, although patient recovery is satisfactory in many instances. Interestingly, the use of phytochemicals in the treatment of cancer as an alternative to synthetic drugs comes with a host of advantages; minimum side effects, good human absorption and low toxicity to normal cells. Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) has been established as a promising target in many diseases including various cancers. Strong evidences suggest its role in metastasis also. There are no natural compounds known to inhibit its activity, so we aimed to identify phytochemicals with antagonist activity against PAR1. We screened phytochemicals from Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/ ) against PAR1 using virtual screening workflow of Schrödinger software. It analyzes pharmaceutically relevant properties using Qikprop and calculates binding energy using Glide at three accuracy levels (high-throughput virtual screening, standard precision and extra precision). Our study led to the identification of phytochemicals, which showed interaction with at least one experimentally determined active site residue of PAR1, showed no violations to Lipinski's rule of five along with predicted high human absorption. Furthermore, structural interaction fingerprint analysis indicated that the residues H255, D256, E260, S344, V257, L258, L262, Y337 and S344 may play an important role in the hydrogen bond interactions of the phytochemicals screened. Of these residues, H255 and L258 residues were experimentally proved to be important for antagonist binding. The residues Y183, L237, L258, L262, F271, L332, L333, Y337, L340, A349, Y350, A352, and Y353 showed maximum hydrophobic interactions with the phytochemicals screened. The results of this work suggest that phytochemicals Reissantins D, 24,25-dihydro-27-desoxywithaferin A, Isoguaiacin

  18. Increased expression of protease-activated receptor 4 and Trefoil factor 2 in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Yu

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4, a member of G-protein coupled receptors family, was recently reported to exhibit decreased expression in gastric cancer and esophageal squamous cancer, yet increased expression during the progression of prostate cancer. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2, a small peptide constitutively expressed in the gastric mucosa, plays a protective role in restitution of gastric mucosa. Altered TFF2 expression was also related to the development of gastrointestinal cancer. TFF2 has been verified to promote cell migration via PAR4, but the roles of PAR4 and TFF2 in the progress of colorectal cancer are still unknown. In this study, the expression level of PAR4 and TFF2 in colorectal cancer tissues was measured using real-time PCR (n = 38, western blotting (n=38 and tissue microarrays (n = 66. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAR4 and TFF2 were remarkably increased in colorectal cancer compared with matched noncancerous tissues, especially in positive lymph node and poorly differentiated cancers. The colorectal carcinoma cell LoVo showed an increased response to TFF2 as assessed by cell invasion upon PAR4 expression. However, after intervention of PAR4 expression, PAR4 positive colorectal carcinoma cell HT-29 was less responsive to TFF2 in cell invasion. Genomic bisulfite sequencing showed the hypomethylation of PAR4 promoter in colorectal cancer tissues and the hypermethylation in the normal mucosa that suggested the low methylation of promoter was correlated to the increased PAR4 expression. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of PAR4 and TFF2 frequently occurs in colorectal cancer tissues, and that overexpression of PAR4 may be resulted from promoter hypomethylation. While TFF2 promotes invasion activity of LoVo cells overexpressing PAR4, and this effect was significantly decreased when PAR4 was knockdowned in HT-29 cells. Our findings will be helpful in further investigations into the

  19. Cockroach GABAB receptor subtypes: molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenburg, S; Balfanz, S; Hayashi, Y; Shigenobu, S; Miura, T; Baumann, O; Baumann, A; Blenau, W

    2015-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Its effects are mediated by either ionotropic GABAA receptors or metabotropic GABAB receptors. GABAB receptors regulate, via Gi/o G-proteins, ion channels, and adenylyl cyclases. In humans, GABAB receptor subtypes are involved in the etiology of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In arthropods, however, these members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family are only inadequately characterized. Interestingly, physiological data have revealed important functions of GABAB receptors in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. We have cloned cDNAs coding for putative GABAB receptor subtypes 1 and 2 of P. americana (PeaGB1 and PeaGB2). When both receptor proteins are co-expressed in mammalian cells, activation of the receptor heteromer with GABA leads to a dose-dependent decrease in cAMP production. The pharmacological profile differs from that of mammalian and Drosophila GABAB receptors. Western blot analyses with polyclonal antibodies have revealed the expression of PeaGB1 and PeaGB2 in the CNS of the American cockroach. In addition to the widespread distribution in the brain, PeaGB1 is expressed in salivary glands and male accessory glands. Notably, PeaGB1-like immunoreactivity has been detected in the GABAergic salivary neuron 2, suggesting that GABAB receptors act as autoreceptors in this neuron. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of eye rubbing on the levels of protease, protease activity and cytokines in tears: relevance in keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaraman A; Pye, David C; Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-03-01

    Proteases, protease activity and inflammatory molecules in tears have been found to be relevant in the pathogenesis of keratoconus. We sought to determine the influence of eye rubbing on protease expression, protease activity and concentration of inflammatory molecules in tears. Basal tears were collected from normal volunteers before and after 60 seconds of experimental eye rubbing. The total amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and inflammatory molecules interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the tear samples were measured using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Tear collagenase activity was investigated using a specific activity assay. The concentrations of MMP-13 (51.9 ± 34.3 versus 63 ± 36.8 pg/ml, p = 0.006), IL-6 (1.24 ± 0.98 versus 2.02 ± 1.52 pg/ml, p = 0.004) and TNF-α (1.16 ± 0.74 versus 1.44 ± 0.66 pg/ml, p = 0.003) were significantly increased in normal subjects after eye rubbing. The experimental eye rub did not alter significantly the collagenase activity (5.02 ± 3 versus 7.50 ± 3.90 fluorescent intensity units, p = 0.14) of tears. Eye rubbing for 60 seconds increased the level of tear MMP-13, IL-6 and TNF-α in normal study subjects. This increase in protease, protease activity and inflammatory mediators in tears after eye rubbing may be exacerbated even further during persistent and forceful eye rubbing seen in people with keratoconus and this in turn may contribute to the progression of the disease. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  1. Activated factor X signaling via protease-activated receptor 2 suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-stimulated myeloid cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, Eimear M

    2013-07-19

    Vitamin K-dependent proteases generated in response to vascular injury and infection enable fibrin clot formation, but also trigger distinct immuno-regulatory signaling pathways on myeloid cells. Factor Xa, a protease crucial for blood coagulation, also induces protease-activated receptor-dependent cell signaling. Factor Xa can bind both monocytes and macrophages, but whether factor Xa-dependent signaling stimulates or suppresses myeloid cell cytokine production in response to Toll-like receptor activation is not known. In this study, exposure to factor Xa significantly impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lipopolysaccharide-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, THP-1 monocytic cells and murine macrophages. Furthermore, factor Xa inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B activation in THP-1 reporter cells, requiring phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase activity for its anti-inflammatory effect. Active-site blockade, γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain truncation and a peptide mimic of the factor Xa inter-epidermal growth factor-like region prevented factor Xa inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α release. In addition, factor Xa anti-inflammatory activity was markedly attenuated by the presence of an antagonist of protease-activated receptor 2, but not protease-activated receptor 1. The key role of protease-activated receptor 2 in eliciting factor Xa-dependent anti-inflammatory signaling on macrophages was further underscored by the inability of factor Xa to mediate inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release from murine bone marrow-derived protease-activated receptor 2-deficient macrophages. We also show for the first time that, in addition to protease-activated receptor 2, factor Xa requires a receptor-associated protein-sensitive low-density lipoprotein receptor to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production. Collectively, this study supports a novel function for factor Xa as an endogenous, receptor

  2. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.

  3. Allergenic characterization of a novel allergen, homologous to chymotrypsin, from german cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, Jae Hyun; Hong, Chein Soo; Park, Jung Won

    2015-05-01

    Cockroach feces are known to be rich in IgE-reactive components. Various protease allergens were identified by proteomic analysis of German cockroach fecal extract in a previous study. In this study, we characterized a novel allergen, a chymotrypsin-like serine protease. A cDNA sequence homologous to chymotrypsin was obtained by analysis of German cockroach expressed sequence tag (EST) clones. The recombinant chymotrypsins from the German cockroach and house dust mite (Der f 6) were expressed in Escherichia coli using the pEXP5NT/TOPO vector system, and their allergenicity was investigated by ELISA. The deduced amino acid sequence of German cockroach chymotrypsin showed 32.7 to 43.1% identity with mite group 3 (trypsin) and group 6 (chymotrypsin) allergens. Sera from 8 of 28 German cockroach allergy subjects (28.6%) showed IgE binding to the recombinant protein. IgE binding to the recombinant cockroach chymotrypsin was inhibited by house dust mite chymotrypsin Der f 6, while it minimally inhibited the German cockroach whole body extract. A novel allergen homologous to chymotrypsin was identified from the German cockroach and was cross-reactive with Der f 6.

  4. Serum protease activity in chronic kidney disease patients: The GANI_MED renal cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Carmen; Teumer, Alexander; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole; Rettig, Rainer; Stracke, Sylvia; Fiene, Beate; Aymanns, Simone; Felix, Stephan B; Hannemann, Anke; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Serum or plasma proteases have been associated with various diseases including cancer, inflammation, or reno-cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate whether the enzymatic activities of serum proteases are associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our study population comprised 268 participants of the "Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine" (GANI_MED) cohort. Enzymatic activity of aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B, alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, leucine aminopeptidase 3, prolyl-endopeptidase (PEP), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), angiotensin I-converting enzyme, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteases was measured in serum. Linear regression of the respective protease was performed on kidney function adjusted for age and sex. Kidney function was modeled either by the continuous Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-based eGFR or dichotomized by eGFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. Results with a false discovery rate below 0.05 were deemed statistically significant. Among the 10 proteases investigated, only the activities of ACE2 and DPP4 were correlated with eGFR. Patients with lowest eGFR exhibited highest DPP4 and ACE2 activities. DPP4 and PEP were correlated with age, but all other serum protease activities showed no associations with age or sex. Our data indicate that ACE2 and DPP4 enzymatic activity are associated with the eGFR in patients with CKD. This finding distinguishes ACE2 and DPP4 from other serum peptidases analyzed and clearly indicates that further analyses are warranted to identify the precise role of these serum ectopeptidases in the pathogenesis of CKD and to fully elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. Impact statement • Renal and cardiac diseases are very common and often occur concomitantly

  5. Protease-activated receptor-1 negatively regulates proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells derived from the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tanaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thrombin-activated protease-activated receptor (PAR-1 regulates the proliferation of neural cells following brain injury. To elucidate the involvement of PAR-1 in the neurogenesis that occurs in the adult hippocampus, we examined whether PAR-1 regulated the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs derived from the murine hippocampal dentate gyrus. NPC cultures expressed PAR-1 protein and mRNA encoding all subtypes of PAR. Direct exposure of the cells to thrombin dramatically attenuated the cell proliferation without causing cell damage. This thrombin-induced attenuation was almost completely abolished by the PAR antagonist RWJ 56110, as well as by dabigatran and 4-(2-aminoethylbenzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF, which are selective and non-selective thrombin inhibitors, respectively. Expectedly, the PAR-1 agonist peptide (AP SFLLR-NH2 also attenuated the cell proliferation. The cell proliferation was not affected by the PAR-1 negative control peptide RLLFT-NH2, which is an inactive peptide for PAR-1. Independently, we determined the effect of in vivo treatment with AEBSF or AP on hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. The administration of AEBSF, but not that of AP, significantly increased the number of newly-generated cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone. These data suggest that PAR-1 negatively regulated adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus by inhibiting the proliferative activity of the NPCs.

  6. Protease activity of PprI facilitates DNA damage response: Mn2+-dependence and substrate sequence-specificity of the proteolytic reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Wang

    Full Text Available The extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans exhibits an extraordinary resistance to ionizing radiation. Previous studies established that a protein named PprI, which exists only in the Deinococcus-Thermus family, acts as a general switch to orchestrate the expression of a number of DNA damage response (DDR proteins involved in cellular radio-resistance. Here we show that the regulatory mechanism of PprI depends on its Mn(2+-dependent protease activity toward DdrO, a transcription factor that suppresses DDR genes' expression. Recognition sequence-specificity around the PprI cleavage site is essential for DNA damage repair in vivo. PprI and DdrO mediate a novel DNA damage response pathway differing from the classic LexA-mediated SOS response system found in radiation-sensitive bacterium Escherichia coli. This PprI-mediated pathway in D. radiodurans is indispensable for its extreme radio-resistance and therefore its elucidation significantly advances our understanding of the DNA damage repair mechanism in this amazing organism.

  7. Molecular dynamics and docking simulation of a natural variant of Activated Protein C with impaired protease activity: implications for integrin-mediated antiseptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Orro, Alessandro; Morra, Giulia; Moscatelli, Marco; Trombetti, Gabriele; Milanesi, Luciano; Rovida, Ermanna

    2015-01-01

    Activated Protein C (APC) is a multifunctional serine protease, primarily known for its anticoagulant function in the coagulation system. Several studies have already elucidated its role in counteracting apoptosis and inflammation in cells, while significant effort is still ongoing for defining its involvement in sepsis. Earlier literature has shown that the antiseptic function of APC is mediated by its binding to leukocyte integrins, which is due to the presence of the integrin binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp at the N-terminus of the APC catalytic chain. Many natural mutants have been identified in patients with Protein C deficiency diagnosis including a variant of specificity pocket (Gly216Asp). In this work, we present a molecular model of the complex of APC with αVβ3 integrin obtained by protein-protein docking approach. A computational analysis of this variant is hereby presented, based on molecular dynamics and docking simulations, aiming at investigating the effects of the Gly216Asp mutation on the protein conformation and inferring its functional implications. Our study shows that such mutation is likely to impair the protease activity while preserving the overall protein fold. Moreover, superposition of the integrin binding motifs in wild-type and mutant forms suggests that the interaction with integrin can still occur and thus the mutant is likely to retain its antiseptic function related to the neutrophyl integrin binding. Therapeutic applications could result in this APC mutant which retains antiseptic function without anticoagulant side effects.

  8. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reversible brain inactivation induces discontinuous gas exchange in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2013-06-01

    Many insects at rest breathe discontinuously, alternating between brief bouts of gas exchange and extended periods of breath-holding. The association between discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and inactivity has long been recognised, leading to speculation that DGCs lie at one end of a continuum of gas exchange patterns, from continuous to discontinuous, linked to metabolic rate (MR). However, the neural hypothesis posits that it is the downregulation of brain activity and a change in the neural control of gas exchange, rather than low MR per se, which is responsible for the emergence of DGCs during inactivity. To test this, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches had their brains inactivated by applying a Peltier-chilled cold probe to the head. Once brain temperature fell to 8°C, cockroaches switched from a continuous to a discontinuous breathing pattern. Re-warming the brain abolished the DGC and re-established a continuous breathing pattern. Chilling the brain did not significantly reduce the cockroaches' MR and there was no association between the gas exchange pattern displayed by the insect and its MR. This demonstrates that DGCs can arise due to a decrease in brain activity and a change in the underlying regulation of gas exchange, and are not necessarily a simple consequence of low respiratory demand.

  10. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents...

  11. Effect of Seed Proteinaceous Inhibitors on Digestive Protease Activity of Tomato Leaf Miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lep.: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. University of Tehran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lep.: Gelechiidae is one of the most important pest of tomato around the world which have been introduced to Iran in recent years. Pesticides can usually reduce the damage caused by the pest, however the extensive use of pesticides substantially increase production costs and lead to development of insecticide resistance. Thus, pest resistance and also adverse effects of pesticides on the human health and the environment make search for alternative control method/s inevitable. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of proteinaceous extracts of Datura (Datura stramonium L., Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Wild Oat (Avena fatua L., Broad bean (Vicia faba L., Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Mung bean (Vigna radiate L., Pea (Pisum sativum L., Canola (Brassica napus L., Triticale (Triticosecale wittmack and Sivand, Aflak and Alborz wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars seeds on protease activity of tomato leaf miner. Also in this study optimum pH for protease activity and effects of pH on inhibitory activity of extracts were determined. Materials and Methods: For this work fourth instar larvae of Tuta absoluta was used for enzyme extraction. Plant proteinaceous extracts were obtained using 0.1 M NaCl. For protease activity assay 10 μl enzyme extract and 50 μl substrate solution (Azocasein 2% were mixed with 40 μl of the 20 mM Glycine-NaOH buffer at pH 10.0 After 60 min incubation, 100 μl of 30% trichloroacetic acid (TCA was added to the reaction mixture, and kept at 4 °C for 30 min, followed by centrifugation at 15,000gfor 15 min to precipitate non-hydrolysis substrate. 100 μl of 1 M NaOH was added to 100μl supernatant and the absorbance at 405 nm was measured. To determine the effect of the seed proteinaceous extracts on the protease activities, enzymes were pre-incubated with each seed extracts for 30 min at 35 °C followed by determination of the residual enzyme activity as

  12. Students' Knowledge about the Internal Structure of Mice and Cockroaches in Their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Selda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…

  13. Cockroaches ’ bacterial infections in wards of hospitals, Hamedan city, west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejati Jalil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between different species of cockroaches with their bacterial infection in different wards of Hamedan county hospitals, western Iran. Methods: Using sticky trap, hand collection and glass trap, 250 cockroaches were collected from 14 wards of 5 hospitals. After having their identification determined by detection key, all of them were used to isolate bacteria from cuticle and alimentary tract. Results: From four identified species, Blatella germanica were the most common in all of the wards (88.8% and next was the Periplaneta Americana (8%. 20 bacteria species isolated from cockroaches' surface and 21 from digestive organ. Escherichia coli were the most predominant bacteria isolated from external surface (26.5 % as well as alimentary tract (30.8%. The frequency of investigated bacteria on cockroaches' body surface was not significantly different between Periplaneta Americana and Blattella germanica except for Kllebsiella oxytoca (P<0.001 and Providensia Spp (P=0.035. Also, frequency of detected bacteria in cockroaches' digestive organ was not significantly different between these two species. Furthermore, the frequency of bacteria isolated from the cockroaches' external surface was not significantly different from that of digestive organ except for shigella disantery (P<0.001, Pseudomonas aeroginosa (P<0.001 and Klebsiella oxytoca (P=0.01 3. Conclusions: Since cockroaches can carry pathogenic bacteria, so their existence in the hospitals could be a serious public health problem. It is suggested to compile programs in order to control cockroaches especially in the hospitals.

  14. Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

  15. Microbial Carriage of Cockroaches at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience B. Tetteh-Quarcoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%. Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae , which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% ( Escherichia coli to 41.1% ( Klebsiella pneumoniae . Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital.

  16. The Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics to Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    release of sterile males into natural populations of the German cockroach. Submitted to Entomologia exp. & Appl. Feb., 1981. A first draft was...populations of the German cockroach. Subm. Entomologia Exp. & Appl. Feb., 1981. aEight other publications of earlier research on this Contract have

  17. Quality of housing and allergy to cockroaches in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K C; Brenner, R J

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-one atopic asthmatic and/or allergic rhinitic children and 23 nonatopic control from Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, were skin tested with an extract mix of three cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, and Periplaneta americana). Sixteen percent of the atopics and none of the nonatopics demonstrated positive immediate skin reactions to the cockroach mix (chi 2 = 4.05, p = 0.04). Hypersensitivity was correlated with the quality of the homes; 22% (8/36) of the atopics who lived in a concrete home were skin test positive to the cockroach mix, while none (0/15) of the atopics who lived in a wood home were skin test positive (chi 2 = 4.86, p = 0.03). Although the incidence of cockroach allergy in this study is lower than that found elsewhere, these data support the notion that, in this tropical environment, sensitization to cockroaches is associated with housing quality.

  18. Investigation on American cockroaches medically important bacteria in Khorramshahr hospital, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate American cockroaches' infection to various bacteria in Khorramshahr Vali-e-Asr hospital, which was done in 2008. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 20 American cockroaches were caught via direct collection. Medically important bacteria were extracted from their outer surface of bodies by standard procedures. Results: Culturing outer surface wash of cockroaches resulted in the separation of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Proteus and Streptococcus. The main common bacteria were Klebsiella (35% and Pseudomonas (30%. Also, results of culture media showed that about 90% of cockroaches infected to at least one bacterium. Conclusions: American cockroaches can transmit pathogenic and potential pathogenic bacteria, therefore their presence in hospitals may be a sanitation challenge. It is recommended to assess plans in purpose to combat these pests in the hospitals.

  19. Molecular characterization of protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and its importance in cytotoxicity and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lauren M; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-11-01

    A newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate (SCBI), is both a mutualist of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 and a pathogen of lepidopteran insects. Serratia sp. strain SCBI displays high proteolytic activity, and because secreted proteases are known virulence factors for many pathogens, the purpose of this study was to identify genes essential for extracellular protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and to determine what role proteases play in insect pathogenesis and cytotoxicity. A bank of 2,100 transposon mutants was generated, and six SCBI mutants with defective proteolytic activity were identified. These mutants were also defective in cytotoxicity. The mutants were found defective in genes encoding the following proteins: alkaline metalloprotease secretion protein AprE, a BglB family transcriptional antiterminator, an inosine/xanthosine triphosphatase, GidA, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and a PIN domain protein. Gene expression analysis on these six mutants showed significant downregulation in mRNA levels of several different types of predicted protease genes. In addition, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis provided insight into how inactivation of AprE, GidA, and a PIN domain protein influences motility and virulence, as well as protease activity. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) to further characterize expression of predicted protease genes in wild-type Serratia sp. SCBI, the highest mRNA levels for the alkaline metalloprotease genes (termed prtA1 to prtA4) occurred following the death of an insect host, while two serine protease and two metalloprotease genes had their highest mRNA levels during active infection. Overall, these results indicate that proteolytic activity is essential for cytotoxicity in Serratia sp. SCBI and that its regulation appears to be highly complex. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  1. The diagnostic potential of salivary protease activities in periodontal health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomadaki, K.; Bosch, J.A.; Oppenheim, F.G.; Helmerhorst, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterised by proteolytic processes involving enzymes that are released by host immune cells and periodontal bacteria. These enzymes, when detectable in whole saliva, may serve as valuable diagnostic markers for disease states and progression. Because the substrate

  2. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Marzullo

    Full Text Available Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1 the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2 the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds.First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (p<0.05 than coxa-cut legs (29% of full size at first appearance. Regenerated legs in both groups grew in size with each subsequent molt; the autotomy-removed legs grew to full size within 18 weeks, whereas coxa-cut legs took longer than 28 weeks to regrow. Removal of the metathoracic leg in both conditions did not have an effect on mortality compared to matched controls with unmolested legs.Autotomy-removed legs had lower spontaneous firing rates, similar marked increased firing rates upon tactile manipulation of tibial barbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement.It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content.

  3. Changes in protease activity and Cry3Aa toxin binding in the Colorado potato beetle: implications for insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga Loseva; Mohamed Ibrahim; Mehmet Candas; C. Noah Koller; Leah S. Bauer; Lee A. Jr. Bulla

    2002-01-01

    Widespread commercial use of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins to control pest insects has increased the likelihood for development of insect resistance to this entomopathogen. In this study, we investigated protease activity profiles and toxin-binding capacities in the midgut of a strain of Colorado potato beetle (CPB) that has developed resistance...

  4. Regulation of protease-activated receptor 1 signaling by the adaptor protein complex 2 and R4 subfamily of regulator of G protein signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buxin; Siderovski, David P; Neubig, Richard R; Lawson, Mark A; Trejo, Joann

    2014-01-17

    The G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is irreversibly proteolytically activated by thrombin. Hence, the precise regulation of PAR1 signaling is important for proper cellular responses. In addition to desensitization, internalization and lysosomal sorting of activated PAR1 are critical for the termination of signaling. Unlike most G protein-coupled receptors, PAR1 internalization is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) and epsin-1, rather than β-arrestins. However, the function of AP-2 and epsin-1 in the regulation of PAR1 signaling is not known. Here, we report that AP-2, and not epsin-1, regulates activated PAR1-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis via two different mechanisms that involve, in part, a subset of R4 subfamily of "regulator of G protein signaling" (RGS) proteins. A significantly greater increase in activated PAR1 signaling was observed in cells depleted of AP-2 using siRNA or in cells expressing a PAR1 (420)AKKAA(424) mutant with defective AP-2 binding. This effect was attributed to AP-2 modulation of PAR1 surface expression and efficiency of G protein coupling. We further found that ectopic expression of R4 subfamily members RGS2, RGS3, RGS4, and RGS5 reduced activated PAR1 wild-type signaling, whereas signaling by the PAR1 AKKAA mutant was minimally affected. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated depletion analysis revealed a function for RGS5 in the regulation of signaling by the PAR1 wild type but not the AKKAA mutant. Moreover, activation of the PAR1 wild type, and not the AKKAA mutant, induced Gαq association with RGS3 via an AP-2-dependent mechanism. Thus, AP-2 regulates activated PAR1 signaling by altering receptor surface expression and through recruitment of RGS proteins.

  5. Protease signaling through protease activated receptor 1 mediate nerve activation by mucosal supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome but not from ulcerative colitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhner, Sabine; Hahne, Hannes; Hartwig, Kerstin; Li, Qin; Vignali, Sheila; Ostertag, Daniela; Meng, Chen; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Braak, Breg; Pehl, Christian; Frieling, Thomas; Barbara, Giovanni; De Giorgio, Roberto; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Ceyhan, Güralp Onur; Zeller, Florian; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Haller, Dirk; Kuster, Bernhard; Schemann, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). Effects of supernatants from 7 healthy controls (HC), 20 IBS and 12 UC patients on human and guinea pig submucous neurons were studied with neuroimaging techniques. We identify differentially expressed proteins with proteome analysis. Nerve activation by IBS supernatants was prevented by the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonist SCHE79797. UC supernatants also activated enteric neurons through protease dependent mechanisms but without PAR1 involvement. Proteome analysis of the supernatants identified 204 proteins, among them 17 proteases as differentially expressed between IBS, UC and HC. Of those the four proteases elastase 3a, chymotrypsin C, proteasome subunit type beta-2 and an unspecified isoform of complement C3 were significantly more abundant in IBS compared to HC and UC supernatants. Of eight proteases, which were upregulated in IBS, the combination of elastase 3a, cathepsin L and proteasome alpha subunit-4 showed the highest prediction accuracy of 98% to discriminate between IBS and HC groups. Elastase synergistically potentiated the effects of histamine and serotonin-the two other main neuroactive substances in the IBS supernatants. A serine protease inhibitor isolated from the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 (SERPINBL), known to inhibit elastase-like proteases, prevented nerve activation by IBS supernatants. Proteases in IBS and UC supernatants were responsible for nerve activation. Our data demonstrate that proteases, particularly those signalling through neuronal PAR1, are biomarker candidates for IBS, and protease profiling may be used to

  6. Medically Important Parasites Carried by Cockroaches in Melong Subdivision, Littoral, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Atiokeng Tatang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%, Trichuris (11.97%, Capillaria (6.16%, Toxocara (4.86%, Hook Worm (4.86%, and Eimeria (2.73%. The parasites were more recorded on the external surface (54.27% of cockroaches than in the internal surface (GIT, 38.51%. The same tendency was obtained between sexes with female cockroaches having a higher transport rate (36.69%. Cockroaches caught in toilets carried more parasites (31.99% as compared to those from kitchens (22.63% and houses (11.14%. Almost all encountered parasites were recognized as responsible of zoonosis and they can be consequently released in nature by hosts and easily disseminated by cockroaches as mechanical vectors. Sanitary education, reenforcement of worms’ eradication programs, and the fight against these insects remain a necessity in the Mélong Subdivision.

  7. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran.Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method.Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas.Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  8. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran. Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method. Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas. Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  9. Changes in protein metabolism after irradiation. Pt. 1. Protease activity, protease pattern, protein and free amino acids in cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat spleen after 600 R whole body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valet, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Medizin

    1975-12-01

    The protease activity of cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat spleen against spleen protein and hemoglobin as a substrate increases during a initial reaction phase of the organism on the first day after 600 R whole body X-irradiation. The alkaline protease in the cytoplasm and the acid protease in the cell organelles increase, whereas the protease activity against externally added hemoglobin as substrate decreases below the initial values. The protein, the protease activity and the free amino acids of the cytoplasm and the cell organelles decrease during the disease phase on day 3 and 4 after irradiation. The protein loss of the spleen is therefore not explained by an increased protease activity. Acid proteases appear in the cytoplasm which derive probably from the cell organelles. The protease activity and the free amino acids are increased in the cytoplasm and the cell organelles during the regeneration phase of the organism between day 15 and 18 after irradiation.

  10. Receptor-G Protein Interaction Studied by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer: Lessons From Protease-Activated Receptor 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Akli eAYOUB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its development, the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET approach has been extensively applied to study G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs in real time and in live cells. One of the major aspects of GPCRs investigated in considerable details is their physical coupling to the heterotrimeric G proteins. As a result, new concepts have emerged, but few questions are still a matter of debate illustrating the complexity of GPCR-G protein interactions and coupling. Here, we summarized the recent advances on our understanding of GPCR-G protein coupling based on BRET approaches and supported by other FRET-based studies. We essentially focused on our recent studies in which we addressed the concept of preassembly versus the agonist-dependent interaction between the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1 and its cognate G proteins. We discussed the concept of agonist-induced conformational changes within the preassembled PAR1-G protein complexes as well as the critical question how the multiple coupling of PAR1 with two different G proteins, Gi1 and G12, but also -arrestin 1, can be regulated.

  11. Protease activity of Per a 10 potentiates Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 and OX40L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Komal; Kale, Sagar L; Arora, Naveen

    2015-12-01

    Proteases are implicated in exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, the role of proteolytic activity of Per a 10 was evaluated on Th2 polarization. Intranasal administration of Per a 10 in mice led to allergic airway inflammation as seen by higher IgE levels, cellular infiltration, IL-17A, and Th2 cytokines, whereas, inactive (Δ)Per a 10 showed attenuated response. There was an increased OX40L expression on lung and lymph node dendritic cells in Per a 10 immunized group and on Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs. Reduction in CD40 expression without any change at transcript level in lungs of Per a 10 immunized mice suggested CD40 cleavage. BMDCs pulsed with Per a 10 showed reduced CD40 expression with lower IL-12p70 secretion as compared to heat inactivated Per a 10. IL-23, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs supernatant. In DC-T cell coculture studies, Per a 10 pulsed BMDCs showed higher levels of IL-4 and IL-13 that were reduced on blocking of either IL-23 or OX40L. In conclusion, the data suggests a critical role of protease activity of Per a 10 in promoting Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 secretion and OX40L expression on dendritic cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Suboptimal inhibition of protease activity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Effects on virion morphogenesis and RNA maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Michael D.; Fu, William; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Ptak, Roger G.; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2008-01-01

    Protease activity within nascently released human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is responsible for the cleavage of the viral polyproteins Gag and Gag-Pol into their constituent parts, which results in the subsequent condensation of the mature conical core surrounding the viral genomic RNA. Concomitant with viral maturation is a conformational change in the packaged viral RNA from a loosely associated dimer into a more thermodynamically stable form. In this study we used suboptimal concentrations of two protease inhibitors, lopinavir and atazanavir, to study their effects on Gag polyprotein processing and on the properties of the RNA in treated virions. Analysis of the treated virions demonstrated that even with high levels of inhibition of viral infectivity (IC 90 ), most of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins were processed, although slight but significant increases in processing intermediates of Gag were detected. Drug treatments also caused a significant increase in the proportion of viruses displaying either immature or aberrant mature morphologies. The aberrant mature particles were characterized by an electron-dense region at the viral periphery and an electron-lucent core structure in the viral center, possibly indicating exclusion of the genomic RNA from these viral cores. Intriguingly, drug treatments caused only a slight decrease in overall thermodynamic stability of the viral RNA dimer, suggesting that the dimeric viral RNA was able to mature in the absence of correct core condensation

  13. Inhibition of dengue virus replication by novel inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Sveva; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Coluccia, Antonio; La Regina, Giuseppe; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Famiglini, Valeria; Masci, Domiziana; Hiscott, John; Lee, Jin-Ching; Silvestri, Romano

    2017-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the leading mosquito-transmitted viral infection in the world. With more than 390 million new infections annually, and up to 1 million clinical cases with severe disease manifestations, there continues to be a need to develop new antiviral agents against dengue infection. In addition, there is no approved anti-DENV agents for treating DENV-infected patients. In the present study, we identified new compounds with anti-DENV replication activity by targeting viral replication enzymes - NS5, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and NS3 protease, using cell-based reporter assay. Subsequently, we performed an enzyme-based assay to clarify the action of these compounds against DENV RdRp or NS3 protease activity. Moreover, these compounds exhibited anti-DENV activity in vivo in the ICR-suckling DENV-infected mouse model. Combination drug treatment exhibited a synergistic inhibition of DENV replication. These results describe novel prototypical small anti-DENV molecules for further development through compound modification and provide potential antivirals for treating DENV infection and DENV-related diseases.

  14. The Inflammasome Drives GSDMD-Independent Secondary Pyroptosis and IL-1 Release in the Absence of Caspase-1 Protease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katharina S; Groß, Christina J; Dreier, Roland F; Saller, Benedikt S; Mishra, Ritu; Gorka, Oliver; Heilig, Rosalie; Meunier, Etienne; Dick, Mathias S; Ćiković, Tamara; Sodenkamp, Jan; Médard, Guillaume; Naumann, Ronald; Ruland, Jürgen; Kuster, Bernhard; Broz, Petr; Groß, Olaf

    2017-12-26

    Inflammasomes activate the protease caspase-1, which cleaves interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 to generate the mature cytokines and controls their secretion and a form of inflammatory cell death called pyroptosis. By generating mice expressing enzymatically inactive caspase-1 C284A , we provide genetic evidence that caspase-1 protease activity is required for canonical IL-1 secretion, pyroptosis, and inflammasome-mediated immunity. In caspase-1-deficient cells, caspase-8 can be activated at the inflammasome. Using mice either lacking the pyroptosis effector gasdermin D (GSDMD) or expressing caspase-1 C284A , we found that GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis prevented caspase-8 activation at the inflammasome. In the absence of GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis, the inflammasome engaged a delayed, alternative form of lytic cell death that was accompanied by the release of large amounts of mature IL-1 and contributed to host protection. Features of this cell death modality distinguished it from apoptosis, suggesting it may represent a distinct form of pro-inflammatory regulated necrosis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Activated protein C (APC) can increase bone anabolism via a protease-activated receptor (PAR)1/2 dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaitlin; Murphy, Ciara M; Chan, Ben; Kolind, Mille; Cheng, Tegan L; Mikulec, Kathy; Peacock, Lauren; Xue, Meilang; Park, Sang-Youel; Little, David G; Jackson, Chris J; Schindeler, Aaron

    2014-12-01

    Activated Protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant with strong cytoprotective properties that has been shown to promote wound healing. In this study APC was investigated for its potential orthopedic application using a Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) induced ectopic bone formation model. Local co-administration of 10 µg rhBMP-2 with 10 µg or 25 µg APC increased bone volume at 3 weeks by 32% (N.S.) and 74% (pAPC are largely mediated by its receptors endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptors (PARs). Cultured pre-osteoblasts and bone nodule tissue sections were shown to express PAR1/2 and EPCR. When pre-osteoblasts were treated with APC, cell viability and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and p38 were increased. Inhibition with PAR1 and sometimes PAR2 antagonists, but not with EPCR blocking antibodies, ameliorated the effects of APC on cell viability and kinase phosphorylation. These data indicate that APC can affect osteoblast viability and signaling, and may have in vivo applications with rhBMP-2 for bone repair. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; Pmuscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  17. Grooming behavior in American cockroach is affected by novelty and odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskaya, Marianna I

    2014-01-01

    The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor.

  18. Potential of ultraviolet radiation for control of American cockroach populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingrich, J.B.; Pratt, J.J. Jr.; Mandels, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Populations of Periplaneta americana (L.) were exposed for 8-20 week periods in specially designed rooms to 254 nm UV radiation at low intensity (50-115 ergs s -1 cm -2 ), high intensity (160-220 ergs s -1 cm -2 ), or to white light. The rooms contained tables and chairs to simulate occupied space, with food and water placed in positions exposed to UV radiation. 'General' irradiation (where the whole room was exposed to UV) at 115 ergs s -1 cm -2 and above was effective in producing high mortality in all stages except 8-10th instar nymphs and adults. 'Hot-spots' irradiation (where UV lamps were placed behind table and chair harborages) produced high mortality only in 1st-3rd instar nymphs which would result in slower elimination of a population. Crude aggregation pheromone was not successful in holding cockroaches close to radiation sources or substantially increasing mortality under the conditions of the experiments

  19. Vorapaxar: The Current Role and Future Directions of a Novel Protease-Activated Receptor Antagonist for Risk Reduction in Atherosclerotic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, Rebecca J; Buckley, Leo F; Anderson, Sarah M

    2017-03-01

    Despite the current standard of care, patients with cardiovascular disease remain at a high risk for recurrent events. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated platelet activation through protease-activated receptor-1 antagonism may provide reductions in atherosclerotic disease beyond those achievable with the current standard of care. Our primary objective is to evaluate the clinical literature regarding the role of vorapaxar (Zontivity™) in the reduction of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease. In particular, we focus on the potential future directions for protease-activating receptor antagonists in the treatment of a broad range of atherosclerotic diseases. A literature search of PubMed and EBSCO was conducted to identify randomized clinical trials from August 2005 to June 2016 using the search terms: 'vorapaxar', 'SCH 530348', 'protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist', and 'Zontivity™'. Bibliographies were searched and additional resources were obtained. Vorapaxar is a first-in-class, protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction (TRACER) trial did not demonstrate a significant reduction in a broad primary composite endpoint. However, the Thrombin-Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) trial examined a more traditional composite endpoint and found a significant benefit with vorapaxar. Vorapaxar significantly increased bleeding compared with standard care. Ongoing trials will help define the role of vorapaxar in patients with peripheral arterial disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, and other important subgroups. The use of multivariate modeling may enable the identification of subgroups with maximal benefit and minimal harm from vorapaxar. Vorapaxar provides clinicians with a novel mechanism of action to further reduce the burden of ischemic heart disease. Identification of

  20. Vorapaxar: The Current Role and Future Directions of a Novel Protease-Activated Receptor Antagonist for Risk Reduction in Atherosclerotic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gryka, Rebecca J.; Buckley, Leo F.; Anderson, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Despite the current standard of care, patients with cardiovascular disease remain at a high risk for recurrent events. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated platelet activation through protease-activated receptor-1 antagonism may provide reductions in atherosclerotic disease beyond those achievable with the current standard of care. Objective Our primary objective is to evaluate the clinical literature regarding the role of vorapaxar (Zontivity?) in the reduction of cardiovascular even...

  1. Physiological Costs of Repetitive Courtship Displays in Cockroaches Handicap Locomotor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowles, Sophie L.; Jepson, Natalie M.

    2015-01-01

    Courtship displays are typically thought to have evolved via female choice, whereby females select mates based on the characteristics of a display that is expected to honestly reflect some aspect of the male’s quality. Honesty is typically enforced by mechanistic costs and constraints that limit the level at which a display can be performed. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these costs may be energetic costs involved in the production of dynamic, often repetitive displays. A female attending to such a display may thus be assessing the physical fitness of a male as an index of his quality. Such assessment would provide information on his current physical quality as well as his ability to carry out other demanding activities, qualities with which a choosy female should want to provision her offspring. In the current study we use courtship interactions in the Cuban burrowing cockroach, Byrsotria fumigata to directly test whether courtship is associated with a signaler’s performance capacity. Males that had produced courtship displays achieved significantly lower speeds and distances in locomotor trials than non-courting control males. We also found that females mated more readily with males that produced a more vigorous display. Thus, males of this species have developed a strategy where they produce a demanding courtship display, while females choose males based on their ability to produce this display. Courtship displays in many taxa often involve dynamic repetitive actions and as such, signals of stamina in courtship may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:26606147

  2. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 activation in human kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Y Suen

    Full Text Available Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis, but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293, a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2 and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2. Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes, the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2 and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15. Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4 known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.

  3. Tissue Factor-Expressing Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Activate Quiescent Endothelial Cells via Protease-Activated Receptor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara P. Y. Che

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF-expressing tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs can promote metastasis and pre-metastatic niche formation, but the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that generation of activated factor X (FXa by TF expressed on tumor-derived EV could activate protease-activated receptors (PARs on non-activated endothelial cells to induce a pro-adhesive and pro-inflammatory phenotype. We obtained EV from TF-expressing breast (MDA-MB-231 and pancreatic (BxPC3 and Capan-1 tumor cell lines. We measured expression of E-selectin and secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells after exposure to EV and various immunologic and chemical inhibitors of TF, FXa, PAR-1, and PAR-2. After 6 h of exposure to tumor-derived EV (pretreated with factor VIIa and FX in vitro, endothelial cells upregulated E-selectin expression and secreted IL-8. These changes were decreased with an anti-TF antibody, FXa inhibitors (FPRCK and EGRCK, and PAR-1 antagonist (E5555, demonstrating that FXa generated by TF-expressing tumor-derived EV was signaling through endothelial PAR-1. Due to weak constitutive PAR-2 expression, these endothelial responses were not induced by a PAR-2 agonist peptide (SLIGKV and were not inhibited by a PAR-2 antagonist (FSLLRY after exposure to tumor-derived EV. In conclusion, we found that TF-expressing cancer-derived EVs activate quiescent endothelial cells, upregulating E-selectin and inducing IL-8 secretion through generation of FXa and cleavage of PAR-1. Conversion of resting endothelial cells to an activated phenotype by TF-expressing cancer-derived EV could promote cancer metastases.

  4. Vitamin D modulates tissue factor and protease-activated receptor 2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Moreno, Julio M; Herencia, Carmen; Montes de Oca, Addy; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Rodríguez-Ortiz, M Encarnación; Díaz-Tocados, Juan M; Peralbo-Santaella, Esther; Camargo, Antonio; Canalejo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Velasco-Gimena, Francisco; Almaden, Yolanda

    2016-03-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies reveal an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived tissue factor (TF) is suggested to be critical for arterial thrombosis, we investigated whether the vitamin D molecules calcitriol and paricalcitol could reduce the expression of TF induced by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in human aortic VSMCs. We found that, compared with controls, incubation with TNF-α increased TF expression and procoagulant activity in a NF-κB-dependent manner, as deduced from the increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein 65 (p65-NF-κB) and direct interaction of NF-κB to the TF promoter. This was accompanied by the up-regulation of TF signaling mediator protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expression and by the down-regulation of vitamin D receptor expression in a miR-346-dependent way. However, addition of calcitriol or paricalcitol blunted the TNF-α-induced TF expression and activity (2.01 ± 0.24 and 1.32 ± 0.14 vs. 3.02 ± 0.39 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.05), which was associated with down-regulation of NF-κB signaling and PAR-2 expression, as well as with restored levels of vitamin D receptor and enhanced expression of TF pathway inhibitor. Our data suggest that inflammation promotes a prothrombotic state through the up-regulation of TF function in VSMCs and that the beneficial cardiovascular effects of vitamin D may be partially due to decreases in TF expression and its activity in VSMCs. © FASEB.

  5. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor primes interleukin-13 production by macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Ono, Tomomichi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is often linked to the presence of type 2-polarized macrophages, which are induced by the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13). IL-13 is a key mediator of tissue fibrosis caused by T helper type 2-based inflammation. Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the priming effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on IL-13 expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. Expression of IL-13 mRNA and protein by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages was investigated after stimulation with HNE, using the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GM-CSF had a priming effect on IL-13 mRNA and protein expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE, while this effect was not observed for various other cytokines. GM-CSF-dependent macrophages showed a significant increase in the expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) mRNA and protein. The response of IL-13 mRNA to HNE was significantly decreased by pretreatment with alpha1-antitrypsin, a PAR-2 antibody (SAM11), or a PAR-2 antagonist (ENMD-1068). These findings suggest that stimulation with HNE can induce IL-13 production by macrophages, especially GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. Accordingly, neutrophil elastase may have a key role in fibrosis associated with chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The threonine protease activity of testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50 is essential for its function in cell proliferation.

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    Yu-Yin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50, a newly discovered threonine enzyme, has similar amino acid sequences and enzymatic structures to those of many serine proteases. It may be an oncogene. TSP50 is up-regulated in breast cancer epithelial cells, and ectopic expression of TSP50 in TSP50-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells has been found to promote cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms by which TSP50 exerts its growth-promoting effects are not yet fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate whether the threonine protease activity of TSP50 is essential to its function in cell proliferation, we constructed and characterized a mutant TSP50, called TSP50 T310A, which was identified as a protease-dead mutant of TSP50. By a series of proliferation analyses, colony formation assays and apoptosis analyses, we showed that T310A mutation significantly depresses TSP50-induced cell proliferation in vitro. Next, the CHO stable cell line expressing either wild-type or T310A mutant TSP50 was injected subcutaneously into nude mice. We found that the T310A mutation could abolish the tumorigenicity of TSP50 in vivo. A mechanism investigation revealed that the T310A mutation prevented interaction between TSP50 and the NF-κBIκBα complex, which is necessary for TSP50 to perform its function in cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our data highlight the importance of threonine 310, the most critical protease catalytic site in TSP50, to TSP50-induced cell proliferation and tumor formation.

  7. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 Variant p.Tyr157Cys Reduces Platelet Functional Responses and Alters Receptor Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jane E; Cunningham, Margaret R; Jones, Matthew L; Walker, Mary E; Westbury, Sarah K; Sessions, Richard B; Mundell, Stuart J; Mumford, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) is a key regulator of platelet reactivity and is encoded by F2RL3, which has abundant rare missense variants. We aimed to provide proof of principle that rare F2LR3 variants potentially affect platelet reactivity and responsiveness to PAR1 antagonist drugs and to explore underlying molecular mechanisms. We identified 6 rare F2RL3 missense variants in 236 cardiac patients, of which the variant causing a tyrosine 157 to cysteine substitution (Y157C) was predicted computationally to have the greatest effect on PAR4 structure. Y157C platelets from 3 cases showed reduced responses to PAR4-activating peptide and to α-thrombin compared with controls, but no reduction in responses to PAR1-activating peptide. Pretreatment with the PAR1 antagonist vorapaxar caused lower residual α-thrombin responses in Y157C platelets than in controls, indicating greater platelet inhibition. HEK293 cells transfected with a PAR4 Y157C expression construct had reduced PAR4 functional responses, unchanged total PAR4 expression but reduced surface expression. PAR4 Y157C was partially retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and displayed an expression pattern consistent with defective N-glycosylation. Mutagenesis of Y322, which is the putative hydrogen bond partner of Y157, also reduced PAR4 surface expression in HEK293 cells. Reduced PAR4 responses associated with Y157C result from aberrant anterograde surface receptor trafficking, in part, because of disrupted intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Characterization of PAR4 Y157C establishes that rare F2RL3 variants have the potential to markedly alter platelet PAR4 reactivity particularly after exposure to therapeutic PAR1 antagonists. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Mast cell tryptase stimulates myoblast proliferation; a mechanism relying on protease-activated receptor-2 and cyclooxygenase-2

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    Côté Claude H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells contribute to tissue repair in fibrous tissues by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts through the release of tryptase which activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2. The possibility that a tryptase/PAR-2 signaling pathway exists in skeletal muscle cell has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and determine the downstream cascade. Methods Proliferation of L6 rat skeletal myoblasts stimulated with PAR-2 agonists (tryptase, trypsin and SLIGKV was assessed. The specificity of the tryptase effect was evaluated with a specific inhibitor, APC-366. Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression and functionality of PAR-2 receptor and to assess the expression of COX-2. COX-2 activity was evaluated with a commercial activity assay kit and by measurement of PGF2α production. Proliferation assays were also performed in presence of different prostaglandins (PGs. Results Tryptase increased L6 myoblast proliferation by 35% above control group and this effect was completely inhibited by APC-366. We confirmed the expression of PAR-2 receptor in vivo in skeletal muscle cells and in satellite cells and in vitro in L6 cells, where PAR-2 was found to be functional. Trypsin and SLIGKV increased L6 cells proliferation by 76% and 26% above control, respectively. COX-2 activity was increased following stimulation with PAR-2 agonist but its expression remained unchanged. Inhibition of COX-2 activity by NS-398 abolished the stimulation of cell proliferation induced by tryptase and trypsin. Finally, 15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15Δ-PGJ2, a product of COX-2-derived prostaglandin D2, stimulated myoblast proliferation, but not PGE2 and PGF2α. Conclusions Taken together, our data show that tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and this effect is part of a signaling cascade dependent on PAR-2 activation and on the downstream

  9. Changes in protein metabolism after irradiation. Pt. 2. Protease activity, protease pattern, protein and free amino acids in cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat liver after 600 R whole body X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valet, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Medizin

    1976-01-01

    The protease activity of cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat liver against liver protein and hemoglobin as a substrate increases during an initial reaction phase on the first day after 600 R whole body x irradiation. This is probably a consequence of the degradation of cellular debris. The protein, the protease activity and the free amino acids of the cytoplasm and the cell organelles decrease during the disease phase on day 3 and 4 after irradiation. The protein loss of the liver is therefore not explained by an increased protease activity. The protease activity and the free amino acids are increased in the cytoplasm and the cell organelles during the regeneration phase of the organism between day 15 and 18 after irradiation.

  10. Transoceanic Dispersal and Plate Tectonics Shaped Global Cockroach Distributions: Evidence from Mitochondrial Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Tang, Qian; Ho, Simon Y W; Juna, Frantisek; Wang, Zongqing; Arab, Daej A; Cameron, Stephen L; Walker, James; Rentz, David; Evans, Theodore A; Lo, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    Following the acceptance of plate tectonics theory in the latter half of the 20th century, vicariance became the dominant explanation for the distributions of many plant and animal groups. In recent years, however, molecular-clock analyses have challenged a number of well-accepted hypotheses of vicariance. As a widespread group of insects with a fossil record dating back 300 My, cockroaches provide an ideal model for testing hypotheses of vicariance through plate tectonics versus transoceanic dispersal. However, their evolutionary history remains poorly understood, in part due to unresolved relationships among the nine recognized families. Here, we present a phylogenetic estimate of all extant cockroach families, as well as a timescale for their evolution, based on the complete mitochondrial genomes of 119 cockroach species. Divergence dating analyses indicated that the last common ancestor of all extant cockroaches appeared ∼235 Ma, ∼95 My prior to the appearance of fossils that can be assigned to extant families, and before the breakup of Pangaea began. We reconstructed the geographic ranges of ancestral cockroaches and found tentative support for vicariance through plate tectonics within and between several major lineages. We also found evidence of transoceanic dispersal in lineages found across the Australian, Indo-Malayan, African, and Madagascan regions. Our analyses provide evidence that both vicariance and dispersal have played important roles in shaping the distribution and diversity of these insects.

  11. Effect of thiamethoxam on cockroach locomotor activity is associated with its metabolite clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzidane, Yassine; Touinsi, Sarra; Motte, Emilie; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Leduc, Lionel; Thany, Steeve H

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of thiamethoxam and clothianidin on the locomotor activity of American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Because it has been proposed that thiamethoxam is metabolised to clothianidin, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the amount of clothianidin on thiamethoxam-treated cockroaches. One hour after neonicotinoid treatment, the time spent in the open-field-like apparatus significantly increased, suggesting a decrease in locomotor activity. The percentage of cockroaches displaying locomotor activity was significantly reduced 1 h after haemolymph application of 1 nmol g(-1) neonicotinoid, while no significant effect was found after topical and oral administration. However, at 24 and 48 h, all neonicotinoids were able to reduce locomotor activity, depending on their concentrations and the way they were applied. Interestingly, it was found that thiamethoxam was converted to clothianidin 1 h after application, but the amount of clothianidin did not rise proportionately to thiamethoxam, especially after oral administration. The data suggest that the effect of thiamethoxam on cockroach locomotor activity is due in part to clothianidin action because (1) thiamethoxam levels remained persistent 48 h after application and (2) the amount of clothianidin in cockroach tissues was consistent with the toxicity of thiamethoxam. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Design and Implementation of Markerless Augmented Reality Application for Cockroach Phobia Therapy Using Adaptive Threshold

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    Fiandra Fatharany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR technology is useful for treating several psychological problems, including phobias such as fear of flying, agoraphobia, claustrophobia, and phobia to insects and small animals. However, the currently existing applications for therapy of cockroach phobia that uses AR technology are still very dependent towards the presence of markers, which might lessen the feeling of being in an actual scenario from everyday lives. In this paper, we created a system that is able to use everyday things as a replacement for markers for phobia therapy for cockroach. There are five main processes: getting the live streaming feed from camera, preprocessing, extracting the center point of the objects, tracking the marker-substitute objects, and lastly, instantiating cockroaches randomly after user lifts the objects according to the number and mode of the cockroaches, whether it is moving or not, that are predetermined by the user. The evaluation in this paper includes eight participants that are carefully selected based on their Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ score that is translated into Indonesian and modified to accommodate cockroaches instead of spiders. The results is that the system can induce anxiety level on participants with the highest score of 10, which is the highest score in Standard Unit of Discomfort scale (SUDs. While the presence and reality judgment of this paper has the highest score of 7 which is also the highest score in Slater-Usoh-Steed Questionnaire (SUS.

  14. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

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    M Shahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  15. The prevalence of protozoa in the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) with special reference to Lophomonas blattarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2017-11-01

    The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.

  16. The embodiment of cockroach aggregation behavior in a group of micro-robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Simon; Jost, Christian; Gautrais, Jacques; Asadpour, Masoud; Caprari, Gilles; Jeanson, Raphaël; Grimal, Anne; Theraulaz, Guy

    2008-01-01

    We report the faithful reproduction of the self-organized aggregation behavior of the German cockroach Blattella germanica with a group of robots. We describe the implementation of the biological model provided by Jeanson et al. in Alice robots, and we compare the behaviors of the cockroaches and the robots using the same experimental and analytical methodology. We show that the aggregation behavior of the German cockroach was successfully transferred to the Alice robot despite strong differences between robots and animals at the perceptual, actuatorial, and computational levels. This article highlights some of the major constraints one may encounter during such a work and proposes general principles to ensure that the behavioral model is accurately transferred to the artificial agents.

  17. The Effect of Exogenous Protease in Broiler Diets on the Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and on Protease Activity in Jejunum

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    Vojtěch Rada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a mono-component commercial serine protease supplement in broiler diets on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and protease activity. A total of 150 male (28 d old ROSS 308 were randomly placed into 30 battery pens and divided into 5 treatment groups with 6 replicates each. The experiment was performed for 7 days. Five dietary treatments were used: 2 standard protein diets without (SP and with protease (SP + P formulated 20.7 % CP, 2 lower-protein diets (19.9 % CP without (LP and with protease (LP + P and one lower‑protein diet with protease and with doubled rapeseed meal (RSM content (SP-RSM + P compared with the other treatments. Lower-protein diets were formulated with a 4 % decrease in the relative CP value compared with the standard protein diet. Enzyme protease was added to the diets at a concentration of 200 ppm (15,000 PROT units per kg. The diets contained 0.3 % Cr2O3 to facilitate the estimation of apparent AA digestibility and overall apparent ileal crude protein digestibility. Mono-component protease had no effect on apparent ileal AA digestibility or jejunum protease activity if diets contained the same level of RSM. The supplement of exogenous protease did not affect (P > 0.05 the apparent ileal AA digestibility coefficients if a higher RSM level was used. The CP level influenced (P < 0.05 only the coefficients of the apparent ileal AA digestibility of Pro and Arg. The RSM level (P < 0.01 had significant effects on protease activity in the jejunum.

  18. Toxicity of Cypermethrin and Chlorpyrifos Against German Cockroach [ Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae)] Strains from Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mansour; Motlagh, Behrouz Alipourian; Nasirian, Hassan

    German cockroach has relatively short life cycle and reproduce rapidly. It is the most common medically and public health pest. As a result, it is essential to combat this pest. Cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos are used by private companies in Hamadan to control Blattella germanica. It seems necessary to determine its susceptibility levels to these insecticides. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility levels of B. germanica strains to cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in Hamadan. In this study, the German cockroach strains were collected from two hospitals (Fatemiyeh and Atiyeh) in Hamadan and transfered to the insectarium. The cockroach strains were reared under the same laboratory condition. Then their sensitivity levels were considered to 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg m -2 for cypermethrin and 0.82, 1.65, 3.31, 6.63, 9.945 and 13.26 mg m -2 for chlorpyrifos using surface contact method. Results based on insecticide treated doses, B. germanica strains showed different percent mortality to the insecticides ranged from 13.3-100. The LD 50 and LD 90 and regression lines of the treated insecticides against German cockroach strains indicate that Fatemiyeh Hospital strain is more susceptible to the treated insecticides than Atiyeh Hospital strain. The LD 50 and LD 90 of chlorpyrifos are also lower than cypermethrin, indicated that chlorpyrifos is more effective than cypermethrin against German cockroach. As the slopes of the regression lines are observed mild in this study indicate that the population of the cockroach strains is very heterogeneous. It can be a symbol of insecticides resistance to cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. As chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin insecticides are also used for residual spraying by private companies and the doses which provide more than 90% mortality are below the WHO recommended insecticide doses. Therefore, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin insecticides can be used for B. germanica control in Hamadan within regular monitoring and preventive

  19. Transcriptome analysis and RNA interference of cockroach phototransduction indicate three opsins and suggest a major role for TRPL channels

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    Andrew S French

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of insect phototransduction is based on a small number of species, but insects occupy many different visual environments. We created the retinal transcriptome of a nocturnal insect, the cockroach, Periplaneta americana to identify proteins involved in the earliest stages of compound eye phototransduction, and test the hypothesis that different visual environments are reflected in different molecular contributions to function. We assembled five novel mRNAs: two green opsins, one UV opsin, and one each TRP and TRPL ion channel homologs. One green opsin mRNA (pGO1 was 100-1000 times more abundant than the other opsins (pGO2 and pUVO, while pTRPL mRNA was 10 times more abundant than pTRP, estimated by transcriptome analysis or quantitative PCR (qPCR. Electroretinograms were used to record photoreceptor responses. Gene-specific in vivo RNA interference (RNAi was achieved by injecting long (596-708 bp double-stranded RNA into head hemolymph, and verified by qPCR. RNAi of the most abundant green opsin reduced both green opsins by more than 97% without affecting UV opsin, and gave a maximal reduction of 75% in ERG amplitude seven days after injection that persisted for at least 19 days. RNAi of pTRP and pTRPL genes each specifically reduced the corresponding mRNA by 90%. Electroretinogram reduction by pTRPL RNAi was slower than for opsin, reaching 75% attenuation by 21 days, without recovery at 29 days. pTRP RNAi attenuated ERG much less; only 30% after 21 days. Combined pTRP plus pTRPL RNAi gave only weak evidence of any cooperative interactions. We conclude that silencing retinal genes by in vivo RNAi using long dsRNA is effective, that visible light transduction in Periplaneta is dominated by pGO1, and that pTRPL plays a major role in cockroach phototransduction.

  20. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Chao

    2006-09-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40°C in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  1. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is upregulated by Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) and induces proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2014-05-29

    Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) is a serine protease elaborated by Acanthamoeba trophozoites that facilitates the invasion of trophozoites to the host and contributes to the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The aim of this study was to explore if aPA stimulates proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells via the protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway. Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites were grown in peptone-yeast extract glucose for 7 days, and the supernatants were collected and centrifuged. The aPA was purified using the fast protein liquid chromatography system, and aPA activity was determined by zymography assays. Human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with or without aPA (100 μg/mL), PAR1 agonists (thrombin, 10 μM; TRAP-6, 10 μM), and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2, 100 μM; AC 55541, 10 μM) for 24 and 48 hours. Inhibition of PAR1 and PAR2 involved preincubating the HCE cells for 1 hour with the antagonist of PAR1 (SCH 79797, 60 μM) and PAR2 (FSLLRY-NH2, 100 μM) with or without aPA. Human corneal epithelial cells also were preincubated with PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists and then incubated with or without PAR1 agonists (thrombin and TRAP-6) and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2 and AC 55541). Expression of PAR1 and PAR2 was examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Interleukin-8 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Human corneal epithelial cells constitutively expressed PAR1 and PAR2 mRNA. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator and PAR2 agonists significantly upregulated PAR2 mRNA expression (1- and 2-fold, respectively) (P aPA, and PAR2 agonists induced PAR2 mRNA expression in HCE cells (P aPA, significantly upregulated PAR1 mRNA expression, which was significantly inhibited by PAR1 antagonist in HCE cells. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator and PAR2 agonists stimulated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein production, which is significantly diminished by PAR2 antagonist

  2. Biocontrol of the Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae, with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

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    Mona Sharififard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formula­tions of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longi­palpa F. under laboratory and field conditions.Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml-1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs us­ing different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough path­ogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in- water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sun­flower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses.Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising al­ternative for cockroach control.  

  3. Diet shapes the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  5. Home Sweet Home: How to Build a Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Habitat out of Recycled Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHC) are amazing insects that can be an integral part of an effective science learning and teaching environment. MHCs have a fascinating social structure. They make excellent pets, teach students how to properly care for animals, and their large size adds to their "wow" factor. These characteristics make them unique…

  6. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid communityErik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas11US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New MexicoThe El Paso Children's He...

  7. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300–800 ms by compressing their body 40–60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s−1, despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion—“body-friction legged crawling” with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443

  9. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  10. Origin and extent of resistance to fipronil in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Glenn L; Roebuck, Jamie; Moore, Clyde B; Waldvogel, Michael G; Schal, Coby

    2003-10-01

    Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, was made available in 1999 in bait formulations for use against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). We have investigated resistance to fipronil in the descendants of cockroaches collected just before, or contemporaneously with, the introduction of fipronil baits. Cockroaches were obtained in two types of settings: homes that either had or had not been serviced by a pest management professional while occupied by their current residents. Thorough inspections by us turned up no evidence that fipronil had been used in any of the homes, and in addition, no residents claimed to have used baits containing fipronil. Resistance to fipronil was detected by topically dosing adult males with the LC99 of fipronil, the value of which was determined in a dose-response assay with males of an insecticide-susceptible strain. Fewer than 99 of 100 males of all field-collected strains died within 72 h of being treated. Moreover, substantial numbers of males survived doses three and 10-fold greater than the LC99. Regression analysis showed that 67% of the variation in the percentage of males that died after being treated with fipronil was explained by a linear relationship with the percentage that died after being treated with dieldrin. Therefore, it appears that resistance to fipronil in German cockroaches--whose ancestors had never been exposed to it--is attributable to enduring resistance to the cyclodienes, which were formerly used for cockroach control and have a similar mode of action as fipronil. Lastly, we found that insects resistant to topically administered fipronil were likewise resistant, and to a similar degree, to ingested fipronil.

  11. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    , no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after......Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  12. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However......, no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  13. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  14. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Hamu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6% of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95% of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P=0.013. In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  15. Cloning and characterization of the adipokinetic hormone receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Cockroaches have long been used as insect models to investigate the actions of biologically active neuropeptides. Here, we describe the cloning and functional expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells of an adipokinetic hormone (AKH) G protein-coupled receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta...... americana. This receptor is only activated by various insect AKHs (we tested eight) and not by a library of 29 other insect or invertebrate neuropeptides and nine biogenic amines. Periplaneta has two intrinsic AKHs, Pea-AKH-1, and Pea-AKH-2. The Periplaneta AKH receptor is activated by low concentrations...... of both Pea-AKH-1 (EC50, 5 x 10(-9)M), and Pea-AKH-2 (EC50, 2 x 10(-9)M). Insects can be subdivided into two evolutionary lineages, holometabola (insects with a complete metamorphosis during development) and hemimetabola (incomplete metamorphosis). This paper describes the first AKH receptor from...

  16. Coagulation factor VIIa-mediated protease-activated receptor 2 activation leads to β-catenin accumulation via the AKT/GSK3β pathway and contributes to breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhishek; Ansari, Shabbir A; Das, Kaushik; Prasad, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Anindita; Mallik, Suman; Mukherjee, Ashis; Sen, Prosenjit

    2017-08-18

    Cell migration and invasion are very characteristic features of cancer cells that promote metastasis, which is one of the most common causes of mortality among cancer patients. Emerging evidence has shown that coagulation factors can directly mediate cancer-associated complications either by enhancing thrombus formation or by initiating various signaling events leading to metastatic cancer progression. It is well established that, apart from its distinct role in blood coagulation, coagulation factor FVIIa enhances aggressive behaviors of breast cancer cells, but the underlying signaling mechanisms still remain elusive. To this end, we investigated FVIIa's role in the migration and invasiveness of the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Consistent with previous observations, we observed that FVIIa increased the migratory and invasive potential of these cells. We also provide molecular evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 activation followed by PI3K-AKT activation and GSK3β inactivation is involved in these processes and that β-catenin, a well known tumor-regulatory protein, contributes to this signaling pathway. The pivotal role of β-catenin was further indicated by the up-regulation of its downstream targets cyclin D1, c-Myc, COX-2, MMP-7, MMP-14, and Claudin-1. β-Catenin knockdown almost completely attenuated the FVIIa-induced enhancement of breast cancer migration and invasion. These findings provide a new perspective to counteract the invasive behavior of breast cancer, indicating that blocking PI3K-AKT pathway-dependent β-catenin accumulation may represent a potential therapeutic approach to control breast cancer. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. New predatory cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria: Manipulatoridae fam.n.) from the Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter

    2015-04-01

    We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.

  18. Effects of neck and circumoesophageal connective lesions on posture and locomotion in the cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgel, Angela L; Ritzmann, Roy E

    2005-06-01

    Few studies in arthropods have documented to what extent local control centers in the thorax can support locomotion in absence of inputs from head ganglia. Posture, walking, and leg motor activity was examined in cockroaches with lesions of neck or circumoesophageal connectives. Early in recovery, cockroaches with neck lesions had hyper-extended postures and did not walk. After recovery, posture was less hyper-extended and animals initiated slow leg movements for multiple cycles. Neck lesioned individuals showed an increase in walking after injection of either octopamine or pilocarpine. The phase of leg movement between segments was reduced in neck lesioned cockroaches from that seen in intact animals, while phases in the same segment remained constant. Neither octopamine nor pilocarpine initiated changes in coordination between segments in neck lesioned individuals. Animals with lesions of the circumoesophageal connectives had postures similar to intact individuals but walked in a tripod gait for extended periods of time. Changes in activity of slow tibial extensor and coxal depressor motor neurons and concomitant changes in leg joint angles were present after the lesions. This suggests that thoracic circuits are sufficient to produce leg movements but coordinated walking with normal motor patterns requires descending input from head ganglia.

  19. The orange spotted cockroach (Blaptica dubia, Serville 1839) is a permissive experimental host for Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Bridget E.; Mahdi, Osama; Huntley, Jason F.; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Horzempa, Joseph; Fisher, Nathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen that causes severe disease in a wide range of host animals, including humans. Well-developed murine models of F. tularensis pathogenesis are available, but they do not meet the needs of all investigators. However, researchers are increasingly turning to insect host systems as a cost-effective alternative that allows greater increased experimental throughput without the regulatory requirements associated with the use of mammals in biomedical research. Unfortunately, the utility of previously-described insect hosts is limited because of temperature restriction, short lifespans, and concerns about the immunological status of insects mass-produced for other purposes. Here, we present a novel host species, the orange spotted (OS) cockroach (Blaptica dubia), that overcomes these limitations and is readily infected by F. tularensis. Intrahemocoel inoculation was accomplished using standard laboratory equipment and lethality was directly proportional to the number of bacteria injected. Progression of infection differed in insects housed at low and high temperatures and F. tularensis mutants lacking key virulence components were attenuated in OS cockroaches. Finally, antibiotics were delivered to infected OS cockroaches by systemic injection and controlled feeding; in the latter case, protection correlated with oral bioavailability in mammals. Collectively, these results demonstrate that this new host system provides investigators with a new tool capable of interrogating F. tularensis virulence and immune evasion in situations where mammalian models are not available or appropriate, such as undirected screens of large mutant libraries. PMID:29578544

  20. Analysis of Cockroach Fauna and Frequency in Human Residential Habitats of North of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani R.1 PhD,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Considering the medical significance of cockroaches as insect vectors of food toxicities, and triggering allergy in respiratory system and skin, this survey was conducted to study the frequency of infestation and their effective factors in Shahin Shahr, Iran. Materials & Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 2010 in Shahin Shahr, Isfahan, Iran. Data gathering instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire regarding to the research aims. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using Chi square and Fisher exact tests. Findings 675 of 1000 studied houses (67.5% were infested by all life stages of the cockroaches and 32.5% had no infestation. 46% of infested houses had few, 30% had medium and 24% had high infestation. the bathrooms and toilets were recognized as the most infested places (41%. There were significant relationships between infestation of houses and the age of building (p<0.001, the type of building (p=0.009 and the education level of the family (p<0.001. Significant difference was found between houses equipped their doors and windows by tulles and without tulles (p=0.03. Most infection was found in houses sheltering 5 and more people (72.3%. Significant correlation was found between the infection and the number of family members (p=0.0012. Conclusion Infestation rate of cockroaches in Shahin Shahr houses is high and is mostly of P. americana species.

  1. Mixing compatibilities of Aspergillus and American cockroach allergens with other high-protease fungal and insect extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Thomas J; Hall, Dawn M; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Coyne, Terrance C

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that Alternaria and German cockroach allergens can be degraded by endogenous proteases from other insect and fungal extracts when combined for immunotherapy, but data supporting the compatibilities of other high-protease products in comparable mixtures have not been reported. To assess the stabilities and compatibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus and American cockroach allergens after mixing with protease-rich extracts from other insects or fungi at concentrations similar to those recommended for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Mixtures containing A fumigatus, American cockroach, and other fungal or insect extracts were evaluated by quantitative (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and qualitative (immunoblotting) methods. Test mixtures and control samples at 10% to 50% glycerin concentrations were analyzed after storage for up to 12 months at 2°C to 8°C. Moderate to high recoveries of Aspergillus extract activities were retained in control samples and extract mixtures under all conditions examined. American cockroach extract controls were partly degraded at 10% to 25% glycerin, and cockroach allergen compatibilities were decreased significantly in mixtures with several fungal extracts at 25% glycerin. Mixing with other insects did not compromise the stability of American cockroach allergens at 25% to 50% glycerin. Aspergillus extracts exhibited favorable stabilities after mixing with other high-protease products. American cockroach extract potencies were unstable in less than 50% glycerin, even in the absence of other protease-containing allergens, and were destabilized in mixtures with several fungal extracts. Addition of fungal and insect extracts to separate treatment vials or preparation of fungal-insect mixtures at elevated glycerin concentrations might be necessary to produce compatible patient formulations for allergen immunotherapy injections. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier

  2. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum Richards

    Full Text Available The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within this "bioreactor", and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming sub-family of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota to the ancestral omnivorous cockroaches. To assess the importance of a fungus diet as a driver of community structure, we compare community compositions in the guts of experimentally manipulated Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroaches fed on fungus cultivated by fungus-farming termites. MiSeq amplicon analysis of gut microbiotas from 49 gut samples showed a step-wise gradient pattern in community similarity that correlated with an increase in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. Comparison of the taxonomic composition of manipulated communities to that of gut communities of a fungus-feeding termite species showed that although some bacteria OTUs shared by P. surinamensis and the farming termites increased in the guts of cockroaches on a fungal diet, cockroach communities remained distinct from those of termites. These results demonstrate that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions constrain the magnitude of such change.

  3. Role of protease-activated receptor-2 in inflammation, and its possible implications as a putative mediator of periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Holzhausen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2 belongs to a novel subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven-transmembrane domains. This receptor is widely distributed throughout the body and seems to be importantly involved in inflammatory processes. PAR2 can be activated by serine proteases such as trypsin, mast cell tryptase, and bacterial proteases, such as gingipain produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis. This review describes the current stage of knowledge of the possible mechanisms that link PAR2 activation with periodontal disease, and proposes future therapeutic strategies to modulate the host response in the treatment of periodontitis.

  4. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from American and German cockroaches as potential vectors of microbial pathogens in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Fakoorziba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the cockroach species, their bacterial flora and antibiotics susceptibility patterns of these bacteria in Shiraz. Methods: In the present descriptive study, only two species of cockroaches were recognized. The washing solutions from the digestion systems and surfaces of 156 American and German cockroaches were cultured. The latter was found to be the commonest (89.7% in all places. Results: Overall, 18 species of bacteria were isolated and identified by standard culture methods. The most frequent bacterium isolated from both species of cockroaches in all places was Pseudomonas (41.7%. The second and third commonest bacteria were Enterobacter (39.7% and Klebsiella (32.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The antibiogram profiles showed full (100% resistance of Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter and Proteus to amoxicillin and ampicillin at both hospitals, while Pseudomonas showed resistance (95.7% to cephalothin. Thus it is concluded that German and American cockroaches carry multidrug resistant bacteria in two hospitals which raises alarm for stricter control measures.

  5. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  6. High-level secretion of tissue factor-rich extracellular vesicles from ovarian cancer cells mediated by filamin-A and protease-activated receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizume, Shiro; Ito, Shin; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Kanayama, Tomohiko; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Roppei; Ochiya, Takahiro; Ruf, Wolfram; Miyagi, Etsuko; Hirahara, Fumiki; Miyagi, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Thromboembolic events occur frequently in ovarian cancer patients. Tissue factor (TF) is often overexpressed in tumours, including ovarian clear-cell carcinoma (CCC), a subtype with a generally poor prognosis. TF-coagulation factor VII (fVII) complexes on the cell surface activate downstream coagulation mechanisms. Moreover, cancer cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), which act as vehicles for TF. We therefore examined the characteristics of EVs produced by ovarian cancer cells of various histological subtypes. CCC cells secreted high levels of TF within EVs, while the high-TF expressing breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 shed fewer TF-positive EVs. We also found that CCC tumours with hypoxic tissue areas synthesised TF and fVII in vivo, rendering the blood of xenograft mice bearing these tumours hypercoagulable compared with mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumours. Incorporation of TF into EVs and secretion of EVs from CCC cells exposed to hypoxia were both dependent on the actin-binding protein, filamin-A (filA). Furthermore, production of these EVs was dependent on different protease-activated receptors (PARs) on the cell surface. These results show that CCC cells could produce large numbers of TF-positive EVs dependent upon filA and PARs. This phenomenon may be the mechanism underlying the increased incidence of venous thromboembolism in ovarian cancer patients.

  7. Interaction of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 with G Proteins and Beta-Arrestin 1 Studied by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Akli eAyoub

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are well recognized as being able to activate several signaling pathways through the activation of different G proteins as well as other signaling proteins such as beta-arrestins. Therefore, understanding how such multiple GPCR-mediated signaling can be integrated constitute an important aspect. Here, we applied bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET to shed more light on the G protein coupling profile of trypsin receptor, or protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2, and its interaction with beta-arrestin1. Using YFP and Rluc fusion constructs expressed in COS-7 cells, BRET data revealed a pre-assembly of PAR2 with both Galphai1 and Galphao and a rapid and transient activation of these G proteins upon receptor activation. In contrast, no preassembly of PAR2 with Galpha12 could be detected and their physical association can be measured with a very slow and sustained kinetics similar to that of beta-arrestin1 recruitment. These data demonstrate the coupling of PAR2 with Galphai1, Galphao and Galpha12 in COS-7 cells with differences in the kinetics of GPCR-G protein coupling, a parameter that very likely influences the cellular response. Moreover, this further illustrates that preassembly or agonist-induced G protein interaction depends on receptor-G protein pairs indicating another level of complexity and regulation of the signaling of GPCR-G protein complexes and its multiplicity.

  8. Anticipation of Artemia sp. supply in the larviculture of the barber goby Elacatinus figaro (Gobiidae: Teleostei influenced growth, metamorphosis and alkaline protease activity

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    Maria Fernanda da Silva-Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The barber goby Elacatinus figaro is considered endangered due to overexploitation by the ornamental industry. Farming marine ornamental fishes, especially the threatened ones, can be one of the measures to minimize the pressure on the natural stocks. Among the priority issues for their production is the determination of the most appropriate feeding management. The feeding protocol commonly used in the larviculture of barber goby, when the start of Artemia sp. offer occurred at the 18th DAH (days after hatching (treatment T18, was modified, by anticipating brine shrimp supply in 6 days (treatment T12. Alkaline proteases activity, growth and metamorphosis of larvae were evaluated in both protocols. Juveniles at T12 showed higher weight (0.04 ± 0.001 g and lower activity of total alkaline proteases (1.3 ± 0.2 mU mg-1 protein compared to T18 (0.02 ± 0.001 g; 2.8 ± 0.4 mU mg-1 protein, respectively. With anticipation of brine shrimp, the commencing and end of larval transformation was observed earlier (at 24 and 34 DAH, respectively in comparison to those with the supply of Artemia sp. at 18 DAH (27 and 41 DAH, respectively. Thus, the Artemia sp. anticipation was beneficial during the larviculture of the barber goby, considering that larvae reached metamorphosis earlier.

  9. Mechanism of interleukin-13 production by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes classically activated M1 macrophages. GM-CSF upregulates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) protein expression and activation of PAR-2 by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) regulates cytokine production. This study investigated the mechanism of PAR-2-mediated interleukin (IL)-13 production by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. After stimulation with HNE to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway, IL-13 mRNA and protein levels were assessed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. PAR-2 protein was detected in GM-CSF-dependent macrophages by Western blotting. Unexpectedly, PD98059 (an ERK1 inhibitor) increased IL-13 production, even at higher concentrations. Interestingly, U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) reduced IL-13 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Neither SB203580 (a p38alpha/p38beta inhibitor) nor BIRB796 (a p38gamma/p38delta inhibitor) affected IL-13 production, while TMB-8 (a calcium chelator) diminished IL-13 production. Stimulation with HNE promoted the production of IL-13 (a Th2 cytokine) by GM-CSF-dependent M1 macrophages. PAR-2-mediated IL-13 production may be dependent on the Ca(2+)/ERK2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced Effector Function of CD8+ T Cells From Healthy Controls and HIV-Infected Patients Occurs Through Thrombin Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Amanda; Smith, Mindy; Karpova, Tatiana; Hasley, Rebecca B.; Belkina, Natalya; Shaw, Stephen; Balenga, Nariman; Druey, Kirk M.; Nickel, Erin; Packard, Beverly; Imamichi, Hiromi; Hu, Zonghui; Follmann, Dean; McNally, James; Higgins, Jeanette; Sneller, Michael; Lane, H. Clifford; Catalfamo, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of vascular integrity by trauma and other tissue insults leads to inflammation and activation of the coagulation cascade. The serine protease thrombin links these 2 processes. The proinflammatory function of thrombin is mediated by activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). We found that peripheral blood effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed PAR-1 and that expression was increased in CD8+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients. Thrombin enhanced cytokine secretion in CD8+ T cells from healthy controls and HIV-infected patients. In addition, thrombin induced chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, of CD8+ T cells, which led to structural changes, including cell polarization and formation of a structure rich in F-actin and phosphorylated ezrin-radexin-moesin proteins. These findings suggest that thrombin mediates cross-talk between the coagulation system and the adaptive immune system at sites of vascular injury through increased T-cell motility and production of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:23204166

  11. Enhanced effector function of CD8(+) T cells from healthy controls and HIV-infected patients occurs through thrombin activation of protease-activated receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Amanda; Smith, Mindy; Karpova, Tatiana; Hasley, Rebecca B; Belkina, Natalya; Shaw, Stephen; Balenga, Nariman; Druey, Kirk M; Nickel, Erin; Packard, Beverly; Imamichi, Hiromi; Hu, Zonghui; Follmann, Dean; McNally, James; Higgins, Jeanette; Sneller, Michael; Lane, H Clifford; Catalfamo, Marta

    2013-02-15

    Disruption of vascular integrity by trauma and other tissue insults leads to inflammation and activation of the coagulation cascade. The serine protease thrombin links these 2 processes. The proinflammatory function of thrombin is mediated by activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). We found that peripheral blood effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes expressed PAR-1 and that expression was increased in CD8(+) T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thrombin enhanced cytokine secretion in CD8(+) T cells from healthy controls and HIV-infected patients. In addition, thrombin induced chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, of CD8(+) T cells, which led to structural changes, including cell polarization and formation of a structure rich in F-actin and phosphorylated ezrin-radexin-moesin proteins. These findings suggest that thrombin mediates cross-talk between the coagulation system and the adaptive immune system at sites of vascular injury through increased T-cell motility and production of proinflammatory cytokines.

  12. [Roles of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, in modulation of exocrine gland functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-07-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, is activated by proteolytic unmasking of the N-terminal extracellular tethered ligand that presumably binds to the extracellular loop 2 of the receptor itself. PAR-2 is widely distributed in the mammalian body and plays various roles in biological events in the cardiovascular, respiratory, alimentary, and central neurons systems. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically to mice and rats trigger prompt salivation in vivo. In an in vitro study, PAR-2 agonists including the endogenous PAR-2 activator trypsin induce secretion of amylase and mucin from isolated rat parotid glands and sublingual glands, respectively. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically also modulate pancreatic exocrine secretion in vivo as well as in vitro. In the gastric mucosa, PAR-2 stimulation enhances secretion of mucus and pepsinogen and suppresses acid secretion. Tear secretion can also be caused by PAR-2-related peptides in PAR-2-dependent and -independent manners. PAR-2 thus plays a general or key role in the regulation of exocrine secretion. This review focuses on the physiologic and/or pathophysiologic roles of PAR-2 in glandular exocrine secretion. The possibility of PAR-2 as a target for drug development is also discussed.

  13. Midgut Protease Activity During Larval Development of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fed With Natural and Artificial Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Guillen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined the activity of two serine proteases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) and two metalloproteases (carboxypeptidases A and B) during larval development in Anastrepha obliqua fed natural (mango fruit) and artificial (formulation used in mass-rearing) diets. Proteolytic activity of chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase A, and carboxypeptidase B was detected in the midgut of different instars of A. obliqua and was strongly affected by the pH and diet type. The protein content of the natural and artificial diets was similar. Enzymatic activity was higher in the midgut of the larvae fed the natural diet than in larvae fed the artificial diet. The activity of the endopeptidases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) was lower than those of the exopeptidases (carboxypeptidases A and B). The pH of the midgut varied from acidic to neutral. The results indicate that in the midgut of the larvae reared on both types of diet, the level of carboxypeptidase activity was approximately 100-fold greater than the level of chymotrypsin activity and 10,000-fold greater than the level of trypsin. In conclusion, carboxypeptidase A and B are the main proteases involved in the digestion of proteins in the larvae of A. obliqua. The natural diet showed a high bioaccessibility. A clear tendency to express high activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed by the third instar. Our research contributes to the planning and development of novel bioaccessibility assays to understand the nutrition processing of A. obliqua larvae under mass-rearing conditions for sterile insect technique.

  14. Internalisation of the protease-activated receptor 1: role of the third intracellular loop and of the cytoplasmic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Berrou, J; Vigneau, C; Delarue, F; Rondeau, E

    2001-06-01

    To analyse the mechanisms of PAR-1 internalisation, we constructed several PAR-1 mutants and stably expressed them in CHO cells. Our study shows that the Ser(306)-->Ala mutation (S306A), which eliminates a potential site of phosphorylation by PKC in the third intracellular loop of PAR-1, did not change the rate of phosphorylation but reduced the rate of thrombin-induced internalisation of the PAR-1 mutant (58 versus 78% of membrane PAR-1 in 15 min, pinternalisation upon activation. This deletion also inhibited the PMA-induced and the agonist-independent internalisation of the receptor. The Tyr(371)--> Ala mutation (Y371A), in a NPXXY motif of the seventh transmembrane domain of the receptor had no effect on the receptor behaviour. Our results indicate that both the C-tail and the third intracellular loop are involved in PAR-1 internalisation induced by thrombin while only the C-tail plays a role in the PMA-induced and in the agonist-independent PAR-1 internalisation.

  15. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Sanaz; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Hajikhani, Sara; Oshaghi, Ghazaleh; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-06-01

    Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate. Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods. The analytical profile index (API) kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional plating method revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2). 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequence was identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species. A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively.

  16. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Akbari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate.Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods.Results: The analytical profile index (API kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y.intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional platingmethod revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2. 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequencewas identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species.Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively.

  17. Major changes in microbial diversity and community composition across gut sections of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Gontang

    Full Text Available Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica. We found a significant shift in the microbial community structure and coding potential throughout the three gut sections of Panchlora sp., and through comparison with previously generated metagenomes of the cockroach's food source and niche, we reveal that this shift in microbial community composition is influenced by the ecosystems in which Panchlora sp. occurs. While the foregut is composed of microbes that likely originate from the symbiotic fungus gardens of the ants, the midgut and hindgut are composed of a microbial community that is likely cockroach-specific. Analogous to mammalian systems, the midgut and hindgut appear to be dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes with the capacity for polysaccharide degradation, suggesting they may assist in the degradation of dietary plant material. Our work underscores the prominence of community changes throughout gut microbiomes and highlights ecological factors that underpin the structure and function of the symbiotic microbial communities of metazoans.

  18. Major changes in microbial diversity and community composition across gut sections of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontang, Erin A; Aylward, Frank O; Carlos, Camila; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Chovatia, Mansi; Fern, Alison; Lo, Chien-Chi; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Tringe, Susannah G; Currie, Cameron R; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica. We found a significant shift in the microbial community structure and coding potential throughout the three gut sections of Panchlora sp., and through comparison with previously generated metagenomes of the cockroach's food source and niche, we reveal that this shift in microbial community composition is influenced by the ecosystems in which Panchlora sp. occurs. While the foregut is composed of microbes that likely originate from the symbiotic fungus gardens of the ants, the midgut and hindgut are composed of a microbial community that is likely cockroach-specific. Analogous to mammalian systems, the midgut and hindgut appear to be dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes with the capacity for polysaccharide degradation, suggesting they may assist in the degradation of dietary plant material. Our work underscores the prominence of community changes throughout gut microbiomes and highlights ecological factors that underpin the structure and function of the symbiotic microbial communities of metazoans.

  19. Comparative study of specific IgE for cockroach between asthma and allergic rhinitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yinshi; Xu Yiping; Zhu Lijun; Wang Limin; Cao Lingxian; Yao Suhang

    2005-01-01

    To compare the degrees of allergic reaction and the cross-reactive allergens for three strains of cockroach (Periplanceta fuliginosa , Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica) between patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis, the specific IgE(sIgE) in asthma and allergic rhinitis for these three strains of cockroach were determined with ELISA. The results showed that the sIgE positive rates for Periplaneta americana, Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica in patients with asthma were 23.5%, 16.0% and 14.8%, respectively. The reactive coincidence rate between Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta fuliginoas was 74.0%, between Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica was 73.5%, and between Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica was 85.0% in asthma patients. The IgE positive rates for Periplaneta americana, Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella gerraanica in allergic rhinitis patients were 24.8%, 17.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The reactive coincidence rate between Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta fuliginosa was 73.9%, between Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica was 75.2%, and between Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica was 86.1% in allergic rhinitis patients. There was no significant difference between asthma and allergic rhinitis patients although the sIgE positive rates of allergic rhinitis patients were higher than those of asthma patients for these three strains of cock- roach. All these results indicated that the degrees of allergic reaction are similar between asthma and allergic rhinitis patients and there are some cross-reactive allergic components among these three strains of cockroach. (authors)

  20. Population ecology and movement of the American cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Hui-Siang; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-07-01

    The population size, age-class structure, and movement of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), were studied in three sewers in Penang, Malaysia, from September 2008 to October 2009. Eighteen to 20 glass-jar traps (two per manhole) were deployed for a 24-h period during each sampling occasion at each sewer. Adults and nymphs were active throughout the study period, with an average monthly trap catch of 57-97 adults and 79-99 nymphs. The mean proportions of adults and nymphs at the three sewers ranged from 0.47 to 0.57. Of the 2177 male and 2717 female cockroaches marked and released over the three sewers, recapture rates were 29.4-45.8 and 30.8-47.0%, respectively. The proportion of marked males and females did not differ significantly from the proportion of recaptured marked males and females. However, the mean number of times a marked female was recaptured was significantly greater than that of males. Of the 783 males and 1,030 females that were marked and recaptured, 19.4 and 24.7%, respectively, had moved between manholes, and significantly more females than males moved between manholes. Of the 406 recaptured marked adults that moved between manholes, 90.4% moved a distance of 2-20 m from their initial release site; one male moved 192 m, the longest distance recorded. Trap catch on each sampling occasion was positively correlated with daily mean temperature. The number of cockroach movements between manholes also was correlated with the mean daily minimum temperature.

  1. Biogeography and Phylogeny of Wood-feeding Cockroaches in the Genus Cryptocercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoto Maekawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsocial, xylophagous cockroaches of the genus Cryptocercus exhibit a disjunct distribution, with representatives in mature montane forests of North America, China, Korea and the Russian Far East. All described species are wingless and dependent on rotting wood for food and shelter at all stages of their life cycle; consequently, their distribution is tied to that of forests and strongly influenced by palaeogeographical events. Asian and American lineages form distinct monophyletic groups, comprised of populations with complex geographic substructuring. We review the phylogeny and distribution of Cryptocercus, and discuss splitting events inferred from molecular data.

  2. Paleocene origin of the cockroach families Blaberidae and Corydiidae: Evidence from Amur River region of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Vidlička, L'Ubomír; Barna, Peter; Bugdaeva, Eugenia; Markevich, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Morphna paleo sp. n., the earliest winged representative of any living cockroach genus and the earliest representative of the family Blaberidae, is described from the Danian Arkhara-Boguchan coal mine in the Amur River region (Russian Far East). The branched Sc and A suggest Ectobiidae (=Blattellidae) probably is not the ancestral family because Blaberidae were derived directly from the extinct family Mesoblattindae. The associated Danian locality Belaya Gora yielded Ergaula stonebut sp. n., the earliest record of the family Corydiidae. Both species belong to genera codominant in the Messel locality, thus validating their dominance in early Cenozoic assemblages.

  3. Salmon and human thrombin differentially regulate radicular pain, glial-induced inflammation and spinal neuronal excitability through protease-activated receptor-1.

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    Jenell R Smith

    Full Text Available Chronic neck pain is a major problem with common causes including disc herniation and spondylosis that compress the spinal nerve roots. Cervical nerve root compression in the rat produces sustained behavioral hypersensitivity, due in part to the early upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the sustained hyperexcitability of neurons in the spinal cord and degeneration in the injured nerve root. Through its activation of the protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1, mammalian thrombin can enhance pain and inflammation; yet at lower concentrations it is also capable of transiently attenuating pain which suggests that PAR1 activation rate may affect pain maintenance. Interestingly, salmon-derived fibrin, which contains salmon thrombin, attenuates nerve root-induced pain and inflammation, but the mechanisms of action leading to its analgesia are unknown. This study evaluates the effects of salmon thrombin on nerve root-mediated pain, axonal degeneration in the root, spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and inflammation compared to its human counterpart in the context of their enzymatic capabilities towards coagulation substrates and PAR1. Salmon thrombin significantly reduces behavioral sensitivity, preserves neuronal myelination, reduces macrophage infiltration in the injured nerve root and significantly decreases spinal neuronal hyperexcitability after painful root compression in the rat; whereas human thrombin has no effect. Unlike salmon thrombin, human thrombin upregulates the transcription of IL-1β and TNF-α and the secretion of IL-6 by cortical cultures. Salmon and human thrombins cleave human fibrinogen-derived peptides and form clots with fibrinogen with similar enzymatic activities, but salmon thrombin retains a higher enzymatic activity towards coagulation substrates in the presence of antithrombin III and hirudin compared to human thrombin. Conversely, salmon thrombin activates a PAR1-derived peptide more weakly than human thrombin. These

  4. Galectin-3 facilitates cell motility in gastric cancer by up-regulating protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1.

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    Seok-Jun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 is known to regulate cancer metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism has not been defined. Through the DNA microarray studies after galectin-3 silencing, we demonstrated here that galectin-3 plays a key role in up-regulating the expressions of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 PAR-1 thereby promoting gastric cancer metastasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the expression levels of Galectin-3, PAR-1, and MMP-1 in gastric cancer patient tissues and also the effects of silencing these proteins with specific siRNAs and of over-expressing them using specific lenti-viral constructs. We also employed zebrafish embryo model for analysis of in vivo gastric cancer cell invasion. These studies demonstrated that: a galectin-3 silencing decreases the expression of PAR-1. b galectin-3 over-expression increases cell migration and invasion and this increase can be reversed by PAR-1 silencing, indicating that galectin-3 increases cell migration and invasion via PAR-1 up-regulation. c galectin-3 directly interacts with AP-1 transcriptional factor, and this complex binds to PAR-1 promoter and drives PAR-1 transcription. d galectin-3 also amplifies phospho-paxillin, a PAR-1 downstream target, by increasing MMP-1 expression. MMP-1 silencing blocks phospho-paxillin amplification and cell invasion caused by galectin-3 over-expression. e Silencing of either galectin-3, PAR-1 or MMP-1 significantly reduced cell migration into the vessels in zebrafish embryo model. f Galectin-3, PAR-1, and MMP-1 are highly expressed and co-localized in malignant tissues from gastric cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Galectin-3 plays the key role of activating cell surface receptor through production of protease and boosts gastric cancer metastasis. Galectin-3 has the potential to serve as a useful pharmacological target for prevention of gastric cancer metastasis.

  5. Adaptor Protein Complex-2 (AP-2) and Epsin-1 Mediate Protease-activated Receptor-1 Internalization via Phosphorylation- and Ubiquitination-dependent Sorting Signals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buxin; Dores, Michael R.; Grimsey, Neil; Canto, Isabel; Barker, Breann L.; Trejo, JoAnn

    2011-01-01

    Signaling by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is regulated by desensitization and internalization. PAR1 desensitization is mediated by β-arrestins, like most classic GPCRs. In contrast, internalization of PAR1 occurs through a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent pathway independent of β-arrestins. PAR1 displays two modes of internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), where the μ2-adaptin subunit binds directly to a tyrosine-based motif localized within the receptor C-tail domain. However, AP-2 depletion only partially inhibits agonist-induced internalization of PAR1, suggesting a function for other clathrin adaptors in this process. Here, we now report that AP-2 and epsin-1 are both critical mediators of agonist-stimulated PAR1 internalization. We show that ubiquitination of PAR1 and the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of epsin-1 are required for epsin-1-dependent internalization of activated PAR1. In addition, activation of PAR1 promotes epsin-1 de-ubiquitination, which may increase its endocytic adaptor activity to facilitate receptor internalization. AP-2 also regulates activated PAR1 internalization via recognition of distal C-tail phosphorylation sites rather than the canonical tyrosine-based motif. Thus, AP-2 and epsin-1 are both required to promote efficient internalization of activated PAR1 and recognize discrete receptor sorting signals. This study defines a new pathway for internalization of mammalian GPCRs. PMID:21965661

  6. A novel mutation in the P2Y12 receptor and a function-reducing polymorphism in protease-activated receptor 1 in a patient with chronic bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Y M; Lordkipanidzé, M; Lowe, G C; Nisar, S P; Garner, K; Stockley, J; Daly, M E; Mitchell, M; Watson, S P; Austin, S K; Mundell, S J

    2014-05-01

    The study of patients with bleeding problems is a powerful approach in determining the function and regulation of important proteins in human platelets. We have identified a patient with a chronic bleeding disorder expressing a homozygous P2RY(12) mutation, predicting an arginine to cysteine (R122C) substitution in the G-protein-coupled P2Y(12) receptor. This mutation is found within the DRY motif, which is a highly conserved region in G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that is speculated to play a critical role in regulating receptor conformational states. To determine the functional consequences of the R122C substitution for P2Y(12) function. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of an index case and affected family members. An analysis of the variant R122C P2Y(12) stably expressed in cells was also performed. ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation was reduced as a result of a significant impairment of P2Y(12) activity in the patient and family members. Cell surface R122C P2Y(12) expression was reduced both in cell lines and in platelets; in cell lines, this was as a consequence of agonist-independent internalization followed by subsequent receptor trafficking to lysosomes. Strikingly, members of this family also showed reduced thrombin-induced platelet activation, owing to an intronic polymorphism in the F2R gene, which encodes protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), that has been shown to be associated with reduced PAR-1 receptor activity. Our study is the first to demonstrate a patient with deficits in two stimulatory GPCR pathways that regulate platelet activity, further indicating that bleeding disorders constitute a complex trait. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Distinctive G Protein-Dependent Signaling by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2 in Smooth Muscle: Feedback Inhibition of RhoA by cAMP-Independent PKA.

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    Wimolpak Sriwai

    Full Text Available We examined expression of protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2 and characterized their signaling pathways in rabbit gastric muscle cells. The PAR2 activating peptide SLIGRL (PAR2-AP stimulated Gq, G13, Gi1, PI hydrolysis, and Rho kinase activity, and inhibited cAMP formation. Stimulation of PI hydrolysis was partly inhibited in cells expressing PAR2 siRNA, Gaq or Gai minigene and in cells treated with pertussis toxin, and augmented by expression of dominant negative regulator of G protein signaling (RGS4(N88S. Stimulation of Rho kinase activity was abolished by PAR-2 or Ga13 siRNA, and by Ga13 minigene. PAR2-AP induced a biphasic contraction; initial contraction was selectively blocked by the inhibitor of PI hydrolysis (U73122 or MLC kinase (ML-9, whereas sustained contraction was selectively blocked by the Rho kinase inhibitor (Y27632. PAR2-AP induced phosphorylation of MLC20, MYPT1 but not CPI-17. PAR2-AP also caused a decrease in the association of NF-kB and PKA catalytic subunit: the effect of PAR2-AP was blocked by PAR2 siRNA or phosphorylation-deficient RhoA (RhoA(S188A. PAR2-AP-induced degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB were abolished by the blockade of RhoA activity by Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme suggesting RhoA-dependent activation of NF-kB. PAR2-AP-stimulated Rho kinase activity was significantly augmented by the inhibitors of PKA (myristoylated PKI, IKK2 (IKKIV or NF-kB (MG132, and in cells expressing dominant negative mutants of IKK (IKK(K44A, IkBa (IkBa (S32A/S36A or RhoA(S188A, suggesting feedback inhibition of Rho kinase activity via PKA derived from NF-kB pathway. PAR2-AP induced phosphorylation of RhoA and the phosphorylation was attenuated in cells expressing phosphorylation-deficient RhoA(S188A. Our results identified signaling pathways activated by PAR2 to mediate smooth muscle contraction and a novel pathway for feedback inhibition of PAR2-stimulated RhoA. The pathway involves activation of the NF-kB to

  8. Protease activity of plasma hemopexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, WW; Borghuis, T; Harmsen, MC; van den Berg, Anke; Kema, IP; Niezen, KE; Kapojos, JJ

    Background. Previous studies into the relevance of a putative circulating factor in the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome have opened the possibility that plasma hemopexin might be an important effector molecule in this disorder. Thus, intra renal infusion of isolated plasma

  9. Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) parasitizing the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), in Alabama and Florida with recognition of Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. parasitizing ectobiid cockroaches in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida: Septatorina: Gregarinidae) is described from populations of the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), established in laboratory culture from samples collected in Alabama and Florida. Tomaculocystis n. gen. are differentiated from other members of Gregarina by a markedly elliptoid gametocyst inside a persistent, lomentiform hyaline epicyst; developmental organization and growth of the spore tubes from gametocyst surface tumidi; and dehiscence by extrusion of non-chain forming oocysts through spore tubes that barely extend beyond the epicyst wall. Gregarina cylindrosa, Gregarina discocephala, and Gregarina mukundai are recognized as members of Tomaculocystis, and G. cylindrosa is recognized as the senior synonym of G. discocephala. Thus, Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. are formed. Species of Tomaculocystis are distinguished based on gamont deutomerite and oocyst shape and size. The oocysts of T. corpulenta are broadly dolioform, lack 4 polar knobs, and possess distinct, unique polar plates. Oocysts of all other known species in the genus are more oblong in shape, possess 4 polar knobs, and lack the distinct polar plates observed in the oocysts of T. corpulenta. Host utilization and geographic distribution among gregarine genera parasitizing the cockroach family Ectobiidae reveal a pattern of host-parasite specificity linking gregarine genera with ectobiidid subfamilies. Overall patterns suggest a hypothesis of European endemicy for Gamocystis, but hypotheses for the origin and radiation of Tomaculocystis or species of Gregarina infecting cockroaches are confounded by the cosmopolitan spread of pest cockroach species among humans.

  10. Rediscovered and new perisphaerine cockroaches from SW China with a review of subfamilial diagnosis (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Ran; Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Zong-Qing

    2018-04-17

    The taxonomic records of Chinese perisphaerine cockroaches were scattered in literature, and therefore a dedicated study is desired to update our knowledge. This paper reviews the subfamilial diagnosis and Chinese species, mostly from southwestern China. We provide high-definition habitus photos and drawings, the latter emphasizes the genitalia of both sexes, which are generalized with diagrams, abstracted from specimens examined. A total of 18 species are recorded in four genera, including Perisphaerus, or pill cockroach, the type genus of the subfamily. Two new genera and three new species are proposed: Achatiblatta achates gen. sp. nov., Frumentiforma frumentiformis gen. sp. nov., and Pseudoglomeris montana sp. nov.. Pseudoglomeris has five new junior synonyms: Corydidarum, Trichoblatta, Kurokia, Glomerexis, and Glomeriblatta; the following combinations are thus revived or new: Ps. aerea comb. nov., Ps. angustifolia comb. nov., Ps. beybienkoi comb. nov., Ps. fallax comb. nov., Ps. magnifica comb. rev., Ps. montshadskii comb. nov., Ps. nigra comb. nov., Ps. sculpta comb. nov., Ps. semisulcata comb. rev., Ps. tibetana comb. nov., and Ps. valida moderata comb. nov.. The following species are revalidated and combinations revived: Pe. pygmaeus comb. rev., Ps. dubia comb. sp. rev., and Ps. planiuscla comb. sp. rev.

  11. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhak David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks’ architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity. Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system.

  12. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Erickson

    Full Text Available Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1-4 V and current (50-150 μA pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6-25.6 cm; 3.9-5.6 cm/s but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s. Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10-25 cm could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain.

  13. Transplantation immunity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana: the rejection of integumentary grafts from Blatta orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, R D; Meade, C C

    1993-01-01

    The results from several previous studies have indicated that the American cockroach is able to respond to integumentary xenografts, but doubt remained as to whether cockroaches could effectively discriminate between self and allogeneic differences. This was emphasized by the fact that while one study reported that Periplaneta americana responded to grafts donated by the closely related genus Blatta orientalis, the data reported elsewhere, using a different assay system, found no such reactivity. Since we have subsequently reported, using a direct histological assay, that Periplaneta can in fact recognize and destroy integumentary allografts, we initiated a study to hopefully sort out the enigma presented by previous data using Blatta as a transplant donor. Integument from Blatta orientalis was transplanted orthotopically onto Periplaneta americana, and at various time points post-transplant, scored histologically for the survival of the subcuticular epidermal layer. The results clearly demonstrated that Periplaneta reacted to the Blatta tissue, because approximately 82% of the grafts had the epidermal layer destroyed by day 7 posttransplant. The kinetics of the response to Blatta was more in line with our allograft data, which would be in agreement with other work indicating that the closer the donor and recipient are on the phylogenetic tree, the less intense the reactivity to the foreign transplant.

  14. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Weihmann

    Full Text Available Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2 to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  15. Molecular characterization and localization of the first tyramine receptor of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotte, C; Krach, C; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A; Walz, B; Blenau, W

    2009-09-15

    The phenolamines octopamine and tyramine control, regulate, and modulate many physiological and behavioral processes in invertebrates. Vertebrates possess only small amounts of both substances, and thus, octopamine and tyramine, together with other biogenic amines, are referred to as "trace amines." Biogenic amines evoke cellular responses by activating G-protein-coupled receptors. We have isolated a complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes a biogenic amine receptor from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, viz., Peatyr1, which shares high sequence similarity to members of the invertebrate tyramine-receptor family. The PeaTYR1 receptor was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and its ligand response has been examined. Receptor activation with tyramine reduces adenylyl cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) approximately 350 nM). The inhibitory effect of tyramine is abolished by co-incubation with either yohimbine or chlorpromazine. Receptor expression has been investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. The mRNA is present in various tissues including brain, salivary glands, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and leg muscles. The effect of tyramine on salivary gland acinar cells has been investigated by intracellular recordings, which have revealed excitatory presynaptic actions of tyramine. This study marks the first comprehensive molecular, pharmacological, and functional characterization of a tyramine receptor in the cockroach.

  16. Cellular elements for seeing in the dark: voltage-dependent conductances in cockroach photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmela Iikka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of voltage-dependent conductances in sensory information processing is well-established in insect photoreceptors. Here we present the characterization of electrical properties in photoreceptors of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana, a nocturnal insect with a visual system adapted for dim light. Results Whole-cell patch-clamped photoreceptors had high capacitances and input resistances, indicating large photosensitive rhabdomeres suitable for efficient photon capture and amplification of small photocurrents at low light levels. Two voltage-dependent potassium conductances were found in the photoreceptors: a delayed rectifier type (KDR and a fast transient inactivating type (KA. Activation of KDR occurred during physiological voltage responses induced by light stimulation, whereas KA was nearly fully inactivated already at the dark resting potential. In addition, hyperpolarization of photoreceptors activated a small-amplitude inward-rectifying (IR current mediated at least partially by chloride. Computer simulations showed that KDR shapes light responses by opposing the light-induced depolarization and speeding up the membrane time constant, whereas KA and IR have a negligible role in the majority of cells. However, larger KA conductances were found in smaller and rapidly adapting photoreceptors, where KA could have a functional role. Conclusions The relative expression of KA and KDR in cockroach photoreceptors was opposite to the previously hypothesized framework for dark-active insects, necessitating further comparative work on the conductances. In general, the varying deployment of stereotypical K+ conductances in insect photoreceptors highlights their functional flexibility in neural coding.

  17. Modeling population dynamics of two cockroach species: Effects of the circadian clock, interspecific competition and pest control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, H. H.; Lee, H. J.; Horng, S. B.; Berec, Luděk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 249, - (2007), s. 473-486 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : German cockroach * Blattella germanica * Blatella bisignata Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2007

  18. Aromatic hexamerin subunit from adult female cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) : Molecular cloning, suppression by juvenile hormone, and evolutionary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroz, RC; Beintema, JJ; Stam, WT; Bradfield, JY

    In an effort to identify several polypeptides that are strongly suppressed by juvenile hormone (JH) in fat body of adult female Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches, we have cloned a cDNA representing a polypeptide member of the hexamerin family of arthropod serum proteins. The deduced primary

  19. CIRCADIAN CONTROL OF VISUAL INFORMATION-PROCESSING IN THE OPTIC LOBE OF THE GIANT COCKROACH BLABERUS-GIGANTEUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULT, R; MASTEBROEK, HAK

    1993-01-01

    Extracellular spike activity from three different types of visual interneurons found in the optic lobe of the giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus was recorded. The spike rate of all three types of neurons fluctuated in a circadian manner in constant darkness (DD). Two types, so-called ''on'' neurons

  20. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Callum; Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within......-feeding termite species showed that although some bacteria OTUs shared by P. surinamensis and the farming termites increased in the guts of cockroaches on a fungal diet, cockroach communities remained distinct from those of termites. These results demonstrate that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut...

  1. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  2. IgE-Binding Epitope Mapping and Tissue Localization of the Major American Cockroach Allergen Per a 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mey Fann; Chang, Chia Wei; Song, Pei Pong; Hwang, Guang Yuh; Lin, Shyh Jye; Chen, Yi Hsing

    2015-07-01

    Cockroaches are the second leading allergen in Taiwan. Sensitization to Per a 2, the major American cockroach allergen, correlates with clinical severity among patients with airway allergy, but there is limited information on IgE epitopes and tissue localization of Per a 2. This study aimed to identify Per a 2 linear IgE-binding epitopes and its distribution in the body of a cockroach. The cDNA of Per a 2 was used as a template and combined with oligonucleotide primers specific to the target areas with appropriate restriction enzyme sites. Eleven overlapping fragments of Per a 2 covering the whole allergen molecule, except 20 residues of signal peptide, were generated by PCR. Mature Per a 2 and overlapping deletion mutants were affinity-purified and assayed for IgE reactivity by immunoblotting. Three synthetic peptides comprising the B cell epitopes were evaluated by direct binding ELISA. Rabbit anti-Per a 2 antibody was used for immunohistochemistry. Human linear IgE-binding epitopes of Per a 2 were located at the amino acid sequences 57-86, 200-211, and 299-309. There was positive IgE binding to 10 tested Per a 2-allergic sera in 3 synthetic peptides, but none in the controls. Immunostaining revealed that Per a 2 was localized partly in the mouth and midgut of the cockroach, with the most intense staining observed in the hindgut, suggesting that the Per a 2 allergen might be excreted through the feces. Information on the IgE-binding epitope of Per a 2 may be used for designing more specific diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cockroach allergy.

  3. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  4. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L. and screening for protease activity Isolamento de Mucorales de milho processado (Zea mays L. e seleção quanto à atividade proteásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoraleswere isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus,Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity.Mucorales foram isolados da farinha de milho, fubá e flocos de milho pré-cozidos pelos métodos de plaqueamento em superfície e em profundidade. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus,Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis e Absidia cylindrospora exibiram atividade proteásica.

  5. Site of water vapor absorption in the desert cockroach, Arenivaga investigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, M J

    1977-01-01

    The desert cockroach, Arenivaga investigata, can gain weight by absorption of water-vapor from unsaturated atmospheres above 82.5% relative humidity. Blocking the anus or the dorsal surface with wax does not prevent water vapor uptake, but interference with movements of the mouthparts or blocking the mouth with wax-prevents such uptake. Weight gains are associated with the protrusion from the mouth of two bladder-like extensions of the hypopharynx. During absorption these structures are warmer than the surrounding mouthparts, their surface temperature increasing with relative humidity. This suggests that the surfaces of the bladder-like structures function at least as sites for condensation of water vapor, but the precise location of its transfer into the hemolymph has not yet been identified. Images PMID:266217

  6. [Cockroaches and co. The role of health pests as allergen source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf, M; Sander, I; Gonnissen, D; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T

    2014-05-01

    In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens.

  7. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  8. The Optic Lobes Regulate Circadian Rhythms of Olfactory Learning and Memory in the Cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, Alexander J; Page, Terry L

    2016-04-01

    The cockroach, Leucophaea maderae, can be trained in an associative olfactory memory task by either classical or operant conditioning. When trained by classical conditioning, memory formation is regulated by a circadian clock, but once the memory is formed, it can be recalled at any circadian time. In contrast, when trained via operant conditioning, animals can learn the task at any circadian phase, but the ability to recall the long-term memory is tied to the phase of training. The optic lobes of the cockroach contain a circadian clock that drives circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, mating behavior, sensitivity of the compound eye to light, and the sensitivity of olfactory receptors in the antennae. To evaluate the role of the optic lobes in regulating learning and memory processes, the authors examined the effects of surgical ablation of the optic lobes on memory formation in classical conditioning and memory recall following operant conditioning. The effect of optic lobe ablation was to "rescue" the deficit in memory acquisition at a time the animals normally cannot learn and "rescue" the animal's ability to recall a memory formed by operant conditioning at a phase where memory was not normally expressed. The results suggested that the optic lobe pacemaker regulates these processes through inhibition at "inappropriate" times of day. As a pharmacological test of this hypothesis, the authors showed that injections of fipronil, an antagonist of GABA and glutamate-activated chloride channels, had the same effects as optic lobe ablation on memory formation and recall. The data suggest that the optic lobes contain the circadian clock(s) that regulate learning and memory processes via inhibition of neural processes in the brain. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Hierarchical Genetic Analysis of German Cockroach (Blattella germanica) Populations from within Buildings to across Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Edward L.; Crissman, Jonathan R.; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G.; Mukha, Dmitry V.; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species. PMID:25020136

  10. Suboptimal nutrient balancing despite dietary choice in glucose-averse German cockroaches, Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2015-10-01

    Insects have evolved fine-tuned gustatory and post-ingestive physiological mechanisms that enable them to self-select an optimal composition of macronutrients. Their ability to forage optimally among multiple food sources and maximize fitness parameters depends on their ability not only to taste and perceive the nutritional value of potential foods but also to avoid deleterious components; the strength of such avoidance should reflect the severity of the perceived hazard. In German cockroaches (Blattella germanica), glucose aversion has evolved in some populations in response to anthropogenic selection with glucose-containing insecticidal baits. In four feeding treatments, we gave newly eclosed glucose-averse female cockroaches free choice to feed from two artificial, nutritionally complementary foods varying in protein and carbohydrate composition, with glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source in either food. After 6days of feeding, we measured diet consumption and the length of basal oocytes as an estimate of sexual maturation. The females did not compromise on their aversion to glucose in order to balance their protein and carbohydrate intake, and experienced lower sexual maturation rates as a consequence. Nutrient specific hunger via feedback mechanisms, and adjustments to gustatory sensitivity thus do not override the deterrence of glucose, likely due to strong selection against ingesting even small amounts of toxin associated with glucose in baits. In the absence of baits, glucose aversion would be expected to incur a fitness cost compared to wild-type individuals due to lower overall food availability but also to larger difficulty in attaining a nutritionally balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gas exchange patterns and water loss rates in the Table Mountain cockroach, Aptera fusca (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Bazelet, Corinna S; Potter, C Paige; Terblanche, John S

    2013-10-15

    The importance of metabolic rate and/or spiracle modulation for saving respiratory water is contentious. One major explanation for gas exchange pattern variation in terrestrial insects is to effect a respiratory water loss (RWL) saving. To test this, we measured the rates of CO2 and H2O release ( and , respectively) in a previously unstudied, mesic cockroach, Aptera fusca, and compared gas exchange and water loss parameters among the major gas exchange patterns (continuous, cyclic, discontinuous gas exchange) at a range of temperatures. Mean , and per unit did not differ among the gas exchange patterns at all temperatures (P>0.09). There was no significant association between temperature and gas exchange pattern type (P=0.63). Percentage of RWL (relative to total water loss) was typically low (9.79±1.84%) and did not differ significantly among gas exchange patterns at 15°C (P=0.26). The method of estimation had a large impact on the percentage of RWL, and of the three techniques investigated (traditional, regression and hyperoxic switch), the traditional method generally performed best. In many respects, A. fusca has typical gas exchange for what might be expected from other insects studied to date (e.g. , , RWL and cuticular water loss). However, we found for A. fusca that expressed as a function of metabolic rate was significantly higher than the expected consensus relationship for insects, suggesting it is under considerable pressure to save water. Despite this, we found no consistent evidence supporting the conclusion that transitions in pattern type yield reductions in RWL in this mesic cockroach.

  12. Pest Prevalence and Evaluation of Community-Wide Integrated Pest Management for Reducing Cockroach Infestations and Indoor Insecticide Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Buckley, Brian; Yang, Ill; Wang, Desen; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard

    2018-04-02

    Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services. The IPM-treated apartments were revisited and treated biweekly or monthly for 7 mo. Initial inspection found the top three pests and their infestation rates to be as follows: German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Blattellidae]), 28%; rodents, 11%; and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), 8%. Floor wipe samples were collected in the kitchens and bedrooms of 20 apartments for pyrethroid residue analysis before the IPM implementation; 17 of the 20 apartments were resampled again at 7 mo. The IPM program reduced cockroach counts per apartment by 88% at 7 wk after initial treatment. At 7 mo, 85% of the cockroach infestations found in the initial survey were eliminated. The average number of pyrethroids detected decreased significantly from 6 ± 1 (mean ± SEM) and 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 in the kitchens and bedrooms, respectively. The average concentrations of targeted pyrethroids residue also decreased significantly in the kitchens and bedrooms.

  13. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Caffeine-supplemented diet modulates oxidative stress markers and improves locomotor behavior in the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cícera Simoni; de Cássia Gonçalves de Lima, Rita; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Ogunbolude, Yetunde; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Tsopmo, Appolinaire; Lukong, Kiven Erique; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2018-02-25

    The effects of caffeine supplementation is well documented in conventional animal models, however, in the lobster cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, they have not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor behavior and biochemical endpoints in the head of the nymphs of N. cinerea following 60 days exposure to food supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg of caffeine/g of diet. The analysis of the locomotor behavior using the video-tracking software, Any-maze, for 12 min revealed that caffeine supplementation caused significant behavioral improvement. There was increase in distance travelled, velocity, frequency of rotation and turn angle (stereotypical behavior such as circling movements), and this was supported by the representative track plots of the path travelled by cockroaches in the open-field arena. In addition, caffeine supplementation markedly increased total thiol and non-protein thiol glutathione (GSH) levels in the heads of cockroaches, and this was in parallel with significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and free Fe(II) content. Taking together, our results indicate that long-term caffeine supplementation may exert preventive effects against oxidative stress and support the use of N. cinerea as an efficient alternative model to assess the efficacy of food molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Core Gut Microbiome of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana, Is Stable and Resilient to Dietary Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Kara A; Ottesen, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-15

    The omnivorous cockroach Periplaneta americana hosts a diverse hindgut microbiota encompassing hundreds of microbial species. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the effect of diet on the composition of the P. americana hindgut microbial community. Results show that the hindgut microbiota of P. americana exhibit a highly stable core microbial community with low variance in compositions between individuals and minimal community change in response to dietary shifts. This core hindgut microbiome is shared between laboratory-hosted and wild-caught individuals, although wild-caught specimens exhibited a higher diversity of low-abundance microbes that were lost following extended cultivation under laboratory conditions. This taxonomic stability strongly contrasts with observations of the gut microbiota of mammals, which have been shown to be highly responsive to dietary change. A comparison of P. americana hindgut samples with human fecal samples indicated that the cockroach hindgut community exhibited higher alpha diversity but a substantially lower beta diversity than the human gut microbiome. This suggests that cockroaches have evolved unique mechanisms for establishing and maintaining a diverse and stable core microbiome. The gut microbiome plays an important role in the overall health of its host. A healthy gut microbiota typically assists with defense against pathogens and the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food, while dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with reduced health. In this study, we examined the composition and stability of the gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach Periplaneta americana. We found that P. americana hosts a diverse core gut microbiome that remains stable after drastic long-term changes in diet. While other insects, notably ant and bee species, have evolved mechanisms for maintaining a stable association with specific gut microbiota, these insects typically host low-diversity gut

  16. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  17. Toxicity of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against a field-collected strain of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, B; Limoee, M; Khodavaisy, S; Zamini, G; Izadi, S

    2015-09-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) has been recognized as a serious health problem throughout the world. Control failures due to insecticide resistance and chemical contamination of environment have led some researchers focus on the other alternative strategy controls. Microbial insecticides such as those containing entomo pathogenic fungi could be of high significance. Lecanicillium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana grow naturally in soils throughout the world and act as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease. Thus, these two species could be considered as entomopathogenic fungi. The current study conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Conidial formulations of L. muscarium (PTCC 5184) and B. bassiana (PTCC5197) were prepared in aqueous suspensions with Tween 20. Bioassays were performed using two methods including submersion of cockroaches in conidial suspension and baiting. Data were analyzed by Probit program and LC50 and LC90 were estimated. The obtained results indicated that both fungi species were toxic against German cockroach however; Beauveria bassiana was significantly 4.8 fold more toxic than L. muscarium against German cockroach using submersion method.

  18. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  19. Role of tropomyosin as a cross-reacting allergen in sensitization to cockroach in patients from Martinique (French Caribbean island) with a respiratory allergy to mite and a food allergy to crab and shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purohit, A.; Shao, J.; Degreef, J. M.; van Leeuwen, A.; van Ree, R.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tropomyosin has been described as cross-reacting allergen between mite, cockroach and shrimp. METHODS: In 13 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized to mite and/or German cockroach and presenting urticaria, oral allergy syndrome or angio-edema upon eating shrimp and/or crab, we

  20. An augmented reality system validation for the treatment of cockroach phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa Maria; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a new technology in which various virtual elements are incorporated into the user's perception of the real world. The most significant aspect of AR is that the virtual elements add relevant and helpful information to the real scene. AR shares some important characteristics with virtual reality as applied in clinical psychology. However, AR offers additional features that might be crucial for treating certain problems. An AR system designed to treat insect phobia has been used for treating phobia of small animals, and positive preliminary data about the global efficacy of the system have been obtained. However, it is necessary to determine the capacity of similar AR systems and their elements that are designed to evoke anxiety in participants; this is achieved by testing the correspondence between the inclusion of feared stimuli and the induction of anxiety. The objective of the present work is to validate whether the stimuli included in the AR-Insect Phobia system are capable of inducing anxiety in six participants diagnosed with cockroach phobia. Results support the adequacy of each element of the system in inducing anxiety in all participants.

  1. Preparation and Identification of Per a 5 as a Novel American Cockroach Allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Fu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferase (GST from various arthropods can elicit allergic reactions. In the present study, Per a 5, a GST, was cloned from American cockroach (CR and expressed in both baculovirus-infected insect cell (iPer a 5 and E. coli expression (bPer a 5 systems. The secondary structures were predicted to be 45.93 and 8.69% of α-helix β-sheets in iPer a 5 and 42.54 and 8.49% of α-helix and β-sheets in bPer a 5, respectively. It is found that 4 out of 16 (25% sera from American CR allergy patients reacted to both bPer a 9 and iPer a 9 as assessed by ELISA and Western blotting analysis, confirming that Per a 5 is not a major allergen of American CR. Induction of upregulated expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized human basophils (sera from American CR allergy patients by approximately up to 4.5- and 3.2-fold indicates that iPer a 5 and bPer a 5 are functionally active. Recombinant Per a 5 (rPer a 5 should be a useful tool for studying and understanding the role of Per a 5 in CR allergy.

  2. Isolation and Purification of an Antibacterial Protein from Immune Induced Haemolymph of American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

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    Hamid Reza Basseri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial peptides play a role as effectors substances in the immunity of vertebrate and inverte­brate hosts. In the current study, antimicrobial peptide was isolated from the haemolymph of the American cock­roach, Periplaneta americana.Methods: Micrococcus luteus as Gram-positive bacteria and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria were candi­date for injection. Induction was done by injecting both bacteria into the abdominal cavity of two groups of cock­roaches separately. The haemolymphs were collected 24 hours after post injection and initially tested against both bacteria. Subsequently, the immune induced haemolymph was purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity.Results: The non-induced haemolymph did not show any activity against both bacteria whereas induced haemo­lymph exhibited high activity against M. luteus but did less against E. coli. Two fractions showed antibacterial activ­ity against M. luteus. Finally the molecular weight of the isolated antibacterial proteins were determined as 72 kDa and 62 kDa using SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: Induced haemolymph of American cockroaches has the ability to produce peptides to combat against Gram-positive bacteria when an immune challenge is mounted. Further work has to be done to sequence of the pro­tein, which it would be advantageous.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Toxicity of Insecticide Formulations from Different Classes against American Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae.

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    Ruhma Syed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach.These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical.Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05.Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance.

  4. Characterization of an Invertebrate-Type Dopamine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

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    Britta Troppmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2 from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology.

  5. Characterization of an invertebrate-type dopamine receptor of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppmann, Britta; Balfanz, Sabine; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2014-01-06

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology.

  6. Variation in the mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Winston R; Webster, Matthew R; De Vita, Raffaella; Socha, John J

    2014-01-01

    The insect cuticle serves the protective role of skin and the supportive role of the skeleton while being lightweight and flexible to facilitate flight. The smart design of the cuticle confers camouflage, thermo-regulation, communication, self-cleaning, and anti-wetting properties to insects. The mechanical behavior of the internal cuticle of the insect in tracheae remains largely unexplored due to their small size. In order to characterize the material properties of insect tracheae and understand their role during insect respiration, we conducted tensile tests on ring sections of tracheal tubes of American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). A total of 33 ring specimens collected from 14 tracheae from the upper thorax of the insects were successfully tested. The ultimate tensile strength (22.6 ± 13.3 MPa), ultimate strain (1.57 ± 0.68%), elastic modulus (1740 ± 840 MPa), and toughness (0.175 ± 0.156 MJ m −3 ) were measured. We examined the high variance in mechanical properties statistically and demonstrated that ring sections excised from the same trachea exhibit comparable mechanical properties. Our results will form the basis for future studies aimed at determining the structure–function relationship of insect tracheal tubes, ultimately inspiring the design of multi-functional materials and structures. (technical note)

  7. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

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    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  8. Intersegmental coordination of cockroach locomotion: adaptive control of centrally coupled pattern generator circuits

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    Einat eFuchs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally-generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left-right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss our results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast-slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegmental

  9. PeaTAR1B: Characterization of a Second Type 1 Tyramine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenau, Wolfgang; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd

    2017-10-30

    The catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. In insects; these neuroactive substances are functionally replaced by the phenolamines octopamine and tyramine. Phenolamines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Type 1 tyramine receptors are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. In contrast; type 2 tyramine receptors are almost exclusively activated by tyramine. Functionally; activation of type 1 tyramine receptors leads to a decrease in the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP] i ) whereas type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca 2+ signals or both Ca 2+ signals and effects on [cAMP] i . Here; we report that the American cockroach ( Periplaneta americana ) expresses a second type 1 tyramine receptor (PeaTAR1B) in addition to PeaTAR1A (previously called PeaTYR1). When heterologously expressed in flpTM cells; activation of PeaTAR1B by tyramine leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in [cAMP] i . Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists. The functional characterization of two type 1 tyramine receptors from P. americana ; PeaTAR1A and PeaTAR1B; which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels; is a major step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in cockroach physiology and behavior; particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine.

  10. PeaTAR1B: Characterization of a Second Type 1 Tyramine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

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    Wolfgang Blenau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. In insects; these neuroactive substances are functionally replaced by the phenolamines octopamine and tyramine. Phenolamines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Type 1 tyramine receptors are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. In contrast; type 2 tyramine receptors are almost exclusively activated by tyramine. Functionally; activation of type 1 tyramine receptors leads to a decrease in the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP]i whereas type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca2+ signals or both Ca2+ signals and effects on [cAMP]i. Here; we report that the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana expresses a second type 1 tyramine receptor (PeaTAR1B in addition to PeaTAR1A (previously called PeaTYR1. When heterologously expressed in flpTM cells; activation of PeaTAR1B by tyramine leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in [cAMP]i. Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists. The functional characterization of two type 1 tyramine receptors from P. americana; PeaTAR1A and PeaTAR1B; which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels; is a major step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in cockroach physiology and behavior; particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine.

  11. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: evidence for a distinct dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Gole, J.W.D.; Notman, H.J.; Downer, R.G.H.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine increases cyclic AMP production in crude membrane preparations of cockroach brain with plateaus in cyclic AMP production occurring between 1-10 μM and 10 mM. Maximal production of cyclic AMP is 2.25 fold greater than that of control values. Octopamine also increases cyclic AMP production with a Ka of 1.4 μM and maximal production 3.5 fold greater than that of control. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not increase cyclic AMP production. The effects of octopamine and dopamine are fully additive. The vertebrate dopamine agonists ADTN and epinine stimulate the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) with Ka values of 4.5 and 0.6 μM respectively and with maximal effectiveness 1.7 fold greater than that of control. The selective D 2 -dopamine agonist LY-171555 stimulates cyclic AMP production to a similar extent with a Ka of 50 μM. Other dopamine agonists have no stimulatory effects. With the exception of mianserin, 3 H-piflutixol is displaced from brain membranes by dopamine antagonists with an order of potency similar to that observed for the inhibition of dopamine-sensitive AC. The results indicate that the octopamine- and dopamine-sensitive AC in cockroach brain can be distinguished pharmacologically and the dopamine receptors coupled to AC have pharmacological characteristics distinct from vertebrate D 1 - and D 2 -dopamine receptors. 33 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  12. The evolutionary transition from subsocial to eusocial behaviour in Dictyoptera: phylogenetic evidence for modification of the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis with a new subsocial cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellens, Roseli; D'Haese, Cyrille A; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Legendre, Frédéric; Wheeler, Ward C; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Cockroaches have always been used to understand the first steps of social evolution in termites because they are close relatives with less complex and integrated social behaviour. Termites are all eusocial and ingroup comparative analysis would be useless to infer the origin of their social behaviour. The cockroach genus Cryptocercus was used as a so-called "prototermite" model because it shows key-attributes similar to the termites (except Termitidae): wood-feeding, intestinal flagellates and subsocial behaviour. In spite of these comparisons between this subsocial cockroach and eusocial termites, the early and remote origin of eusocial behaviour in termites is not well understood yet and the study of other relevant "prototermite" models is however needed. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out to validate a new "prototermite" model, Parasphaeria boleiriana which shows a peculiar combination of these key-attributes. It shows that these attributes of Parasphaeria boleiriana have an independent origin from those of other wood-eating cockroaches and termites. The case of P. boleiriana suggests that a short brood care was selected for with life on an ephemeral wood resource, even with the need for transmission of flagellates. These new phylogenetic insights modify evolutionary hypotheses, contradicting the assumption made with Cryptocercus model that a long brood care is necessary for cooperation between broods in the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis. An ephemeral wood resource is suggested to prompt generation overlap and the evolution of cooperation, even if brood care is shortened.

  13. Look at That!: Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Develop and Enhance the Scientific Inquiry Skill of Observation in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students can develop and enhance their observation skills by participating in teacher-guided scientific inquiry (NRC 1996) activities where they observe animals that tend to act in known, predictable ways. Madagascar hissing cockroaches ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") are one such animal. This article presents beginning, intermediate,…

  14. Neutrophilia, gelatinase release and microvascular leakage induced by human mast cell tryptase in a mouse model: Lack of a role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, M E M S; Abdelmotelb, A M; Pender, S L F; Zhou, X; Walls, A F

    2018-05-01

    Tryptase, the most abundant protease of the human mast cell, has been implicated as a key mediator of allergic inflammation that acts through activation of PAR2. To investigate the contribution of PAR2 in the pro-inflammatory actions mediated by tryptase in a mice model. We have injected recombinant human βII-tryptase into the peritoneum of PAR2-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. After 6, 12 and 24 hours, mice were killed, peritoneal lavage performed and inflammatory changes investigated. Tryptase stimulated an increase in neutrophil numbers in the peritoneum, but responses did not differ between PAR2-deficient and wild-type mice. Heat inactivation of tryptase or pre-incubation with a selective tryptase inhibitor reduced neutrophilia, but neutrophil accumulation was not elicited with a peptide agonist of PAR2 (SLIGRL-NH 2 ). Zymography indicated that tryptase stimulated the release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 in the peritoneum of both mouse strains. Studies involving immunomagnetic isolation of neutrophils suggested that neutrophils represent the major cellular source of tryptase-induced MMP2 and MMP9. At 24 hours after tryptase injection, there was increased microvascular leakage as indicated by high levels of albumin in peritoneal lavage fluid, and this appeared to be partially abolished by heat-inactivating tryptase or addition of a protease inhibitor. There was no corresponding increase in levels of histamine or total protein. The extent of tryptase-induced microvascular leakage or gelatinase release into the peritoneum did not differ between PAR2-deficient and wild-type mice. Our findings indicate that tryptase is a potent stimulus for neutrophil accumulation, MMP release and microvascular leakage. Although these actions required an intact catalytic site, the primary mechanism of tryptase in vivo would appear to involve processes independent of PAR2. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84 Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Fournier-Larente

    Full Text Available Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84, a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest.

  16. Isolation and partial characterization of a second myotropic peptide from the hindgut of the cockroach, Leucophaea maderae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, G M; Cook, B J

    1983-01-01

    Proctolin and a second myotropic peptide were extracted from the hindgut of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae with methanol-water-acetic acid (90:9:1). The two peptides were easily separated by HPLC on a mu-Bondapak-phenyl column. Like proctolin, the second peptide was heat stable and was inactivated by the exopeptidases aminopeptidase M and carboxypeptidase Y. The response of the isolated hindgut to the new peptide was distinguishable from the response to proctolin by the following features: (a) a longer interval following application (1-4 min) to reach a maximum contraction, and (b) a much larger amplitude for single phasic contractions. Like proctolin, the new peptide could cause a protracted stimulation of the hindgut for more than 2 hr.

  17. Evaluation of gamma irradiated essential oils to control stored-grain weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and cockroach, Blattella germanica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto; Gomes, Davinni Habral Passini; Silvestre, Denise de Fatima; Da Silva, Rita de Cassia; Arthur, Valter

    2004-01-01

    Most of the essential oils have insecticidal activity and are alternatives to plant protection and urban pest control. The gamma radiation has been used to control microorganisms and insects in dehydrate herbs, spices, medicinal plants and other materials. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils as contact poison on Stored grain, weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and as stomach poison in cockroach, Blattella germanica. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 and 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0% respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation promoted changes in essential oils Eucalyptus citriodora and E. globulus and showed increased effectiveness on B. germanica nymphs besides a significative reduction of repellency. Gamma radiation thus interfered on behavior of some essential oils by increasing or reducing activating or inactivating their efficiency to pest control. (author)

  18. In silico epitope prediction, expression and functional analysis of Per a 10 allergen from the American cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xunliang; Guo, Miao; Jin, Min; Chen, Hao; Li, Yanming; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Cockroach (CR) allergies caused by the American cockroach hyave been recognized to be repsonsible for IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. Per a 10 is one of the recognized main allergens of the American CR. In a previous study, we examined another American CR allergen, Per a 9 in patients with CR allergies and examined epitope sequences in this allergen. In the present study, we aimed to examine epitope sequences in the Per a 10 allergen. for this purpose, the Per a 10 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. Our results revealed that 9 out of 16 (56.3%) sera from patients with American CR allergies reacted to Per a10, as assessed by ELISA, confirming that Per a 10 is a major allergen of the American CR. Our results also revealed that the expression of CD63 and CCR3 on passively sensitized basophils (obtained sera of patients with American CR allergies) was increased by approximately 2.3-fold, indicating that recombinant Per a 10 is functionally active. In addition, 3 immunoinformatics tools, namely the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the peptides and the results revealed 8 peptides (2–12, 55–67, 98–120, 125–133, 149–160, 170–182, 201–208 and 223–227) as potential B cell epitopes of the Per a 10 allergen. Moreover, Per a 10 was predicted to have 3 T cell epitope sequences, namely 83–92, 139–147 and 162–170. The findings of our study on the CR allergen may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccine for the prevention and/or treatment of CR allergies. PMID:27840898

  19. Protease-activated quantum dot probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Emmanuel; Miller, Jordan S.; Sun, Jiantang; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Drezek, Rebekah; West, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a novel nanoparticulate luminescent probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This construct may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Release of AuNPs by peptide cleavage restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 h of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker

  20. [Effect of population density on enzymatic activity of antioxidative and phenol oxidase systems of imagoes and nymphs of the marble cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzagulov, G S; Saltykova, E S; Gaĭfullina, L R; Nikolenko, A G

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with effect of density of population on functional activity of components pf protective system of adult individuals and nymphs of the marble cockroach. The resistance of individuals has been noted to decrease both at individual maintenance and under conditions of overpopulation. Changes in activities of enzymes of antioxidative and phenoloxidase systems are studied ion the insect hemolymph and intestine. Possible consequences of isolation and overpopulation are discussed both for stability and for individual development.

  1. Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2 and RGS4 form distinct G protein-dependent complexes with protease activated-receptor 1 (PAR1 in live cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Ghil

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1 is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR that is activated by natural proteases to regulate many physiological actions. We previously reported that PAR1 couples to Gi, Gq and G12 to activate linked signaling pathways. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins serve as GTPase activating proteins to inhibit GPCR/G protein signaling. Some RGS proteins interact directly with certain GPCRs to modulate their signals, though cellular mechanisms dictating selective RGS/GPCR coupling are poorly understood. Here, using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET, we tested whether RGS2 and RGS4 bind to PAR1 in live COS-7 cells to regulate PAR1/Gα-mediated signaling. We report that PAR1 selectively interacts with either RGS2 or RGS4 in a G protein-dependent manner. Very little BRET activity is observed between PAR1-Venus (PAR1-Ven and either RGS2-Luciferase (RGS2-Luc or RGS4-Luc in the absence of Gα. However, in the presence of specific Gα subunits, BRET activity was markedly enhanced between PAR1-RGS2 by Gαq/11, and PAR1-RGS4 by Gαo, but not by other Gα subunits. Gαq/11-YFP/RGS2-Luc BRET activity is promoted by PAR1 and is markedly enhanced by agonist (TFLLR stimulation. However, PAR1-Ven/RGS-Luc BRET activity was blocked by a PAR1 mutant (R205A that eliminates PAR1-Gq/11 coupling. The purified intracellular third loop of PAR1 binds directly to purified His-RGS2 or His-RGS4. In cells, RGS2 and RGS4 inhibited PAR1/Gα-mediated calcium and MAPK/ERK signaling, respectively, but not RhoA signaling. Our findings indicate that RGS2 and RGS4 interact directly with PAR1 in Gα-dependent manner to modulate PAR1/Gα-mediated signaling, and highlight a cellular mechanism for selective GPCR/G protein/RGS coupling.

  2. Standard metabolic rate is associated with gestation duration, but not clutch size, in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie G. Schimpf

    2012-09-01

    Metabolic rate varies significantly between individuals, and these differences persist even when the wide range of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metabolism are accounted for. It is important to understand the life history implications of variation in metabolic rate, but they remain poorly characterised despite a growing body of work examining relationships between metabolism and a range of traits. In the present study we used laboratory-bred families (one sire to three dams of Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier (speckled cockroaches to examine the relationship between standard metabolic rate (SMR and reproductive performance (number of offspring and gestation duration. We show that SMR is negatively associated with female gestation duration. Age at mating is negatively associated with gestation duration for females, and mass is negatively associated with the average gestation duration of the females a male was mated with. In addition to the results in the current literature, the results from the present study suggest that the association between metabolism and life history is more complex than simple relationships between metabolism and various fitness traits. Future work should consider longitudinal, ontogenetic as well as selective and quantitative genetic breeding approaches to fully examine the associations between metabolism and fitness.

  3. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species.

  4. A taxonomic study of the beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure) from China, with notes on the genus and species worldwide (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Diplopterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Zongqing

    2015-09-14

    Four taxa of beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure, 1864) from South China are described and illustrated, viz., two new species D. elliptica sp. n. and D. naevus sp. n., one new subspecies D. nigrescens guani subsp. n. and one widespread known species D. punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822). The genus and known species from around the world are discussed based on types and other specimens. D. pulchra Anisyutkin, 2007 is now regarded as a junior synonym of D. bicolor Hanitsch, 1925. Whether the populations of D. punctata represent or not different species needs to be studied in the future. A key, a distribution map, and photos of species are provided.

  5. Mechanical properties of the cuticles of three cockroach species that differ in their wind-evoked escape behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Clark

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The structural and material properties of insect cuticle remain largely unexplored, even though they comprise the majority (approximately 80% of animals. Insect cuticle serves many functions, including protection against predatory attacks, which is especially beneficial to species failing to employ effective running escape responses. Despite recent advances in our understanding of insect escape behaviors and the biomechanics of insect cuticle, there are limited studies on the protective qualities of cuticle to extreme mechanical stresses and strains imposed by predatory attacks, and how these qualities vary between species employing different escape responses. Blattarians (cockroaches provide an appropriate model system for such studies. Wind-evoked running escape responses are strong in Periplaneta americana, weak in Blaberus craniifer and absent in Gromphodorhina portentosa, putting the latter two species at greater risk of being struck by a predator. We hypothesized that the exoskeletons in these two larger species could provide more protection from predatory strikes relative to the exoskeleton of P. americana. We quantified the protective qualities of the exoskeletons by measuring the puncture resistance, tensile strength, strain energy storage, and peak strain in fresh samples of thoracic and abdominal cuticles from these three species. We found a continuum in puncture resistance, tensile strength, and strain energy storage between the three species, which were greatest in G. portentosa, moderate in B. craniifer, and smallest in P. americana. Histological measurements of total cuticle thickness followed this same pattern. However, peak strain followed a different trend between species. The comparisons in the material properties drawn between the cuticles of G. portentosa, B. craniifer, and P. americana demonstrate parallels between cuticular biomechanics and predator running escape responses.

  6. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes. PMID:28489864

  7. Distribution of serotonergic and dopaminergic nerve fibers in the salivary gland complex of the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühnel Dana

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cockroach salivary gland consists of secretory acini with peripheral ion-transporting cells and central protein-producing cells, an extensive duct system, and a pair of reservoirs. Salivation is controled by serotonergic and dopaminergic innervation. Serotonin stimulates the secretion of a protein-rich saliva, dopamine causes the production of a saliva without proteins. These findings suggest a model in which serotonin acts on the central cells and possibly other cell types, and dopamine acts selectively on the ion-transporting cells. To examine this model, we have analyzed the spatial relationship of dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve fibers to the various cell types. Results The acinar tissue is entangled in a meshwork of serotonergic and dopaminergic varicose fibers. Dopaminergic fibers reside only at the surface of the acini next to the peripheral cells. Serotonergic fibers invade the acini and form a dense network between central cells. Salivary duct segments close to the acini are locally associated with dopaminergic and serotonergic fibers, whereas duct segments further downstream have only dopaminergic fibers on their surface and within the epithelium. In addition, the reservoirs have both a dopaminergic and a serotonergic innervation. Conclusion Our results suggest that dopamine is released on the acinar surface, close to peripheral cells, and along the entire duct system. Serotonin is probably released close to peripheral and central cells, and at initial segments of the duct system. Moreover, the presence of serotonergic and dopaminergic fiber terminals on the reservoir indicates that the functions of this structure are also regulated by dopamine and serotonin.

  8. Agonist actions of clothianidin on synaptic and extrasynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on cockroach sixth abdominal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve H

    2009-11-01

    Clothianidin is new neonicotinoid insecticide acting selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Its effects on nAChRs expressed on cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses and DUM neurons have been studied using mannitol-gap and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Bath-application of clothianidin-induced dose-dependent depolarizations of cockroach cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses which were not reversed after wash-out suggesting a strong desensitization of postsynaptic interneurons at the 6th abdominal ganglion (A6). Clothinidin activity on the nerve preparation was characterized by an increased firing rate of action potentials which then ceased when the depolarization reached a peak. Clothianidin responses were insensitive to all muscarinic antagonists tested but were blocked by co-application of specific nicotinic antagonists methyllicaconitine, alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine. In a second round of experiment, clothianidin actions were tested on DUM neurons isolated from the A6. There was a strong desensitization of nAChRs which was not affected by muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine and atropine, but was reduced with nicotinic antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. In addition, clothianidin-induced currents were completely blocked by methyllicaconitine suggesting that (1) clothianidin acted as a specific agonist of nAChR subtypes and (2) a small proportion of receptors blocked by MLA was insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, because clothianidin currents were blocked by d-tubocurarine and mecamylamine, we provided that clothianidin was an agonist of both nAChRs: imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and -insensitive nAChR2 subtypes.

  9. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Chowański

    Full Text Available Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h cold (4°C influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4 and phosphorylating (state 3 mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress.

  10. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christina R; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes.

  11. Are eavesdroppers multimodal? Sensory exploitation of flo-ral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. VERGARA, Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA, Diego A. VILLAGRA, Robert A. RAGUSO, Mary T. K. ARROYO, Cristian A. VILLAGRA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors, and usually only to pollinators. Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming, putatively hawkmoth-pollinated plant Oenothera acaulis (Onagraceae in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis (Blattodea: Blattidae, which function as facultative floral larcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile. We experimentally decoupled visual (corolla and olfactory (fragrance stimuli by presenting paper corollas and green mesh bags, with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside. We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments, measuring the roaches’ frequency of first visits, mean and total residence time spent in each treatment. The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O. acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scales. In addition, the presence of conspecific roaches had a strong influence on recruitment to the experimental arena, increasing the statistical differences among treatments. Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B. orientalis. Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches, and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus. The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artificial flowers, suggesting the need for additional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper. Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O. acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers, the attractiveness of these compounds to a non

  12. Accurate quantification of 5 German cockroach (GCr) allergens in complex extracts using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindaye, S T; Spiric, J; David, N A; Rabin, R L; Slater, J E

    2017-12-01

    German cockroach (GCr) allergen extracts are complex and heterogeneous products, and methods to better assess their potency and composition are needed for adequate studies of their safety and efficacy. The objective of this study was to develop an assay based on liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM MS) for rapid, accurate, and reproducible quantification of 5 allergens (Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 3, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5) in crude GCr allergen extracts. We first established a comprehensive peptide library of allergens from various commercial extracts as well as recombinant allergens. Peptide mapping was performed using high-resolution MS, and the peptide library was then used to identify prototypic and quantotypic peptides to proceed with MRM method development. Assay development included a systematic optimization of digestion conditions (buffer, digestion time, and trypsin concentration), chromatographic separation, and MS parameters. Robustness and suitability were assessed following ICH (Q2 [R1]) guidelines. The method is precise (RSD  0.99, 0.01-1384 fmol/μL), and sensitive (LLOD and LLOQ MS, we quantified allergens from various commercial GCr extracts and showed considerable variability that may impact clinical efficacy. Our data demonstrate that the LC-MRM MS method is valuable for absolute quantification of allergens in GCr extracts and likely has broader applicability to other complex allergen extracts. Definitive quantification provides a new standard for labelling of allergen extracts, which will inform patient care, enable personalized therapy, and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy for environmental and food allergies. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Isolation and Identification of Two Novel Attractant Compounds from Chinese Cockroach (Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker by Combination of HSCCC, NMR and CD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hextane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1:1.5:1, v/v/v/v was applied to the isolation and purification of attractants from Chinese cockroach, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. Two new attractants with attractant activity towards the male insects were obtained from the extract sample in a one-step separation. Their purities were determined by HPLC. Subsequent MS, NMR and CD analyses have led to the characterization of (R-3-ethyl-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (1 and (R-6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (2, two novel isocumarin type attractants. Based on these results, it is concluded that HSCCC is a viable separation method option for purifying insect attractants, while effectively maintaining the attracting activity of the isolates. This is the first attempt to apply counter-current chromatography technique to separate attractants from Chinese cockroach.

  14. dNP2-ctCTLA-4 inhibits German cockroach extract-induced allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness via inhibition of Th2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sangho; Ho Sohn, Jung; Koo, Ja-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won; Choi, Je-Min

    2017-08-04

    German cockroaches are major household allergens that can trigger allergic airway inflammatory diseases with sensitive T-cell responses. Although the use of immune modulatory biologics, such as antibodies, to mediate allergic responses has recently been examined, only systemic administration is available because of the size limitations on intranasal administration. Here we utilized a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, to deliver the cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctCTLA-4) through the airway epithelium to modulate Th2 responses in a German cockroach extract (GCE)-induced allergic airway inflammation model. The intranasal delivery efficiency of the dNP2-dTomato protein to the lungs was higher in GCE-induced asthmatic lung parenchymal cells compared to the sham cells. Intranasal administration of the dNP2-ctCTLA-4 protein inhibited airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced airway inflammation and remodeling, including goblet cell metaplasia and collagen deposition around the bronchi. The number of infiltrated cells, including eosinophils, and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-γ in the lungs were significantly reduced, presumably owing to inhibition of Th2 differentiation. However, intranasal administration of CTLA4-Ig did not inhibit airway inflammation. These results collectively suggest that dNP2-ctCTLA-4 is an efficient intranasally applicable candidate biologic for treating allergic asthma.

  15. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  16. Dust and airborne exposure to allergens derived from cockroach (Blattella germanica) in low-cost public housing in Strasbourg (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blay, F; Sanchez, J; Hedelin, G; Perez-Infante, A; Vérot, A; Chapman, M; Pauli, G

    1997-01-01

    Although a strong association between allergy to cockroach (CR) and asthma has been observed in the United States and Asia, there are little data about the extent of exposure to CR allergen in Europe. To determine the levels of CR allergens in dust samples from apartments in Strasbourg and to determine the concentration and size of CR allergens in the air. Nine apartments in a public housing complex were chosen on the basis of visual evidence of CR infestation. Levels of CR allergens (Bla g 1 and Bla g 2) in kitchen and mattress dust samples were measured by immunoassay with the use of monoclonal antibodies. Air was sampled for 3 to 8 hours in the kitchen under undisturbed conditions, during artificial disturbance, and during normal domestic activity by using an impinger and a parallel glass fiber filter and at flow rates of 2 to 20 L/min. Airborne CR and mite allergens were measured concurrently in the bedroom of one apartment before, during, and after artificial disturbance. High levels of Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were found in kitchen dust from the nine apartments (geometric means of 3919 U/gm [range 530 to 14306 U/gm] and 497 U/gm [range 73 to 1946 U/gm], respectively). Under undisturbed conditions, airborne CR allergens were not detectable in any of the apartments. During vigorous artificial disturbance, Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were detectable in air samples from seven apartments (geometric means of 4.5 U/m3 [range 0.7 to 17.2 U/m3] and 1.0 U/m3 [range 0.4 to 3.4 U/m3], respectively). Both allergens were predominantly collected on the first stage of the impinger, and 76% to 80% of the airborne allergen was associated with particles greater than 10 microns in diameter. The levels were significantly higher than those collected on the second or third stages of the impinger (p low-cost public housing in Strasbourg can be as high as or higher than the levels measured in towns in the United States. CR allergens become airborne during disturbance and are primarily associated

  17. Specific B-cell Epitope of Per a 1: A Major Allergen of American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and Anatomical Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookrung, Nitat; Khetsuphan, Thanyathon; Chaisri, Urai; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Reamtong, Onrapak; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee

    2014-07-01

    Cockroach (CR) is a common source of indoor allergens, and Per a 1 is a major American CR (Periplaneta americana) allergen; however, several attributes of this protein remain unknown. This study identifies a novel specific B cell epitope and anatomical locations of Per a 1.0105. Recombinant Per a 1.0105 (rPer a 1.0105) was used as BALB/c mouse immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The MAb specific B cell epitope was identified by determining phage mimotopic peptides and pair-wise alignment of the peptides with the rPer a 1.0105 amino acid sequence. Locations of the Per a 1.0105 in P. americana were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The rPer a 1.0105 (~13 kDa) had 100%, 98% and ≥90% identity to Per a 1.0105, Per a 1.0101, and Cr-PII, respectively. The B-cell epitope of the Per a 1.0105 specific-MAb was located at residues(99) QDLLLQLRDKGV(110) contained in all 5 Per a 1.01 isoforms and Per a 1.02. The epitope was analogous to the Bla g 1.02 epitope; however, this B-cell epitope was not an IgE inducer. Per a 1.0105 was found in the midgut and intestinal content of American CR but not in the other organs. The amount of the Per a 1 was ~544 ℃g per gram of feces. The novel Per a 1 B-cell epitope described in this study is a useful target for allergen quantification in samples; however, the specific MAb can be used as an allergen detection reagent. The MAb based-affinity resin can be made for allergen purification, and the so-purified protein can serve as a standard and diagnostic allergen as well as a therapeutic vaccine component. The finding that the Per a 1 is contained in the midgut and feces is useful to increase yield and purity when preparing this allergen.

  18. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the giant soil-burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros saussure (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Geoscapheinae): analysis with respect to age, sex and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W V; Rose, H A; Lacey, M J; Wright, K

    2000-11-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of a widespread species of soil-burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros, have been sampled from most of its known geographical locations. Analysis of extracts from individual insects has enabled a study of differences within a population as well as among geographical locations. In the case of M. rhinoceros, except for newly hatched first-instar nymphs, variations in hydrocarbon composition among individuals of different cohorts of M. rhinoceros, based on age and sex, are no greater than those among individuals of a single cohort. Geographical populations of this species are variable in hydrocarbon composition unless they occur within a few kilometres of each other. A few populations showed very different hydrocarbon patterns but, in the absence of any correlating biological differences, it is uncertain whether this signifies the presence of otherwise unrecognizable sibling species or just extreme examples of the geographical variation characteristic of this group of insects.

  19. Deltamethrin-resistant German Cockroaches Are Less Sensitive to the Insect Repellents DEET and IR3535 than Non-resistant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Sofía L; Alzogaray, Raúl A

    2018-04-02

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a serious worldwide pest with a considerable economical and sanitary impact. It is mainly controlled by the application of synthetic insecticides, but repeated use of these substances has promoted the appearance of resistance in cockroach populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to compare the behavior of deltamethrin-susceptible (CIPEIN colony) and deltamethrin-resistant (JUBA and VGBA colonies) first instar nymphs exposed to the repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535). Firstly, the behavior of the nymphs was assessed in an experimental arena in the absence of repellents. The parameters Distance Traveled, Velocity, Mobility Time, and Time Spent (in each half of the arena) were quantified using an image analyser, and showed that the behavior elicited by the three colonies was similar. After this, the behavior of the nymphs was quantified in an arena, half of which had been treated with repellent. The repellency of DEET increased as a linear function of log concentration for the three colonies. DEET elicited repellency as from a concentration of 97.49 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN and JUBA colonies and 194.98 µg/cm2 for the VGBA colony. The repellency of IR3535 was weaker and started at a concentration of 389.96 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN colony, 779.92 μg/cm2 for JUBA, and 1559.84 μg/cm2 for VGBA . Finally, nymphs were exposed to 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 DEET:IR3535 mixtures, and a synergistic effect was observed only in the CIPEIN colony.

  20. A cockroach for victory

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    From 1 – 5 July, CERN had the pleasure of welcoming Céline, Fanny and Ophélia, the three winners of the special EIROforum prize donated by CERN in the EU Competition for Young Scientists 2012 (EUCYS). Between visits to the installations and meetings, the young French women had a memorable week.   Fanny Risbourg, Ophélia Bolmin and Céline Lay (from left to right), alongside their CERN guide, Marc Goulette. The rules of EUCYS, organised by the EU since 1989, require all candidates to have first won a scientific prize in their own country. That’s easily said… and done for these young scientists, who have won two! After coming first in France’s Engineering Science Olympiad in 2011, they then took home the top prize in the C. Génial competition the following year. “It all started three years ago, with our travaux personnels encadrés (supervised project),” Fanny explained...

  1. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  2. Inhibition of PaCaMKII-E isoform in the dorsal unpaired median neurosecretory cells of cockroach reduces nicotine- and clothianidin-induced currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Olivier; Calas-List, Delphine; Taillebois, Emiliane; Juchaux, Marjorie; Heuland, Emilie; Thany, Steeve H

    2014-08-01

    Cellular responses to Ca(2+) require intermediary proteins such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which transduces the signal into downstream effects. We recently demonstrated that the cockroach genome encodes five different CaMKII isoforms, and only PaCaMKII-E isoform is specifically expressed in the dorsal unpaired median neurosecretory cells. In the present study, using antisense oligonucleotides, we demonstrated that PaCaMKII-E isoform inhibition reduced nicotine-induced currents through α-bungarotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. Specifically, PaCaMKII-E isoform is sufficient to repress nicotinic current amplitudes as a result of its depression by antisense oligonucleotides. Similar results were found using the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin, which acted as a full agonist of dorsal unpaired median neuron nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Clothianidin current amplitudes are strongly reduced under bath application of PaCaMKII-E antisense oligonucleotides but no significant results are found with α-bungarotoxin co-applied, demonstrating that CaMKII-E isoform affects nicotine currents through α-bungarotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive receptor subtypes whereas clothianidin currents are reduced via α-bungarotoxin-insensitive receptors. In addition, we found that intracellular calcium increase induced by nicotine and clothianidin were reduced by PaCaMKII-E antisense oligonucleotides, demonstrating that intracellular calcium increase induced by nicotine and clothianidin are affected by PaCaMKII-E inhibition. Cellular responses to Ca(2+) require intermediary proteins such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). We recently demonstrated that the cockroach genome encodes five different CaMKII isoforms and only PaCaMKII-E isoform was specifically expressed in the dorsal unpaired median neurosecretory cells. Here we show that specific inhibition of PaCaMKII-E isoform is

  3. Chemical patterning on preformed porous silicon photonic crystals: towards multiplex detection of protease activity at precise positions†Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images, XPS result and more optical reflectivity data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tb00281dClick here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Soeriyadi, Alexander H; Parker, Stephen G; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2014-06-21

    Porous silicon (PSi) rugate filters modified with alkyne-terminated monolayers were chemically patterned using a combination of photolithography of photoresist and click chemistry. Two chemical functionalities were obtained by conjugating, via click reactions, ethylene glycol moieties containing two different terminal groups to discrete areas towards the exterior of a PSi rugate filter. The patterning of biological species to the functionalized surface was demonstrated through the conjugation of fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA). Fluorescence microscopy showed selective positioning of FITC-BSA at discretely functionalized areas. Meanwhile, the optical information from precisely defined positions on the patterned surface was monitored by optical reflectivity measurements. The optical measurements revealed successful step-wise chemical functionalization followed by immobilization of gelatin. Multiplex detection of protease activity from different array elements on the patterned surface was demonstrated by monitoring the blue shifts in the reflectivity spectra resulted from the digestion of gelatin by subtilisin. Precise information from both individual elements and average population was acquired. This technique is important for the development of PSi into a microarray platform for highly parallel biosensing applications, especially for cell-based assays.

  4. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2010-09-06

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  6. Allergens involved in the cross-reactivity of Aedes aegypti with other arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, Jose Fernando; Puerta, Leonardo; Lafosse-Marin, Sylvie; Subiza, Jose Luis; Caraballo, Luis; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique

    2017-06-01

    Cross-reactivity between Aedes aegypti and mites, cockroaches, and shrimp has been previously suggested, but the involved molecular components have not been fully described. To evaluate the cross-reactivity between A aegypti and other arthropods. Thirty-four serum samples from patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis were selected, and specific IgE to A aegypti, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Periplaneta americana. and Litopenaeus vannamei was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cross-reactivity was investigated using pooled serum samples from allergic patients, allergenic extracts, and the recombinant tropomyosins (Aed a 10.0201, Der p 10, Blo t 10, Lit v 1, and Per a 7). Four IgE reactive bands were further characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight. Frequency of positive IgE reactivity was 82.35% to at least one mite species, 64.7% to A aegypti, 29.4% to P americana, and 23.5% to L vannamei. The highest IgE cross-reactivity was seen between A aegypti and D pteronyssinus (96.6%) followed by L vannamei (95.4%), B tropicalis (84.4%), and P americana (75.4%). Recombinant tropomyosins from mites, cockroach, or shrimp inhibited the IgE reactivity to the mosquito at a lower extent than the extracts from these arthropods. Several bands of A aegypti cross-reacted with arthropod extracts, and 4 of them were identified as odorant binding protein, mitochondrial cytochrome C, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and protein with hypothetical magnesium ion binding function. We identified 4 novel cross-reactive allergens in A aegypti allergenic extract. These molecules could influence the manifestation of allergy to environmental allergens in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adhesion and friction of the smooth attachment system of the cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa and the influence of the application of fluid adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Betz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different measurement techniques were applied to study the attachment of the smooth foot pads of the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa. The attachment of the non-manipulated adhesive organs was compared with that of manipulated ones (depletion or substitution by artificial secretions. From measurements of the friction on a centrifuge, it can be concluded that on nanorough surfaces, the insect appears to benefit from employing emulsions instead of pure oils to avoid excessive friction. Measurements performed with a nanotribometer on single attachment organs showed that, in the non-manipulated euplantulae, friction was clearly increased in the push direction, whereas the arolium of the fore tarsus showed higher friction in the pull direction. The surface of the euplantulae shows an imbricate appearance, whereupon the ledges face distally, which might contribute to the observed frictional anisotropy in the push direction. Upon depletion of the tarsal adhesion-mediating secretion or its replacement by oily fluids, in several cases, the anisotropic effect of the euplantula disappeared due to the decrease of friction forces in push-direction. In the euplantulae, adhesion was one to two orders of magnitude lower than friction. Whereas the tenacity was slightly decreased with depleted secretion, it was considerably increased after artificial application of oily liquids. In terms of adhesion, it is concluded that the semi-solid consistence of the natural adhesion-mediating secretion facilitates the detachment of the tarsus during locomotion. In terms of friction, on smooth to nanorough surfaces, the insects appear to benefit from employing emulsions instead of pure oils to avoid excessive friction forces, whereas on rougher surfaces the tarsal fluid rather functions in improving surface contact by keeping the cuticle compliable and compensating surface asperities of the substratum.

  8. Molecular cloning, expression, IgE binding activities and in silico epitope prediction of Per a 9 allergens of the American cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiwei; Chen, Hao; Jin, Min; Xie, Hua; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Per a 9 is a major allergen of the American cockroach (CR), which has been recognized as an important cause of imunoglobulin E-mediated type I hypersensitivity worldwide. However, it is not neasy to obtain a substantial quantity of this allergen for use in functional studies. In the present study, the Per a 9 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) systems. It was found that 13/16 (81.3%) of the sera from patients with allergies caused by the American CR reacted to Per a 9, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming that Per a 9 is a major allergen of CR. The induction of the expression of CD63 and CCR3 in passively sensitized basophils (from sera of patients with allergies caused by the American CR) by approximately 4.2-fold indicated that recombinant Per a 9 was functionally active. Three immunoinformatics tools, including the DNASTAR Protean system, Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides (BPAP) system and the BepiPred 1.0 server were used to predict the potential B cell epitopes, while Net-MHCIIpan-2.0 and NetMHCII-2.2 were used to predict the T cell epitopes of Per a 9. As a result, we predicted 11 peptides (23–28, 39–46, 58–64, 91–118, 131–136, 145–154, 159–165, 176–183, 290–299, 309–320 and 338–344) as potential B cell linear epitopes. In T cell prediction, the Per a 9 allergen was predicted to have 5 potential T cell epitope sequences, 119–127, 194–202, 210–218, 239–250 and 279–290. The findings of our study may prove to be useful in the development of peptide-based vaccines to combat CR-induced allergies. PMID:27840974

  9. Increasing the alkaline protease activity of Bacillus cereus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... cereus and Bacillus polymyxa simultaneously with the start of sporulation phase as a ... microbial forms to inactivation by chemical or physical agents. .... alkaline pH, 9, 10 and 11 and the pH of the culture media was optimized with .... incubation temperature for alkaline protease production by Bacillus ...

  10. Intervention with Serine Protease Activity with Small Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases perform proteolytic reactions in many physiological and metabolic processes and have been certified as targets for therapeutics. Small peptides can be used as potent antagonists to target serine proteases and intervene with their activities. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u......PA) plays an important role in plasminogen activation system, which has many physiological and pathological functions and is closely associated with the metastasis of tumor cells. Based on a mono-cyclic peptidic inhibitor of murine uPA (muPA), mupain-1, which was screened out from a phage-display library...... before, we elucidated the binding and inhibitory mechanism by using multiple techniques, like X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance analysis. By studying the peptide-enzyme interaction, we discovered an unusual inhibitor...

  11. Extracellular Protease Activity of Enteropathogenic Escherechia coli on Mucin Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI BUDIARTI

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC causes gastrointestinal infections in human. EPEC invasion was initiated by attachment and aggressive colonization on intestinal surface. Attachment of EPEC alter the intestine mucosal cells. Despite this, the pathogenic mechanism of EPEC infectior has not been fully understood. This research hypothesizes that extracellular proteolytic enzymes is necessary for EPEC colonization. The enzyme is secreted into gastrointestinal milieu and presumably destroy mucus layer cover the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to assay EPEC extracellular protease enzyme by using mucin substrate. The activity of EPEC extracellular proteolytic enzyme on 1% mucin substrate was investigated. Non-pathogenic E. coli was used as a negative control. Positive and tentative controls were Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella. Ten EPEC strains were assayed, seven of them were able to degrade mucin, and the highest activity was produced by K1.1 strain. Both positive and tentative controls also showed the ability to digest 0.20% mucin.

  12. Identification of Genes Involved in Polysaccharide-Independent Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Blaise R.; Thoendel, Matthew; Roth, Aleeza J.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a potent biofilm former on host tissue and medical implants, and biofilm growth is a critical virulence determinant for chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that many clinical isolates form polysaccharide-independent biofilms. However, a systematic screen for defective mutants has not been performed to identify factors important for biofilm formation in these strains. We created a library of 14,880 mariner transposon mutants in a S. aureus strain that generates a proteinaceous and extracellular DNA based biofilm matrix. The library was screened for biofilm defects and 31 transposon mutants conferred a reproducible phenotype. In the pool, 16 mutants overproduced extracellular proteases and the protease inhibitor α2-macroglobulin restored biofilm capacity to 13 of these mutants. The other 15 mutants in the pool displayed normal protease levels and had defects in genes involved in autolysis, osmoregulation, or uncharacterized membrane proteins. Two transposon mutants of interest in the GraRS two-component system and a putative inositol monophosphatase were confirmed in a flow cell biofilm model, genetically complemented, and further verified in a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) isolate. Collectively, our screen for biofilm defective mutants identified novel loci involved in S. aureus biofilm formation and underscored the importance of extracellular protease activity and autolysis in biofilm development. PMID:20418950

  13. Identification of genes involved in polysaccharide-independent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise R Boles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a potent biofilm former on host tissue and medical implants, and biofilm growth is a critical virulence determinant for chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that many clinical isolates form polysaccharide-independent biofilms. However, a systematic screen for defective mutants has not been performed to identify factors important for biofilm formation in these strains. We created a library of 14,880 mariner transposon mutants in a S. aureus strain that generates a proteinaceous and extracellular DNA based biofilm matrix. The library was screened for biofilm defects and 31 transposon mutants conferred a reproducible phenotype. In the pool, 16 mutants overproduced extracellular proteases and the protease inhibitor alpha(2-macroglobulin restored biofilm capacity to 13 of these mutants. The other 15 mutants in the pool displayed normal protease levels and had defects in genes involved in autolysis, osmoregulation, or uncharacterized membrane proteins. Two transposon mutants of interest in the GraRS two-component system and a putative inositol monophosphatase were confirmed in a flow cell biofilm model, genetically complemented, and further verified in a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA isolate. Collectively, our screen for biofilm defective mutants identified novel loci involved in S. aureus biofilm formation and underscored the importance of extracellular protease activity and autolysis in biofilm development.

  14. Mode of Action of the Natural Insecticide, Decaleside Involves Sodium Pump Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallappa Rajashekar

    Full Text Available Decalesides are a new class of natural insecticides which are toxic to insects by contact via the tarsal gustatory chemosensilla. The symptoms of their toxicity to insects and the rapid knockdown effect suggest neurotoxic action, but the precise mode of action and the molecular targets for decaleside action are not known. We have presented experimental evidence for the involvement of sodium pump inhibition in the insecticidal action of decaleside in the cockroach and housefly. The knockdown effect of decaleside is concomitant with the in vivo inhibition of Na+, K+ -ATPase in the head and thorax. The lack of insecticidal action by experimental ablation of tarsi or blocking the tarsal sites with paraffin correlated with lack of inhibition of Na+- K+ ATPase in vivo. Maltotriose, a trisaccharide, partially rescued the toxic action of decaleside as well as inhibition of the enzyme, suggesting the possible involvement of gustatory sugar receptors. In vitro studies with crude insect enzyme preparation and purified porcine Na+, K+ -ATPase showed that decaleside competitively inhibited the enzyme involving the ATP binding site. Our study shows that the insecticidal action of decaleside via the tarsal gustatory sites is causally linked to the inhibition of sodium pump which represents a unique mode of action. The precise target(s for decaleside in the tarsal chemosensilla and the pathway linked to inhibition of sodium pump and the insecticidal action remain to be understood.

  15. Mode of Action of the Natural Insecticide, Decaleside Involves Sodium Pump Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Shivanandappa, Thimmappa

    2017-01-01

    Decalesides are a new class of natural insecticides which are toxic to insects by contact via the tarsal gustatory chemosensilla. The symptoms of their toxicity to insects and the rapid knockdown effect suggest neurotoxic action, but the precise mode of action and the molecular targets for decaleside action are not known. We have presented experimental evidence for the involvement of sodium pump inhibition in the insecticidal action of decaleside in the cockroach and housefly. The knockdown effect of decaleside is concomitant with the in vivo inhibition of Na+, K+ -ATPase in the head and thorax. The lack of insecticidal action by experimental ablation of tarsi or blocking the tarsal sites with paraffin correlated with lack of inhibition of Na+- K+ ATPase in vivo. Maltotriose, a trisaccharide, partially rescued the toxic action of decaleside as well as inhibition of the enzyme, suggesting the possible involvement of gustatory sugar receptors. In vitro studies with crude insect enzyme preparation and purified porcine Na+, K+ -ATPase showed that decaleside competitively inhibited the enzyme involving the ATP binding site. Our study shows that the insecticidal action of decaleside via the tarsal gustatory sites is causally linked to the inhibition of sodium pump which represents a unique mode of action. The precise target(s) for decaleside in the tarsal chemosensilla and the pathway linked to inhibition of sodium pump and the insecticidal action remain to be understood.

  16. amylase from cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... The enzyme was stable up to 55°C and its pH stability was in range of 5.6 - 6.6. .... acrylamide gel and by gel filtration chromatography. Gel filtration .... Activity at 55 °C. Figure 8. Thermic inactivation at 37°C and 55°C of Periplaneta americana α-amylase. Thermal stability of the enzyme was followed for 1 h.

  17. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  18. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  19. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...... in perspectives, values and understandings between patients and healthcare professionals, or the lack of managerial attention and prioritization....

  20. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  1. BmICE-2 is a novel pro-apoptotic caspase involved in apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hua-Shan; Pan, Cai-Xia; Pan, Chun; Song, Juan; Hu, Yan-Fen; Wang, La; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2014-02-28

    In this study we identified a potential pro-apoptotic caspase gene, Bombyx mori(B. mori)ICE-2 (BmICE-2) which encoded a polypeptide of 284 amino acid residues, including a (169)QACRG(173) sequence which surrounded the catalytic site and contained a p20 and a p10 domain. BmICE-2 expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibited high proteolytic activity for the synthetic human initiator caspase-9 substrates Ac-LEHD-pNA, but little activity towards the effector caspase-3 substrates Ac-DEVD-pNA. When BmICE-2 was transiently expressed in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells, we found that the high proteolytic activity for Ac-LEHD-pNA triggered caspase-3-like protease activity resulting in spontaneous cleavage and apoptosis in these cells. This effect was not replicated in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells. In addition, spontaneous cleavage of endogenous BmICE-2 in BmN-SWU1 cells could be induced by actinomycin D. These results suggest that BmICE-2 may be a novel pro-apoptotic gene with caspase-9 activity which is involved apoptotic processes in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  3. The Involved Ostrich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Geiger, Susi

    2008-01-01

    that the transition into parenthood can be difficult for men due to their lack of a physical connection to the pregnancy, a perception that the baby industry is not designed for them, the continuance of male stereotypes in the media, and also the time available to men to become involved in consumption activities......-natal data. Data revealed that men, according to their partner’s perceptions, used consumption as a virtual umbilical cord, although levels of consumption involvement varied from co-involvement for most purchases, to limited involvement, and/or involvement for ‘large’ items, particularly travel systems...... and technical items. This research also revealed that men partook in highly masculinized forms of “nesting,” and in general shunned pregnancy book reading; although some did engage in “research” activities such as searching the internet for product safety information. We conclude from this study...

  4. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  5. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  6. In vivo inhibition of cysteine proteases provides evidence for the involvement of 'senescence-associated vacuoles' in chloroplast protein degradation during dark-induced senescence of tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Cristian A; Costa, María Lorenza; Martínez, Dana E; Mohr, Christina; Humbeck, Klaus; Guiamet, Juan J

    2013-11-01

    Breakdown of leaf proteins, particularly chloroplast proteins, is a massive process in senescing leaves. In spite of its importance in internal N recycling, the mechanism(s) and the enzymes involved are largely unknown. Senescence-associated vacuoles (SAVs) are small, acidic vacuoles with high cysteine peptidase activity. Chloroplast-targeted proteins re-localize to SAVs during senescence, suggesting that SAVs might be involved in chloroplast protein degradation. SAVs were undetectable in mature, non-senescent tobacco leaves. Their abundance, visualized either with the acidotropic marker Lysotracker Red or by green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in a line expressing the senescence-associated cysteine protease SAG12 fused to GFP, increased during senescence induction in darkness, and peaked after 2-4 d, when chloroplast dismantling was most intense. Increased abundance of SAVs correlated with higher levels of SAG12 mRNA. Activity labelling with a biotinylated derivative of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 was used to detect active cysteine proteases. The two apparently most abundant cysteine proteases of senescing leaves, of 40kDa and 33kDa were detected in isolated SAVs. Rubisco degradation in isolated SAVs was completely blocked by E-64. Treatment of leaf disks with E-64 in vivo substantially reduced degradation of Rubisco and leaf proteins. Overall, these results indicate that SAVs contain most of the cysteine protease activity of senescing cells, and that SAV cysteine proteases are at least partly responsible for the degradation of stromal proteins of the chloroplast.

  7. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  8. Who Involves Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Clifford

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the development of a parents' group at the Bradford Grange School (Manchester, United Kingdom) for ESN (educationally subnormal) children. Problems with the initial parents' group are pointed out, successful approaches are considered, and the importance of parent involvement is stressed. (SBH)

  9. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  10. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  11. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  12. Reactors also involve people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, H.B.

    1975-01-01

    As the nuclear industry develops it is to be hoped that high quality occupational health programs will evolve along with other sound operational procedures and practices. The immediate involvement of occupational health personnel may well afford a safety factor which will minimize the likelihood of either the selection of personnel not adequate for the full responsibilities of their work or the continuation in responsible positions of personnel who develop handicaps of either a physical or mental nature

  13. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  14. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  15. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  16. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  17. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  18. A negative charge in transmembrane segment 1 of domain II of the cockroach sodium channel is critical for channel gating and action of pyrethroid insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yuzhe; Song Weizhong; Groome, James R.; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Dong Ke

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroids, an important class of synthetic insecticides. Pyrethroids bind to a distinct receptor site on sodium channels and prolong the open state by inhibiting channel deactivation and inactivation. Recent studies have begun to reveal sodium channel residues important for pyrethroid binding. However, how pyrethroid binding leads to inhibition of sodium channel deactivation and inactivation remains elusive. In this study, we show that a negatively charged aspartic acid residue at position 802 (D802) located in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment 1 of domain II (IIS1) is critical for both the action of pyrethroids and the voltage dependence of channel activation. Charge-reversing or -neutralizing substitutions (K, G, or A) of D802 shifted the voltage dependence of activation in the depolarizing direction and reduced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide. The charge-reversing mutation D802K also accelerated open-state deactivation, which may have counteracted the inhibition of sodium channel deactivation by deltamethrin. In contrast, the D802G substitution slowed open-state deactivation, suggesting an additional mechanism for neutralizing the action of deltamethrin. Importantly, Schild analysis showed that D802 is not involved in pyrethroid binding. Thus, we have identified a sodium channel residue that is critical for regulating the action of pyrethroids on the sodium channel without affecting the receptor site of pyrethroids.

  19. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  20. Fostering employee involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, G P

    1997-11-01

    Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.

  1. Neuroimaging in cockroach phobia: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rivero; Manuel Herrero; Conrado Viña; Yolanda Álvarez-Pérez; Wenceslao Peñate

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes/Objetivo: En este estudio se exploran las características en neuroimagen de personas con fobia específica a peque ̃ nos animales (cucarachas), para determinar si existen diferencias en la actividad cerebral entre personas con y sin fobia a las cucarachas, bajo condi- ciones de estimulación fóbica y no fóbica. Método : Se estudiaron 24 adultos (12 con fobia). El diagnóstico de fobia específica se obtuvo mediante una entrevista estructurada y cuestionarios. Todos fueron expuestos ...

  2. Neuroimaging in cockroach phobia: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: En este estudio se exploran las características en neuroimagen de personas con fobia específica a peque ̃ nos animales (cucarachas, para determinar si existen diferencias en la actividad cerebral entre personas con y sin fobia a las cucarachas, bajo condi- ciones de estimulación fóbica y no fóbica. Método : Se estudiaron 24 adultos (12 con fobia. El diagnóstico de fobia específica se obtuvo mediante una entrevista estructurada y cuestionarios. Todos fueron expuestos a una presentación en video 3D durante una sesión de RMNf. Resultados: El grupo con fobia mostró activaciones diferenciales significativas, que fueron congruentes con el modelo de doble ruta en el procesamiento del miedo, a través del tálamo- amígdala (ruta I, y tálamo-corteza entorrinal-hipocampo-subículo-amígdala (ruta II. Además, se encontraron activaciones diferenciales en el globo pálido, en el giro hipocampal, ínsula, y en los pars orbitalis, triangularis y opercularis. Con respecto al grupo control, no se observaron activaciones de la ínsula ni el cingulado. Conclusiones: Parece evidenciarse un modelo de doble ruta en el procesamiento de estímulos fóbicos. Este doble proceso puede tener implicaciones para el tratamiento psicológico de las fobias específicas.

  3. Cryptochrome 2 mediates directional magnetoreception in cockroaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazalová, Olga; Kvíčalová, M.; Válková, T.; Slabý, P.; Bartoš, P.; Netušil, R.; Tomanová, K.; Braeunig, P.; Lee, H.-J.; Šauman, Ivo; Damulewicz, Milena; Provazník, Jan; Pokorný, R.; Doležel, David; Vácha, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 6 (2016), s. 1660-1665 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH14029; GA ČR(CZ) GC13-11908J; GA ČR(CZ) GC206/07/J041 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : magnetoreception * cryptochrome * light spectrum Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  4. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted...... muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at early postmortem time. ES also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P ..., as well as pH decline and more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization with lower (P time. A possible relationship was suggested between change in phosphorylation level of energy metabolic enzymes and postmortem...

  5. Protease activated receptor 2 in diabetic nephropathy: a double edged sword

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, Janwillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, Arnold C.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and the leading cause of end stage renal disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is complex, making the development of novel treatments that stop or reverse the progression of microalbuminuria into

  6. Caveolin-1 influences vascular protease activity and is a potential stabilizing factor in human atherosclerotic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Rodriguez-Feo

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is a regulatory protein of the arterial wall, but its role in human atherosclerosis remains unknown. We have studied the relationships between Cav-1 abundance, atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and clinical manisfestations of atherosclerotic disease.We determined Cav-1 expression by western blotting in atherosclerotic plaques harvested from 378 subjects that underwent carotid endarterectomy. Cav-1 levels were significantly lower in carotid plaques than non-atherosclerotic vascular specimens. Low Cav-1 expression was associated with features of plaque instability such as large lipid core, thrombus formation, macrophage infiltration, high IL-6, IL-8 levels and elevated MMP-9 activity. Clinically, a down-regulation of Cav-1 was observed in plaques obtained from men, patients with a history of myocardial infarction and restenotic lesions. Cav-1 levels above the median were associated with absence of new vascular events within 30 days after surgery [0% vs. 4%] and a trend towards lower incidence of new cardiovascular events during longer follow-up. Consistent with these clinical data, Cav-1 null mice revealed elevated intimal hyperplasia response following arterial injury that was significantly attenuated after MMP inhibition. Recombinant peptides mimicking Cav-1 scaffolding domain (Cavtratin reduced gelatinase activity in cultured porcine arteries and impaired MMP-9 activity and COX-2 in LPS-challenged macrophages. Administration of Cavtratin strongly impaired flow-induced expansive remodeling in mice. This is the first study that identifies Cav-1 as a novel potential stabilizing factor in human atherosclerosis. Our findings support the hypothesis that local down-regulation of Cav-1 in atherosclerotic lesions contributes to plaque formation and/or instability accelerating the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, given the large number of patients studied, we believe that Cav-1 may be considered as a novel target in the prevention of human atherosclerotic disease and the loss of Cav-1 may be a novel biomarker of vulnerable plaque with prognostic value.

  7. Protease activity measurement in milk as a diagnostic test for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; van Werven, T.; Roffel, S.; Hogeveen, H.; Nazmi, K.; Bikker, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of automated milking systems, automated detection of clinical mastitis is becoming more important. Various in- or on-line diagnostic tests are in use, but generally suffer from false mastitis alerts. In this study, we explored a new diagnostic approach based on measurement

  8. Relative contribution of matrix metalloprotease and cysteine protease activities to cytokine-stimulated articular cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B C; Henriksen, K; Wulf, H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity and cathepsin K (CK) activity have been implicated in cartilage turnover. We investigated the relative contribution of MMP activity and CK activity in cartilage degradation using ex vivo and in vivo models. METHODS: Bovine articular cartilage...... explants were stimulated with oncostatin M (OSM) 10 ng/ml and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) 20 ng/ml in the presence or absence of the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 and the cysteine protease inhibitor, E64. Cartilage degradation was evaluated in the conditioned medium by glycosaminoglycans...... was measured from CK-deficient mice. RESULTS: OSM and TNF-alpha combined induced significant (Pcartilage degradation products measured by hydroxyproline and CTX-II compared to vehicle control. The cytokines potently induced MMP expression, assessed by zymography, and CK expression...

  9. Enhancing Protease Activity Assay in Droplet-Based Microfluidics Using a Biomolecule Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Sarkar, Aniruddh; Song, Yong-Ak; Miller, Miles A.; Kim, Sung Jae; Griffith, Linda G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Han, Jongyoon

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a biomolecule concentrator and a microdroplet generator, which enhances the limited sensitivity of low-abundance enzyme assays by concentrating biomolecules before encapsulating them into droplet microreactors. We used this platform to detect ultra low levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from diluted cellular supernatant and showed that it significantly (∼10-fold) reduced the time required to complete the assay and the sample volume used. PMID:21671557

  10. Potential novel targets: Protease-activated receptors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown etiology. IPF patients suffer from severe breathlessness caused by decreasing lung compliance eventually leading to respiratory failure and death. The prognosis of IPF is devastating: there is only

  11. Targeting coagulation factor receptors - protease-activated receptors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.; Borensztajn, K.; Spek, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease with a 5-year mortality rate of > 50% and unknown etiology. Treatment options remain limited and, currently, only two drugs are available, i.e. nintedanib and pirfenidone. However, both of these antifibrotic agents only slow down the

  12. Exposure of P. gingivalis to noradrenaline reduces bacterial growth and elevates ArgX protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takayuki; Inagaki, Satoru; Sakurai, Kaoru; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    Periodontitis, an infectious disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, is reported to be accelerated by stress, under which noradrenaline levels are increased in the bloodstream. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of noradrenaline on P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis was incubated in the presence of 25μM, 50μM, or 100μM adrenaline or noradrenaline at 37°C for 12, 24 or 36h and growth was evaluated by OD(660). Auto-inducer-2 (AI-2) was measured by luminescence of Vibrio harveyi BB 170. Expression of P. gingivalis genes was evaluated using a microarray and RT-PCR. Rgp activity of arg-gingipainA and B (Rgp) was measured with a synthetic substrate. Growth of P. gingivalis FDC381 was inhibited by noradrenaline at 24 and 36h. Growth inhibition by noradrenaline increased dose-dependently. Inhibition of growth partially recovered with addition of propranolol. AI-2 production from P. gingivalis showed a marked decrease with addition of noradrenaline compared with peak production levels in the control group. Microarray analysis revealed an increase in expression in 18 genes and a decrease in expression in 2 genes. Amongst these genes, expression of the protease arg-gingipainB (RgpB) gene, a major virulence factor of P. gingivalis, was further analysed. Expression of rgpB showed a significant increase with addition of noradrenaline, which was partially reduced by addition of propranolol. Cell-associated Rgp activity also increased with addition of noradrenaline. These results suggest that stressors influence the expression of the virulence factors of P. gingivalis via noradrenaline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of some factors used to the chicken meat preservation and processing on the protease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przysiezna, E.; Skrabka-Blotnicka, T.

    1996-01-01

    The obtained results indicated that the cathepsin activity was higher by about 60% in the extract from thigh than from breast muscles. Freezing and defrosting (not stored) of chicken meat did not influence the breast muscle cathepsin activity while they caused a decrease of activity of about 20% in the case of thigh muscles. The increase in cathepsin activity was noticed in both kinds of muscles during storage at -20 °C up to 4 months (45.6% and 19.4% for thigh and breast muscles respectively). The activity of cathepsin in extract from 5 months stored meat reached 80% in case of breast muscles and 83% in case of thigh muscles in relation to control sample respectively. The cathepsin activity significantly increased during heating of breast muscles up to 60 °C, but in case of thigh muscles it was slightly higher than at 50°C. The heating of cured chicken breast muscles up to 60°C caused a non significant growth in cathepsin activity opposite to raw muscles. The cathepsin activity from all cured samples heated up to 70°C were several times lower in relation to control samples. The cathepsin activity of both thigh and breast muscles were resistant to gamma radiation. The investigated factors caused changes in the activity of cathepsin but none of them caused its total inactivation. The changes of cathepsin activity depended on the kind of muscles and the kind and the value of acting factors

  14. Role of ethanol on growth, laccase production and protease activity in Pycnoporus cinnabarinus ss3

    OpenAIRE

    Meza, Juan Carlos; Auria, Richard; Lomascolo, A.; Sigoillot, J. C.; Casalot, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Laccase production by the strain Pycnoporus cinnabarinus ss3 was studied in a solid-state culture on sugar-cane bagasse using chemical compounds as inducers (ethanol, methanol, veratryl alcohol and ferulic acid). Laccase productions were about 5- to 8.5-fold higher than non-induced cultures. Liquid-culture experiments with "Glabeled ethanol were conducted. Ninety-eight percent of the initial amount of C-14 from ethanol was recovered as (CO2)-C-14, C-14-biomass and soluble C-14-compounds (main...

  15. BgTEP: An Antiprotease Involved in Innate Immune Sensing in Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Portet

    2018-05-01

    characterization of a snail TEP. Our study also reveals that BgTEP may display an unexpected functional dual role. In addition to its previously characterized anti-protease activity, we demonstrate that BgTEP can bind to the intruder surface membrane, which supports a likely opsonin role.

  16. Influence of Involvement in Sports on Students' Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to establish whether students' involvement in sports activities affected their involvement in academic activities. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using percentages and means. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses that guided ...

  17. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  18. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  19. Esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, M A; Daneman, A

    1983-02-01

    The radiologic appearance of esophageal involvement due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 15-year-old boy is presented. The lower two thirds of the esophagus was narrowed and the peristalsis diminished. The mucosa appeared smooth. This is the fourth reported case of esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  20. Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on the involvement of residential fathers in one-on-one activities, dinner with their families, and youth activities and found religious effects for each of these three measures. The study indicates that religion is related to paternal involvement in all three areas that were examined.…

  1. Ego involvement increases doping likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria

    2018-08-01

    Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.

  2. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ZAMFIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will follow the involvement that the government has,through its expenses, on the consumption behavior. The involvement that the government has inthe consumption behavior is made through fees and taxes that are applied on income. Fees andtaxes are applied to the different forms of income but in this article we will be focused only onthe influence of them on wages. In order to analyze the involvement of government expenses onconsumption behavior an utility model will be used.

  3. Black parental involvement in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) provides formal power in education to parents as well as communities. ... Review of selected studies on parental involvement in ..... Anna, a Grade 11 teacher, summed up the feelings of the.

  4. Renal involvement in behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Noshad, Hamid; Sadreddini, Shahram; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar; Molaeefard, Mahsheed; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Shoja, Mohammadali Mohajel

    2009-01-01

    There are conflicting reports about the renal involvement in Behcet's disease (BD). In this study we aimed to study the frequency and type of renal involvement in a group of patients with BD in Azerbaijan province that is one of the prevalent areas of BD in Iran. All cases of BD were prospectively followed between June 2004 and January 2007, and evaluated for renal dys-function (serum creatinine > 1.7 mg/dL), glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Those patients with proteinuria > 500 mg/day and serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL, underwent renal biopsy. From a total number of 100 patients, six patients (6%) had obvious renal involvements. Four patients had glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Renal biopsy in two of them revealed measangial proliferative glumerulonephritis with IgA deposit in one of them and membranoproliferative glumerolonephritis in another one. Two remaining patients had serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL without any hematuria or proteinuria. Serologic study for viral agents and collagen vascular disease were negative in all patients with renal involvements. In conclusion, renal involvement in BD is not infrequent, although in most cases it is mild in nature and may be missed. (author)

  5. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  6. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...... by top management. The article describes the briefing processes and the methods for user involvement, identifies problem areas and points out possible improvements. The author was actively involved in the project as deputy project director, with responsibility for the briefing process, and is now...... includes a literature study on briefing and user involvement in building projects, and presents a case study of a major building project of a new headquarters and media centre for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in Copenhagen. The building project was actively used as part of a corporate change process...

  7. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  8. User involvement in care work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina; Kamp, Annette

    In recent years user involvement has become a paradigm for transforming the health and social care sector. This development–also labelled empowerment, co-creation, partnership, patient-centeredness - is seen as a means to reform organizations in ways that enhance quality, economic cost effectiven...... forms of professionalism, and imply tensions in health and social care work.......In recent years user involvement has become a paradigm for transforming the health and social care sector. This development–also labelled empowerment, co-creation, partnership, patient-centeredness - is seen as a means to reform organizations in ways that enhance quality, economic cost...... addressed the way this paradigm affects the users, in specific sectors. However user involvement also affects working life. It may imply change and redistribution of tasks and identities between users and professionals, and may also transform the relations of care. In this paper we explore the possible...

  9. User interface and patient involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Lundvoll Nilsen, Line

    2013-01-01

    Increased patient involvement is a goal in contemporary health care, and of importance to the development of patient oriented ICT. In this paper we discuss how the design of patient-user interfaces can affect patient involvement. Our discussion is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with patient users of a web-based solution for patient--doctor communication piloted in Norway. We argue ICT solutions offering a choice of user interfaces on the patient side are preferable to ensure individual accommodation and a high degree of patient involvement. When introducing web-based tools for patient--health professional communication a free-text option should be provided to the patient users.

  10. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  11. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  12. Multisystem involvement in neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Langille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of pediatric neuromyelitis optica (NMO with muscle and lung involvement in addition to central nervous system disease. Our patient initially presented with features of area postrema syndrome, then subsequently with optic neuritis. The patient also had recurrent hyperCKemia that responded to corticosteroids. Finally, axillary and hilar adenopathy with pulmonary consolidation were noted as well and responded to immunomodulation. Our case highlights multisystem involvement in NMO including non-infectious pulmonary findings which have not been described in the pediatric population previously.

  13. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  14. Involving Employees in Strategy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Strategy as a practice and continuous innovation approaches are combined to conceptualise dilemmas of short versus long term and to analyse a case of employee participation as a particular example of strategy innovation. The case is a medium size textile company developing its strategy involving ...... and Balanced Score Card consultancy, an ‘open space’ workshop and organized strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case however also exhibit enterprise situated praxis’s like mitigation of taboos....

  15. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  16. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2006-08-15

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  17. Managing Parent Involvement during Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Lynette S.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and the Virginia Tech shooting tragedy, it is no surprise that concern for students' safety is the primary reason attributed to parents' increased involvement. Parents and university administrators share in their commitment to student safety. However, college and university staff who assume responsibility…

  18. Patient involvement in hospital architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2017-01-01

    the structure of the design process, identification and ranking of stakeholders, the methods of user-involvement and approaches to accessibility. The paper makes recommendations for a change of approach to user-participation in large-scale, long-duration projects. The paper adds new insight on an under...

  19. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  20. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy

    2006-01-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  1. Corporate Involvement in C AI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Justine C.

    1978-01-01

    Historic perspective of computer manufacturers and their contribution to CAI. Corporate CAI products and services are mentioned, as is a forecast for educational involvement by computer corporations. A chart of major computer corporations shows gross sales, net earnings, products and services offered, and other corporate information. (RAO)

  2. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  3. Parental involvement and educational achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, G.; Smit, F.; Sleegers, P.

    2005-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents.

  4. Eye involvement in haematological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the involvement of the eye in haematological malignancies and focuses on two topics; primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) and ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD). The aim of this thesis is first: to compare the efficacy of diverse treatment options of PVRL with regard to

  5. Lupus panniculitis involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, Josep M.; Gomez, Antonio; Torrubia, Sofia; Salinas, Teresa; Clotet, Montse; Lerma, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Lupus panniculitis is an unusual immunological disease that characteristically affects the subcutaneous fat and occurs in 2% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a case of lupus panniculitis involving the breast, which represents a very uncommon location. Mammographically, it presented as a suspicious irregular mass involving the subcutaneous fat pad with skin thickening. High echogenicity constituted the most relevant sonographic finding. To the best of our knowledge, the magnetic resonance (MR) features have not been previously described. High signal intensity was found on both T1- and T2-weighted precontrast MR images. A dynamic contrast-enhanced study revealed a suspicious focal mass with irregular margins and rim enhancement, with a type 3 time-signal intensity curve. Differential diagnosis with carcinoma and fat necrosis and the value of core biopsy are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Multiobjective Optimization Involving Quadratic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Brito Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization is nowadays a word of order in engineering projects. Although the idea involved is simple, the implementation of any procedure to solve a general problem is not an easy task. Evolutionary algorithms are widespread as a satisfactory technique to find a candidate set for the solution. Usually they supply a discrete picture of the Pareto front even if this front is continuous. In this paper we propose three methods for solving unconstrained multiobjective optimization problems involving quadratic functions. In the first, for biobjective optimization defined in the bidimensional space, a continuous Pareto set is found analytically. In the second, applicable to multiobjective optimization, a condition test is proposed to check if a point in the decision space is Pareto optimum or not and, in the third, with functions defined in n-dimensional space, a direct noniterative algorithm is proposed to find the Pareto set. Simple problems highlight the suitability of the proposed methods.

  7. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    OpenAIRE

    Vancassel Sylvie; Aïd Sabah; Denis Isabelle; Guesnet Philippe; Lavialle Monique

    2007-01-01

    The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3), is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6) and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3). Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved ...

  8. Stakeholder involvement - a japanese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional societal and cultural background of Japanese in general indicates the intrinsic difficulty in involving the public as stakeholders in the process of any type of decision making in policy matters. It is characterized by the long-taught virtue of harmonization and obedience to others. In addition, characteristic system of Japanese traditional industrial society, such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage system, and enterprise-based labour union, encourages the loyalty to the employer/company, but not to the public. The public or ordinary citizens would seldom come out as stakeholders and express their true feelings or real opinions, even though younger generation is notably getting out from such a trend. On the other hand, it is a common practice in Japanese society for any business or administrative transactions to try to obtain 'consensus' among relevant parties concerned (stakeholders) by negotiations behind the curtain prior to the formal discussion. In this sense, 'stakeholders involvement' is accepted and practised as a matter of course, but mostly for actions between parties of equivalently influential status levels or between 'directly relevant' parties such as those between the different government agencies, between regulators and industries. The concept of 'Involving the public in decision making as stakeholders' is not yet fully understood nor accepted in Japan both by regulators and by the public so far as the issue of radiation protection is concerned. These situations are explained with some examples. (author)

  9. Ethics in research involving prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  10. Stakeholder involvement in developing brochures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M.; Garing, K.; Waldrop, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management involved stakeholders (i.e., people who perceive themselves to be affected by the DOE's activities) in a pre-decisional draft of a DOE public document-a practice that the public has called for if the DOE is to begin real public participation. Early and ongoing public input is key to realizing Environmental Management's goal of increasing public participation. The stakeholder review process employed in the development of this document, a brochure outlining public participation information, demonstrates that Environmental Management is open-quotes practicing what it preachesclose quotes about institutionalizing public participation in its program. environmental Management's objective for the brochure is to create a document that uses plain, direct language that encourages citizens to become involved in its decision making process. The information in the brochure provides the public with the information they need to become involved stakeholders. The breadth and volume of comments received assisted in the development of a brochure that includes many viewpoints

  11. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancassel Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3, is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6 and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3. Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several years ago, we hypothesized that a modification of DHA contents of neuronal membranes by dietary modulation could change the neurotransmission function and then underlie inappropriate behavioural response. We showed that, in parallel to a severe loss of brain DHA concomitant to a compensatory substitution by 22:5n-6, the dietary lack of α-linolenic acid during development induced important changes in the release of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine in cerebral areas specifically involved in learning, memory and reward processes. Data suggested alteration of presynaptic storage process and dysregulations of reciprocal functional interactions between monoaminergic and cholinergic pathways. Moreover, we showed that recovery of these neurochemical changes was possible when the deficient diet was switched to a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 PUFA before weaning. The next step is to understand the mechanism involved. Particularly, we focus on the study of the metabolic cooperation between the endothelial cell, the astrocyte and the neuron which regulate synaptic transmission.These works could contribute to the understanding of the link between some neuropsychiatric disorders and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, through their action on neurotransmission.

  12. Relapsing polychondritis and airway involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Armin; Rafeq, Samaan; Boiselle, Phillip; Sung, Arthur; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Michaud, Gaetane; Majid, Adnan; Herth, Felix J F; Trentham, David

    2009-04-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of airway involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP). Retrospective chart review and data analysis of RP patients seen in the Rheumatology Clinic and the Complex Airway Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from January 2004 through February 2008. RP was diagnosed in 145 patients. Thirty-one patients had airway involvement, a prevalence of 21%. Twenty-two patients were women (70%), and they were between 11 and 61 years of age (median age, 42 years) at the time of first symptoms. Airway symptoms were the first manifestation of disease in 17 patients (54%). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 20 patients (64%), followed by cough, stridor, and hoarseness. Airway problems included the following: subglottic stenosis (n = 8; 26%); focal and diffuse malacia (n = 15; 48%); and focal stenosis in different areas of the bronchial tree in the rest of the patients. Twelve patients (40%) required and underwent intervention including balloon dilatation, stent placement, tracheotomy, or a combination of the above with good success. The majority of patients experienced improvement in airway symptoms after intervention. One patient died during the follow-up period from the progression of airway disease. The rest of the patients continue to undergo periodic evaluation and intervention. In this largest cohort described in the English language literature, we found symptomatic airway involvement in RP to be common and at times severe. The nature of airway problems is diverse, with tracheomalacia being the most common. Airway intervention is frequently required and in experienced hands results in symptom improvement.

  13. Behcet's disease involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleto, Maria Jesus; Marcos, Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown origin that was traditionally defined by oral and genital ulcers and uveitis. We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome who presented a palpable lesion in the right breast with inflammatory signs. X-ray findings posed a differential diagnosis between tumoral and inflammatory pathology. The pathological findings confirmed a small-vessel vasculitis. We found two reports of breast involvement by this disease in the literature. Our patient was studied by mammogram and sonogram which together with clinical history are important to prevent delay in diagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  14. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal......Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...

  15. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...... of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes...

  16. Cardiopulmonary involvement in Fabry's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenvuo, Juha W; Kantola, Ilkka M; Nuutila, Pirjo; Knuuti, Juhani; Parkkola, Riitta; Mononen, Ilkka; Hurme, Saija; Kalliokoski, Riikka; Viikari, Jorma S; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Hartiala, Jaakko J

    2010-04-01

    Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A enzyme activity. Decreased enzyme activity leads to accumulation of glycosphingolipid in different tissues, including endothelial and smooth-muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. There is controversial data on cardiopulmonary involvement in Fabry's disease, because many reports are based on small and selected populations with Fabry's disease. Furthermore, the aetiology of cardiopulmonary symptoms in Fabry's disease is poorly understood. We studied cardiopulmonary involvement in seventeen patients with Fabry's disease (20-65 years, 6 men) using ECG, bicycle stress, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, spirometry, diffusing capacity and pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) tests. Cardiopulmonary symptoms were compared to observed parameters in cardiopulmonary tests. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and reduced exercise capacity are the most apparent cardiac changes in both genders with Fabry's disease. ECG parameters were normal when excluding changes related to LVH. Spirometry showed mild reduction in vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV I), and mean values in diffusing capacity tests were within normal limits. Generally, only slight morphological pulmonary changes were detected using pulmonary HRCT, and they were not associated with changes in pulmonary function. The self-reported amount of pulmonary symptoms associated only with lower ejection fraction (P routine cardiopulmonary evaluation in Fabry's disease using echocardiography is maybe enough when integrated to counselling for aerobic exercise training.

  17. Subfascial involvement in glomuvenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Raja; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Plastic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P.W. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is an inherited autosomal dominant trait. The lesions, which appear as bluish nodules or plaque-like cutaneous elevations, are usually tender and more firm than sporadic venous malformations. Conventionally, the lesions are thought to be limited to the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue planes. The objective was to characterize the depth of involvement of GVM lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in GVM were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The signal characteristics, tissue distribution, pattern of contrast enhancement of the lesions in GVM were documented. Thirty patients (19 female) aged 1-35 years (mean 18 years) were diagnosed with GVM based on clinical features (n = 20) and/or histopathological findings (n = 10). The lesions were present in the lower extremity (n = 15), upper extremity (n = 6), cervico-facial region (n = 6), pelvis (n = 2), and chest wall (n = 1). All patients had skin and subcutaneous lesions. Fifty percent of the patients (n = 15) demonstrated subfascial intramuscular (n = 15), intra-osseous (n = 1), and intra-articular involvement (n = 1). Contrary to the conventional belief that GVMs are generally limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, deep subfascial extension of the lesions is common. (orig.)

  18. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  19. Measuring Purchase‐decision involvement ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, increasing competition is forcing businesses to pay more attention on customer satisfaction providing strong customer services. Increased competition has also increased marketing activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing purchase decision involvement in food industry in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 270 experts in food industry and, using principle component (PCA analysis, extracts important group of factors. The questionnaire consists of 27 questions, which is reduced to 23 questions because of sensitivity of the PCA to Skewness of data. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.81, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results indicate that there were four factors including individual differences, product validation, triggers and dependent behavior influencing purchasing decisions.

  20. Pulmonary involvement of secondary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Imai, Yuichiro; Yoshihara, Shingo; Fujikura, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Sato, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Taku; Uno, Kenji; Kasahara, Kei; Yano, Hisakazu; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is considered a rare occurrence; however, the number of cases has increased in the 2000s. This is likely due to the increased use of computed tomography scans and molecular diagnostic testing. We report a case of an HIV-positive man with pleural chest pain and bilateral subpleural nodules on chest computed tomography. His rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive, and the specimen of one of the pulmonary nodules obtained by transthoracic biopsy was positive for the polA gene of Treponema pallidum. Since clinical manifestations of syphilis are highly variable, clinicians should bear in mind that pleural chest pain with bilateral subpleural nodules can be caused by pulmonary syphilis.

  1. Kidney involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively, followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy. Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment, followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14% and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic

  2. Involve women at many levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, N

    1995-03-01

    The organizers of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) realize that slowing the rate of population growth requires the involvement of women at many levels. The planning processes in countries leading up to the ICPD were required to include women, and funds became available for women to attend regional and international preparatory meetings. National delegations at the ICPD also included many more women than the previous two world population conferences in 1974 and 1984. Space was also provided at the ICPD for the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. Naripokkho, a women's advocacy organization in Bangladesh, was therefore able to communicate its message at the conference. In preparation, the organization held consultations and workshops with grassroots women in thirteen regions of Bangladesh. Approximately one third of the women in the workshops had more children than they desired, many felt that they had to have at least two sons, poor services led women to discontinue contraceptive use, and very few women reported that a lack of access to contraception or method failure was responsible for their large families. It was also determined during the preparatory phase that environmental damage cannot be linked to population in a simplistic manner, history, politics, geography, business, and economics play important roles. Once at the ICPD, Naripokkho they negotiated and lobbied the governments to influence the ICPD program of action. Gains for women were made in both language and substance. Indeed, the program of action is the most progressive population document ever issued by a mainstream institution, gives women's goals new legitimacy, and is a powerful tool for groups working at the grassroots level. Governments must now be held to their commitments made in the program.

  3. Nail involvement in psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobolewski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nail psoriasis is considered a significant psychological and social problem causing functional impairment in affected patients. Nail changes hamper their daily and occupational activities and contribute to a worse quality of life. Almost 50% of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and up to 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis are afflicted with nail lesions. The important correlation between psoriatic arthritis and nail changes is well established – the presence of the latter is a strong predictor of the development of arthritis. There is a broad spectrum of nail dystrophies associated with psoriasis, ranging from the common pitting, subungual hyperkeratosis and loosening of the nail plate to less frequent discolouration and splinter haemorrhages. Some of these symptoms are also observed in other nail diseases, and further diagnostics should be performed. The assessment tools NAPSI (Nail Psoriasis Severity Index, mNAPSI (Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index, and PNSS (Psoriasis Nail Severity Score are most commonly used to grade the severity of nail involvement in psoriasis and enable the evaluation of therapy effectiveness. The treatment of nail psoriasis is a major clinical challenge. It should be adjusted to the extent of dermal, articular and ungual lesions. Systemic therapies of psoriasis, especially biological agents, are most likely to be effective in treating nail psoriasis. However, as their use is limited in scope and safety, topical therapy remains a mainstay, and the combination of corticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogues is considered to be most helpful.

  4. Public involvement in nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J. De La

    1993-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the environment has gained an understandable degree of political prominence, drawing attention to the concept of direct participation of the public in decision-making. As part of that process, the first World Environmental Conference in Stockholm in 1972, the final act of the 1975 Helsinki Conference, the Global Nature Charter of the UN General Assembly of 1982 and the 1992 Rio conference have all increased the obligation of governments to inform their publics, and to give individuals and all categories of the public some degree of involvement in decisions that will directly affect their surroundings. The use of nuclear energy fits clearly into this process. Uncertainty in the public mind about the scientific foundation of nuclear-energy exploitation often motivates the public to intervene in the decision-making process, as does fear of catastrophic consequences. There can also be a specific reaction -crystallizing on nuclear energy - against uncontrolled technological and unlimited industrial development. In any event, there is a direct relationship between public pressure for participation and the perception of the ability - or inability - of the relevant authorities to act with a genuine sense of the wider interest. But, although the nuclear industry has often been taken as a scapegoat, the problems of public acceptance and government management that it raises are not substantially different from those in other branches of heavy industry, particularly in their social and environmental impacts. Indeed, in a large number of countries (France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States are examples) the mechanisms for public participation are broadly similar for both conventional industrial and nuclear installations

  5. Parent Involvement in Homework: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children's education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child's homework results in (a)…

  6. Disagreement in Parental Reports of Father Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Spielfogel, Jill; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael; Henry, David; Tolan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Despite agreement on the value of father involvement in children’s lives, research has been limited due to the exclusion of fathers in studies, questionable validity of mothers’ reports on father involvement, and simple measures of fathering behavior. Our study extends previous research by comparing reports of father involvement using robust, multidimensional father involvement measures. Data from 113 fathers and 126 mothers reporting on 221 children were used to assess father involvement. Results indicate that fathers reported significantly higher levels of involvement than mothers reported. Findings from hierarchical linear models suggest that race/ethnicity and mothers’ reports of positive relationship quality were associated with smaller discrepancies in reports of father involvement, whereas nonmarried partnerships, older children, father residence, and biological status predicted larger discrepancies. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining father involvement reports directly from fathers and why father involvement should be assessed as a multidimensional construct to examine fathering behavior. PMID:29515272

  7. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  8. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  9. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  10. Quality assurance - how to involve the employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of strategies for involvement of employees in quality assurance developement and implementation.......An overview of strategies for involvement of employees in quality assurance developement and implementation....

  11. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  12. Cross-Cultural Issues in Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach-Tuyet Pham; And Others

    Four papers address cultural issues related to the involvement of limited-English-proficient parents in public schools in the United States. "Cultural Issues in Indochinese Parent Involvement" (Bach-Tuyet (Pham) Tran) outlines the linguistic, social, and practical barriers to Indochinese immigrant parent involvement and makes suggestions for…

  13. Cathepsin S Is Involved in Th17 Differentiation Through the Upregulation of IL-6 by Activating PAR-2 after Systemic Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Dekita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive links have been found between periodontitis and numerous diseases in humans via persistent inflammation throughout the body. However, the main factors responsible for maintaining this pro-inflammatory condition are poorly understood. The spleen, the largest secondary immune organ, is a central hub regulating the immune response/inflammation due to the dendritic cell (DC response to CD4+ T cell subtype differentiation, and lysosomal proteinase cathepsin S (CatS is known to be involved in DC functions. In the present study, we found that CatS-induced IL-6 production by splenic DCs subsequently promotes Th17 differentiation, in response to systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharide derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS. The population of CD11c+ DCs was significantly increased in the splenic marginal zone (MZ locally of wild-type (DBA/2 mice with splenomegaly but not in that of CatS deficient (CatS-/- mice after systemic exposure to PgLPS for 7 consecutive days (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal. Similarly, the population of Th17+CD4+ T cells was also significantly increased in the splenic MZ of wild-type mice but not in that of CatS-/- mice after PgLPS exposure. Furthermore, the increase in the Th17+ CD4+ T cell population paralleled increases in the levels of CatS and IL-6 in CD11c+ cells in the splenic MZ. In isolated primary splenic CD11c+ cells, the mRNA expression and the production of IL-6 was dramatically increased in wild-type mice but not in CatS-/- mice after direct stimulation with PgLPS (1 μg/ml, and this PgLPS-induced increase in the IL-6 expression was completely abolished by pre-treatment with Z-Phe-Leu-COCHO (Z-FL, the specific inhibitor of CatS. The PgLPS activated protease-activated receptor (PAR 2 in the isolated splenic CD11c+ cells was also significantly inhibited by CatS deficiently. In addition, the PgLPS-induced increase in the IL-6 production by splenic CD11c+ cells was completely abolished by pre-treatment with

  14. Developpement of a photoaffinity probe for the sensitive detection of matrix metallo-protease active forms from complex biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nury, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A new activity-based probe able to covalently modify the active site of proteases belonging to the matrix metallo-protease family (MMPs) has been developed in this thesis project. The probe was shown to behave as potent inhibitor of several MMPs, with nanomolar Ki values. This probe was also able to modify specifically only the free active site of MMPs, with particular high yields of cross-linking varying from 50 % to 11 %, depending of the MMPs tested. Using radioactivity as means of detection, this probe was able to detect active form of MMPs with a threshold of 1 femto-mole. Applied to the study of bronchoalveolar fluids (BAL) from mice exposed to nanoparticles by a lung aspiration protocol, this probe revealed the presence of the catalytic domain of MMP-12 under its active form, but not in control animals. When used to detect active form of MMPs from extracts obtained from human arteries of patient suffering from atherosclerosis, the probe was not able to detect such MMP active forms. Despite this negative result, the detection of active form of MMP in pathological fluid like BAL has never been reported before this work. Having validated this novel MMP activity-based probe, it will be possible to use it now for detecting MMPs from other pathological fluids or tissues extracts in which MMPs can be good markers of the pathology. (author) [fr

  15. Visualization of Protease Activity In Vivo Using an Activatable Photo-Acoustic Imaging Probe Based on CuS Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhu, Lei; Nie, Liming; Sun, Xiaolian; Cheng, Liang; Wu, Chenxi; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we for the first time report a novel activatable photoacoustic (PA) imaging nano-probe for in vivo detection of cancer-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). A black hole quencher 3 (BHQ3) which absorbs red light is conjugated to near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles via a MMP-cleavable peptide linker. The obtained CuS-peptide-BHQ3 (CPQ) nano-probe exhibits two distinctive absorption peaks at 630 nm and 930 nm. Inside the tumor microenviorment where MMPs present, the MMP-sensitive peptide would be cleaved, releasing BHQ3 from the CuS nanoparticles, the former of which as a small molecule is then rapidly cleared out from the tumor, whereas the latter of which as large nanoparticles would retain inside the tumor for a much longer period of time. As the result, the PA signal at 680 nm which is contributed by BHQ3 would be quickly diminished while that at 930 nm would be largely retained. The PA signal ratio of 680 nm / 930 nm could thus serve as an in vivo indicator of MMPs activity inside the tumor. Our work presents a novel strategy of in vivo sensing of MMPs based on PA imaging, which should offer remarkably improved detection depth compared with traditional optical imaging techniques. PMID:24465271

  16. Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, Christopher C; Sexton, Nicole R; Munjal, Havisha; Lu, Xiaotao; Molland, Katrina L; Tomar, Sakshi; Mesecar, Andrew D; Denison, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) cause epidemics of severe human respiratory disease. A conserved step of CoV replication is the translation and processing of replicase polyproteins containing 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp's 1 to 16). The CoV nsp5 protease (3CLpro; Mpro) processes nsp's at 11 cleavage sites and is essential for virus replication. CoV nsp5 has a conserved 3-domain structure and catalytic residues. However, the intra- and intermolecular determinants of nsp5 activity and their conservation across divergent CoVs are unknown, in part due to challenges in cultivating many human and zoonotic CoVs. To test for conservation of nsp5 structure-function determinants, we engineered chimeric betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genomes encoding nsp5 proteases of human and bat alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Exchange of nsp5 proteases from HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, which share the same genogroup, genogroup 2a, with MHV, allowed for immediate viral recovery with efficient replication albeit with impaired fitness in direct competition with wild-type MHV. Introduction of MHV nsp5 temperature-sensitive mutations into chimeric HKU1 and OC43 nsp5 proteases resulted in clear differences in viability and temperature-sensitive phenotypes compared with MHV nsp5. These data indicate tight genetic linkage and coevolution between nsp5 protease and the genomic background and identify differences in intramolecular networks regulating nsp5 function. Our results also provide evidence that chimeric viruses within coronavirus genogroups can be used to test nsp5 determinants of function and inhibition in common isogenic backgrounds and cell types.

  17. An assay to monitor HIV-1 protease activity for the identification of novel inhibitors in T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J Hilton

    Full Text Available The emergence of resistant HIV strains, together with the severe side-effects of existing drugs and lack of development of effective anti-HIV vaccines highlight the need for novel antivirals, as well as innovative methods to facilitate their discovery. Here, we have developed an assay in T-cells to monitor the proteolytic activity of the HIV-1 protease (PR. The assay is based on the inducible expression of HIV-1 PR fused within the Gal4 DNA-binding and transactivation domains. The fusion protein binds to the Gal4 responsive element and activates the downstream reporter, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene only in the presence of an effective PR Inhibitor (PI. Thus, in this assay, eGFP acts as a biosensor of PR activity, making it ideal for flow cytometry based screening. Furthermore, the assay was developed using retroviral technology in T-cells, thus providing an ideal environment for the screening of potential novel PIs in a cell-type that represents the natural milieu of HIV infection. Clones with the highest sensitivity, and robust, reliable and reproducible reporter activity, were selected. The assay is easily adaptable to other PR variants, a multiplex platform, as well as to high-throughput plate reader based assays and will greatly facilitate the search for novel peptide and chemical compound based PIs in T-cells.

  18. Inhibition of SARS-CoV 3C-like Protease Activity by Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available SARS-CoV is the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS. The virally encoded 3C-like protease (3CLPro has been presumed critical for the viral replication of SARS-CoV in infected host cells. In this study, we screened a natural product library consisting of 720 compounds for inhibitory activity against 3CLPro. Two compounds in the library were found to be inhibitive: tannic acid (IC50 = 3 µM and 3-isotheaflavin-3-gallate (TF2B (IC50 = 7 µM. These two compounds belong to a group of natural polyphenols found in tea. We further investigated the 3CLPro-inhibitory activity of extracts from several different types of teas, including green tea, oolong tea, Puer tea and black tea. Our results indicated that extracts from Puer and black tea were more potent than that from green or oolong teas in their inhibitory activities against 3CLPro. Several other known compositions in teas were also evaluated for their activities in inhibiting 3CLPro. We found that caffeine, (—-epigallocatechin gallte (EGCg, epicatechin (EC, theophylline (TP, catechin (C, epicatechin gallate (ECg and epigallocatechin (EGC did not inhibit 3CLPro activity. Only theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF3 was found to be a 3CLPro inhibitor. This study has resulted in the identification of new compounds that are effective 3CLPro inhibitors.

  19. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind T; Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R; Reddy, Raju C

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs' electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease.

  20. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Keane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis.

  1. Some Investigations on Protease Enzyme Production Kinetics Using Bacillus licheniformis BBRC 100053 and Effects of Inhibitors on Protease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghobadi Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to great commercial application of protease, it is necessary to study kinetic characterization of this enzyme in order to improve design of enzymatic reactors. In this study, mathematical modeling of protease enzyme production kinetics which is derived from Bacillus licheniformis BBRC 100053 was studied (at 37°C, pH 10 after 73 h in stationary phase, and 150 rpm. The aim of the present paper was to determine the best kinetic model and kinetic parameters for production of protease and calculating Ki (inhibition constant of different inhibitors to find the most effective one. The kinetic parameters Km (Michaelis-Menten constant and Vm (maximum rate were calculated 0.626 mM and 0.0523 mM/min. According to the experimental results, using DFP (diisopropyl fluorophosphate and PMSF (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride as inhibitors almost 50% of the enzyme activity could be inhibited when their concentrations were 0.525 and 0.541 mM, respectively. Ki for DFP and PMSF were 0.46 and 0.56 mM, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Lineweaver-Burk model was the best fitting model for protease production kinetics DFP was more effective than PMSF and both of them should be covered in the group of noncompetitive inhibitors.

  2. Characterization of the Protease Activity of Detergents: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Protease Profile and Activity of Various Commercial Detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body…

  3. Radiologic science students' perceptions of parental involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Cheryl; Barymon, Deanna; Vanderford, Virginia; Hensley, Chad; Shaver, Gary

    2014-01-01

    A new generation of students is in the classroom, and they are not always alone. Helicopter parents, those who hover around the student and attempt to ease life's challenges, are accompanying the students to radiologic science programs across the nation. To determine radiologic science students' perception regarding their parents' level of involvement in their lives. A survey focused on student perceptions of parental involvement inside and outside of the academic setting was completed by 121 radiologic science students at 4 institutional settings. The analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationships between student sex, age, marital status, and perceived level of parental involvement. In addition, as financial support increases, students' perception of the level of parental involvement also increases. Radiologic science students want their parents to be involved in their higher education decisions. Research indicates that students with involved parents are more successful, and faculty should be prepared for increased parental involvement in the future. Radiologic science students perceive their parents to be involved in their academic careers. Ninety-five percent of respondents believe that the financial support of their parent or parents contributes to their academic success. Sixty-five percent of participants are content with their parents' current level of involvement, while 11% wish their parents were more involved in their academic careers.

  4. Top Management Involvement in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felekoglu, Burcu; Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James

    2010-01-01

    a broader conceptual space than this participation. This paper reviews the literature on top management involvement in new product development (NPD) and discusses relevance of different theoretical perspectives from other disciplines such as management, organisational behaviour and communication to analyse......Involvement of top managers in new product development (NPD) is a critical factor affecting NPD performance and frequently considered to be the participation of top management to certain activities in NPD or their NPD related behaviours. However, “Top management involvement in NPD” occupies...... antecedents, realisation and consequences of top management involvement in NPD. It is argued that top management has different involvement at different NPD levels: organisation level and project level. Resulting from this literature review, a tentative framework for top management involvement in NPD...

  5. How can stakeholder involvement be improved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Radioactive waste management is embedded in broader societal issues such as environment, risk management, sustainability, energy and health policy. In all these fields, there is an increasing demand for public involvement, participation or engagement. Guidance for public authorities also generally encourages greater involvement of the public. Involvement may take different forms at different phases and can include sharing information, consulting, dialoguing or deliberating on decisions with relevant stakeholders. Stakeholder involvement should be seen as a meaningful part of formulating and implementing public policy. There is no single technique for organising engagement. Initiatives should respond to their context and to stakeholders' particular needs. As the number of stakeholder involvement approaches and publications describing them continues to grow, new opportunities are opening up through social media, which has become an important tool for stakeholder involvement in recent years

  6. Does employee involvement work? Yes, sometimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J L

    1997-12-01

    Employee involvement per se is not always effective for improving performance and/or employee attitudes. Rather, there are several different forms of employee involvement, some of which are effective, while others are not. This article describes seven forms of employee involvement, giving examples, and summarizes research findings for each form, concluding with a summary of which are the best and which are worst. This article also describes what is necessary for effective employee involvement, focusing on management commitment and training for both management and employees.

  7. Client Involvement in Home Care Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Stinne; Henriksen, Nina; Kjær, Lone

    2013-01-01

    , political and administrative frames that rule home- care practice. Client involvement is shown within four constructed analytical categories: ‘Structural conditions of providing and receiving home care’; ‘Client involvement inside the home: performing a professional task and living an everyday life......’; ‘Client involvement outside the home: liberal business and mutual goal setting’; and ‘Converting a home to a working place: refurnishing a life’. The meaning of involvement is depending on which position it is viewed from. On the basis of this analysis, we raise the question of the extent to which...

  8. Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Adelaine; Ortiz-Neira, Clara L.; Abou Reslan, Walid; Kaura, Deepak; Sharon, Raphael; Anderson, Ronald; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) typically presents with hepatomegaly and other signs of liver dysfunction. We present an 11-month-old child having only minimally elevated liver enzymes as an indication of liver involvement. Using sonography as the initial diagnostic tool followed by MRI, LCH of the liver was revealed. A review of sonographic, CT, MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography findings in liver LCH is presented. We recommend that physicians consider sonography and MRI screening for liver involvement in patients with newly diagnosed LCH, as periportal involvement may be present with little or no liver function abnormality present, as in this patient. (orig.)

  9. Initial thoracic involvement in lymphoma. CT assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, A.; Corredoira, J.; Ferreiros, J.; Cabeza, B.; Jorquera, M.; Pedrosa, I.; Martinez, R.; Fernandez, C.

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the initial thoracic involvement by CT in a consecutive series of patients with lymphoma. A retrospective analysis was made of thoracic CT studies made at the time of diagnosis of 259 patients with lymphoma. Mediastinal pulmonary, pleural, pericardial and chest wall involvement was assessed by CT. Of 259 patients (129 men y 130 women), 56 had Hodgkin's disease (HD) and 203 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Forty-two percent (42.5%, 110/259) of the patients had chest involvement on CT: 33 of 56 patients with HD (58.9%) and 77 of 203 patients with NHL (37.9%). All the patients with thoracic HD) and 71.4% of patients with thoracic NHL, had mediastinal lymph node involvement. of the patients with thoracic involvement 12.1% (4/33) of the patient with HD and 23.3% (18/77) of the patients with NHL had pulmonary involvement. Thoracic involvement on CT was more frequent in HD. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was the most common finding fundamentally in HD. Pulmonary disease always occurred in the presence of mediastinal lymph node involvement in HD but could occur as an isolated finding in NHL. (Author) 24 refs

  10. Parent Involvement: Turning Up the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Research shows that parent involvement makes a significant difference in children's achievement, especially during elementary and middle school. Even though the school year is well underway, there is still plenty of time to make this your school's best year ever for parent involvement. Here are some of the most effective strategies I've come…

  11. Understanding the Value of Volunteer Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bryan; Harder, Amy; Pracht, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers can be an important resource of many nonprofit organizations. The ability to meet the mission, goals and objectives of nonprofit organizations often depends upon the effectiveness of volunteer involvement in direct service delivery or indirect program support. Volunteer involvement utilizes financial and non-financial resources of an…

  12. Pioneering partnerships: Resident involvement from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, V.E.; Abma, T.A.; Boelsma, F.; Woelders, S.

    2013-01-01

    Resident involvement in residential care homes is a challenge due to shortcomings of consumerist and formal approaches such as resident councils. The PARTNER approach aims to involve residents through collective action to improve their community life and wellbeing. The purpose of this article is to

  13. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  14. Parent Education: A Perspective on Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Jean

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews ways in which parents of handicapped children can become involved with the schools, and two models (an oral program for deaf students in which parents are trained to provide language stimulation, and a program for autistic children involving parents in behavioral treatment) are described. (CL)

  15. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  16. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  17. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  18. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  19. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  20. Patient involvement in Danish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of patient involvement in Denmark, and to discuss the potential implications of pursuing several strategies for patient involvement simultaneously. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper presents a preliminary framework for anal......PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of patient involvement in Denmark, and to discuss the potential implications of pursuing several strategies for patient involvement simultaneously. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper presents a preliminary framework...... for analysis of patient involvement in health care. This framework is used to analyze key governance features of patient involvement in Denmark based on previous research papers and reports describing patient involvement in Danish health care. FINDINGS: Patient involvement is important in Denmark...... be identified when pursuing the strategies at the same time. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed framework further. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The paper includes...

  1. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  2. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  3. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  4. Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest

  5. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  6. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  7. User involvement in the innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Saugstrup

    2008-01-01

    User involvement in the innovation process is not a new phenomenon. However, combined with the growing individualisation of demand and with highly competitive and dynamic environments, user involvement in the innovation process and thereby in the design, development, and manufacturing process, can...... nevertheless provide a competitive advantage. This is the case as an intensified user involvement in the innovation process potentially results in a more comprehensive understanding of the user needs and requirements and the context within which these are required, and thereby provides the possibility...... of developing better and more suitable products. The theoretical framework of this thesis is based on user involvement in the innovation process and how user involvement in the innovation process can be deployed in relation to deriving and colleting user needs and requirements, and thereby serves...

  8. Comparing methods for involving users in ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Scupola, Ada; Sørensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    workshop method (involving users and employees) is especially good at qualifying and further developing ideas. The findings suggest that methods for involving users in ideation should be carefully selected and combined to achieve optimum benefits and avoid potential disadvantages.......In this paper we discuss how users may be involved in the ideation phase of innovation. The study compares the use of a blog and three future workshops (students, employees and a mix of the two) in a library. Our study shows that the blog is efficient in giving the users voice whereas the mixed...

  9. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  10. User involvement in mental health rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten; Hounsgaard, Lise; Borg, Tove

    2012-01-01

    reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation. Findings: The study showed that user involvement in rehabilitation was experienced by the users as a struggle for self-determination and recognition. Being able to decide and to have influence on daily activities and everyday life, together...... with having goals to reach during rehabilitation, were viewed as valuable. Situations without influence or involving coercion were reported especially during periods of illness or hospitalization. Conclusions: The results of this study contribute to knowledge about user involvement from service users...

  11. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Multibusiness Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Kappen, Philip; Dellestrand, Henrik

    The strategy literature has shown that headquarters involve themselves into subsidiary operations to add value. Yet, little is known about the extent to which multiple headquarters do so. Therefore, we investigate antecedents of corporate and divisional headquarters’ involvement in innovation...... development projects of subsidiaries. Analyses of 85 innovation development projects reveal that dual innovation importance (innovation that is important for the division and the rest of the firm), and dual dual embeddedness (innovating subsidiary is embedded both within the division and in the rest...... of the firm) lead to greater dual headquarters involvement, especially when the innovation development network is large. The results contribute to the literature on complex parenting and theory of selective headquarters involvement....

  12. Involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    INVOLVEMENT OF METHYLTRANSFERASES ENZYMES DURING THE. ENERGY METABOLISM OF ..... cell extract still exhibited relatively high methanogenesis with methanol (Fig ... product CH3-CoM into methane (see Fig. 1). The HS-CoM ...

  13. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, I.; Saiz, A.; Bustos, A.; Hernando, F.

    2000-01-01

    We present two cases of pulmonary lumphangioleiomyomatosis and one case of tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement describing the most characteristic features according to plain chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). (Author) 14 refs

  14. Peer Effects and Academics’ Industry Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph

    This study explores the interaction between professional imprinting and age in the context of industry-science collaboration. Specifically, we examine the impact of localized and personal peer effects on academics’ involvement with industry and how these effects are moderated by the career age...... of the scientist. We suggest that both localized and personal peer effects drive industry involvement but that the effects from such imprinting are more pronounced for younger researchers, suggesting that professional imprinting takes place in the early stages of a scientist’s academic career. Based on a sample...... of 330 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that scientists with industry-oriented co-authors are more likely to be involved with industry (personal peer effect). Moreover, we find that the scientist’s involvement...

  15. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  16. Healthcare decisions: a review of children's involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Jenny

    2008-04-01

    Children's rights, their ability to consent to treatment and their involvement in healthcare decisions have received considerable attention in recent years. There is some evidence to suggest that when children are involved in the decision-making process, they retain a sense of control over their situation. However there are still unresolved issues related to a child's right to decide and nurses may be confused about the extent to which children can and should be involved in decision-making. A code of practice for involving children in decisions was first suggested in 2001 and there is still a need for a consistent, structured and robust method of ensuring that children are included in the decision-making process at all stages of their health care.

  17. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are classified into seven clinical types based on eleven known lysosomal enzyme deficiencies of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. Respiratory involvement seen in most MPS types includes recurrent respiratory infections, upper and lower airway obstruction, tracheomalacia ...

  19. Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention and Control Strategies in Rural Areas of Kersa District in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Wondimu Tesgera, Makonnen Aseffa, Bishaw Deboch, Wondwossen Kassahun ...

  20. Neurologic involvement in scleroderma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Tiago Nardi; Peres, Fernando Augusto; Lapa, Aline Tamires; Marques-Neto, João Francisco; Appenzeller, Simone

    2013-12-01

    To perform a systematic review of neurologic involvement in Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Localized Scleroderma (LS), describing clinical features, neuroimaging, and treatment. We performed a literature search in PubMed using the following MeSH terms, scleroderma, systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, localized scleroderma "en coup de sabre", Parry-Romberg syndrome, cognitive impairment, memory, seizures, epilepsy, headache, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), neuropsychiatric, psychosis, neurologic involvement, neuropathy, peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar entrapment, tarsal tunnel syndrome, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy, myelopathy, autonomic nervous system, nervous system, electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with other connective tissue disease knowingly responsible for nervous system involvement were excluded from the analyses. A total of 182 case reports/studies addressing SSc and 50 referring to LS were identified. SSc patients totalized 9506, while data on 224 LS patients were available. In LS, seizures (41.58%) and headache (18.81%) predominated. Nonetheless, descriptions of varied cranial nerve involvement and hemiparesis were made. Central nervous system involvement in SSc was characterized by headache (23.73%), seizures (13.56%) and cognitive impairment (8.47%). Depression and anxiety were frequently observed (73.15% and 23.95%, respectively). Myopathy (51.8%), trigeminal neuropathy (16.52%), peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy (14.25%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (6.56%) were the most frequent peripheral nervous system involvement in SSc. Autonomic neuropathy involving cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems was regularly described

  1. Parents’ Perceptions of Their Involvement in Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif; Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Parent involvement has an influence on children’s educational engagementduring the elementary years. The objective of this study was to examine theperceptions of rural Turkish parents about their involvement in schooling withelementary school students based on Epstein’s (1995) six types of parentalinvolvement (parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home,decision-making, and collaborating with the community).  This study also investigated the differencesamong parent demographic ch...

  2. Patient empowerment and involvement in telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge Nielsen, Marie; Johannessen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    Basic ideas of empowerment and user involvement in relation to telemedicine are presented, as is a case implying user resistance to telemedicine. Four logics of empowerment are employed to identify the underlying rationale of specific cases of telemedicine. The article concludes, that although...... telemedicine is acknowledged as relevant, the approach to it is often too mechanical to imply empowerment of the patient. Some patient groups may not feel safe by using telemedicine, and user involvement and empowerment will not be possible....

  3. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of cranial nerve involvement in cryptococcal meningitis.

  4. Active antennal movement in cockroaches - towards understanding multimodal exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pequeno-Zurro, Alejandro; Nitschke, Jahn; Szyszka, Paul

    of antennal movements we employed an adaptive Hopf coupled oscillator model, with parameters fitted to kinematic data derived from high-speed recordings of antennal movement. In addition we mapped the structure of the odour plume that the antennae encountered and used the odour concentration map as driver...

  5. Activity of boric acid on German cockroaches: Analysis of residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Activity of ... In a previous study, we have shown that boric ... ing 300 µl of curcumin solution (12.5 mg curcumin, 10 ml acetic acid) ..... Schal C, Chiang AS, Burns EL, Gadot M, Cooper RA (1993).

  6. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  7. Lean Customer Involvement : A Multiple Case Study on the Effects of Kanban on Customer Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Lundheim, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Customer involvement is an important, but challenging part of software development. Delays and failures can often be attributed to a lack of customer involvement. Different development methodologies provide different strategies for customer involvement, all with their own challenges. Kanban is a new development methodology quickly gaining popularity in the software development community. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does Kanban influence customer involvement? The main prob...

  8. Motivational Influences on Cognition: Task Involvement, Ego Involvement, and Depth of Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Golan, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Task involvement and ego involvement were studied in relation to depth of information processing for 126 fifth and sixth graders in 2 experiments. Ego involvement resulted in poorer word recall at deep rather than shallow information processing levels. Implications for the study of motivation are discussed. (SLD)

  9. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  10. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  11. [Xanthoma disseminatum with asymptomatic multisystem involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoun, M; Hali, F; Marnissi, F; Lazaar, S; Benchikhi, H

    2015-04-01

    Xanthogranulomas belong to non-Langerhans histiocytosis of the second group in the Histiocyte Society classification. They comprise a heterogeneous group of rare entities frequently involving cutaneous tropism. Xanthoma disseminatum belongs to this group of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. We report a case of xanthoma disseminatum (XD) in which localized skin and mucous impairment revealed multisystem involvement. A 28-year-old man presented with a two-year history of progressive yellow-orange and infiltrated xanthomatous papulonodular lesions of the face. Lesions of the oral mucosa and genital region were seen, with no functional repercussions. No ophthalmic or other complications were found. Histopathology showed a dense histiocytic infiltrate within the dermis with Touton giant cells, foamy multinucleated giant cells and inflammatory cells, without necrobiosis. Histiocytes were positive for CD68 but negative for CD1a. Gastric and lung involvement was seen and was confirmed at histology. Bone scintigraphy showed suspicious left ulnar hyperfixation suggesting bone involvement. No monoclonal gammopathy or diabetes insipidus was seen. Our patient was treated with corticosteroids 1mg/kg/day and thalidomide 100 mg/day. The outcome was marked by regression and exfiltration of the cutaneous lesions from the second week of treatment, with subsidence continuing at 3 months. This case involves a very rare form of xanthoma disseminatum. The localized facial skin lesions revealed multifocal non-Langerhans histiocytosis that was in fact asymptomatic. The diagnosis of XD was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Xanthoma disseminatum is a non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferation first described by Montgomery in 1938. This rare entity is characterized by skin and mucous membrane xanthomatosis in which the facial involvement is common, together with diabetes insipidus and normal lipid metabolism. The prognosis is determined by the presence of mucosal

  12. [Pulmonary involvement in connective tissue disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The connective tissue diseases are a variable group of autoimmune mediated disorders characterized by multiorgan damage. Pulmonary complications are common, usually occur after the onset of joint symptoms, but can also be initially presenting complaint. The respiratory system may be involved in all its component: airways, vessels, parenchyma, pleura and respiratory muscles. Lung involvement is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the connective tissue diseases. Clinical course is highly variable - can range from mild to rapidly progressive, some processes are reversible, while others are irreversible. Thus, the identification of reversible disease , and separately progressive disease, are important clinical issues. The frequency, clinical presentation, prognosis and responce to therapy are different, depending on the pattern of involvement as well as on specyfic diagnostic method used to identify it. High- resolution computed tompography plays an important role in identifying patients with respiratory involvement. Pulmonary function tests are a sensitive tool detecting interstitial lung disease. In this article, pulmonary lung involvement accompanying most frequently apperaing connective tissue diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögrens syndrome and mixed connective tissue disaese are reviewed.

  13. Creating Learning at Conferences Through Participant Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    as a forum for learning, mutual inspiration and "human co-flourishing." We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may involve participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research and development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers......The typical conference is brimming with PowerPoint presentations that leave very little time for participant involvement. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies this massive show of one-way communication. We propose an alternative theory of the conference...... in Denmark to introduce a variety of simple learning techniques related to the design principles at thirty real conferences of some 100-200 participants each. We present twelve of these techniques and the data evaluating them and conclude that by spending a fraction of the time at a conference on involving...

  14. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The strategy and international business literature has identified the overall potential for headquarters to add value by allocating resources to subsidiary activities, but little is known about the extent to which multiple headquarters simultaneously involves itself in subsidiary operations....... The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  15. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guma, A.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.; Acebes, J.; Arruga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  16. Peer Involvement in University Students' Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlations between peer involvement in students’ education and their self-perception, attachment style, relationships with peers, personality and well-being. We used the Inventory of parent and peer attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987, Relationship questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991, Questionnaire of the subjects’ self-perceptions (Cugmas, 2012 and The big five questionnaire (BFQ; Caprara et al, 2002. We developed the questionnaires of peer involvement and subjects’ well-being. Positive relationships with peers, secure attachment style, positive self-perceptions, some personal characteristics and well-being were positively associated with peer support, and negatively with peer pressure.

  17. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, Jon.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperation agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons [fr

  18. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Involving Maxilla and Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guna Shekhar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a relatively rare unique disease process characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature dendritic cells usually affecting children and young adults. Jaws are involved in less than 10% of children with the disease while mandibular involvement in young children is uncommon and bilateral affection is very rare. The purpose of this report is to describe a unique and very rare case of simultaneous and bilateral occurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in both the jaws of a four-year-old boy.

  19. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperative agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons. (author)

  20. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  1. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  2. Customer Involvement in the Game Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Prystupa-Rządca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative industry is a fast developing sector of economy in many countries. Growing competition in this area has led many companies to implement strategy of users' involvement in product development in order to deliver products that are more aligned with customers’ needs. On the other hand, the attempt to align the customers’ expectations with artistic creativity may create tensions. Therefore, the aim of the research is to examine the methods of users’ involvement in product development and real impact of the users on project design. The obtained findings are based on two-year qualitative research project conducted in game development companies.

  3. Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer...... point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design....

  4. Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Malhotra, H S; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the incidence and spectrum of spinal cord-related complications in patients of tuberculous meningitis. Reports from multiple countries were included. An extensive review of the literature, published in English, was carried out using Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Tuberculous meningitis frequently affects the spinal cord and nerve roots. Initial evidence of spinal cord involvement came from post-mortem examination. Subsequent advancement in neuroimaging like conventional lumbar myelography, computed tomographic myelography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance-myelography have contributed immensely. Spinal involvement manifests in several forms, like tuberculous radiculomyelitis, spinal tuberculoma, myelitis, syringomyelia, vertebral tuberculosis and very rarely spinal tuberculous abscess. Frequently, tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis develops paradoxically. Infrequently, spinal cord involvement may even be asymptomatic. Spinal cord and spinal nerve involvement is demonstrated by diffuse enhancement of cord parenchyma, nerve roots and meninges on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. High cerebrospinal fluid protein content is often a risk factor for arachnoiditis. The most important differential diagnosis of tuberculous arachnoiditis is meningeal carcinomatosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is the main stay of treatment for tuberculous meningitis. Higher doses of corticosteroids have been found effective. Surgery should be considered only when pathological confirmation is needed or there is significant spinal cord compression. The outcome in these patients has been unpredictable. Some reports observed excellent recovery and some reported unfavorable outcomes after surgical decompression and debridement. Tuberculous meningitis is frequently associated with disabling spinal cord and radicular complications. Available treatment options are far from satisfactory.

  5. Involving IDPs in the Darfur peace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lanz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The UN estimates that there are 2.4 millionIDPs in Darfur –over one third of the totalpopulation. There can be no meaningfulpeace process without their involvement.Giving IDPs a formal seat in official peacenegotiations is problematic but there areother ways to ensure their participation.

  6. Involving Families and Community through Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Gardens are complex and require a variety of skills. Gross- and fine-motor activities, science concepts, language and literacy development, math, and community involvement are all part of the preschool gardening project the authors describe. They list gardening books for children and suggest container gardens for urban school settings. The authors…

  7. Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Librarian Involvement in Grant Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Marci D.; Cordell, Sigrid Anderson; Joque, Justin; MacEachern, Mark P.; Song, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Librarians are excellent research collaborators, although librarian participation is not usually considered, thereby making access to research funds difficult. The University of Michigan Library became involved in the university's novel funding program, MCubed, which supported innovative interdisciplinary research on campus, primarily by funding…

  8. Parent Involvement, Technology, and Media: Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikakou, Eva N.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid technological advances, the expansion of online media use, and the declining cost of mobile technology have introduced a communication factor that has precipitously affected parent involvement and the relationship between parents and children. The present article explores ways through which technology and online media have affected…

  9. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  10. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  11. Games and gambling involvement among casino patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Debi A; Afifi, Tracie O; Shaffer, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    A growing literature is addressing the nature of the relationships among gambling activity, gambling involvement, and gambling-related problems. This research suggests that among the general population, compared to playing any specific game, gambling involvement is a better predictor of gambling-related problems. To date, researchers have not examined these relationships among casino patrons, a population that differs from the general population in a variety of important ways. A survey of 1160 casino patrons at two Las Vegas resort casinos allowed us to determine relationships between the games that patrons played during the 12 months before their casino visit, the games that patrons played during their casino visit, and patrons' self-perceived history of gambling-related problems. Results indicate that playing specific gambling games onsite predicted (i.e., statistically significant odds ratios ranging from .5 to 4.51) self-perceived gambling-related problems. However, after controlling for involvement, operationally defined as the number of games played during the current casino visit and self-reported gambling frequency during the past 12 months, the relationships between games and gambling-related problems disappeared or were attenuated (i.e., odds ratios no longer statistically significant). These results extend the burgeoning literature related to gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling-related problems.

  12. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  13. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  14. Reassessing the structure of enduring leisure involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; Symeon P. Vlachopoulos; Nicholas D. Theodorakis; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from U.S. and Greek respondents, we tested an alternate conceptualization of enduring leisure involvement where identity was considered a key driver of other affective and conative outcomes. Rather than existing on the same temporal plane, as has been the tradition in the leisure literature, we observed that identity was an antecedent of the other...

  15. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  16. Trucks involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents : (TIFA), 2008, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 : TIFA file is a census of all medium and heavy trucks invo...

  17. Spinal cord involvement in Balo's concentric sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreft, Karim L.; Mellema, S. Jouke; Hintzen, Rogier Q.

    2009-01-01

    We present a patient with a history of myelitis, who had a steroid refractory attack of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease that developed into cerebral concentric sclerosis of Balo after plasma exchange. The acute inflammatory disease involved the spinal cord, a phenomenon rarely demonstrated.

  18. Involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methyl group transfer from dimethylsulfide (DMS), trimethylamine and methanol to 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M) were investigated from cell extracts of Methanosarcina semesiae sp. nov. to evaluate whether the enzyme systems involved were constitutive or inductive. The extracts from cells grown on ...

  19. Epiphyseal involvement in unicameral bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capanna, R.; Ruggieri, P.; Biagini, R.; Horn, J. van

    1986-01-01

    Twelve patients are reported in whom a unicameral bone cyst was found to involve the epiphysis or apophysis across an open growth plate. Nine patients showed pathologic fracture. In four patients a growth disturbance was found. A varying amount of varus angulation was present in most cases. No patient had functional impairment. (orig.)

  20. Epiphyseal involvement in unicameral bone cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capanna, R.; Ruggieri, P.; Biagini, R.; Horn, J. van

    1986-08-01

    Twelve patients are reported in whom a unicameral bone cyst was found to involve the epiphysis or apophysis across an open growth plate. Nine patients showed pathologic fracture. In four patients a growth disturbance was found. A varying amount of varus angulation was present in most cases. No patient had functional impairment.

  1. Comparison of Learner Involvement in Biology Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance in the biology practical paper has been poor at Kenya national examinations in the past five years (1998-2002). This may imply a lack of emphasis on the teaching of biology through the process-based approach. This study investigated the level of learner involvement in biology practical investigations in ...

  2. Exploring genes and pathways involved in migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, E.

    2017-01-01

    The research in this thesis was aimed at identifying genes and molecular pathways involved in migraine. To this end, two gene expression analyses were performed in brain tissue obtained from transgenic mouse models for familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura.

  3. Family involvement and helping behavior in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Helping behavior at work has become increasingly important, with organizations making more and more use of cooperative work practices. The difficulty is that employees are facing growing demands beyond the workplace. This study investigates the mechanisms by which family involvement ( family

  4. Family involvement and helping behaviour in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Helping behavior at work has become increasingly important, with organizations making more and more use of cooperative work practices. The difficulty is that employees are facing growing demands beyond the workplace. This study investigates the mechanisms by which family involvement (family

  5. Job Involvement And Organizational Climate | MOGAJI | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at finding the relationship between job involvement and organizational climate. Data were collected from 600 subjects which include 150 junior workers (120 males and 30 females), 30 supervisors (27 males and 3 females) and 20 managers (18 males and 2 females) totalling 200 subjects from each of ...

  6. Motivation and involvement toward physical activity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence involvement of university students to participate in physical activity. 400 students comprising 200 men and 200 women were used as the main respondents were respond to the adapted Exercise Motivations Inventory questionnaire. It revealed that highest ...

  7. Student Involvement in Learning and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected student characteristics, student involvement in learning, and achievement. Both naturalistic (n = 28, 27) and experimental studies were conducted. In the experimental study, two classes (n = 29, 26) learned a sequence of matrix arithmetic by mastery learning strategies.…

  8. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  9. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various ...

  10. Overview of airway involvement in tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Arundeep; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Jana, Manisha; Sharma, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is a ubiquitous infection and a re-emerging medical and socioeconomic problem resulting in increasing mortality and morbidity, especially in Asian countries. We aim to review the spectrum of imaging findings in airway involvement in tuberculosis through characteristic radiological images and to assess the role of computed tomography and image-guided interventions in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  11. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  12. Involvement of Students in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ya, Marwa; Aziz, Sheikha A.; Mohyuddin, Muhammad Raheel; Al Balushi, Nabila

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of E-learning activities for students in the classroom play an important role in the teaching and learning process. In this paper, the authors describe how we collected information from 3-different Colleges/Universities in Oman forming an online study with regard to the use of internet, e-library, online book access, and…

  13. Choice, Empowerment, and Involvement: What Satisfies Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen B.; Shapira, Rina

    1993-01-01

    Questionnaire responses from 337 parents in Israel examine the nature of interrelationships between parent satisfaction with public schools of choice and parent empowerment, parent involvement, and the congruence of parental expectation with school programs. Findings indicate the importance of socioeconomic status as a factor in these…

  14. Relative Effects of Psychological Flexibility, Parental Involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A critical analysis and understanding of secondary students' experiences and of safety in public schools are currently lacking in the literature and warrant further research. This study investigated the relative effects of psychological flexibility, parental involvement and school climate on secondary school student's school ...

  15. Endotoxin content in endodontically involved teeth. 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Benjamin; Schilder, Herbert

    2006-04-01

    Fluid was aspirated from the root canals of 40 endodontically involved teeth. This fluid was assayed for endotoxin with the limulus lysate test. Pulpless teeth contained greater concentrations of endotoxin than those with vital pulps. Symptomatic teeth also contained more endotoxin than asymptomatic teeth.

  16. Czech Companies Involved in the ARTEMIS Programme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jiří

    -, special issue (2013), s. 4-5 ISSN 1210-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LE13020 Keywords : ARTEMIS JU * embedded systems * european technology platforms * FP7 * ICT * microelectronics * ENIAC JU Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZS/kadlec-czech companies involved in the artemis programme.pdf

  17. 78 FR 27339 - Private Attorney Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Pro Bono Task Force identified the benefits of integrated intake and referral systems that link... volunteers, the Pro Bono Task Force recommended that the resources the recipient uses to support the training... Involvement (PAI) rule to respond to Recommendation 2 of LSC's Pro Bono Task Force Report. The discussions in...

  18. Isolated posterior fossa involvement of progressive multifocal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... and the HIV pandemic has resulted in an increased prevalence of PML, affecting 3% – 7% of HIV- infected ... majority of HIV-infected patients with PML have CD4 lymphocyte counts < 200 cells/mm3. JC ... infrequent contrast enhancement.3 There is no involvement of the optic nerves or spinal cord. Isolated ...

  19. Temporomandibular joint involvement in psoriatic arthritis | Okkesim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psoriasis is a chronic, papulosquamous, and an inflammatory skin disease. It has been found that between 5% and 24% of patients develop psoriatic arthritis (PA) at the same time after or even prior to skin findings. The involvement of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare condition. In this report, a-46-year-old male ...

  20. Parental Involvement in Children's Independent Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine types of parental involvement associated with independent music lessons. A self-report survey was designed to explore parent characteristics, parental goals, students' musical progress, the teacher-student relationship, the practice environment, and parent behaviours during practice sessions. The extent to…