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  1. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  2. Jacobsen syndrome detected by noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jamie O; Feist, Cori D; Hashima, Jason; Shaffer, Brian L

    2015-02-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing has a high detection rate of common fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. However, detection of additional chromosome abnormalities has not been well described or validated. We report a case of Jacobsen syndrome, a congenital disorder involving deletion of chromosome 11q, detected by noninvasive prenatal testing at 14 weeks of gestation and confirmed on neonatal testing with array chromosomal genomic hybridization. Noninvasive prenatal testing should be considered when multiple fetal anomalies are present and invasive testing is declined. As the clinical application of noninvasive prenatal testing continues to evolve, additional submicroscopic chromosomal information may be clinically helpful and should be confirmed with diagnostic testing until larger studies help further define the screening characteristics of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  3. Sophisticated test facility to detect land mines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Lensen, H.A.; Janssen, Y.H.L.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the Dutch government humanitarian demining project 'HOM-2000', an outdoor test facility has been realized to test, improve and develop detection equipment for land mines. This sophisticated facility, allows us to access and compare the performance of the individual and of a

  4. Outlier Detection in Test and Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Wobbe P.; Van Der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    Classical methods for detecting outliers deal with continuous variables. These methods are not readily applicable to categorical data, such as incorrect/correct scores (0/1) and ordered rating scale scores (e.g., 0,..., 4) typical of multi-item tests and questionnaires. This study proposes two definitions of outlier scores suited for categorical…

  5. Advances in Significance Testing for Cluster Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Deidra Andrea

    Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to data driven project goals such as the Human Genome Project and the development of syndromic surveillance systems. A major component of these types of projects is analyzing the abundance of data. Detecting clusters within the data can be beneficial as it can lead to the identification of specified sequences of DNA nucleotides that are related to important biological functions or the locations of epidemics such as disease outbreaks or bioterrorism attacks. Cluster detection techniques require efficient and accurate hypothesis testing procedures. In this dissertation, we improve upon the hypothesis testing procedures for cluster detection by enhancing distributional theory and providing an alternative method for spatial cluster detection using syndromic surveillance data. In Chapter 2, we provide an efficient method to compute the exact distribution of the number and coverage of h-clumps of a collection of words. This method involves defining a Markov chain using a minimal deterministic automaton to reduce the number of states needed for computation. We allow words of the collection to contain other words of the collection making the method more general. We use our method to compute the distributions of the number and coverage of h-clumps in the Chi motif of H. influenza.. In Chapter 3, we provide an efficient algorithm to compute the exact distribution of multiple window discrete scan statistics for higher-order, multi-state Markovian sequences. This algorithm involves defining a Markov chain to efficiently keep track of probabilities needed to compute p-values of the statistic. We use our algorithm to identify cases where the available approximation does not perform well. We also use our algorithm to detect unusual clusters of made free throw shots by National Basketball Association players during the 2009-2010 regular season. In Chapter 4, we give a procedure to detect outbreaks using syndromic

  6. Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami detection in real-time, both offshore and at the coastline, plays a key role in Tsunami Warning Systems since it provides so far the only reliable and timely proof of tsunami generation, and is used to confirm or cancel tsunami warnings previously issued on the basis of seismic data alone. Moreover, in case of submarine or coastal landslide generated tsunamis, which are not announced by clear seismic signals and are typically local, real-time detection at the coastline might be the fastest way to release a warning, even if the useful time for emergency operations might be limited. TEDA is an algorithm for real-time detection of tsunami signal on sea-level records, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The development and testing of the algorithm has been accomplished within the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3 and the European project TRANSFER. The algorithm is to be implemented at station level, and it is based therefore only on sea-level data of a single station, either a coastal tide-gauge or an offshore buoy. TEDA's principle is to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal, which implies the assumption that the tsunami waves introduce a difference in the previous sea-level signal. Therefore, in TEDA the instantaneous (most recent) and the previous background sea-level elevation gradients are characterized and compared by proper functions (IS and BS) that are updated at every new data acquisition. Detection is triggered when the instantaneous signal function passes a set threshold and at the same time it is significantly bigger compared to the previous background signal. The functions IS and BS depend on temporal parameters that allow the algorithm to be adapted different situations: in general, coastal tide-gauges have a typical background spectrum depending on the location where the instrument is installed, due to local topography and bathymetry, while offshore buoys are

  7. SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied.

  8. Benchmark graphs for testing community detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Fortunato, Santo; Radicchi, Filippo

    2008-10-01

    Community structure is one of the most important features of real networks and reveals the internal organization of the nodes. Many algorithms have been proposed but the crucial issue of testing, i.e., the question of how good an algorithm is, with respect to others, is still open. Standard tests include the analysis of simple artificial graphs with a built-in community structure, that the algorithm has to recover. However, the special graphs adopted in actual tests have a structure that does not reflect the real properties of nodes and communities found in real networks. Here we introduce a class of benchmark graphs, that account for the heterogeneity in the distributions of node degrees and of community sizes. We use this benchmark to test two popular methods of community detection, modularity optimization, and Potts model clustering. The results show that the benchmark poses a much more severe test to algorithms than standard benchmarks, revealing limits that may not be apparent at a first analysis.

  9. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  10. CHROMagar Salmonella Detection Test Kit. Performance Tested Method 020502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Katana; Ritter, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    BBL CHROMagar Salmonella was evaluated by an external food testing laboratory for the recovery of Salmonella in peanut butter using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) procedure. The peanut butter was found to be negative for the presence of Salmonella and, therefore, was seeded with heat-stressed Salmonella at target concentrations of 0.2 and 2 CFU/25 g. The Salmonella-seeded samples remained at room temperature for 14 days before analysis to stabilize the Salmonella in the food environment. Twenty 25 g test portions from each seeded level and five 25 g samples of uninoculated control samples were processed using enrichment broths as outlined in the FDA-BAM procedure. BBL CHROMagar Salmonella-prepared plates were evaluated with the FDA reference method media (bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars). Fractionally positive results were obtained from the lower inoculum level of peanut butter samples. Five positive cultures were recovered from both the BBL CHROMagar Salmonella and reference methods. The two methods gave identical results for all cultures resulting in a method agreement of 100%. McNemar's chi2 test, which assesses the evidence for difference in marginal proportions between two methods, could not be evaluated because it requires one or more discrepant cultures. However, because there were no discrepant cultures, the marginal proportions for the two methods were identical; therefore, there is no evidence of a difference between the methods. This study demonstrates that the results from BBL CHROMagar Salmonella are comparable to the three reference method media for the detection of Salmonella in peanut butter using the FDA-BAM procedures.

  11. Application of microagglutination test for detection of antibodies to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of microagglutination test for detection of antibodies to Salmonella gallinarum in commercial layer chickens Application du test de microagglutination pour la detection des anticorps a Salmonella gallinarum chez les pondeuses commerciales.

  12. Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    markets, detection of signals with unknown arrival time in seismology, navigation, radar and sonar signal processing, speech segmentation, and the...are less critical than for onset detection algorithms. A false alarm for the detection of an imminent tsunami obviously has severe and costly... detection (Part II). In Part III, we briefly describe certain important applications where theoretical results can be used efficiently, perhaps with

  13. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  14. Pipelined Error-detecting Codes in FPGA Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BREKHOV, O.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the solution of FPGA testing and research of characteristics at early development stages. The approach offers error-detection code based on universal test firmware. The performed test firmware based on CRC and Hamming codes detect single and multiple faults, and locate fault place (for Hamming code based test firmware.

  15. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N.; Paredes, Roger; Battegay, Manuel; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Machala, Ladislav; Tomazic, Janez; Girard, Pierre M.; Januskevica, Inga; Gronborg-Laut, Kamilla; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Pedersen, C.; Møller, N. F.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; d'Arminio, A.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Reiss, P.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Babes, Victor; Rakhmanova, A.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Shunnar, A.; Stanekova, D.; Tomazic, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miro, J. M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Blaxhult, A.; Flamholc, L.; Thalme, A.; Sonnerborg, A.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Schmid, P.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Baskakov, I.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Mocroft, A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Gatell, J.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Lundgren, J.; DeWit, S.; Kirk, O.; Grarup, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Thiebaut, R.; Burger, D.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Matthews, C.; Fischer, A. H.; Bojesen, A.; Raben, D.; Kristensen, D.; Laut, K. Grønborg; Larsen, J. F.; Grint, D.; Shepherd, L.; Schultze, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. Design: Multinational cohort

  16. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, A.; Phillips, A.N.; Paredes, R.; Battegay, M.; Rockstroh, J.K.; Machala, L.; Tomazic, J.; Girard, P.M.; Januskevica, I.; Gronborg-Laut, K.; Lundgren, J.D.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Burger, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort

  17. Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Statistical Bootstrap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Burke, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the data produced by the Statistical Bootstrap Test over the final three Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) deliveries to NExScI: SOC 9.1 (Q1Q16)1 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014), SOC 9.2 (Q1Q17) aka DR242 (Seader et al. 2015), and SOC 9.3 (Q1Q17) aka DR253 (Twicken et al. 2016). The last few years have seen significant improvements in the SOC science data processing pipeline, leading to higher quality light curves and more sensitive transit searches. The statistical bootstrap analysis results presented here and the numerical results archived at NASAs Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) bear witness to these software improvements. This document attempts to introduce and describe the main features and differences between these three data sets as a consequence of the software changes.

  18. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of H2S field test for detection of potability of drinking water was evaluated by analysing 1050 water samples from various sources at room temperature and at 37ºC after 18, 24, and 48 h of incubation. The H2S test showed 100, 84 and 89% correlation with Eijkman test, Membrane Filter Technique (MFT) and ...

  19. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... The assessment of H2S field test for detection of potability of drinking water was evaluated by analysing. 1050 water samples from various sources at room temperature and at 37ºC after 18, 24, and 48 h of incubation. The H2S test showed 100, 84 and 89% correlation with Eijkman test, Membrane Filter.

  20. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus with Variable Size Test Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is a versatile hermetic seal leak detection apparatus for testing hermetically sealed containers and devices for leaks without the need to create a custom or specially manufactured testing chamber conforming to the dimensions of the specific object under test. The size of the testing chamber may be mechanically adjusted by the novel use of bellows to reduce and optimize the amount of gas space in a test chamber which surrounds the hermetically sealed object under test. The present invention allows the size of the test chamber to be selectively adjusted during testing to provide an optimum test chamber gas space. The present invention may be further adapted to isolate and test specific portions of the hermetically sealed object under test for leaks.

  1. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows Using Likelihood Ratio Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Björgvinssin, Trausti; Blanke, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using methods from statistical change detection. The activity of the cows was measured by a necklace attached sensor. Statistical properties of the activity measure were investigated. Using data sets from 17 cows, diurnal activity variations...... were identified for the ensemble and for the individual cows. A diurnal filter was adapted to remove the daily variation of the individual. Change detection algorithms were designed for the actual probability densities, which were Rayleigh distributed with individual parameters for each cow....... A generalized likelihood ratio algorithm was derived for the compensated activity signal and detection algorithm was tested on 2323 days of activity, which contained 42 oestruses on 12 cows in total. The application of statistical change detection methods is a new approach for detecting oestrus in dairy cows...

  2. Defect Prevention and Detection in Software for Automated Test Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Bean

    2006-11-30

    Software for automated test equipment can be tedious and monotonous making it just as error-prone as other software. Active defect prevention and detection are also important for test applications. Incomplete or unclear requirements, a cryptic syntax used for some test applications—especially script-based test sets, variability in syntax or structure, and changing requirements are among the problems encountered in one tester. Such problems are common to all software but can be particularly problematic in test equipment software intended to test another product. Each of these issues increases the probability of error injection during test application development. This report describes a test application development tool designed to address these issues and others for a particular piece of test equipment. By addressing these problems in the development environment, the tool has powerful built-in defect prevention and detection capabilities. Regular expressions are widely used in the development tool as a means of formally defining test equipment requirements for the test application and verifying conformance to those requirements. A novel means of using regular expressions to perform range checking was developed. A reduction in rework and increased productivity are the results. These capabilities are described along with lessons learned and their applicability to other test equipment software. The test application development tool, or “application builder”, is known as the PT3800 AM Creation, Revision and Archiving Tool (PACRAT).

  3. Trichomonas spp. in pigeons: detection by OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Petr; Kunca, Tomas; Langrova, Iva; Hartlova, Helena; Brozova, Adela; Jankovska, Ivana; Kudrnacova, Marie; Sloup, Vladislav

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (developed for rapid diagnosis of human Trichomonas vaginalis) in detection of Trichomonas spp. in pigeons (Columba livia) was investigated. Two oral cavity swabs were taken from 50 farm pigeons. Cultivation in Diamond Trichomonas medium was used as a reference method. According to a morphological determination, Trichomonas gallinae was the only protozoan found; however, no further molecular analysis was conducted. The OSOM Trichomonas test was positive in 39 oral swabs. In comparison with the cultivation method three samples were identified as false negative and one as false positive. Test specificity and sensitivity were established as 93% and 90%, respectively. Using Cohen's Kappa, the concordance between the two testing methods was found to be strong (kappa = 0.7506, 95% CI = 0.5162-0.9850). The OSOM Trichomonas test is not able to distinguish between Trichomonas species; however, results suggest that the test is suitable for the rapid detection of Trichomonas spp. infection in pigeons.

  4. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Kleinberg

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24, and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262 tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  5. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Bennett; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262) tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin) and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal) autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  6. Automation of diagnostic genetic testing: mutation detection by cyclic minisequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagrund, Katariina; Orpana, Arto K

    2014-01-01

    The rising role of nucleic acid testing in clinical decision making is creating a need for efficient and automated diagnostic nucleic acid test platforms. Clinical use of nucleic acid testing sets demands for shorter turnaround times (TATs), lower production costs and robust, reliable methods that can easily adopt new test panels and is able to run rare tests in random access principle. Here we present a novel home-brew laboratory automation platform for diagnostic mutation testing. This platform is based on the cyclic minisequecing (cMS) and two color near-infrared (NIR) detection. Pipetting is automated using Tecan Freedom EVO pipetting robots and all assays are performed in 384-well micro plate format. The automation platform includes a data processing system, controlling all procedures, and automated patient result reporting to the hospital information system. We have found automated cMS a reliable, inexpensive and robust method for nucleic acid testing for a wide variety of diagnostic tests. The platform is currently in clinical use for over 80 mutations or polymorphisms. Additionally to tests performed from blood samples, the system performs also epigenetic test for the methylation of the MGMT gene promoter, and companion diagnostic tests for analysis of KRAS and BRAF gene mutations from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tumor samples. Automation of genetic test reporting is found reliable and efficient decreasing the work load of academic personnel.

  7. Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing is associated with poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. H de Wet, N Levitt, B Tipping. Abstract. Aims. Cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes is a barrier to successful disease management. We sought to determine whether impaired ...

  8. Reliability of agglutination test to detect alloantibodies in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study has been conducted for detection of allo-antibodies in patient with sickle cell anaemia and hemophilia who received repeated blood transfusions using newly introduced test system; the DiaMed-Immuno-Diffusion microtyping system. Methods: Samples were collected randomly from 60 patients with ...

  9. Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. Cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes is a barrier to successful disease management. We sought to determine whether impaired executive function as detected by a battery of simple bedside cognitive tests of executive function was associated with inadequate glycaemic control. Methods. People with ...

  10. Online vibration-based crack detection during fatigue testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, B.; Vecchio, A.; Auweraer, H. van der [LMS International, Heverlee (Belgium); Mevel, L. [INRIA, Rennes (France); Vanlanduit, S.; Guillaume, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Goursat, M. [Rocquencourt, INRIA, Le Chesnay (France)

    2003-07-01

    When performing fatigue tests, it is essential to monitor the degradation of the structure with an increasing number of fatigue cycles. In this article, a vibration-based damage detection method will be proposed. Such a method has the advantage that it operates online with the fatigue test. Especially for structures with very high fatigue strength, it is important that the test does not have to be interrupted. The damage detection method that will be used is based on a residual generated from a stochastic subspace identification method. The basic idea is that a model for the undamaged structure is identified and that, afterwards, vibration measurements from a possibly damaged structure are confronted with this model. A statistical local approach hypothesis testing is used to assess the deviation of the new data from the nominal model. After introducing the damage detection method, its performance will be illustrated on data from a fatigue experiment. The method will be compared to other linear and non-linear vibration-based damage detection methods. (orig.)

  11. Multiplexed paper test strip for quantitative bacterial detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Zakir; Ozimok, Cory; Sicard, Clémence; Aguirre, Sergio D; Ali, M Monsur; Li, Yingfu; Brennan, John D

    2012-06-01

    Rapid, sensitive, on-site detection of bacteria without a need for sophisticated equipment or skilled personnel is extremely important in clinical settings and rapid response scenarios, as well as in resource-limited settings. Here, we report a novel approach for selective and ultra-sensitive multiplexed detection of Escherichia coli (non-pathogenic or pathogenic) using a lab-on-paper test strip (bioactive paper) based on intracellular enzyme (β-galactosidase (B-GAL) or β-glucuronidase (GUS)) activity. The test strip is composed of a paper support (0.5 × 8 cm), onto which either 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D: -glucuronide sodium salt (XG), chlorophenol red β-galactopyranoside (CPRG) or both and FeCl(3) were entrapped using sol-gel-derived silica inks in different zones via an ink-jet printing technique. The sample was lysed and assayed via lateral flow through the FeCl(3) zone to the substrate area to initiate rapid enzyme hydrolysis of the substrate, causing a change from colorless-to-blue (XG hydrolyzed by GUS, indication of nonpathogenic E. coli) and/or yellow to red-magenta (CPRG hydrolyzed by B-GAL, indication of total coliforms). Using immunomagnetic nanoparticles for selective preconcentration, the limit of detection was ~5 colony-forming units (cfu) per milliliter for E. coli O157:H7 and ~20 cfu/mL for E. coli BL21, within 30 min without cell culturing. Thus, these paper test strips could be suitable for detection of viable total coliforms and pathogens in bathing water samples. Moreover, inclusion of a culturing step allows detection of less than 1 cfu in 100 mL within 8 h, making the paper tests strips relevant for detection of multiple pathogens and total coliform bacteria in beverage and food samples.

  12. Ames Test to Detect Mutagenicity of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezan, Angélica B; Martins, Regiane; Bueno, Jennifer B; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C H

    2017-07-01

    Food irradiation is an effective and safe method for preservation and long-term storage, and it is approved for use in over 60 countries for various applications in a wide variety of food products. This process is performed by use of accelerated electron beams, X-rays, or gamma radiation (60 Co or 137 Cs). 2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are the only known radiolytic products generated from foods that have fatty acids (triglycerides) and are subjected to irradiation. Since the 1990s toxicological safety studies of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively through synthetic compounds, then and tests to determine if the compounds have any mutagenic activity are strictly necessary. The Ames test was chosen by many researchers to assess the mutagenicity of 2-ACBs. The test uses distinct bacterial cell lines Salmonella typhimurium to detect point mutations at sites guanine-cytosine (G-C) and Escherichia coli to detect point mutations at sites adenine-thymine (A-T). This bibliographic research aims to bring together all the results obtained and a comparison and cell lines used, type of plates, and solvents. This research showed that no mutagenic activity was observed in any of the cell lines and concentrations evaluated by the works of authors, so the 2-ACBs compounds showed no mutagenic substance in concentrations detectable by the Ames test. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Development of half-embryo test and germination test for detection of irradiated fruits and grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Y.; Murayama, M.; Uchiyamam, S.; Saito, Y. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Irradiation treatment of fruit and grains is allowed in many countries for purposes such as insect disinfestation and the extension of shelf-life; the irradiation doses used being mainly below 1 kGy. The detection of such low doses is difficult for most techniques. On the other hand, biological systems are sensitive to low doses of {gamma}-irradiation. Therefore, a detection method based on biological changes would be applicable. It is well known that germination, or sprouting, is inhibited by {gamma}-irradiation and it has been observed that the seed germination of grapefruit is affected by irradiation and shoot growth is totally inhibited by a 0.3 kGy dose. However, the immediate use of this inhibition for the detection of irradiated grapefruit was prevented by variability caused by such factors as variety, harvest date and storage conditions. The time required to conduct the detection was also too lengthy. Accordingly, the germination test was improved and the half-embryo test was established for the detection of irradiated grapefruit and was applied to other citrus fruits, e.g. apples and cherries. Moreover, the test was also applied as a screening method for irradiated rice and wheat. In this report, the development of a standardized half-embryo test and germination test for the detection of irradiated fruit and grains is described. (author).

  14. Optimum testing of multiple hypotheses in quantum detection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, H. P.; Kennedy, R. S.; Lax, M.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of specifying the optimum quantum detector in multiple hypotheses testing is considered for application to optical communications. The quantum digital detection problem is formulated as a linear programming problem on an infinite-dimensional space. A necessary and sufficient condition is derived by the application of a general duality theorem specifying the optimum detector in terms of a set of linear operator equations and inequalities. Existence of the optimum quantum detector is also established. The optimality of commuting detection operators is discussed in some examples. The structure and performance of the optimal receiver are derived for the quantum detection of narrow-band coherent orthogonal and simplex signals. It is shown that modal photon counting is asymptotically optimum in the limit of a large signaling alphabet and that the capacity goes to infinity in the absence of a bandwidth limitation.

  15. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  16. Rapid Visual Tests: Fast and Reliable Detection of Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lopez-Ferber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the early detection strategies that have been employed for the rapid monitoring of ochratoxin A (OTA contamination of food. OTA, a mycotoxin mainly produced by some Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is found in cereals, coffee, wine, pork and grapes. To minimize the entry of this mycotoxin into the food chain, rapid diagnostic tools are required. To this end, the potential use of lateral flow devices has also been developed. In this study, we analyze the robustness of test strips using published methods for colorimetric detection. Different test formats are discussed, and challenges in the development of lateral flow devices for on-site determination of OTA, with requirements such as robustness, speed, and cost-effectiveness, are discussed.

  17. Detection of lipoarabinomannan as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, E; Aguilar, D; Torres, M; Herrera, T

    1992-09-01

    A coagglutination technique was established for the detection of lipoarabinomannan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human serum samples and evaluated for its utility in the diagnosis of tuberculosis at the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias in Mexico City. The test had a sensitivity of 88% in patients with sputum-smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis. The sensitivity in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis negative for acid-fast bacilli in sputum was 67%. Less favorable results were obtained for patients with AIDS and tuberculosis, with a sensitivity of 57%. The specificity in control patients with lung diseases different from tuberculosis and in healthy subjects was 100%. The positive predictive value was 100%, and the negative predictive value for patients with sputum-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis was 97%. The results of this study suggest that the detection of lipoarabinomannan is an accurate test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  18. [Rapid test for detection of susceptibility to cefotaxime in Enterobacteriaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerra, Gemma; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannik; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Likelihood ratio tests in rare variant detection for continuous phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Liya; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Ting; Huang, Shuiping; Chen, Feng

    2014-09-01

    It is believed that rare variants play an important role in human phenotypes; however, the detection of rare variants is extremely challenging due to their very low minor allele frequency. In this paper, the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and restricted likelihood ratio test (ReLRT) are proposed to test the association of rare variants based on the linear mixed effects model, where a group of rare variants are treated as random effects. Like the sequence kernel association test (SKAT), a state-of-the-art method for rare variant detection, LRT and ReLRT can effectively overcome the problem of directionality of effect inherent in the burden test in practice. By taking full advantage of the spectral decomposition, exact finite sample null distributions for LRT and ReLRT are obtained by simulation. We perform extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of LRT and ReLRT, and compare to the burden test, SKAT and SKAT-O. The simulations have shown that LRT and ReLRT can correctly control the type I error, and the controls are robust to the weights chosen and the number of rare variants under study. LRT and ReLRT behave similarly to the burden test when all the causal rare variants share the same direction of effect, and outperform SKAT across various situations. When both positive and negative effects exist, LRT and ReLRT suffer from few power reductions compared to the other two competing methods; under this case, an additional finding from our simulations is that SKAT-O is no longer the optimal test, and its power is even lower than that of SKAT. The exome sequencing SNP data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 were employed to illustrate the proposed methods, and interesting results are described. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  20. Simple diagnostic tests to detect toxic alcohol intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurologic disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, whereas the latter is caused by accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly decrease their rates of morbidity and mortality. Currently, detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid-based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive, and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications.

  1. Detecting faked psychopathology: a comparison of two tests to detect malingered psychopathology using a simulation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen; King, Joanne

    2010-03-30

    Malingered psychopathology has the potential to be a costly social problem and there is a need for studies that compare the malingering detection capabilities of tests of psychopathology. This study investigated the capacity of two measures to detect simulated psychopathology. Forty-one first-year psychology students were randomly allocated to experimental groups that included malingering and control conditions. Analogue malingerers were given a financial incentive to simulate believable psychological impairment. Controls received standardised test instructions and the prize incentive, contingent on good effort. In a between-group simulation design, group differences on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the revised Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90-R) were assessed. Group comparisons revealed elevation of the majority of clinical index scores among malingerers and a consistent pattern of results across tests. Analysis of the test operating characteristics of the malingering indices for these measures revealed superior detection of simulated malingering using the PAI, particularly Rogers' Discriminant Function, although classification accuracy of all malingering indexes was improved when adjusted cut-offs were used. Overall, results from this study demonstrate the vulnerability of the PAI and (SCL-90-R) to simulated psychopathology, but also the capacity of these measures to detect such performance when specific indexes are used. Crown Copyright 2008. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical romberg testing does not detect vestibular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longridge, Neil S; Mallinson, Arthur I

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of tandem Romberg and tandem walking testing at detecting vestibular disease and to increase the difficulty of these standard screening assessments in an attempt to try and make them more effective in the clinical office setting. A prospective study in a tertiary and quaternary care neuro-otology clinic comparing performance on tandem Romberg and tandem walking between patients with vestibular disease and controls matched for age and sex. Making the tandem Romberg test and tandem walking tests more difficult for patients was not helpful because it also made the tests more difficult to perform for controls with no symptoms of vestibular disease. When comparing a young and an old cohort, there was a significant difference in performance. Our techniques of sharpening and sensitizing tandem Romberg and tandem walking tests were not useful at delineating vestibular disease, and age itself may be a confound that mimics the effects of balance system disease. The tandem Romberg and tandem walking tests, despite being in widespread clinical use as office screening tests, may not be effective at determining the presence of newly developed vestibular disease.

  3. [The advance of detection technology of HIV self-testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L; Xiao, P P; Yan, H J; Huan, X P; Fu, G F; Li, J J; Yang, H T

    2017-11-06

    At present, China's AIDS testing increased rapidly, but there are still many people living with HIV do not recognize their status, thus postponing the antiviral treatment time. HIV self-testing (HST) is an effective method to expand the testing, not only simple operation, easy to get a result, effectively protect the detection privacy, expand the selection of testers, suit to the entire population, but also the premise and basis of other AIDS comprehensive prevention measures, all over the world are promoting it. Because the HST has controversies in the window period, price and before and after controversial, and our country is in the initial stage of HST, so it is not to develop related policies, but more and more countries are in accordance with their own situations are modified or developed to allow to use rapid detection of AIDS policy to regulate the field. This paper analyzed and summarized the advantage and influence factors of HST promotion, HST believes that in the long term, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, we need to formulate relevant policies, and improve the sensitivity of the kit, shorten the window period of time, production and promotion of operation standard of video, specification and testing the operating practices, preventing and reporting the possible social harm, investigation and understanding of the needs of the people of the crowd, to maximize the advantages of HST, find more infection, so as to curb the epidemic of AIDS.

  4. Techniques to improve testing scalability on concurrent programs: combining static analysis and testing for Deadlock detection

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Márquez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Static deadlock analyzers might be able to verify the absence of deadlock, but when they detect a potential deadlock cycle, they provide little (or even none) information on their output. Due to the complex ow of concurrent programs, the user might not be able to find the source of the anomalous behaviour from the abstract information computed by static analysis.This paper proposes the combined use of static analysis and testing for effective deadlock detection in asynchronous programs. Our m...

  5. The Arm Movement Detection (AMD) test: a fast robotic test of proprioceptive acuity in the arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrotek, Leigh Ann; Bengtson, Maria; Stoeckmann, Tina; Botzer, Lior; Ghez, Claude P; McGuire, John; Scheidt, Robert A

    2017-06-28

    We examined the validity and reliability of a short robotic test of upper limb proprioception, the Arm Movement Detection (AMD) test, which yields a ratio-scaled, objective outcome measure to be used for evaluating the impact of sensory deficits on impairments of motor control, motor adaptation and functional recovery in stroke survivors. Subjects grasped the handle of a horizontal planar robot, with their arm and the robot hidden from view. The robot applied graded force perturbations, which produced small displacements of the handle. The AMD test required subjects to respond verbally to queries regarding whether or not they detected arm motions. Each participant completed ten, 60s trials; in five of the trials, force perturbations were increased in small increments until the participant detected motion while in the others, perturbations were decreased until the participant could no longer detect motion. The mean and standard deviation of the 10 movement detection thresholds were used to compute a Proprioceptive Acuity Score (PAS). Based on the sensitivity and consistency of the estimated thresholds, the PAS quantifies the likelihood that proprioception is intact. Lower PAS scores correspond to higher proprioceptive acuity. Thirty-nine participants completed the AMD test, consisting of 25 neurologically intact control participants (NIC), seven survivors of stroke with intact proprioception in the more affected limb (HSS+P), and seven survivors of stroke with impaired or absent proprioception in the more affected limb (HSS-P). Significant group differences were found, with the NIC and HSS+P groups having lower (i.e., better) PAS scores than the HSS-P group. A subset of the participants completed the AMD test multiple times and the AMD test was found to be reliable across repetitions. The AMD test required less than 15 min to complete and provided an objective, ratio-scaled measure of proprioceptive acuity in the upper limb. In the future, this test could be

  6. Foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit. Performance Tested Method 120301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, Charlotte; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Slaghuis, Jörg; Bubert, Andreas; Ossmer, Rolf; Junge, Benjamin; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia

    2009-01-01

    The foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella species in a variety of foods, including milk powder, egg powder, coconut, cocoa powder, chicken breast, minced meat, sliced sausage, sausage, smoked fish, pasta, white pepper, cumin, dough, wet pet food, dry pet food, ice cream, watermelon, sliced cabbage, food dye, and milk chocolate. The method was shown to be equivalent to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service's Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedures. In the first Emergency Response Validation (ERV) extension study, peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser Typhimurium. For the low inoculation level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 2.25 indicated that there was no significant performance difference between the foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit and the FDA-BAM reference method. For high-level inoculation (11.5 CFU/25 g) and uninoculated control, there was 100% agreement between the methods. In the second ERV extension study, peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser Typhimurium. For both inoculation levels (0.1 and 0.5 CFU/25 g by most probable number), Chi-square values of 0 indicated that there was no significant performance difference between foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit and the FDA-BAM reference method.

  7. MTG infrared sounder detection chain: first radiometric test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumestier, D.; Pistone, F.; Dartois, T.; Blazquez, E.

    2017-11-01

    Europe's next fleet of geostationary meteorological satellites, MeteoSat Third Generation, will introduce new functions in addition to continuity of high-resolution meteorological data. The atmosphere Infrared Sounder (IRS), as high -end instrument, is part of this challenging program. IRS principle is a Fourier Transform Interferometer, which allows recomposing atmospheric spectrum after infrared photons detection. Transmission spectrums will be used to support numerical weather prediction. IRS instrument is able to offer full disk coverage in one hour, an on-ground resolution of 4 by 4 km, in two spectral bands (MWIR: 1600 to 2175cm-1 and LWIR: 700 to 1210cm-1) with a spectral resolution of 0.6cm-1. Among critical technologies and processes, IRS detection chain shall offer outstanding characteristics in terms of radiometric performance like Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), dynamic range and linearity. Selected detectors are HgCdTe two-dimensions arrays, cooled at 55 Kelvins, hybridized on snapshot silicon read-out circuit at 160x160 format. Video electronics present 16 bits resolution, and the whole detection chain (Detectors and electronics) permits to reach SNR between 2 000 and 10 000 as requested by the application. Radiometric onground test results performed on design representative detection chains are presented and are confirming the challenging phase A design choices.

  8. Minimally invasive prostate cancer detection test using FISH probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinawi-Aljundi R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rima Tinawi-Aljundi,1 Shannon T Knuth,2 Michael Gildea,2 Joshua Khal,2 Jason Hafron,1 Kenneth Kernen,1 Robert Di Loreto,1 Joan Aurich-Costa2 1Pathology and Research Department, Michigan Institute of Urology, St Clair Shores, MI, USA; 2Research and Development, Cellay, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA Purpose: The ability to test for and detect prostate cancer with minimal invasiveness has the potential to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies. This study was conducted as part of a clinical investigation for the development of an OligoFISH® probe panel for more accurate detection of prostate cancer.Materials and methods: One hundred eligible male patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound biopsies were enrolled in the study. After undergoing digital rectal examination with pressure, voided urine was collected in sufficient volume to prepare at least two slides using ThinPrep. Probe panels were tested on the slides, and 500 cells were scored when possible. From the 100 patients recruited, 85 had more than 300 cells scored and were included in the clinical performance calculations.Results: Chromosomes Y, 7, 10, 20, 6, 8, 16, and 18 were polysomic in most prostate carcinoma cases. Of these eight chromosomes, chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 were identified as having the highest clinical performance as a fluorescence in situ hybridization test and used to manufacture the fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panels. The OligoFISH® probes performed with 100% analytical specificity. When the OligoFISH® probes were compared with the biopsy results for each individual, the test results highly correlated with positive and negative prostate biopsy pathology findings, supporting their high specificity and accuracy. Probes for chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 showed in the receiver operator characteristics analysis an area under the curve of 0.83, with an accuracy of 81% in predicting the biopsy result.Conclusion: This investigation demonstrates the ease of use

  9. Detection of foreign objects using bobbin probe eddy current test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hee Sung; Kweon, Young Ho; Lee, Dong Ha; Shin, Wook Jo; Yim, Chan Ki [ECT Group, Sae-An Engineering Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Residual foreign objects at the secondary side (top of the tubesheet and tube support plates) of a steam generator are likely to cause a leak by causing wear in the tube. The extent of wear is significantly affected by the material, shape, and size of the foreign object, and the corrosion properties of the tube. The presence of foreign objects at the top of the tubesheet and tube support plates has been identified using remote visual inspection methods such as the foreign object search and retrieval and eddy current test (ECT). The detection of the residual foreign object at the secondary side of a steam generator has limitations that depend on the material properties and the condition of contact with the tube. In this study, which is vertical and horizontal from the upper tubesheet, the corresponding bobbin ECT signals were collected and analyzed to measure its ability to detect foreign objects.

  10. Large strain cruciform biaxial testing for FLC detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Baran; Efe, Mert

    2017-10-01

    Selection of proper test method, specimen design and analysis method are key issues for studying formability of sheet metals and detection of their forming limit curves (FLC). Materials with complex microstructures may need an additional micro-mechanical investigation and accurate modelling. Cruciform biaxial test stands as an alternative to standard tests as it achieves frictionless, in-plane, multi-axial stress states with a single sample geometry. In this study, we introduce a small-scale (less than 10 cm) cruciform sample allowing micro-mechanical investigation at stress states ranging from plane strain to equibiaxial. With successful specimen design and surface finish, large forming limit strains are obtained at the test region of the sample. The large forming limit strains obtained by experiments are compared to the values obtained from Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) local necking model and Cockroft-Latham damage model. This comparison shows that the experimental limiting strains are beyond the theoretical values, approaching to the fracture strain of the two test materials: Al-6061-T6 aluminum alloy and DC-04 high formability steel.

  11. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2017-01-01

    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  12. Incidental Detection of Maternal Neoplasia in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharajiya, Nilesh G; Grosu, Daniel S; Farkas, Daniel H; McCullough, Ron M; Almasri, Eyad; Sun, Youting; Kim, Sung K; Jensen, Taylor J; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Topol, Eric J; van den Boom, Dirk; Ehrich, Mathias

    2018-02-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) uses cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as an analyte to detect copy-number alterations in the fetal genome. Because maternal and fetal cfDNA contributions are comingled, changes in the maternal genome can manifest as abnormal NIPT results. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) present in cases of maternal neoplasia has the potential to distort the NIPT readout to a degree that prevents interpretation, resulting in a nonreportable test result for fetal aneuploidy. NIPT cases that showed a distortion from normal euploid genomic representation were communicated to the caregiving physician as nonreportable for fetal aneuploidy. Follow-up information was subsequently collected for these cases. More than 450000 pregnant patients who submitted samples for clinical laboratory testing >3 years are summarized. Additionally, in-depth analysis was performed for >79000 research-consented samples. In total, 55 nonreportable NIPT cases with altered genomic profiles were cataloged. Of these, 43 had additional information available to enable follow-up. A maternal neoplasm was confirmed in 40 of these cases: 18 malignant, 20 benign uterine fibroids, and 2 with radiological confirmation but without pathological classification. In a population of pregnant women who submitted a blood sample for cfDNA testing, an abnormal genomic profile not consistent with fetal abnormalities was detected in about 10 out of 100000 cases. A subset of these observations (18 of 43; 41.9%) was attributed to maternal malignant neoplasms. These observational results suggest the need for a controlled trial to evaluate the potential of using cfDNA as an early biomarker of cancer. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  13. Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shohei; Terada, Yutaka; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Masaki; Onuma, Mamoru; Ota, Akihiko; Ota, Yuichi; Akabane, Yoshihito; Tamukai, Kenichi; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Naganuma, Yumiko; Kanagawa, Eiichi; Nakamura, Kaneichi; Ohashi, Masanari; Takami, Yoshinori; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Tanoue, Tomoaki; Ohwaki, Masao; Ohta, Jouji; Une, Yumi; Maeda, Ken

    2016-07-01

    Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1-179 and a.a. 180-374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180-374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1-179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1-179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection.

  14. Noninvasive Prenatal Testing and Incidental Detection of Occult Maternal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Diana W; Chudova, Darya; Sehnert, Amy J; Bhatt, Sucheta; Murray, Kathryn; Prosen, Tracy L; Garber, Judy E; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Vora, Neeta L; Warsof, Stephen; Goldberg, James; Ziainia, Tina; Halks-Miller, Meredith

    2015-07-14

    Understanding the relationship between aneuploidy detection on noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and occult maternal malignancies may explain results that are discordant with the fetal karyotype and improve maternal clinical care. To evaluate massively parallel sequencing data for patterns of copy-number variations that might prospectively identify occult maternal malignancies. Case series identified from 125,426 samples submitted between February 15, 2012, and September 30, 2014, from asymptomatic pregnant women who underwent plasma cell-free DNA sequencing for clinical prenatal aneuploidy screening. Analyses were conducted in a clinical laboratory that performs DNA sequencing. Among the clinical samples, abnormal results were detected in 3757 (3%); these were reported to the ordering physician with recommendations for further evaluation. NIPT for fetal aneuploidy screening (chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y). Detailed genome-wide bioinformatics analysis was performed on available sequencing data from 8 of 10 women with known cancers. Genome-wide copy-number changes in the original NIPT samples and in subsequent serial samples from individual patients when available are reported. Copy-number changes detected in NIPT sequencing data in the known cancer cases were compared with the types of aneuploidies detected in the overall cohort. From a cohort of 125,426 NIPT results, 3757 (3%) were positive for 1 or more aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, or Y. From this set of 3757 samples, 10 cases of maternal cancer were identified. Detailed clinical and sequencing data were obtained in 8. Maternal cancers most frequently occurred with the rare NIPT finding of more than 1 aneuploidy detected (7 known cancers among 39 cases of multiple aneuploidies by NIPT, 18% [95% CI, 7.5%-33.5%]). All 8 cases that underwent further bioinformatics analysis showed unique patterns of nonspecific copy-number gains and losses across multiple chromosomes. In 1 case, blood was

  15. [Combining high-risk human papillomavirus DNA test and cytological test to detect early cervical dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, De-ying; Cen, Jian-min; Wang, Ding; Zeng, Ren-hai; Lin, Ai-hua; Shu, Yan-hong; Hong, Dan-hua; Huang, Zhi-hong

    2006-01-01

    To assess the value of combining high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test and cytological test in detection of early cervical dysplasia. During January 2003 to June 2004, a total of 5210 women were screened by combining high-risk HPV DNA test (hybrid capture II, HC-II) and cytological test (liquid-based ThinPrep cytology test), and the abnormal cytological or HPV DNA findings were further biopsied under the colposcope. The age of the patients was between 17 to 80, the average was 34 +/- 9. Final pathological diagnosis was HPV infection in 890 cases, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 83 cases, CIN II in 73 cases, CIN III in 80 cases, invasive cervical cancer in 54 cases, endometrial cancer in 5 cases, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in 1 case and cervical tuberculosis in 1 case. Based on the criteria of histology and pathology, the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value of high-risk HPV DNA test for detecting all cases of CIN II, III were 92.22%, 74.71%, 5.19% and 99.84% respectively. In detecting all cases of CIN II, III by cytological test, for atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 90.00%, 80.34%, 11.94% and 99.63% respectively; for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 70.13%, 91.58%, 11.11% and 99.51% respectively; for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 48.05%, 98.46%, 31.90% and 99.21% respectively. By the combination of high-risk HPV DNA test and cytological test, the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value for detecting all cases of CIN II, III were 98.70%, 73.08%, 5.21% and 100.00% respectively. The infection rate of HPV in cervical

  16. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of the hexagon agility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Davis, Maurice D; Kolber, Morey J; Cheng, Ming-Shun S

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC95) of the hexagon test. The hexagon test is a routinely used measure of agility in the sports and rehabilitation professions, yet its reliability has not been investigated in prior research. A total of 26 college-aged men (n = 17) and women (n = 9) of various activity levels were recruited to participate in 3 testing sessions: baseline, 1 hour after baseline, and 48 hours after baseline. The results of this study indicated excellent test-retest reliability for both same-day intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 3,1 = 0.938 and between-day ICC (3,1) = 0.924 analyses. The MDC95 for the hexagon test was 1.015 seconds. A significant difference in the mean times was identified during the same-day test-retest sessions (p learning effect. The hexagon test shows excellent reliability for measuring agility, which supports its use as a tool to assess athletic performance and lower-extremity agility. Evidence of reliability, in addition to its ease of administration, makes the hexagon test a practical and effective method to measure agility. When using this test as a measure of agility, a change of greater than 1.015 seconds is necessary to be 95% certain that the change in time reflects improvement and exceeds measurement error. A practice trial is recommended prior to recording scores to attenuate the possibility of a learning effect.

  17. [The PRRSV-serumneutralization test detects gaps in herd immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Jens; Alex, Michaela; Janowetz, Britta; Müller, Silvia; Schuh, Christina; Niemeyer, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) appears in two genotypes (EU and US), for both genotypes attenuated live-vaccines are available. A cross-sectional study in 38 Bavarian sow herds was performed to assess the level of neutralizing antibodies. Per herd 38 blood samples were collected (10 weaned piglets, 10 gilts and 6 sows of 1./2., 3J4. and 5/6. parity, respectively). Sera were tested by ELISA, serumneutralization test (SNT) against EU- and US-vaccine virus, and pooled sera were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Herds were classified by the last vaccination of sows as "Vacc EU" "Vacc US"and "nv (non-vaccinated) and by detection of PRRSV-US and vaccination of piglets were not included as variables. Sows of group (2) Vacc EU/EU- showed the highest EU-SNT-titers irrespective of parity. Groups (5) Vacc US/EU+ and (1) Vacc EU/EU+ followed in descending order. Significantly lower SNT-titers in (1) Vacc EU/EU+ were especially observed in sows of 1/2. Parity (Kruskal-Wallis, p immunity at least against vaccine virus; it indicates gaps in herd immunity.

  18. Detecting cheaters without thinking: testing the automaticity of the cheater detection module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lier, Jens; Revlin, Russell; De Neys, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that our brain is composed of evolved mechanisms. One extensively studied mechanism is the cheater detection module. This module would make people very good at detecting cheaters in a social exchange. A vast amount of research has illustrated performance facilitation on social contract selection tasks. This facilitation is attributed to the alleged automatic and isolated operation of the module (i.e., independent of general cognitive capacity). This study, using the selection task, tested the critical automaticity assumption in three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 established that performance on social contract versions did not depend on cognitive capacity or age. Experiment 3 showed that experimentally burdening cognitive resources with a secondary task had no impact on performance on the social contract version. However, in all experiments, performance on a non-social contract version did depend on available cognitive capacity. Overall, findings validate the automatic and effortless nature of social exchange reasoning.

  19. Detecting cheaters without thinking: testing the automaticity of the cheater detection module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Van Lier

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that our brain is composed of evolved mechanisms. One extensively studied mechanism is the cheater detection module. This module would make people very good at detecting cheaters in a social exchange. A vast amount of research has illustrated performance facilitation on social contract selection tasks. This facilitation is attributed to the alleged automatic and isolated operation of the module (i.e., independent of general cognitive capacity. This study, using the selection task, tested the critical automaticity assumption in three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 established that performance on social contract versions did not depend on cognitive capacity or age. Experiment 3 showed that experimentally burdening cognitive resources with a secondary task had no impact on performance on the social contract version. However, in all experiments, performance on a non-social contract version did depend on available cognitive capacity. Overall, findings validate the automatic and effortless nature of social exchange reasoning.

  20. Bridge cable fracture detection with acoustic emission test (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongya; Li, Tiantian; Chen, Genda

    2017-04-01

    In this study, acoustic emission (AE) tests were conducted to detect and locate wire fracture in strands that are widely used in cable-stayed and suspension bridges. To effectively separate fracture signals from unwanted noises, distinct features of fracture, fracture-induced echo, and artificial tapping signals as well as their dependence on loading levels are characterized with short-time Fourier transform. To associate fracture scenarios with their acoustic features, two 20-foot-long ( 6.1 m) 270 ksi ( 1,862 MPa) steel strands of seven wires were tested with one wire notched off at center and support, respectively, up to 90% of its cross section area by 10% increment. Up to 80% reduction in cross section area of the notched wire, each strand was loaded to 20 kips ( 89 kN) corresponding to 35% of the minimum breaking strength and the acquired AE parameters such as hits, energy, and counts were found to change little. With a reduction of 90% of the section area of one wire, both strands were found to be fractured under approximately 16.5 kips ( 73.4 kN). The hits, energy, and counts of AE signals were all demonstrated to suddenly change with the fracture of the notched wire. However, only the counts of AE signals distributed over the length of the strands allow the localization of fracture point. The frequency band of fracture signals is significantly broader than that of either fracture-induced echo or artificial tapping noise. The time duration of artificial tapping noises is substantially longer than that of either fracture or fracture-induced echo. These distinct characteristics can be used to effectively separate fracture signals from noises for wire fracture detection and localization in practice.

  1. Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about protocols that testers could use to demonstrate that an individual release detection equipment type could meet the performance requirements noted in the federal UST requirements for detecting leaks.

  2. The Test Your Memory (TYM) Test Outperforms the MMSE in the Detection of MCI and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zande, Elizabeth van; Maria van de Nes, Joseph Cornelis; Jansen, Ingeborg; van den Berg, Margje Nouelle; Zwart, Anne Floor; Bimmel, Daniel; Rijkers, Gerrit Tjalling; Andringa, Gerda

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical usability of a Dutch translation of the Test Your Memory (TYM) test in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia as compared to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), in the setting of the memory clinic of a general hospital. Fourty-two participants referred to the memory clinic with memory problems and fourty-two healthy controls were assessed using the TYM and the MMSE. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the TYM and MMSE. Both instruments were tested against recently established clinical diagnostic criteria of MCI, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). The TYM demonstrated to be more sensitive in detecting dementia than the MMSE. The TYM also was better at discriminating between healthy controls and patients with MCI than the MMSE. Our data suggest that the TYM is more suitable as a practical tool for the early detection of dementia than the MMSE. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. DipTest: A litmus test for E. coli detection in water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Siva Kumar Gunda

    Full Text Available We have developed a new litmus paper test (DipTest for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli in water samples by performing enzymatic reactions directly on the porous paper substrate. The paper strip consists of a long narrow piece of cellulose blotting paper coated with chemoattractant (at bottom edge, wax hydrophobic barrier (at the top edge, and custom formulated chemical reagents (at reaction zone immediately below the wax hydrophobic barrier. When the paper strip is dipped in water, E. coli in the water sample is attracted toward the paper strip due to a chemotaxic mechanism followed by the ascent along the paper strip toward the reaction zone due to a capillary wicking mechanism, and finally the capillary motion is arrested at the top edge of the paper strip by the hydrophobic barrier. The E. coli concentrated at the reaction zone of the paper strip will react with custom formulated chemical reagents to produce a pinkish-red color. Such a color change on the paper strip when dipped into water samples indicates the presence of E. coli contamination in potable water. The performance of the DipTest device has been checked with different known concentrations of E. coli contaminated water samples using different dip and wait times. The DipTest device has also been tested with different interfering bacteria and chemical contaminants. It has been observed that the different interfering contaminants do not have any impact on the DipTest, and it can become a potential solution for screening water samples for E. coli contamination at the point of source.

  4. DipTest: A litmus test for E. coli detection in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Dasgupta, Saumyadeb; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new litmus paper test (DipTest) for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples by performing enzymatic reactions directly on the porous paper substrate. The paper strip consists of a long narrow piece of cellulose blotting paper coated with chemoattractant (at bottom edge), wax hydrophobic barrier (at the top edge), and custom formulated chemical reagents (at reaction zone immediately below the wax hydrophobic barrier). When the paper strip is dipped in water, E. coli in the water sample is attracted toward the paper strip due to a chemotaxic mechanism followed by the ascent along the paper strip toward the reaction zone due to a capillary wicking mechanism, and finally the capillary motion is arrested at the top edge of the paper strip by the hydrophobic barrier. The E. coli concentrated at the reaction zone of the paper strip will react with custom formulated chemical reagents to produce a pinkish-red color. Such a color change on the paper strip when dipped into water samples indicates the presence of E. coli contamination in potable water. The performance of the DipTest device has been checked with different known concentrations of E. coli contaminated water samples using different dip and wait times. The DipTest device has also been tested with different interfering bacteria and chemical contaminants. It has been observed that the different interfering contaminants do not have any impact on the DipTest, and it can become a potential solution for screening water samples for E. coli contamination at the point of source.

  5. The notion and role of "detection tests" in the Danish upper secondary "maths counsellor" programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a specific aspect of the Danish “maths counsellor” programme for upper secondary school, namely that of detection tests. More precisely, the purpose and designof a detection test is presented, as is the prospective counsellors’ use of the test. In the description......, emphasis is placed on the ways in which detection tests assist in informing the maths counsellors in their work with students experiencing learning difficulties in mathematics....

  6. Defect detection in conducting materials using eddy current testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz force eddy current testing (LET is a novel nondestructive testing technique which can be applied preferably to the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic moving conductors. The LET is compared (similar testing conditions with the classical eddy current testing (ECT. Numerical FEM simulations have been performed to analyze the measurements as well as the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic conductors. The results are compared with measurements to test the feasibility of defect identification. Finally, the use of LET measurements to estimate of the electrical conductors under test are described as well.

  7. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... standard methods, which are available for detection of fecal contamination in ... and deep wells, rainwater, pond water) in Thailand by the ... AND METHODS. A total of 1050 water samples collected from tube well (355 water.

  8. Quantitative Ischemia Detection During Cardiac MR Stress Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraitchman, D

    2001-01-01

    .... During a second ischemic episode, conventional cine wall motion images were acquired. The time from occlusion to the detection of ischemia by each MR technique, as well as ECG ischemic alterations, was determined...

  9. ASTAMIDS minefield detection performance at Aberdeen Proving Ground test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymonko, George B.; Breiter, Karin

    1997-07-01

    The airborne standoff minefield detection systems (ASTAMIDS) is an airborne imaging system designed for deployment as a modular mission payload on an unmanned aerial vehicle and capable of detecting surface and buried anti-tank mines under all-weather, day/night conditions. Its primary mission is to support a forward maneuver unit with real time intelligence regarding the existence and extent of minefields in their operational area. The ASTAMIDS development effort currently consists of two parallel technical approaches, passive thermal IR sensor technology in one case and an active multi-channel sensor utilizing passive thermal IR coregistered with a near IR laser polarization data for the other case. The minefield detection capability of this system is a result of signal processing of image data. Due to the large quantities of data generated by an imaging sensor even at modest speeds of an unmanned aerial vehicle, manual exploitation of this data is not feasible in a real time tactical environment and therefore computer aided target feature extraction is a necessity to provide detection cues. Our development efforts over the past several years have concentrated on mine and minefield detection algorithms, the hardware necessary to execute these algorithms in real time, and the tools with which to measure detection performance.

  10. Diagnostic validation of selected serological tests for detecting scrub typhus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koraluru, Munegowda; Bairy, Indira; Varma, Muralidhar; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    .... Though better diagnostic tests are available for rickettsial diseases and scrub typhus elsewhere, the Weil-Felix test is still commonly used in India, mainly because microimmunofluorescence assays (M-IFA...

  11. Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: In the present paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or Rao’s efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of IRT models such as the Rasch model, the OPLM, the 2-parameter logistic model, the

  12. Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the

  13. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  14. Relevant test set using feature selection algorithm for early detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of feature selection is to find the most relevant features for classification. Thus, the dimensionality of the information will be reduced and may improve classification's accuracy. This paper proposed a minimum set of relevant questions that can be used for early detection of dyslexia. In this research, we ...

  15. Empirical assessment of VoIP overload detection tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Żuraniewski, P.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.

    2010-01-01

    The control of communication networks critically relies on procedures capable of detecting unanticipated load changes. In this paper we explore such techniques, in a setting in which each connection consumes roughly the same amount of bandwidth (with VoIP as a leading example). We focus on

  16. Automated detection of test fixture strategies and smells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.S.; Van Deursen, A.; Storey, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Paper accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, IEEE Computer Society, 18-22 March 2013, ISBN 978-1-4673-5961-0, doi: 10.1109/ICST.2013.45 Designing automated tests is a challenging task. One important concern

  17. Portable Rapid Test Fuel Tank Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the site-specific test parameters and selects the “Start Test” icon . Leak test final results can be obtained in less than 5 hours. 3.0 PROTOTYPE...the reference tube into section lengths of less than 7 feet for shipping, and 3) downsizing the reference tube diameter to reduce weight and for

  18. Sahlgren's saturation test for detecting and grading acquired dyschromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisén, L; Kalm, H

    1981-08-01

    A new sorting test requires only two minutes for quantitative estimation of saturation thresholds for bluish pigment colors. The test is highly sensitive to and specific for differences between normal subjects and individuals with acquired color vision defects. When combined with Ishihara's pseudo-isochromatic plates, it discriminates between congenital and acquired dyschromatopsias and identifies subjects with combined defects.

  19. False-positive urine pregnancy tests clinicians as detectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliably diagnosing pregnancy in women presenting with nonspecific abdominal pain can be lifesaving. If diagnostic tests are unreliable, however, valuable time and resources can be wasted pursuing unnecessary and potentially harmful interventions. After four false positive-urine pregnancy tests in one week, we began ...

  20. Breath testing as a method for detecting lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taivans, Immanuels; Bukovskis, Maris; Strazda, Gunta; Jurka, Normunds

    2014-02-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer is important due to high mortality in late stages of the disease. An ideal approach for population screening could be the breath analysis, due to its non-invasiveness, simplicity and cheapness. Using sensitive methods of analysis like gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in exhaled air of cancer patients were discovered some volatile organic compounds - possible candidates for cancer markers. However, these compounds were not specific for cancer cells. At the same time, integrative approaches used to analyze the exhaled breath have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this method for lung cancer diagnosis. Such integrative approaches include detection of smell prints by electronic nose or integrated analysis of wide range of volatile organic compounds detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or related methods. Modern statistical pattern recognition systems like logistic regression analysis, support vector machine or analysis by artificial neuronal network may improve diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Memory detection 2.0: The first web-based memory detection test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinberg, B.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we

  2. Recent progress in nuclear test detection using infrasound technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, E.; LE Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Brachet, N.

    2016-12-01

    The high performances of the International Monitoring System infrasound network were very well demonstrated by the detection and analysis of many Ground Truth Events in various environmental conditions. This presentation highlights recent progresses based on an improved description of both signal and atmosphere. Firstly, progress concerns observations and data analysis of big data sets. The infrasound sensors provide broadband signals in the interest frequency range. However, signals are generally analyzed in several parallel frequency bands. The currently used Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation algorithm (PMCC) is now evolving to process the useful information in a broad standardized frequency range, leading to a more accurate characterization of both source and noise which could benefit to operational monitoring purposes. Secondly, progress concerns the development of experimental infrasound stations which form a dense infrasound network, especially in Europe, enhancing the detectability of infrasound events. Thirdly, progress concerns an improved representation of the atmosphere. Systematic processing highlights the necessity to improve propagation modeling in the wave guide between ground and stratosphere-mesosphere-thermosphere system to interpret the observations. The predicted detection periods of volcano eruptions using near field observations and propagation models are shorter than the periods observed in the far field. The lack of representation in the models of large scale atmospheric disturbances such as gravity, planetary waves and sudden stratospheric warming events, is at the origin of these differences. New methods are developed to parameterize these disturbances for further assimilation in atmospheric models, as planned in the framework of the Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE) project. One application is the improvement of the detection capability simulations used for the evaluation of the performances of existing

  3. [Color vision test for detection and evaluation of dyschromatopsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, V; Gastaud, P

    1996-01-01

    The color vision test for diagnosis and evaluation of the dyschromatopsias consists of a set of 92 colored test charts of the pseudochromatic type, a lamp and a test report giving a graphic image of the sensitivity to color deficiency. The test makes it possible to identify each neutral zone of all types of dyschromatopsia, places the neutral zone within the color spectrum and establishes its extent according to 6 axes (Protan, Deutan, Tritan, Tetartan, Scotopic and Monochromatic) and 10 levels. The visual sensitivity to color is measured on a 10 point scale, just as visual acuity is. Between a normal sensitivity to color, which is marked 1, and an anopia (i.e complete lack of visual sensitivity to color along one axis), marked 0, there are 9 intermediary levels marked 0.9; 0.8: 0.7; 0.6: 0.5; 0.4; 0.3; 0.2 and 0.1. Testing is important for all kinds of eye diseases or common diseases which affect eyesight making possible not only early diagnosis of a disease but also treatment follow-up.

  4. Potential of phytoceuticals to affect antibiotic residue detection tests in cow milk in a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Keena Ae; Beasley, Erin; Rizzo, Julio Q; Washburn, Steven P; Baynes, Ronald E; Mason, Sharon E; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is a costly disease for dairy farmers. Some dairy farmers use herbal products, or phytoceuticals, to treat mastitis. Phytoceuticals have not been approved for this use by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and have not been tested to determine how they impact antibiotic residue detection testing. The current study tested the potential for phytoceuticals to cause positive results on two milk antibiotic residue screening tests, the Delvotest P and Charm SL Beta-lactam test, or to interfere with the detection of antibiotics by these tests. The three phytoceuticals tested were labelled for intramammary, topical or intravulvar administration. Testing was performed in vitro using the products diluted in milk obtained from healthy organic dairy cows. Phytoceuticals were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.5 per cent to 100 per cent. Concentration levels were replicated at least twice on each milk antibiotic residue screening test. The Delvotest P is based on detection of bacterial inhibitors and no positive results were obtained for any product at concentrations less than 50 per cent. The Charm SL Beta-lactam test uses a receptor for the detection of beta-lactam antibiotics and no concentration of phytoceuticals caused an interference with these tests. Based on dilution of the products in bovine milk at physiologically achievable levels, phytoceutical products tested at levels expected after treatment do not cause positive test results for the Delvotest P nor do they interfere with the Charm SL Beta-lactam test in detection of various antibiotics.

  5. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making...... the total number of participating laboratories 35. The test is primarily designed to assess the ability of participating laboratories to identify and quantify the notifiable non-exotic fish pathogenic viruses: Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopietic necrosis virus (IHNV......) but also to assess their ability to differentiate other fish viruses as spring viraemia of carp virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, perch rhabdovirus etc. Five coded ampoules are provided to participants containing lyophilised supernatant from infected cell cultures. The CRL collect the data...

  6. Detecting Cheaters without Thinking: Testing the Automaticity of the Cheater Detection Module

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Van Lier; Russell Revlin; Wim De Neys

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that our brain is composed of evolved mechanisms. One extensively studied mechanism is the cheater detection module. This module would make people very good at detecting cheaters in a social exchange. A vast amount of research has illustrated performance facilitation on social contract selection tasks. This facilitation is attributed to the alleged automatic and isolated operation of the module (i.e., independent of general cognitive capacity). This s...

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test detection limits for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya there is currently no screening of antimicrobial drug residues in milk. This study evaluated the improved tube test as a possible screening method using seven representatives of the β-lactam antibiotics. The group comprises antimicrobials most frequently used to treat bacterial infections in dairy cows.

  8. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok Jong; Park, Eunjeong; Ye, Byoung Seok; Lee, Hye Sun; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Song, Dongbeom; Kim, Young Dae; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients. We made the computerized table setting test (CTST) to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction) and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically. Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect. The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients.

  9. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P 

  10. Applications of Graph-Theoretic Tests to Online Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    non- bipartite matching was used to pair teenage subjects who were demographically similar but had extremely different levels of exposure to the media...is at all associated with depressed low-wage employment rates in the same area. Faced with the problem of needing to compare one test group to two

  11. Outlier detection in high-stakes certification testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent developrnents of person-Jit analysis in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are discussed. Methods from stutistical process control are presented that have been proposed to classify an item score pattern as fitting or misjitting the underlying item response theory model in CAT. Most

  12. Outlier detection in high-stakes certification testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments of person-fit analysis in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are discussed. Methods from statistical process control are presented that have been proposed to classify an item score pattern as fitting or misfitting the underlying item response theory (IRT) model in a CAT. Most

  13. Evaluation of accuracy of OraQuick ® rapid test in detecting HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The accuracy of OraQuick® rapid test in detecting HIV 1 & 2 antibodies in saliva is evaluated against the blood EIA benchmark tests with confirmatory testing, against which OraQuick® accuracy is determined. Method: Paired samples of saliva and blood from 281 Nigerians were tested for HIV antibodies, and ...

  14. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    found no false-positive test reactions. Confirmatory testing was performed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and spectrophotometrically on extraction fluids. The use of DPC as a colorimetric spot test reagent appears to be a good and valid test method for detecting the release of chromium(VI) ions from...

  15. Multiplex PCR Tests for Detection of Pathogens Associated with Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms including culture, biochemical identification, immunoassay and microscopic examination are time consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have as allowed its use as clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex PCR based testing has made its way to gastroenterology diagnostic arena in recent years. In this article we present a review of recent laborato...

  16. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ramadan El-Jade

    Full Text Available Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  17. Anomaly Detection in Test Equipment via Sliding Mode Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Wanda M.; Drakunov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear observers were originally developed based on the ideas of variable structure control, and for the purpose of detecting disturbances in complex systems. In this anomaly detection application, these observers were designed for estimating the distributed state of fluid flow in a pipe described by a class of advection equations. The observer algorithm uses collected data in a piping system to estimate the distributed system state (pressure and velocity along a pipe containing liquid gas propellant flow) using only boundary measurements. These estimates are then used to further estimate and localize possible anomalies such as leaks or foreign objects, and instrumentation metering problems such as incorrect flow meter orifice plate size. The observer algorithm has the following parts: a mathematical model of the fluid flow, observer control algorithm, and an anomaly identification algorithm. The main functional operation of the algorithm is in creating the sliding mode in the observer system implemented as software. Once the sliding mode starts in the system, the equivalent value of the discontinuous function in sliding mode can be obtained by filtering out the high-frequency chattering component. In control theory, "observers" are dynamic algorithms for the online estimation of the current state of a dynamic system by measurements of an output of the system. Classical linear observers can provide optimal estimates of a system state in case of uncertainty modeled by white noise. For nonlinear cases, the theory of nonlinear observers has been developed and its success is mainly due to the sliding mode approach. Using the mathematical theory of variable structure systems with sliding modes, the observer algorithm is designed in such a way that it steers the output of the model to the output of the system obtained via a variety of sensors, in spite of possible mismatches between the assumed model and actual system. The unique properties of sliding mode control

  18. Segmentation by Large Scale Hypothesis Testing - Segmentation as Outlier Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...... a microscope and we show how the method can handle transparent particles with significant glare point. The method generalizes to other problems. THis is illustrated by applying the method to camera calibration images and MRI of the midsagittal plane for gray and white matter separation and segmentation...

  19. Development and Test of Methods for Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R.B.

    Almost all industrial systemns are automated to ensure optimal production both in relation to energy consumtion and safety to equipment and humans. All working parts are individually subject to faults. This can lead to unacceptable economic loss or injury to people. This thesis deals with a monit......Almost all industrial systemns are automated to ensure optimal production both in relation to energy consumtion and safety to equipment and humans. All working parts are individually subject to faults. This can lead to unacceptable economic loss or injury to people. This thesis deals...... they are especiallu crucial for the entire operaiton of a closed loop system. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate, deveop, and verify methods for fault detection and isolation on control loop systems. An Industrial Position Controller, (IPC), laboratory setup is used as an application example throughout...... the thesis. The IPC offers prospects of repeated fault scenarios, and support studies in robustness issues. The thesis contributes with a numerical fault analysis representation, practical applications of existing methods for FDI, and a method for robust FDI for practical applications....

  20. Evaluation and Testing of the ADVANTG Code on SNM Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; Hayes, John W.

    2013-09-24

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with evaluating the effectiveness of ORNL’s new hybrid transport code, ADVANTG, on scenarios of interest to our NA-22 sponsor, specifically of detection of diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). PNNL staff have determined that acquisition and installation of ADVANTG was relatively straightforward for a code in its phase of development, but probably not yet sufficient for mass distribution to the general user. PNNL staff also determined that with little effort, ADVANTG generated weight windows that typically worked for the problems and generated results consistent with MCNP. With slightly greater effort of choosing a finer mesh around detectors or sample reaction tally regions, the figure of merit (FOM) could be further improved in most cases. This does take some limited knowledge of deterministic transport methods. The FOM could also be increased by limiting the energy range for a tally to the energy region of greatest interest. It was then found that an MCNP run with the full energy range for the tally showed improved statistics in the region used for the ADVANTG run. The specific case of interest chosen by the sponsor is the CIPN project from Las Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is an active interrogation, non-destructive assay (NDA) technique to quantify the fissile content in a spent fuel assembly and is also sensitive to cases of material diversion. Unfortunately, weight windows for the CIPN problem cannot currently be properly generated with ADVANTG due to inadequate accommodations for source definition. ADVANTG requires that a fixed neutron source be defined within the problem and cannot account for neutron multiplication. As such, it is rendered useless in active interrogation scenarios. It is also interesting to note that this is a difficult problem to solve and that the automated weight windows generator in MCNP actually slowed down the problem. Therefore, PNNL had determined

  1. Oscillation Detection Algorithm Development Summary Report and Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2009-10-03

    -based modal analysis algorithms have been developed. They include Prony analysis, Regularized Ro-bust Recursive Least Square (R3LS) algorithm, Yule-Walker algorithm, Yule-Walker Spectrum algorithm, and the N4SID algo-rithm. Each has been shown to be effective for certain situations, but not as effective for some other situations. For example, the traditional Prony analysis works well for disturbance data but not for ambient data, while Yule-Walker is designed for ambient data only. Even in an algorithm that works for both disturbance data and ambient data, such as R3LS, latency results from the time window used in the algorithm is an issue in timely estimation of oscillation modes. For ambient data, the time window needs to be longer to accumulate information for a reasonably accurate estimation; while for disturbance data, the time window can be significantly shorter so the latency in estimation can be much less. In addition, adding a known input signal such as noise probing signals can increase the knowledge of system oscillatory properties and thus improve the quality of mode estimation. System situations change over time. Disturbances can occur at any time, and probing signals can be added for a certain time period and then removed. All these observations point to the need to add intelligence to ModeMeter applications. That is, a ModeMeter needs to adaptively select different algorithms and adjust parameters for various situations. This project aims to develop systematic approaches for algorithm selection and parameter adjustment. The very first step is to detect occurrence of oscillations so the algorithm and parameters can be changed accordingly. The proposed oscillation detection approach is based on the signal-noise ratio of measurements.

  2. MULTIPLE TESTING OF LOCAL MAXIMA FOR DETECTION OF PEAKS IN CHIP-SEQ DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartzman, Armin; Jaffe, Andrew; Gavrilov, Yulia; Meyer, Clifford A.

    2013-01-01

    A topological multiple testing approach to peak detection is proposed for the problem of detecting transcription factor binding sites in ChIP-Seq data. After kernel smoothing of the tag counts over the genome, the presence of a peak is tested at each observed local maximum, followed by multiple testing correction at the desired false discovery rate level. Valid $p$-values for candidate peaks are computed via Monte Carlo simulations of smoothed Poisson sequences, whose background Poisson rates...

  3. Learned helplessness and the detection of contingency: a direct test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennen, H; Drum, P E; Gillen, R; Stanton, A

    1982-12-01

    Two studies tested a basic hypothesis of the learned helplessness model: That performance deficits associated with exposure to uncontrollable outcomes are directly mediated by an individual's perception of response-outcome independence. In the first experiment 48 subjects were exposed to noise bursts. For one experimental group, the termination of the noise was response-contingent. For five other groups, noise-burst termination was independent of subjects' responses. These five groups varied in the number of trials on which they received positive feedback: As predicted, subjects over-estimated the amount of control they had over noise termination as a positive linear function of the amount of noncontingent positive feedback they received. Although subjects exposed to either noncontingent positive or negative feedback showed subsequent performance deficits on an anagrams task, the expected relation between perceived control and subsequent performance failed to emerge. These findings were replicated in a second experiment. In addition, subjects' locus, stability, and globality attributions failed to predict subsequent performance. These results call into question the central premises of helplessness theory: That perceived uncontrollability and causal attributions mediate learned helplessness.

  4. Detection of Oil in Water Column, Final Report: Detection Prototype Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    however, PSDs seemed to shift to larger droplets over time, which may be an indication of droplet coalescence over time and/or droplets scavenging... droplet size and density of the entrained oil. Both systems demonstrated the qualitative ability to detect and/or map oil suspended in the water...the oil plume, however, was not possible due to difficulties with correlating and validating the submerged plumes’ specific droplet size and

  5. Comparative evaluation of coagglutination and latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit) for detection of rota virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur M; Bhave G

    1993-01-01

    Coagglutination test was compared with commercially available latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit) for detection of rota virus in faecal samples from clinically suspected cases of viral gastroenteritis. Out of 80 test samples 16 (20%) and 20 (25.3%) were positive for rota virus antigen by Rotalex kit and coagglutination test respectively. All the 40 controls were negative for viral antigen by Rotalex kit and only one gave positive result by coagglutination test. Coagglutinatio...

  6. Method modification of the Legipid® Legionella fast detection test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Guillermo Rodríguez; Broch, Begoña Bedrina; Bono, Marisa Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Legipid(®) Legionella Fast Detection is a test based on combined magnetic immunocapture and enzyme-immunoassay (CEIA) for the detection of Legionella in water. The test is based on the use of anti-Legionella antibodies immobilized on magnetic microspheres. Target microorganism is preconcentrated by filtration. Immunomagnetic analysis is applied on these preconcentrated water samples in a final test portion of 9 mL. The test kit was certified by the AOAC Research Institute as Performance Tested Method(SM) (PTM) No. 111101 in a PTM validation which certifies the performance claims of the test method in comparison to the ISO reference method 11731-1998 and the revision 11731-2004 "Water Quality: Detection and Enumeration of Legionella pneumophila" in potable water, industrial water, and waste water. The modification of this test kit has been approved. The modification includes increasing the target analyte from L. pneumophila to Legionella species and adding an optical reader to the test method. In this study, 71 strains of Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila were tested to determine its reactivity with the kit based on CEIA. All the strains of Legionella spp. tested by the CEIA test were confirmed positive by reference standard method ISO 11731. This test (PTM 111101) has been modified to include a final optical reading. A methods comparison study was conducted to demonstrate the equivalence of this modification to the reference culture method. Two water matrixes were analyzed. Results show no statistically detectable difference between the test method and the reference culture method for the enumeration of Legionella spp. The relative level of detection was 93 CFU/volume examined (LOD50). For optical reading, the LOD was 40 CFU/volume examined and the LOQ was 60 CFU/volume examined. Results showed that the test Legipid Legionella Fast Detection is equivalent to the reference culture method for the enumeration of Legionella spp.

  7. Suitability of the H2S test for detection of fecal contamination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of H2S field test to detect fecal contamination in drinking water was assessed by analysing 635 water samples from various sources at room temperature and at 37°C after 18, 24, and 48 h of incubation. The H2S test showed 216, 85, 96 and 85% correlation with Eijkman test, membrane filter technique, most ...

  8. OPCW Proficiency Test: A Practical Approach Also for Interlaboratory Test on Detection and Identification of Pesticides in Environmental Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Konopski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of general strategy, standard procedures, and critical points, which may be found during carrying out an OPCW Proficiency Test concerning detection and identification of scheduled compounds relevant to Chemical Weapon Convention, has been presented. The observations have been illustrated following the case of the Eight OPCW Designated Laboratories Proficiency Test, which was performed in the OPCW Laboratory in Rijswijk in November and December 2000. Various useful hints, comments, and practical observations concerning the case study have been included as well. The same methodology and procedures may be also applied for detection, identification, and environmental analyses of pesticides and biocides, especially organophosphorus compounds.

  9. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...... of these farms. In addition resistance was indicated by LDA on two more farms that were not tested by FECRT. Further testing is needed to confirm if these findings are truly indicative of resistance. Generally, correlations between the tests were poor and it was not possible to use the outcome of one test...

  10. Test module development to detect the flase call probe pins on microeprocessor test equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L. W.; Ong, N. R.; Mohamad, I. S. B.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Probe pins are useful for electrical testing of microelectronic components, printed circuit board assembly (PCBA), microprocessors and other electronic devices due to it provides the conductivity test based on specific device circuit design. During the repeatable test runs, the load of test modules, contact failures and the current conductivity induces layer wear off all the tip of probe pins contact. Contamination will be build-up on probe pins and increased contact resistivity which results of cost loss and time loss for rectifying programs, rectifying testers and exchanging new probe pins. In this study, a resistivity approach will be developed to provide "Testing of Test Probes". The test module based on "Four-wire Ohm measurement" method with two alternative ways of applying power supply, that are 9V from a single power supply and 5V from Arduino UNO power supply were demonstrated to measure the small resistance value of microprocessor probe pin. A microcontroller with VEE Pro software was used to record the measurement data. The accuracy of both test modules were calibrated under different temperature conditions and result shows that 9V from a single power supply test module has higher measurement accuracy.

  11. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  12. Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and the persistence of Synergistes jonesii bacteria in the rumens of sheep through winter drought in the Highveld of South Africa without Leucaena in the diet.

  13. DNA detection on lateral flow test strips: enhanced signal sensitivity using LNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shiva K; Gibson, CharLene M; Branen, Josh R; Aston, D Eric; Branen, A Larry; Hrdlicka, Patrick J

    2012-08-11

    A lateral flow test strip assay, enabling sensitive detection of DNA specific to the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7, is described. The use of LNA-conjugated gold nanoparticle probes, along with signal amplification protocols, results in minimum detectable concentrations of ~0.4 nM.

  14. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Coliform Detection Technologies for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coliform detection technologies to be tested use chromatogenic and fluorogenic growth media to detect coliforms and E. coli based on the enzymatic activity of these organisms. The systems consist of single-use sample containers that contain pre-measured reagents and can be u...

  15. A Space Object Detection Algorithm using Fourier Domain Likelihood Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.; Cain, S.

    Space object detection is of great importance in the highly dependent yet competitive and congested space domain. Detection algorithms employed play a crucial role in fulfilling the detection component in the situational awareness mission to detect, track, characterize and catalog unknown space objects. Many current space detection algorithms use a matched filter or a spatial correlator to make a detection decision at a single pixel point of a spatial image based on the assumption that the data follows a Gaussian distribution. This paper explores the potential for detection performance advantages when operating in the Fourier domain of long exposure images of small and/or dim space objects from ground based telescopes. A binary hypothesis test is developed based on the joint probability distribution function of the image under the hypothesis that an object is present and under the hypothesis that the image only contains background noise. The detection algorithm tests each pixel point of the Fourier transformed images to make the determination if an object is present based on the criteria threshold found in the likelihood ratio test. Using simulated data, the performance of the Fourier domain detection algorithm is compared to the current algorithm used in space situational awareness applications to evaluate its value.

  16. Thyroid dyshormonogenesis detected through a modified perchlorate discharge test using a gamma-camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sami U; Khan, Aakif U; Khan, Ayub; Khan, Kamran; Ullah, Hameed

    2009-07-01

    To find an easy tool to detect dyshormonogenesis. In this study, the standard perchlorate discharge test was modified by using a gamma-camera instead of a gamma-probe to detect this rare abnormality. By using this technique two cases of dyshormonogenesis were identified. The gamma-camera-based perchlorate discharge test is an easy, reliable, convenient, and feasible procedure where thyroid uptake probe is not available.

  17. Sensitive ELISA dipstick test for the detection of chloroquine in urine under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwick, P; Eggelte, T A; Hess, F; Tueumuna, T T; Payne, D; Nothdurft, H D; von Sonnenburg, F; Löscher, T

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) dipstick test for detecting chloroquine (CQ) in urine in a malaria-endemic region of north-western Namibia. Urine samples from 92 patients attending the outpatient department of Kamhaku Hospital with suspected malaria infection were tested for CQ with both the Dill-Glazko test and the ELISA dipstick test. Results were compared to the history of CQ intake as documented in the patients' health passes. The dipstick test proved an easy-to-handle and very sensitive tool for the detection of CQ with a lower limit of detection at 120 nmol/l. It showed high agreement with the history of CQ intake within the last 6 months. The specificity in a negative control group was 100%. The Dill-Glazko test was far less sensitive and specific with a lower detection limit of 150 micromol/l. The dipstick test can be used in pharmacological studies to evaluate the use of CQ, and as an inclusion criterion for in vivo and in vitro sensitivity tests, whereas the Dill-Glazko test is appropriate to test compliance during and a few days after CQ intake.

  18. Preclinical and clinical performance of the Efoora test, a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Max Q; Mundy, Linda M; Amsterdam, Daniel; Barrett, J Tom; Bigg, Dan; Bruckner, David; Hanna, Bruce; Prince, Harry; Purington, Timothy; Hanna, Todd; Hewitt, Ross; Kalinka, Carolyn; Koppes, Thomas; Maxwell, Sarz; Moe, Ardis; Doymaz, Mehmet; Poulter, Melinda; Saber-Tehrani, Maryam; Simard, Lorenzo; Wilkins-Carmody, Donna; Vidaver, John; Berger, Cheryl; Davis, Alan H; Alzona, Mortimer T

    2005-05-01

    Barriers to effective diagnostic testing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be reduced with simple, reliable, and rapid detection methods. Our objective was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of a new rapid, lateral-flow immunochromatographic HIV-1 antibody detection device. Preclinical studies were performed using seroconversion, cross-reaction, and interference panels, archived clinical specimens, and fresh whole blood. In a multicenter, prospective clinical trial, a four-sample matrix of capillary (fingerstick) whole-blood specimens and venous whole blood, plasma, and serum was tested for HIV-1 antibodies with the Efoora HIV rapid test (Efoora Inc., Buffalo Grove, IL) and compared with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Abbott Laboratories) licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. Western blot and nucleic acid test supplemental assays were employed to adjudicate discordant samples. Preclinical testing of seroconversion panels showed that antibodies were often detected earlier by the rapid test than by a reference EIA. No significant interference or cross-reactions were observed. Testing of 4,984 archived specimens yielded a sensitivity of 99.2% and a specificity of 99.7%. A prospective multicenter clinical study with 2,954 adult volunteers demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for the Efoora HIV rapid test of 99.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.3 and 99.98%) and 99.0% (95% CI, 98.5 and 99.4%), respectively. Reactive rapid HIV-1 antibody detection was confirmed in 99.6% of those with a known HIV infection (n = 939), 5.2% of those in the high-risk group (n = 1,003), and 0.1% of those in the low-risk group (n = 1,012). For 21 (0.71%) patients, there was discordance between the results of the rapid test and the confirmatory EIA/Western blot tests. We conclude that the Efoora HIV rapid test is a simple, rapid assay for detection of HIV-1 antibodies, with high sensitivity and specificity compared to a standardized

  19. Test performance of faecal occult blood testing for the detection of bowel cancer in people with chronic kidney disease (DETECT protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Narelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In patients without kidney disease, screening is a major strategy for reducing the risk of cancer and improving the health outcomes for those who developed cancers by detecting treatable cancers at an early stage. Among those with CKD, the effectiveness, the efficacy and patients' preferences for cancer screening are unknown. Methods/Design This work describes the protocol for the DETECT study examining the effectiveness, efficiency and patient's perspectives of colorectal cancer screening using immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (iFOBT for people with CKD. The aims of the DETECT study are 1 to determine the test performance characteristics of iFOBT screening in individuals with CKD, 2 to estimate the incremental costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD compared to no screening and 3 to elicit patients' perspective for colorectal cancer screening in the CKD population. Three different study designs will be used to explore the uncertainties surrounding colorectal cancer screening in CKD. A diagnostic test accuracy study of iFOBT screening will be conducted across all stages of CKD in patients ages 35-70. Using individually collected direct healthcare costs and outcomes from the diagnostic test accuracy study, cost-utility and cost-effective analyses will be performed to estimate the costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be undertaken in a subset of participants from the diagnostic test accuracy study to investigate the perspectives, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening among individuals with CKD. Discussion The DETECT study will target the three major unknowns about early cancer detection in CKD. Findings from our study will provide accurate and definitive estimates of screening efficacy and efficiency for colorectal cancer, and

  20. Flight test results of failure detection and isolation algorithms for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, F. R.; Motyka, P. R.; Bailey, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight test results for two sensor fault-tolerant algorithms developed for a redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit are presented. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) consists of four two-degrees-of-freedom gyros and accelerometers mounted on the faces of a semi-octahedron. Fault tolerance is provided by edge vector test and generalized likelihood test algorithms, each of which can provide dual fail-operational capability for the IMU. To detect the wide range of failure magnitudes in inertial sensors, which provide flight crucial information for flight control and navigation, failure detection and isolation are developed in terms of a multi level structure. Threshold compensation techniques, developed to enhance the sensitivity of the failure detection process to navigation level failures, are presented. Four flight tests were conducted in a commercial transport-type environment to compare and determine the performance of the failure detection and isolation methods. Dual flight processors enabled concurrent tests for the algorithms. Failure signals such as hard-over, null, or bias shift, were added to the sensor outputs as simple or multiple failures during the flights. Both algorithms provided timely detection and isolation of flight control level failures. The generalized likelihood test algorithm provided more timely detection of low-level sensor failures, but it produced one false isolation. Both algorithms demonstrated the capability to provide dual fail-operational performance for the skewed array of inertial sensors.

  1. Zinc reduces the detection of cocaine, methamphetamine, and THC by ELISA urine testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatratnam, Abhishek; Lents, Nathan H

    2011-07-01

    Federal workplace drug testing was initiated during the late 1980s. Since then, numerous methods have been employed to subvert these drug tests, adulteration of urine samples being the most common. A wide variety of adulterants has been reported to date along with suitable methods of their detection. Recently, websites have claimed that zinc sulfate can be an effective adulterant to bypass drug testing. Herein, these claims are investigated using standard drug detection kits and urine samples adulterated with zinc. Drug-free urine samples were fortified with different amounts methamphetamines and benzoylecgonine, to which zinc sulfate was added to study its effect. Urine samples from acute marijuana smokers were also obtained in order to study the effects of zinc supplements on THC drug testing. All urine drug testing was performed using ELISA detection kits manufactured by Immunalysis. Both zinc sulfate and zinc supplements are effective in interfering with the detection of all three drugs by Immunalysis drug detection kits. Also, no suitable method could be established to detect zinc in urine samples. Zinc can be an effective adulterant in urine for some illicit drugs that are commonly screened under routine drug testing.

  2. Test retest reliability and minimal detectable change of a novel submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James D; Bandy, William D; Whittemore, Joe D

    2011-05-01

    Measurement of graded exercise test duration is clinically important and can be assessed by maximal graded exercise testing. Yet, limitations of maximal graded exercise testing exist. An alternative to maximal graded exercise testing is submaximal graded exercise testing. However, no studies have investigated the reliability of a submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of a novel submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. Fifteen people (4 men, 11 women) with a mean age of 26.20 years (SD = 9.04) participated in this study. A novel submaximal graded exercise test was used to measure graded exercise test duration for each participant. Endpoints of the test were either 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate or voluntarily stopping the test, whichever endpoint occurred first. Heart rate and graded exercise test duration were constantly measured throughout the test. Graded exercise test duration was defined as the total duration (minutes) of the test. For all participants, the submaximal graded exercise test was conducted at baseline and 48-72 hours thereafter. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest reliability of the test in determining graded exercise test duration was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.83-0.98). The MDC of the test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration was 0.86 minutes. The results suggest that clinicians can use this novel submaximal graded exercise test to reliably measure graded exercise test duration with a measurement error, as expressed by the MDC, of 0.86 minutes.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  4. PageFocus: Using paradata to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    Cheating threatens the validity of unproctored online achievement tests. To address this problem, we developed PageFocus, a JavaScript that detects when participants abandon test pages by switching to another window or browser tab. In a first study, we aimed at testing whether PageFocus could detect and prevent cheating. We asked 115 lab and 186 online participants to complete a knowledge test comprising items that were difficult to answer but easy to look up on the Internet. Half of the participants were invited to look up the solutions, which significantly increased their test scores. The PageFocus script detected test takers who abandoned the test page with very high sensitivity and specificity, and successfully reduced cheating by generating a popup message that asked participants not to cheat. In a second study, 510 online participants completed a knowledge test comprising items that could easily be looked up and a reasoning task involving matrices that were impossible to look up. In a first group, a performance-related monetary reward was promised to the top scorers; in a second group, participants took part in a lottery that provided performance-unrelated rewards; and in a third group, no incentive was offered. PageFocus revealed that participants cheated more when performance-related incentives were offered. As expected, however, this effect was limited to items that could easily be looked up. We recommend that PageFocus be routinely employed to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

  5. Effect of blood on ROM diagnosis accuracy of PAMG-1 and IGFBP-1 detecting rapid tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Babett; Duwe, Wiebke; Schlehe, Bettina; Pitts, Regina; Wagner, Dirk; Wutkewicz, Katja; Chuvashkin, Dmitry; Abele, Harald; Lachmann, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Vaginal bleeding may be present in up to 30% of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of a rupture of the fetal membranes (ROM). The presence of blood may lead to false positive results with biochemical markers. The data presented in this study came from a multi-centric prospective observational clinical study that, for the first time, systematically evaluated the performance of placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) detecting tests in 151 women with vaginal bleedings as well as signs and symptoms indicative of ROM. Our data showed better performance for the PAMG-1 compared with the IGFBP-1 detecting tests in all quality parameters evaluated. In detail, sensitivity (SN) was 97.8% (91.0%), specificity (SP) was 91.5% (75.0%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 94.6% (83.5%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 96.4% (85.7%) for PAMG-1 tests (and IGFBP-1 tests, respectively). A major difference between both tests was related to the number of non-evaluable test results (e.g., hidden bands due to blood smear on the test strips). While 2% of all results were not evaluable for PAMG-1 tests, this artifact appeared in 11% of the results obtained with IGFBP-1 tests. This difference and also those in Specificity and PPV were statistically significant, demonstrating superiority of PAMG-1 over IGFBP-1 detecting tests. In conclusion, the PAMG-1 detecting test was significantly less susceptible to interference by blood than the IGFBP-1 detecting test.

  6. Comparative evaluation of coagglutination and latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit for detection of rota virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur M

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagglutination test was compared with commercially available latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit for detection of rota virus in faecal samples from clinically suspected cases of viral gastroenteritis. Out of 80 test samples 16 (20% and 20 (25.3% were positive for rota virus antigen by Rotalex kit and coagglutination test respectively. All the 40 controls were negative for viral antigen by Rotalex kit and only one gave positive result by coagglutination test. Coagglutination test was found to be economical, sensitive and specific for screening and rapid diagnosis of Rota virus diarrhoea.

  7. A pdf-Free Change Detection Test Based on Density Difference Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Li; Alippi, Cesare; Zhao, Dongbin

    2018-02-01

    The ability to detect online changes in stationarity or time variance in a data stream is a hot research topic with striking implications. In this paper, we propose a novel probability density function-free change detection test, which is based on the least squares density-difference estimation method and operates online on multidimensional inputs. The test does not require any assumption about the underlying data distribution, and is able to operate immediately after having been configured by adopting a reservoir sampling mechanism. Thresholds requested to detect a change are automatically derived once a false positive rate is set by the application designer. Comprehensive experiments validate the effectiveness in detection of the proposed method both in terms of detection promptness and accuracy.

  8. Good versus Good Enough? Empirical tests of methane leak detection sensitivity of a commercial infrared camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P; Wang, Jingfan; McGuire, Mike; Bell, Clay S; Zimmerle, Daniel; Brandt, Adam R

    2018-01-19

    Methane - a key component of natural gas - is a potent greenhouse gas. A key feature of recent methane mitigation policies is the use of periodic leak detection surveys, typically done with optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies. The most common OGI technology is an infrared camera. In this work, we experimentally develop detection probability curves for OGI-based methane leak detection under different environmental and imaging conditions. Controlled single blind leak detection tests show that the median detection limit (50% detection likelihood) for FLIR-camera based OGI technology is about 20 g CH4/h at an imaging distance of 6 m, an order of magnitude higher than previously reported estimates of 1.4 g CH4/h. Furthermore, we show that median and 90% detection likelihood limit follows a power-law relationship with imaging distance. Finally, we demonstrate that real-world marginal effectiveness of methane mitigation through periodic surveys approaches zero as leak detection sensitivity improves. For example, a median detection limit of 100 g CH4/h is sufficient to detect the maximum amount of leakage that is possible through periodic surveys. Policy makers should take note of these limits while designing equivalence metrics for next-generation leak detection technologies that can trade sensitivity for cost without affecting mitigation priorities.

  9. [Viral load test conducive to excluding negative subjects from suspects in HIV antibody detections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Fa-Xin; Zhang, Qi-Yun; Sun, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Qin; Ye, Jing-Rong; Liu, Hai-Lin; Lu, Hong-Yan

    2008-01-01

    To study whether plasma viral load testing is helpful to exclude ones free from Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from suspects in HIV antibody detections. 19 Specimens, which showed disconcordant results of the two HIV EIA testing (S/CO test, were selected. Viral load of the specimens were detected. A six-month follow up survey in detecting HIV antibody was conducted in these subjects. None of these 19 cases was observed to be positive HIV viral loads and there was no any progress in WB bands development during the follow-up period. The possibility of HIV infection could be excluded. When the specimens react with very low intensity in both EIA and WB, negative viral load result is conducive to exclude negative subjects from suspects in HIV antibody detections.

  10. Comparison of Schirmer's test and tear film breakup time test to detect tear film abnormalities in patients with pterygium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atiya; Yahya, Kamran; Fasih, Uzma; Waqar-ul-Huda; Shaikh, Arshad

    2012-11-01

    To compare tear film breakup time test with Schirmer's test in patients with pterygium. The case-control study, involving 86 patients with unilateral primary pterygium aged between 30 and 70 years, was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Karachi Medical and Dental College, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, from May 2009 to December 2010. The eye with pterygium was taken as the case, and was compared with the other eye without pterygium which was taken as the control in these patients. All patients underwent routine ophthalmic examination. Tear film tests such as Schirmer's test and tear film breakup time test were performed on all these eyes. Results of tear function test between the eyes with pterygium (cases) and the eye without pterygium (control) were compared. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Chi square test was used for comparing the results of the cases and the controls. Of the 86 patients, 63 (73.3%) were men, while 23 (26.7%) were women. The median age was 41 years. There were 62 (72.1%) patients with pterygium in the right eye, while 24 (27.9%) had it in the left. Among the involved eyes, decreased tear breakup time (10 seconds. On the other hand, 8 (9.3 %) eyes with pterygium had Schirmer's test positive and 78 (90.7 %) eyes had it negative. Tear film breakup time test has better diagnostic value compared to Schirmer's test in detecting tear film abnormality in patients with pterygium.

  11. Evaluation of seed health testing methods for the detection of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of four seed health testing techniques namely the blotter, deep- freezing blotter, ragdoll and agar plate methods in detecting seed-borne fungi of African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Harms seeds was evaluated. The blotter method was found to be the most suitable testing technique ...

  12. A Review of Methods for Detection of Test and Item Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Nancy A.

    Few issues have provoked as much controversy as the methods for detecting item and test bias. A recent illustration of the controversy surrounding this issue could be seen in the emotional reactions to the publication of "The Bell Curve." This paper reviews methods of evaluating both item and test bias. Small heuristic data sets are…

  13. Sensitive ELISA dipstick test for the detection of chloroquine in urine under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwick, P.; Eggelte, T. A.; Hess, F.; Tueumuna, T. T.; Payne, D.; Nothdurft, H. D.; von Sonnenburg, F.; Löscher, T.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) dipstick test for detecting chloroquine (CQ) in urine in a malaria-endemic region of north-western Namibia. Urine samples from 92 patients attending the outpatient department of Kamhaku Hospital with suspected malaria infection were tested

  14. Standardization of the egg hatch test for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson-Himmelstjerna, von G.; Coles, G.; Jackson, F.; Bauer, C.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Cirak, V.; Demeler, J.; Donnan, A.; Dorny, P.; Epe, C.; Harder, A.; Hoglund, J.; Kaminsky, R.; Kerboeuf, D.; Kuttler, U.; Papadopoulos, E.; Posedi, J.; Small, J.; Varady, M.; Verscruysse, J.; Wirtherle, N.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to reliably detect anthelmintic resistance is a crucial part of resistance management. If data between countries are to be compared, the same test should give the same results in each laboratory. As the egg hatch test for benzimidazole resistance is used for both research and surveys,

  15. Application of functional IDDQ testing in a VLIW processor towards detection of aging degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, functional IDDQ testing has been applied for a 90nm VLIW processor to effectively detect aging degradation. This technique can provide health data for reliability evaluation as used in e.g. prognostic software for lifetime prediction. The test environment for validation, implementing

  16. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Abu Bakar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10. The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.

  17. The detection of sensitivity of proprioception by a new clinical test: the dual joint position test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Yesim Yetimalar; Çiftçi, Yeliz; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2013-07-01

    To date, very few studies have paid attention to the joint sense (proprioception) of toes other than the big toe. We evaluated the sensitivity of joint position sense at the joint of the great toe in comparison to other digits, and with that determined by the dual digit stimulation test, in a sample of healthy normal controls and patients with clinical diagnosis of the lemniscal system dysfunction. Seventy-two patients with lemniscal system dysfunction (55 clinically definitive multiple sclerosis, 17 vasculitis) and 110 healthy volunteers participated in the study. All subjects underwent the joint position sense test of all digits of upper and lower extremities. The position sense resulting from the combined operation of the joints of the second and the fourth digits (simultaneous two digits position sense) was also measured and subsequently compared with the results of the great toe position sense. Upper extremities: no difference was found in recognition of the position sense in the single digits of the upper extremities between patients and healthy volunteers. There was a significant difference in the dual joint position test of the right upper extremity between patients and the case group (pproprioception of the great toe neither in the right and nor in the left side between patients and normal subjects. However, the joint position sense of other single digits was deteriorated in the patients, a difference that was significant compared to normal controls (pproprioception of simultaneous dual digits is diminished in patients when compared to a single digit position sense. Moreover, the great toe proprioception is less sensitive than other digits. Taken together, these observations lend evidence for a new clinical method which we named as dual joint position test. We suggest this novel method offers clinical utility to demonstrate lemniscal system dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of milk ring test and some serological tests in the detection of Brucella melitensis in Syrian female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Ramadan, Lila; Akel, Rand

    2011-04-01

    Brucella melitensis infection prevalence among Syrian female sheep, to evaluate a number of serological tests and to discuss some epidemiological aspects of brucellosis, was studied. A total of 2,580 unvaccinated Syrian female sheep sera samples were tested for B. melitensis antibodies detection using four serological methods: the Rose Bengal test (RBT), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the complement fixation test (CFT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). In addition, 2,375 milk samples were collected, then milk ring test (MRT) and bacterial isolation test were employed to evaluate the natural organism shedding. The samples were considered positive in 66%, 64%, and 60% when we employed the RBT, SAT, and iELISA tests, respectively. Whereas, the CFT test revealed the smallest number of positive samples. By using the MRT, the total prevalence of brucellosis was nearly 38% of samples. A large variation was observed concerning the studied areas, ranging from 24% in Tartous to 44% in both Damascus and Damascus rural areas. Brucella was isolated from only 677 samples out of the 2,375 female sheep milk samples.

  19. Design of a Test Bed for evaluating an Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Jung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Intrusion detection system (IDS) in domestic nuclear installation should be established in consideration of environmental and site-specific factors. Prior to this, a guidance of the IDS based on those factors at the specific nuclear facility should be provided. We have designed a concept of a test bed, which consists IDS and CCTV system, in order to execute several performance tests. The ultimate purpose of this study is to establish a test bed in which IDS could be evaluated and developed.

  20. S-band radar calibration test of the Lightning Detection and Ranging system (LDAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    A calibration and an accuracy assessment of the Lightning Detection and Ranging System (LDAR) were attempted through a simultaneous track of an S Band radar transponder and a lightning simulator carried by the NASA 6 airplane on a test flight. Included in the report are the results of the calibration test, error analyses of the radar, and the LDAR systems, and recommendations for future calibration tests.

  1. Detection of antibody against limax amoebae by means of the indirect haemagglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the procuedure of the indirect haemagglutination test employed in the detection of specific antibodies against pathogenic amoebae of the genera Naegleria and Acanthamoeba. The preservation of all ingredients obtained by lyophilisation provide for a standard pattern of the test. The results of the test with experimentally prepared immune rabbit sera demonstrate an antigenic uniformity of the various isolates of Naegleria fowleri, and their marked difference from Acanthamoeba.

  2. GlutenTox® Pro Test for the Detection of Gluten in Select Foods and Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Síglez, Miguel A; Nocea, Bárbara; del Mar Pérez, María; Ma García, Eva; León, Laura; Galera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The GlutenTox® Pro Test is an immunochromatographic test for the detection of gluten in foods and on surfaces with varying compositions and levels of processing, from raw foods/ingredients to final product testing. The Method Developer evaluation for the validation of the GlutenTox Pro Test Kit (Biomedal Diagnostics, Sevilla, Spain) for the detection of gluten in foods and on surfaces was conducted at Biomedal, S. L., Camas, Sevilla, Spain. The GlutenTox Pro test method was evaluated by testing the following: cross-reactivity, interference, specificity and sensitivity, robustness, stability, lot-to-lot variation, food matrix, and environmental surface. To evaluate the performance of the GlutenToxPro test for the detection of gluten, 10 matrixes were selected: rice flour, bread/biscuit, rolled oat, pâté, and yogurt (and a second bread matrix for incurred sampled testing) for the food matrix study and food-grade painted wood, plastic, rubber, sealed ceramic, and stainless steel for the environmental surface matrix study. For the food matrix study, 30 replicates were evaluated at six spiked levels of gluten (0, 3, 8, 15, 25, and 45 ppm) against four detection thresholds (5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm) for each food matrix. Additionally, 10 replicates were evaluated at a concentration of 10,000 ppm using all four detection thresholds only for rice flour matrix. Three replicates of each concentration level of gluten were analyzed using paired samples by the AOAC OMA 2012.01 reference method for each food matrix. For the environmental surface study, 30 replicates were evaluated at a low spike level of gluten (16 ng/16 cm2), five replicates at a high spike level of gluten (400 ng/16 cm2), and five replicates at an unspiked control level (0 ng/16 cm2) for each surface matrix. Upon completion of testing, the probability of detection values and confidence intervals were calculated and plotted versus the concentration level as determined by the reference method when applicable. An

  3. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Seven Commercial Tests for Detection of Heterophile Antibody in Infectious Mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Skulnick

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of heterophile antibodies in infectious mononucleosis is the most rapid and cost-effective method for confirming the clinical diagnosis of the disease. This study compared seven commercial test kits (the Oxoid Infectious Mononucleosis Kit [Oxoid Ltd], Immunoscan Im-Latex [Baxter Travenol], Mono-Latex [Wampole Laboratories], Monospot and Im Screen Test [Ortho Diagnostics], Immunoscan Im-RBC Test [Baxter Travenol], and Infectious Mononucleosis Test [NCS Diagnostics] to the Davidsohn differential test. All of the kits were shown to be acceptable for use, with specificities and sensitivities greater than 96.5% and 95.5%, respectively.

  5. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  6. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Neck Pain and Proprioception Revisited Using the Proprioception Incongruence Detection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Daniel S; Hillier, Susan; Madden, Victoria J; Smith, Ross T; Broecker, Markus; Meulders, Ann; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-05-01

    Proprioceptive imprecision is believed to contribute to persistent pain. Detecting imprecision in order to study or treat it remains challenging given the limitations of current tests. The aim of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive imprecision could be detected in people with neck pain by testing their ability to identify incongruence between true head motion and a false visual reference using the Proprioception Incongruence Detection (PID) Test. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Twenty-four people with neck pain and 24 matched controls repeatedly rotated to specific markers within a virtual world and indicated if their true head rotation was more or less than the rotation suggested by the visual feedback. Visual feedback was manipulated at 6 corrections, ranging from 60% of true movement to 140% of true movement. A standard repositioning error (RPE) test as undertaken for comparison. Healthy controls were better able to detect incongruence between vision and true head rotation (X̅=75.6%, SD=8.5%) than people with neck pain were (X̅=69.6%, SD=12.7%). The RPE test scores were not different between groups. The PID Test score related to self-reported pain intensity but did not relate to RPE test score. Causality cannot be established from this cross-sectional study, and further work refining the PID Test is needed for it to offer clinical utility. Proprioceptive precision for neck movement appears worse in people with neck pain than in those without neck pain, and the extent of the deficit appears to be related to usual pain severity. The PID Test appears to be a more sensitive test than the RPE test and is likely to be useful for assessment of proprioceptive function in research and clinical settings. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Rapid detection of CWD PrP: comparison of tests designed for the detection of BSE or scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, T; Schenck, E V; Balachandran, A; Miller, M W; Langenberg, J; Frölich, K; Steinbach, F

    2012-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) mainly affecting cervids in North America. The accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP(CWD) ) in the CNS and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (PrP(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. Species known to be naturally infected by CWD include Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Recently, large-scale disease eradication or control programs have been attempted to curtail the spread of disease. But reports of diseased free-ranging and farmed cervids in many locations in the USA and Canada are still continuing. The goal of this study was to find sensitive rapid test systems that are reliably able to detect CWD-associated PrP(CWD) in cervids, thereby reviewing an important control tool in case the disease spreads further and reaches Europe. Seven tests, originally developed for the detection of other TSE diseases such as Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including two Western blots, four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and one lateral flow device, were included in this study. All seven tests evaluated were able to detect pathogenic prion proteins (PrP(CWD) ) in Northern American infected animals and distinguish physiologic prion protein (PrP(c) ) in brainstem (obex region) and lymph node samples from North American and European cervids, respectively. However, the specificity and sensitivity of the tests differed significantly. Highly sensitive tests for the detection of prion proteins are an important tool both for the design of effective disease surveillance and control strategies and the safety of the food chain. Thus, this study contributes to the emergency preparedness against CWD. © 2011 Crown Copyright. Reproduced with

  9. Performance of commercially available serological diagnostic tests to detect Leishmania infantum infection on experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi

    2013-01-31

    Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance test of SKIROC II ASIC chip for the radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, W. J.; Namgoong, H.; Kim, B. K.; Song, H. S.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, S. H.; Choi, H. J.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Chai, J. S. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    There is a PCB board called FEV8 board which can readout analog signal from any energy source, and amplify it for signal processing. For precise detection, the board had been designed to operate in wide range of energy condition, with high-resolutive detection performance. This function has the possibility of the utilization for the radiation detection. The channels of the prototype board must be evaluated to make sure that the board is perfect or not. This research had made an progress for the radiation detection as well as the electronics of the intricate combination of the measurement instrumentations. The number of the noisy channels had been measured for threshold scan, and every channels in the board had been evaluated. By improving the experimental conditions such as test script in Linux system or well designed ground condition of the test bench, much more clean data will be able to be acquisited.

  11. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-11-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release at 0.5 ppm without interference from other pure metals, alloys, or leather. A market survey using the test showed no chromium(VI) release from work tools (0/100). However, chromium(VI) release from metal screws (7/60), one earring (1/50), leather shoes (4/100) and leather gloves (6/11) was observed. We found no false-positive test reactions. Confirmatory testing was performed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and spectrophotometrically on extraction fluids. The use of DPC as a colorimetric spot test reagent appears to be a good and valid test method for detecting the release of chromium(VI) ions from leather and metal articles. The spot test has the potential to become a valuable screening tool. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evolution of Testing Algorithms at a Tertiary Care Hospital for the Detection of Clostridium difficile Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, Mohammed; Govindan, Parasanth; Vattappillil, Anupama

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is the commonest cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Methods for C.difficle detection include toxins or enzyme detection by immunoassays, cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) or FDA approved PCR. Due to the tedious and time consuming nature of the CCNA and the suboptimal specificity and sensitivity of EIAs, these assays cannot be used as stand-alone tests. One approach of combining these assays, is by two-step algorithm, where Ag-EIAs is used as screening test and confirmation of positives either by a toxin detection enzyme immunoassays or by CCNA. Another approach is a three-step algorithm, where Ag-EIAs is used as screening test, and all positives are tested by a toxin detection EIA and if toxin detection negative, further tested either by PCR or by CCNA. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a new two-step algorithm for the detection of toxigenic CD and its role in improvement of turn-around-time. Methods A total of 3518 nonformed stool specimens from suspected cases of CDAD were collected. Specimens were tested either by GDH-toxin A/B ICA; or by GeneXpert C. diificile PCR as per the algorithm (Figure 1). Results Of 3518 stool specimens tested; 130 (3.70%) were positive and 2989 (84.96%) were negative by GDH-toxin A/B ICA while 399 (11.34%) required PCR. None of the negative GDH and positive toxin A/B samples tested positive by PCR. Also, none of the negative GDH and negative toxin A/B samples tested positive by PCR (Figure 2). Conclusion Study indicates that when the GDH-toxin A/B ICA is used, almost 89 % of the results could be reported within 30 minutes; about 3.7 % of them being positive results and 84.96 % being negative. Confirmation of the discrepant GDH and Toxin A/B results was by PCR. The new algorithm offered rapid detection of C.difficile by ICA, judicious use of PCR and effectively reduced turnaround time. Figure-1: Two-step algorithm for C difficile testing. Figure-2: Results of two

  13. Airborne testing of the joint mine detection technology's tunable filter multispectral camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Frank J.; Holloway, John H., Jr.; Petee, Danny A.; Stetson, Suzanne P.; Suiter, Harold R.; Tinsley, Ken R.

    2002-08-01

    The Joint Mine Detection Technology (JMDT) project, following successful field-based testing of its new Tunable Filter Multispectral Camera (TFMC) has now completed initial Airborne Testing of the TFMC at both the Coastal Systems Station and Eglin Air Force Base sites. An overview of the testing is presented along with the investigations into the advantages of a system utilizing the TFMC in airborne operational scenarios. The TFMC-like tuning flexibility was flight-tested using optimized wavelength combinations, which were found using field test data, over a variety of backgrounds and altitudes. The data revealed the suitability of background tuning, polarization, and mechanically co-registered channels as benefits to multispectral target detection. The data were also compared to that collected with an IMC-201 camera, using the six filters of the Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) system, in order to determine improvements over existing capabilities.

  14. Validation of test portion pooling for Salmonella spp. detection in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Fornés, David; McMahon, Wendy; Moulin, Julie; Klijn, Adrianne

    2017-03-20

    Pathogen monitoring programs play a crucial role in the verification of the effectiveness of implemented hygiene control measures. Sampling and testing procedures included in pathogen monitoring involve the analysis of multiple test portions where all samples must be negative for the presence of pathogens for a certain test portion size. Many food safety programs require increased testing due to the risks that a pathogen may be present. Analyzing more than one test portion could prove to be expensive and labor intensive. When more than one test portion for a specified food item is to be tested, the test portions could be combined to form a pooled test portion to reduce laboratory workload, costs of reagents and further confirmatory steps, but only when evidence is available that pooling does not affect on the number of false negative results for different matrices. This study has been performed to demonstrate the equivalence of test portion pooling for Salmonella detection with five different methods using cultural, ELISA and Real Time PCR technologies. Twenty-three (23) different food items including confectionary products, meal components, infant formula, pet food and powdered beverages were validated. Other complementary parameters like impact of minimum and maximum incubation time for pre-enrichment, temperature profile, pH and Salmonella concentration after the pre-enrichment and background flora have also been considered in the study. The results showed that pooling test portions up to 375g for Salmonella detection is valid for the methods that were tested. Relative level of detection (RLOD50) values for 22 of the food items tested were acceptable (i.e. lower than 2.5) when comparing the reference sample size (25g) against the alternative pooled sample size (375g), provided the enrichment broth was pre-warmed and maximum incubation time is respected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ninhydrin sweat test: a simple method for detecting antibodies neutralizing botulinum toxin type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Bernhard; Moraru, Ekaterina; Auff, Eduard; Benesch, Michael; Poewe, Werner; Wissel, Jörg; Müller, Jörg; Entner, Tanja; Bigalke, Hans; Schnider, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Approximately 5% of patients with cervical dystonia receiving repeated botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) injections develop secondary loss of treatment benefit. Currently available tests to directly detect neutralizing BoNT/A antibodies (BoNT/A-AB) are either expensive or time consuming. To establish a simple, clinically useful test for antibody detection, we adapted the ninhydrin sweat test (NST). Eighteen dystonic patients with secondary nonresponse and clinically suspected BoNT/A-AB formation were tested for BoNT/A-AB in the mouse diaphragm test (MDT). In addition, the size of the anhidrotic area was determined by the NST 21 days after an intradermal dose of 10 U Dysport into the hypothenar region of the left palm. In nine patients, positive BoNT-AB titers were found in the MDT. There was a significant correlation between the BoNT/A-AB titers and the anhidrotic area (Spearman's rho = -0.9, P < 0.0001). Both tests provided comparably good results with respect to qualitative antibody detection. In the clinical situation of secondary nonresponse to BoNT/A therapy, the economical NST may be a helpful tool to detect neutralizing BoNT/A-AB. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society

  16. Building a Test Collection for Significant-Event Detection in Arabic Tweets

    OpenAIRE

    Almerekhi, Hind Ali

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of microblogging services like Twitter, researchers discov- ered a rich medium for tackling real-life problems like event detection. However, event detection in Twitter is often obstructed by the lack of public evaluation mechanisms such as test collections (set of tweets, labels, and queries to measure the eectiveness of an information retrieval system). The problem is more evident when non-English lan- guages, e.g., Arabic, are concerned. With t...

  17. Noninvasive prenatal testing in China: Future detection of rare genetic diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Lin; Tang, Qi; Sun, Baiyu; Xu, Lingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) provides an innovative method to detect genetic conditions in fetuses using a maternal blood sample, thus avoiding the risk of miscarriage associated with traditional invasive procedures. Since 80% of rare diseases are genetic diseases, NIPT has the potential to detect rare genetic diseases early on and it has been used in many countries and regions. Since China has the world's largest population of patients with rare diseases, NIPT has been implemented in ...

  18. Comparison of Four Serological Tests for Detecting Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus after Vaccination in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Go Woon; Cho, Jung Eun; Ju, Young Ran; Hong, Young-Jin; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Eui Yul; Jeong, Young Eui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV. Methods The study included 29 children who had completed a primary immunization schedule with an inactivated vaccine against JEV derived from mouse brain (n = 15) or a live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (n = 14). Serum samples were collected between 3 months and 47 months after the last immunization. The serum samples were tested by performing the PRNT, HI test, in-house IFA, and commercial ELISA. The antibody detection rates were compared between tests. Results All 29 serum samples were positive with the PRNT, showing antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:2560. The HI test showed positive rates of 86.7% (13/15) and 71.4% (10/14) in the inactivated and live attenuated vaccine groups, respectively. The results of the IFA for immunoglobulin (Ig)G were positive in 53.3% (8/15) of children in the inactivated vaccine group and 35.7% (5/14) in the live attenuated vaccine group. Neither the IFA nor ELISA detected JEV IgM antibodies in any of the 29 children. Conclusion These results show that detection rates of vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV have a wide range (0–100%) depending on the testing method as well as the time since immunization and individual differences between children. These findings are helpful in interpreting serological test results for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in situations where vaccines are widely administered. PMID:25389515

  19. Detection of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B (SEB) Using an Immunochromatographic Test Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamzad, Mehrdad; Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Ghassemi, Soheil; Vaise Malekshahi, Ziba; Shooshtari, Mohammad Barat

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important microorganisms that causes various human diseases by secreting virulence factors known as staphylococcal super antigens (SAgs). Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) is a bacterial antigen that is responsible for food poisoning in humans. Among SEB detection methods, a lateral flow device (LFD) is ideal for rapid immunochromatographic tests because it is easy to use, requires minimal time to produce results, and does not require personnel training. In our laboratory, the production of an immunochromatographic test strip, for the detection of SEB using a sandwich assay and a competitive method, was described; the test can detect SEB with high sensitivity. The strip assays were compared with PCR, a valid method for detection. For PCR, a specific sequence for SEB production was detected using primers designed according to GenBank sequences. In total, 80 food samples suspected of SEB contamination were assessed using the two methods. Fifty-four samples were contaminated based on the PCR technique and twenty-six of those were confirmed using the strip assay. The sensitivity of the sandwich method was approximately 10 ng/mL and that of the competitive method was approximately 250 ng/mL. In the LFD, a highly specific monoclonal antibody used for both the sandwich and competitive methods resulted in an increased sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of a minimal SEB concentration.

  20. Aptamer-Based Lateral Flow Test Strip for Rapid Detection of Zearalenone in Corn Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijia; Liu, Lihong; Duan, Nuo; Li, Qian; Zhou, You; Wang, Zhouping

    2018-02-28

    An aptamer-based lateral flow test strip was developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN). This assay was based on the competition for the aptamer between ZEN and its complementary sequence. Several experimental conditions that could influence sensitivity have been investigated, including the concentration of aptamer and NaCl used in the probe preparation, the mole ratio of streptavidin and biotinylated DNA used in the preparation of test line and control line, and the loading quantity of gold nanoparticles-aptamer conjugates (AuNPs-Apt). Under the optimal experimental conditions, we successfully detected ZEN within a detection range of 5-200 ng/mL and the visual limit of detection of 20 ng/mL. This aptamer-based strip was successfully applied to the determination of ZEN in spiked corn samples, and the recoveries were from 93.4% to 114.2%. All detections can be achieved within 5 min. The results demonstrated that the developed aptamer-based lateral flow test strip is a potential alternative tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of ZEN.

  1. [Validation of three screening tests used for early detection of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Esperanza Rosalba; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Quiñones-Pérez, Juan M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of three screening methods used in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma versus the histopathology diagnosis. a selected sample of 107 women attended in the Opportune Detection of Cervicouterine Cancer Program in the Hospital de Zona 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, during the 2003 was included. The application of Papa-nicolaou, acetic acid test, and molecular detection of human papillomavirus, and histopatholgy diagnosis were performed in all the patients at the time of the gynecological exam. The detection and tipification of the human papillomavirus was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysis of polymorphisms of length of restriction fragments (RFLP). Histopathology diagnosis was considered the gold standard. The evaluation of the validity was carried out by the Bayesian method for diagnosis test. the positive cases for acetic acid test, Papanicolaou, and PCR were 47, 22, and 19. The accuracy values were 0.70, 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. since the molecular method showed a greater validity in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma we considered of vital importance its implementation in suitable programs of Opportune Detection of Cervicouterino Cancer Program in Mexico. However, in order to validate this conclusion, cross-sectional studies in different region of country must be carried out.

  2. Highly selective and reversible chemosensor for Pd(2+) detected by fluorescence, colorimetry, and test paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Liu, Xiaomei; Lu, Huizhe; Wang, Hongmei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-01-21

    A "turn-on" fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor (RBS) for Pd(2+) has been designed and synthesized through introduction of sulfur as a ligand atom to Rhodamine B. RBS exhibits high selectivity (freedom from the interference of Hg(2+ )in particular) and sensitivity toward Pd(2+) with a detection limit as low as 2.4 nM. RBS is also a reversible sensor, and it can be made into test paper to detect Pd(2+) in pure water. Compared to the chemosensors that introduced phosphorus to Rhodamine to detect Pd(2+), RBS can be synthesized more simply and economically.

  3. Quantification of the power of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium testing to detect genotyping error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David G; Kraft, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium has become an accepted test for genotyping error. While it is generally considered that testing departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to detect genotyping error is not sensitive, little has been done to quantify this sensitivity. Therefore, we have examined various models of genotyping error, including error caused by neighboring SNPs that degrade the performance of genotyping assays. We then calculated the power of chi-square goodness-of-fit tests for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to detect such error. We have also examined the affects of neighboring SNPs on risk estimates in the setting of case-control association studies. We modeled the power of departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium as a test to detect genotyping error and quantified the effect of genotyping error on disease risk estimates. Generally, genotyping error does not generate sufficient deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to be detected. As expected, genotyping error due to neighboring SNPs attenuates risk estimates, often drastically. For the moment, the most widely accepted method of detecting genotyping error is to confirm genotypes by sequencing and/or genotyping via a separate method. While these methods are fairly reliable, they are also costly and time consuming.

  4. Heat treatment prior to testing allows detection of antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in feline serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E; Raymond, Melissa R; Thomas, Jennifer E; Gruntmeir, Jeff; Hostetler, Joe A; Meinkoth, James H; Blagburn, Byron L

    2014-01-13

    Diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats is complicated by the difficulty associated with reliable detection of antigen in feline blood and serum samples. To determine if antigen-antibody complex formation may interfere with detection of antigen in feline samples, we evaluated the performance of four different commercially available heartworm tests using serum samples from six cats experimentally infected with D. immitis and confirmed to harbor a low number of adult worms (mean = 2.0). Sera collected 168 (n = 6), 196 (n = 6), and 224 (n = 6) days post infection were tested both directly and following heat treatment. Antigen was detected in serum samples from 0 or 1 of 6 infected cats using the assays according to manufacturer's directions, but after heat treatment of serum samples, as many as 5 of 6 cats had detectable antigen 6-8 months post infection. Antibodies to D. immitis were detected in all six infected cats by commercial in-clinic assay and at a reference laboratory. These results indicate that heat treatment of samples prior to testing can improve the sensitivity of antigen assays in feline patients, supporting more accurate diagnosis of this infection in cats. Surveys conducted by antigen testing without prior heat treatment of samples likely underestimate the true prevalence of infection in cats.

  5. A highly accurate inclusive cancer screening test using Caenorhabditis elegans scent detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Hirotsu

    Full Text Available Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1. To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.

  6. Comparative description of immunological tests for tuberculous infection detection. Mass screening opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Slogotskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal: to evaluate efficiency of various immunological tests (tuberculin tests, IGRA tests, skin tests containing proteins specific for M. tuberculosis – ESAT-6, CFP10 in the detection of tuberculous infection, their sensitivity, specificity and opportunities to be used for mass screening in children and adolescents.Materials. 122 Russian and foreign publications have been analyzed including reviews and meta-analyses.Results. The specificity of tuberculin testing is fairly low due mass BCG vaccination among children and adolescents, IGRA tests possess high specificity but can not be used for mass screening due to high costs, intravenous manipulations and need for the well-equipped laboratory. Skin tests with agents containing the same proteins as IGRA tests are highly specific, sensible and effective for mass screening. Detection rate of tuberculosis and post-tuberculous changes in children with positive reaction to these tests is significantly higher compared to those with positive reactions to Mantoux testing with 2 TU PPD-L. 

  7. The detection of tightly closed flaws by nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. [fatigue crack formation in aluminum alloy test specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, W. D.; Rathke, R. A.; Todd, P. H., Jr.; Mullen, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current and X-radiographic techniques were optimized and applied to the evaluation of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy test specimens in integrally stiffened panel, and weld panel configurations. Fatigue cracks in integrally stiffened panels, lack-of-fusion in weld panels, and fatigue cracks in weld panels were the flaw types used for evaluation. A 2319 aluminum alloy weld filler rod was used for all welding to produce the test specimens. Forty seven integrally stiffened panels containing a total of 146 fatigue cracks, ninety three lack-of-penetration (LOP) specimens containing a total of 239 LOP flaws, and one-hundred seventeen welded specimens containing a total of 293 fatigue cracks were evaluated. Nondestructive test detection reliability enhancement was evaluated during separate inspection sequences in the specimens in the 'as-machined or as-welded', post etched and post proof loaded conditions. Results of the nondestructive test evaluations were compared to the actual flaw size obtained by measurement of the fracture specimens after completing all inspection sequences. Inspection data were then analyzed to provide a statistical basis for determining the flaw detection reliability.

  8. Early detection of neuropathy in leprosy: a comparison of five tests for field settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Inge; Post, Erik; Brandsma, Wim; Ziegler, Dan; Rahman, Moshiur; Alam, Khorshed; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2017-09-01

    Early detection and treatment of neuropathy in leprosy is important to prevent disabilities. A recent study showed that the Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS) and Warm Detection Thresholds (WDT) tests can detect leprosy neuropathy the earliest. These two tests are not practical under field conditions, however, because they require climate-controlled rooms and highly trained staff and are expensive. We assessed the usefulness of alternative test methods and their sensitivity and specificity to detect neuropathy at an early stage. Through a literature search we identified five alternative devices that appeared user-friendly, more affordable, portable and/or battery-operated: the Neuropad®, Vibratip™, NC-Stat®DPNCheck™, NeuroQuick and the Thermal Sensibility Tester (TST), assessing respectively sweat function, vibration sensation, nerve conduction, cold sensation and warm sensation. In leprosy patients in Bangladesh, the posterior tibial and sural nerves that tested normal for the monofilament test and voluntary muscle test were assessed with the NCS and WDT as reference standard tests. The alternative devices were then tested on 94 nerves with abnormal WDT and/or NCS results and on 94 unaffected nerves. Sensitivity and specificity were the main outcomes. The NeuroQuick and the TST showed very good sensitivity and specificity. On the sural nerve, the NeuroQuick had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 86%. The TST had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 82%. Both the NC-Stat®DPNCheck™ and Vibratip™ had a high specificity (88% and 100%), but a low sensitivity (16% and 0%). On the posterior tibial nerve, the NeuroQuick and the TST also showed good sensitivity, but the sensitivity was lower than for the sural nerve. The Neuropad® had a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 61%. The NeuroQuick and TST are good candidates for further field-testing for reliability and reproducibility. The feasibility of production on a larger scale should be examined.

  9. Comparison of an automated confrontation testing device versus finger counting in the detection of field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sherry J; Cooper, Jeffrey; Feldman, Jerry; Horn, David

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare an automated confrontation visual field testing (ACV) device with traditional finger-counting confrontation visual field testing (FCV). Forty-five eyes of 45 subjects with glaucoma, 5 eyes of 5 subjects with neurologic disease and 15 eyes of 15 normal subjects (age matched to the subjects with glaucoma by frequency) were tested on both ACV and FCV. All subjects with glaucoma and neurologic disease had visual field loss on white-on-white Humphrey perimetry (HVF). The FCV was performed in 8 meridians in a normally lighted room, whereas ACV was performed in a darkened room. The ACV device consisted of a black rectangular box with 4 1.0-mm red light-emitting diodes at each corner and a fixation hole at the center. Four automated randomized presentations were presented, and the subject was asked to identify the number of red lights seen (from 1 to 4). Any point missed on any of the presentations on either test was recorded as a failure. All normal subjects passed both tests. FCV detected field loss in 33.0% of glaucomatous eyes, whereas ACV detected field loss in 58% of glaucomatous eyes (P confrontation visual field testing using an automated testing device has a greater sensitivity in the detection of moderate visual field loss than finger counting confrontation visual fields.

  10. Rapid Quantitative Serological Test for Detection of Infection with Mycobacterium leprae, the Causative Agent of Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagon, Marivic F.; Maghanoy, Armi; Orcullo, Florenda M.; Cang, Marjorie; Dias, Ronaldo Ferreira; Collovati, Marco; Reed, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy remains an important health problem in a number of regions. Early detection of infection, followed by effective treatment, is critical to reduce disease progression. New sensitive and specific tools for early detection of infection will be a critical component of an effective leprosy elimination campaign. Diagnosis is made by recognizing clinical signs and symptoms, but few clinicians are able to confidently identify these. Simple tests to facilitate referral to leprosy experts are not widely available, and the correct diagnosis of leprosy is often delayed. In this report, we evaluate the performance of a new leprosy serological test (NDO-LID). As expected, the test readily detected clinically confirmed samples from patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy, and the rate of positive results declined with bacterial burden. NDO-LID detected larger proportions of MB and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy than the alternative, the Standard Diagnostics leprosy test (87.0% versus 81.7% and 32.3% versus 6.5%, respectively), while also demonstrating improved specificity (97.4% versus 90.4%). Coupled with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader), the NDO-LID test provided consistent, objective test interpretation that could facilitate wider use in nonspecialized settings. In addition, results obtained from sera at the time of diagnosis, versus at the end of treatment, indicated that the quantifiable nature of this system can also be used to monitor treatment efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that the NDO-LID/Smart Reader system can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of MB leprosy and can detect a significant number of earlier-stage infections. PMID:24478496

  11. Reveal Salmonella 2.0 test for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. Performance Tested Method 960801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non

  12. A robust hypothesis test for the sensitive detection of constant speed radiation moving sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.dumazert@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim; Moline, Yoann; Sannié, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Normand, Stéphane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Méchin, Laurence [CNRS, UCBN, Groupe de Recherche en Informatique, Image, Automatique et Instrumentation de Caen, 14050 Caen (France)

    2015-09-21

    Radiation Portal Monitors are deployed in linear networks to detect radiological material in motion. As a complement to single and multichannel detection algorithms, inefficient under too low signal-to-noise ratios, temporal correlation algorithms have been introduced. Test hypothesis methods based on empirically estimated mean and variance of the signals delivered by the different channels have shown significant gain in terms of a tradeoff between detection sensitivity and false alarm probability. This paper discloses the concept of a new hypothesis test for temporal correlation detection methods, taking advantage of the Poisson nature of the registered counting signals, and establishes a benchmark between this test and its empirical counterpart. The simulation study validates that in the four relevant configurations of a pedestrian source carrier under respectively high and low count rate radioactive backgrounds, and a vehicle source carrier under the same respectively high and low count rate radioactive backgrounds, the newly introduced hypothesis test ensures a significantly improved compromise between sensitivity and false alarm. It also guarantees that the optimal coverage factor for this compromise remains stable regardless of signal-to-noise ratio variations between 2 and 0.8, therefore allowing the final user to parametrize the test with the sole prior knowledge of background amplitude.

  13. Accelerated detection of brown-rot decay : comparison of soil block test, chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and immunodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Clausen; S. N. Kartal

    2003-01-01

    Early detection of wood decay is critical because decay fungi can cause rapid structural failure. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different methods purported to detect brown-rot decay in the early stages of development. The immunodiagnostic wood decay (IWD)test, soil block test/cake pan test, mechanical property tests, and chemical...

  14. Sequential detection of influenza epidemics by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Closas Pau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a well known and common human respiratory infection, causing significant morbidity and mortality every year. Despite Influenza variability, fast and reliable outbreak detection is required for health resource planning. Clinical health records, as published by the Diagnosticat database in Catalonia, host useful data for probabilistic detection of influenza outbreaks. Methods This paper proposes a statistical method to detect influenza epidemic activity. Non-epidemic incidence rates are modeled against the exponential distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimate for the decaying factor λ is calculated. The sequential detection algorithm updates the parameter as new data becomes available. Binary epidemic detection of weekly incidence rates is assessed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on the absolute difference between the empirical and the cumulative density function of the estimated exponential distribution with significance level 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. Results The main advantage with respect to other approaches is the adoption of a statistically meaningful test, which provides an indicator of epidemic activity with an associated probability. The detection algorithm was initiated with parameter λ0 = 3.8617 estimated from the training sequence (corresponding to non-epidemic incidence rates of the 2008-2009 influenza season and sequentially updated. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test detected the following weeks as epidemic for each influenza season: 50−10 (2008-2009 season, 38−50 (2009-2010 season, weeks 50−9 (2010-2011 season and weeks 3 to 12 for the current 2011-2012 season. Conclusions Real medical data was used to assess the validity of the approach, as well as to construct a realistic statistical model of weekly influenza incidence rates in non-epidemic periods. For the tested data, the results confirmed the ability of the algorithm to detect the start and the end of epidemic periods. In general, the proposed test could

  15. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multianalyte Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer: Speedbumps and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tainsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become very clear that a single molecular event is inadequate to accurately predict the biology (or pathophysiology of cancer. Furthermore, using any single molecular event as a biomarker for the early detection of malignancy may not comprehensively identify the majority of individuals with that disease. Therefore, the fact that technologies have arisen that can simultaneously detect several, possibly hundreds, of biomarkers has propelled the field towards the development of multianalyte-based in vitro diagnostic early detection tests for cancer using body fl uids such as serum, plasma, sputum, saliva, or urine. These multianalyte tests may be based on the detection of serum autoantibodies to tumor antigens, the presence of cancer-related proteins in serum, or the presence of tumor-specific genomic changes that appear in plasma as free DNA. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostic approaches to detect early stage cancer may provide the physician with evidence of cancer, but the question arises as to how the information will affect the pathway of clinical intervention. The confirmation of a positive result from an in vitro diagnostic cancer test may involve relatively invasive procedures to establish a true cancer diagnosis. If in vitro diagnostic tests are proven to be both specific, i.e. rarely produce false positive results due to unrelated conditions, and sufficiently sensitive, i.e. rarely produce false negative results, then such screening tests offer the potential for early detection and personalized therapeutics using multiple disease-related targets with convenient and non-invasive means. Here we discuss the technical and regulatory barriers inherent in development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays.

  17. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  18. Ground standoff mine detection system (GSTAMIDS) block 0 contractor test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, J. R. R.; Page, Lochlin; Green, Brian; Schweitzer, Timothy W.; Howard, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Under contact to the United States Army, EG&G Technical Services currently is conducting field tests of the Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) Block 0 Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) systems. GSTAMIDS is a spiral development effort designed to provide the war fighter an incremental, near-term capability to execute on-road countermine missions. GSTAMIDS is being developed in three distinct blocks. The primary mission for GSTAMIDS Block 0 is route clearance, automatically detecting and marking all metallic and non-metallic Anti-Tank (AT) mines. It consists of a Mine Detection and marking System (MDS) mounted on a teleoperated Mine Detection Vehicle (MDV) and a Main Computer System (MCS) mounted in a Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV). Both vehicles have overpass capability for AT mines, as well as armor anti-mine blast protection. The MPCV mounted MCS receives sensor data, along with inertial navigation data, from the MDS via an RF PCM telemetry link, automatically processes and fuses the data for mine detection and sends mine marking commands back to the MDV. The MDS sensors provide a three-meter detection swath and include nine (9) Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR), nine (9) Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI) metal detectors, and (as an option) two (2) long-wave infrared (LWIR) cameras. Contractor testing includes raw sensor data collection and sensor evaluation, performance (Pd and FAR), operating and storage environment, and EMI/EMC radiated emissions and susceptibility, as well as maintenance demonstrations. Testing has been conducted at a number of test mine lanes in different climates under a wide range of weather conditions over the past year and a half. This paper will present contractor test results to date.

  19. A simple field test for the detection of faecal pollution in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manja, K S; Maurya, M S; Rao, K M

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive field investigation in several parts of India has revealed that the presence of coliforms in drinking water is associated with hydrogen sulfide-producing organisms. This paper describes a simple, rapid, and inexpensive field test for the screening of drinking water for faecal pollution, based on the detection of hydrogen sulfide. The new test showed good agreement with the standard most probable number (MPN) test. It proved highly successful in the field when it was used to detect faecal pollution and to monitor water quality during an outbreak of water-borne hepatitis A infection in the city of Gwalior. The test is reliable and simple to perform, and will be especially useful for screening rural water supplies and for large-scale screening of urban water supplies where resources, time, manpower, and laboratory facilities are limited.

  20. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, D.A.; Down, M P; Shillcock, R.C.; Eagleman, D. M.; Simner, J

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a sing...

  1. Rapid Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in Human Serum by Use of an Immunochromatographic Dipstick Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithinger, Richard; Grijalva, Mario J.; Chiriboga, Rosa F.; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyolé; Torres, Jaime R.; Pavia-Ruz, Norma; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Cardinal, Marta V.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a commercially available immunochromatographic dipstick test to detect Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 366 human serum samples with known serological results from Argentina, Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela. One hundred forty-nine of 366 (40.7%) and 171/366 (46.7%) samples tested positive by dipstick and serology, respectively. Dipstick sensitivity was calculated to be 84.8% (range between countries, 77.5 to 95%), and specificity was 97.9% (95.9 to 100%). PMID:20534801

  2. [Micron]ADS-B Detect and Avoid Flight Tests on Phantom 4 Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Dandachy, Mike; Truong, Hong; Aruljothi, Arun; Vedantam, Mihir; Epperson, Kraettli; McCartney, Reed

    2018-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California and Vigilant Aerospace Systems collaborated for the flight-test demonstration of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast based collision avoidance technology on a small unmanned aircraft system equipped with the uAvionix Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast transponder. The purpose of the testing was to demonstrate that National Aeronautics and Space Administration / Vigilant software and algorithms, commercialized as the FlightHorizon UAS"TM", are compatible with uAvionix hardware systems and the DJI Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The testing and demonstrations were necessary for both parties to further develop and certify the technology in three key areas: flights beyond visual line of sight, collision avoidance, and autonomous operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Vigilant Aerospace Systems have developed and successfully flight-tested an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system on the Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system architecture is especially suited for small unmanned aircraft systems because it integrates: 1) miniaturized Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast hardware; 2) radio data-link communications; 3) software algorithms for real-time Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast data integration, conflict detection, and alerting; and 4) a synthetic vision display using a fully-integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration geobrowser for three dimensional graphical representations for ownship and air traffic situational awareness. The flight-test objectives were to evaluate the performance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid collision avoidance technology as installed on two small unmanned aircraft systems. In December 2016, four flight tests

  3. Genetic effects of a 13q31.1 microdeletion detected by noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yifang; Zhao, Heyong; Shi, Donghong; Peng, Wen; Xie, Luwen; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Fuman; Zhang, Hongyun; Wang, Xietong

    2014-01-01

    Microdeletions of chromosome 13q31.1 are relatively rare. These types of deletions may cause different genetic effects on genotypes and/or phenotypes. There are several ways to detect microdeletions; noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is the newest detection method. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic effects of a 13q31.1 microdeletion detected by NIPT and to reconfirm the feasibility of this procedure in predicting sub-chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs). The 13q31.1 microdeletion, which has previously been described as a disease-associated fragment, was detected by NIPT in a pregnant woman. To validate the finding and to explain the origin of this sub-chromosomal CNV, we collected fetal amniotic fluid and parental blood samples and tested the samples using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Karyotype analysis was performed on all of the samples to rule out balanced or mosaic anomalies. The aCGH results confirmed the NIPT findings. We detected the same type of microdeletion in the fetus and the mother via aCGH. The mother had a normal phenotype; therefore, in a post-test genetic counseling session, we predicted a normal phenotype for the fetus. After delivery, the normal phenotype of the newborn confirmed our prediction. Based on the present study, this 13q31.1 microdeletion may be considered as a chromosomal polymorphism. This study also reconfirmed the feasibility of obtaining a molecular karyotype of a fetus via NIPT.

  4. A Novel Computerized Test for Detecting and Monitoring Visual Attentional Deficits and Delirium in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cameron; Hendry, Kirsty; Wilson, Elizabeth S; Walsh, Timothy; Allerhand, Mike; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Tieges, Zoë

    2017-07-01

    Delirium in the ICU is associated with poor outcomes but is under-detected. Here we evaluated performance of a novel, graded test for objectively detecting inattention in delirium, implemented on a custom-built computerized device (Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU). A pilot study was conducted, followed by a prospective case-control study. Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh General ICU. A pilot study was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 20 patients. This was followed by a validation study in 30 selected patients with and without delirium (median age, 63 yr; range, 23-84) who were assessed with the Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU on up to 5 separate days. Presence of delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. The Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU involves a behavioral assessment and a computerized test of attention, requiring patients to count slowly presented lights. Thirty patients were assessed a total of 79 times (n = 31, 23, 15, 8, and 2 for subsequent assessments; 38% delirious). Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU scores (range, 0-11) were lower for patients with delirium than those without at the first (median, 0 vs 9.5), second (median, 3.5 vs 9), and third (median, 0 vs 10.5) assessments (all p Delirium Test Box-ICU score less than or equal to 5 was 100% sensitive and 92% specific to delirium across assessments. Longitudinally, participants' Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU performance was associated with delirium status. These findings suggest that the Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU has diagnostic utility in detecting ICU delirium in patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale Score greater than -3. The Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU has potential additional value in longitudinally tracking attentional deficits because it provides a range of scores and is sensitive to change.

  5. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrochon, Anaick; Kemoun, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Background Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility) in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test), to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI) were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test) and motor functions (10-meter walking test). All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT]), and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI) of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. PMID:24426778

  6. Improved anomaly detection using multi-scale PLS and generalized likelihood ratio test

    KAUST Repository

    Madakyaru, Muddu

    2017-02-16

    Process monitoring has a central role in the process industry to enhance productivity, efficiency, and safety, and to avoid expensive maintenance. In this paper, a statistical approach that exploit the advantages of multiscale PLS models (MSPLS) and those of a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test to better detect anomalies is proposed. Specifically, to consider the multivariate and multi-scale nature of process dynamics, a MSPLS algorithm combining PLS and wavelet analysis is used as modeling framework. Then, GLR hypothesis testing is applied using the uncorrelated residuals obtained from MSPLS model to improve the anomaly detection abilities of these latent variable based fault detection methods even further. Applications to a simulated distillation column data are used to evaluate the proposed MSPLS-GLR algorithm.

  7. Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit. AOAC Performance Tested Method(SM) 021203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Cheung, Win Den; Opdyke, Jason; Harvey, John; Chong, Songchun; Moon, Cheol Gon

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella, one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, is a significant public health concern worldwide. There is a need in the food industry for methods that are simple, rapid, and sensitive for the detection of foodborne pathogens. In this study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonella, was evaluated according to the current AOAC guidelines. The validation consisted of lot-to-lot consistency, stability, robustness, and inclusivity/exclusivity studies, as well as a method comparison of 10 different food matrixes. In the validation, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit was used in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus PCR system and the Samsung Food Testing Software for the detection of Salmonella species. The performance of the assays was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG) 4.05: Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg, and Catfish and the and U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference methods. The validation was conducted using an unpaired study design for detection of Salmonella spp. in raw ground beef, raw pork, raw ground pork, raw chicken wings, raw salmon, alfalfa sprouts, pasteurized orange juice, peanut butter, pasteurized whole milk, and shell eggs. The Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit demonstrated lot-to-lot consistency among three independent lots as well as ruggedness with minor modifications to changes in enrichment incubation time, enrichment incubation temperature, and DNA sample volume for PCR reaction. Stability was observed for 13 months at -20 degrees C and 3 months at 5 degrees C. For the inclusivity/exclusivity study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit correctly identified 147 Salmonella species isolates out of 147 isolates tested from each of three different enrichment

  8. Hypothesis tests for the detection of constant speed radiation moving sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim; Sannie, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Normand, Stephane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 99 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Mechin, Laurence [CNRS, UCBN, Groupe de Recherche en Informatique, Image, Automatique et Instrumentation de Caen, 4050 Caen, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors are deployed in linear network to detect radiological material in motion. As a complement to single and multichannel detection algorithms, inefficient under too low signal to noise ratios, temporal correlation algorithms have been introduced. Test hypothesis methods based on empirically estimated mean and variance of the signals delivered by the different channels have shown significant gain in terms of a tradeoff between detection sensitivity and false alarm probability. This paper discloses the concept of a new hypothesis test for temporal correlation detection methods, taking advantage of the Poisson nature of the registered counting signals, and establishes a benchmark between this test and its empirical counterpart. The simulation study validates that in the four relevant configurations of a pedestrian source carrier under respectively high and low count rate radioactive background, and a vehicle source carrier under the same respectively high and low count rate radioactive background, the newly introduced hypothesis test ensures a significantly improved compromise between sensitivity and false alarm, while guaranteeing the stability of its optimization parameter regardless of signal to noise ratio variations between 2 to 0.8. (authors)

  9. Comparative efficacy of antigen and antibody detection tests for human trichinellosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanoska, D.; Cuperlovic, K.; Gamble, H.R.; Murrell, K.D.

    1989-02-01

    Sera collected from patients with suspected or confirmed exposure to Trichinella spiralis were tested for circulating parasite antigens and antiparasite antibodies. Using an immunoradiometric assay, excretory--secretory antigens from muscle-stage larvae of T. spiralis were detected in the sera of 47% of 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 13% of 39 patients without clinical signs but suspected of exposure to infected meat. In comparison, antibodies were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent test in the circulation of 100% of the 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 46% of the 39 patients with suspected exposure. The presence of antibodies specific to excretory-secretory products of T. spiralis muscle larvae was confirmed in the majority of the samples tested by a monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition assay. These results indicate that antibody detection is a more sensitive diagnostic method for human trichinellosis, but that antigen detection might be a useful confirmatory test because it is a direct demonstration of parasite products in the circulation.

  10. Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van G.J.; Wichers, J.H.; Falcao Ferreira, T.M.; Ghati, D.; Amerongen, van A.; Deelder, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed reagent strip assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis based on parasite antigen detection in urine of infected individuals was evaluated. The test uses the principle of lateral flow through a nitrocellulose strip of the sample mixed with a colloidal carbon conjugate of a

  11. HIV-Selectest enzyme immunoassay and rapid test: ability to detect seroconversion following HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Norris, Philip J; Busch, Michael P; Haynes, Barton F; Park, Susan; Sasono, Pretty; Mlisana, Koleka; Salim, Abdool Karim; Hecht, Frederick M; Mulenga, Joseph; Chomba, Elwyn; Hunter, Eric; Allen, Susan; Nemo, George; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R; Margolick, Joseph B; Golding, Hana

    2010-01-01

    HIV-Selectest is a serodiagnostic enzyme immunoassay (EIA), containing p6 and gp41 peptides, designed to differentiate between vaccine-induced antibodies and true infections. A rapid test version of the HIV-Selectest was developed. Both assays detected HIV antibodies in men and women within 2 to 4 weeks of infection, with sensitivity similar to third-generation EIAs.

  12. The Micral-Test as a screening tool to detect micro- albuminuria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    girls were recruited. The number of subjects recruited from each age group depended on the proportions of the different age groups of patients on the clinic register. The Micral-Test as a screening tool to detect micro- albuminuria in children 5 - 15 years old with sickle cell anaemia, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital.

  13. Diagnostic power of the non-ischaemic forearm exercise test in detecting glycogenosis type V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogrel, J.Y.; Bogaart, F. van den; Ledoux, I.; Ollivier, G.; Petit, F.; Koujah, N.; Behin, A.; Stojkovic, T.; Eymard, B.; Voermans, N.C.; Laforet, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This was a retrospective study to assess the diagnostic value of the non-ischaemic forearm exercise test in detecting McArdle's disease. METHODS: The study is a retrospective diagnostic study over 15 years (1999-2013) on a referred sample of patients suffering from exercise

  14. Comparison of IRT Likelihood Ratio Test and Logistic Regression DIF Detection Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Burcu; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    The Type I error rates and the power of IRT likelihood ratio test and cumulative logit ordinal logistic regression procedures in detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for polytomously scored items were investigated in this Monte Carlo simulation study. For this purpose, 54 simulation conditions (combinations of 3 sample sizes, 2 sample…

  15. Manufacturing and testing flexible microfluidic devices with optical and electrical detection mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivan, M.G.; Vivet, F.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible microfluidic devices made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were manufactured by soft lithography, and tested in detection of ionic species using optical absorption spectroscopy and electrical measurements. PDMS was chosen due to its flexibility and ease of surface modification by exposure

  16. On the infrasound detected from the 2013 and 2016 DPRK's underground nuclear tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J. D.; Averbuch, G.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    The underground nuclear tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) generated atmospheric infrasound both in 2013 and 2016. Clear detections were made in the Russian Federation (I45RU) and Japan (I30JP) in 2013 at stations from the International Monitoring System. Both tropospheric

  17. Test and evaluation protocols for GPR-based mine-detection systems: A proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Ralston, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of commercially available multisensor mine detection systems, the need for standardised test and evaluation procedures becomes more pressing. For metal detectors this already has been established and is laid down in the CEN workshop document CWA14747:2003 [1]. The ITEP multisensor

  18. Omnibus test for change detection in a time sequence of polarimetric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2016-01-01

    in the covariance matrix representation is carried out. The omnibus test statistic and its factorization detect if and when change(s) occur. The technique is demonstrated on airborne EMISAR C-band data but may be applied to ALOS, COSMO-SkyMed, RadarSat-2, Sentinel-1, TerraSAR-X, and Yoagan or other dual- and quad...

  19. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  20. A Stepwise Test Characteristic Curve Method to Detect Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-01-01

    An important assumption of item response theory is item parameter invariance. Sometimes, however, item parameters are not invariant across different test administrations due to factors other than sampling error; this phenomenon is termed item parameter drift. Several methods have been developed to detect drifted items. However, most of the…

  1. Timed motor tests can detect subtle motor dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, C.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.; Borm, G.F.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is important for putative neuroprotective therapies to be initiated in the earliest stage of the disease. We investigated whether a previously validated timed motor test (TMT) battery could detect subtle motor dysfunction in early PD patients and even in

  2. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infection detected by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); M. Rutten (Martine); R. Koelewijn (Rob); A.M. Zeeman (Anne Marie); J. Verweij (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter); C.H. Kocken (Clemens); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a PCR-confirmed case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection with a high parasitemia level and clinical signs of severe malaria in a migrant worker from Malaysian Borneo in the Netherlands. Investigations showed that commercially available rapid antigen tests for detection of human

  3. Equipment to detect bad isolator in hard disk drive testing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Tumthong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With increasing data capacity of hard disk drive (HDD today, the testing time of a hard disk drive becames longer. It takes approximately 25 - 30 hours. Vibrations during HDD testing process significantly contribute to testing errors. Isolator and pocket slot were used to reduce the vibration. The physical property of isolators was charged, that led to the results of HDD testing. Because of the error, the testing process needs to be redone. As a result, the testing time is extended. This research developed a system to detect isolator function using “Ariduino Due” microcontroller along with “Micro-electromechanical System – MEMS” accelerator sensor. For the precise analysis, the statistical method called t test was used to group isolators by their functioning conditions. It was found that, the measured vibration amplitude in any direction canbe used as the criteria for identifying the isolator conditions. This detective system can determine the bad isolator at early stage before the exceeding vibration will affect the testing process.

  4. Application of DIC techniques to detect onset of necking and fracture in uniaxial and bulge tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, TB; Min, JY; Carsley, JE

    2017-09-01

    This document provides information on and instructions for detecting the onset of necking in conventional uniaxial tension tests and biaxial bulge tests, using DIC technology and analysis methods developed at General Motors. The analysis enables reduction of the number and the costs of tests required in conventional FLD determinations using Marciniak and Nakajima tooling, while also avoiding the most serious process-dependent effects associated with the latter tests. It also provides a cost effective approach to develop forming limits for anisotropic sheet materials. In addition to providing this new experimental technique, the document will review the new procedures developed at General Motors for analysis of FLD tests and bulge tests to obtain reliable input for complete material card descriptions of advanced constitutive and forming limit models.

  5. Detection of nuclear testing from surface concentration measurements: Analysis of radioxenon from the February 2013 underground test in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzeja, R. J.; Buckley, R. L.; Werth, D. W.; Chiswell, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    A method is outlined and tested to detect low level nuclear or chemical sources from time series of concentration measurements. The method uses a mesoscale atmospheric model to simulate the concentration signature from a known or suspected source at a receptor which is then regressed successively against segments of the measurement series to create time series of metrics that measure the goodness of fit between the signatures and the measurement segments. The method was applied to radioxenon data from the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) collection site in Ussuriysk, Russia (RN58) after the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) underground nuclear test on February 12, 2013 near Punggye. The metrics were found to be a good screening tool to locate data segments with a strong likelihood of origin from Punggye, especially when multiplied together to a determine the joint probability. Metrics from RN58 were also used to find the probability that activity measured in February and April of 2013 originated from the Feb 12 test. A detailed analysis of an RN58 data segment from April 3/4, 2013 was also carried out for a grid of source locations around Punggye and identified Punggye as the most likely point of origin. Thus, the results support the strong possibility that radioxenon was emitted from the test site at various times in April and was detected intermittently at RN58, depending on the wind direction. The method does not locate unsuspected sources, but instead, evaluates the probability of a source at a specified location. However, it can be extended to include a set of suspected sources. Extension of the method to higher resolution data sets, arbitrary sampling, and time-varying sources is discussed along with a path to evaluate uncertainty in the calculated probabilities.

  6. [Rapid-tests detection evaluation of Clostridium difficile toxins and microbiological investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Risa; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Shirano, Michinori; Matsushima, Aki; Nagao, Miki; Saito, Takashi; Takakura, Shunji; Ito, Yutaka; Higuchi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Michio; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated two rapid toxin tests for C. difficile combined with stool specimen cultures used from January 2006 to March 2009. Stool specimens numbered 877, 102 among which were from the cases of diagnosed clinical C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Rapid toxin A 'Uniquick' detection kits were used until October 2007 and toxin A&B 'TOX A/B' detection kits thereafter. Clinical CDAD was considered the detection gold standard. Uniquick sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 54.3%, 99.1%, 90.5%, and 93.2% while those for TOX A/B were 46.2%, 97.6%, 65.2%, and 95.0% and for culture 42.2%, 95.5%, 55.1%, and 92.6%. Rapid toxin tests tended to have better sensitivity than culture results although not significantly so, and Uniquick showed significantly better positive predictive value than TOX A/B or culture results. Among clinical CDAD cases, concordance with culture was 24.3% for Uniquick and 53.1% for TOX A/B. For stored strains, 27 were typed toxin A+B+ (48.1%), toxin A-B+ (37.0%) and toxin A-B- (14.8%) with toxin gene detection by PCR. Eight of the 10 toxin A-B+ strains were classified into two cluster by ribotyping, and 7 of those were detected in two hospital wards, indicated the possibility of nosocomial toxin A-B+ strain spread. The rapid toxin test for both toxins A and B should be used if toxin A-B+ predominate. Simultaneous culture testing may be useful for detecting clinical CDAD more accurately, however.

  7. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrochon A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaick Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun Laboratoire Mobilité, Vieillissement, Exercice (MOVE, EA 6314, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Poitiers, 8 Allée Jean Monnet, 86000 Poitiers, France; ISIS, Research Institute on Handicap and Aging, Paris, France Background: Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test, to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods: Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test and motor functions (10-meter walking test. All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT], and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results: Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion: The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. Keywords: spatial navigation, walking, trail making test, detection, mild cognitive impairment

  8. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  9. Clinical usefulness of multiplex PCR lateral flow in MRSA detection: a novel, rapid genetic testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihonyanagi, Shin; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Okada, Kiyomi; Uozumi, Toshiki; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Yamaguchi, Tokiko; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Sakurai, Keizou; Hirata, Yasuyoshi; Munekata, Shinichi; Ohtani, Shinichi; Takemoto, Tsuyoshi; Bandoh, Yuki; Akahoshi, Tohru

    2012-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with exogenous cassette DNA containing the methicillin-resistant gene mecA (SCCmec) poses a problem as a drug-resistant bacterium responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections. The frequency of MRSA detection has recently been increasing rapidly in Japan, and SCCmec has also been classified more diversely into types I-V. A rapid test is essential for early diagnosis and treatment of MRSA infections, but detection by conventional methods requires at least two days. The newly developed multiplex PCR lateral flow method allows specific amplification of femA to detect S. aureus, mecA to detect SCCmec, and kdpC to detect SCCmec type II; moreover, PCR products can be evaluated visually in about 3 h. In the present study, we developed a PCR lateral flow method for MRSA using this method and investigated its clinical usefulness in the detection of MRSA. The results showed a diagnostic concordance rate of 91.7% for MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus between bacteriological examination and PCR lateral flow, and a high level of specificity in PCR lateral flow. In addition, a higher detection rate for S. aureus using the same sample was observed for PCR lateral flow (70.2%) than for bacteriological tests (48.6%). The above results show that PCR lateral flow for MRSA detection has high sensitivity, specificity, and speed, and its clinical application as a method for early diagnosis of MRSA infections appears to be feasible.

  10. Simultaneous detection of pathogenic bacteria using agglutination test based on colored silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Zhao, Guangying; Dou, Wenchao

    2015-01-01

    Aimed to explore an agglutination test which can simultaneously detect two pathogenic bacteria, an agglutination test based on colored silica nanoparticles (colored-SiNps) was established in this work. Monodisperse colored-SiNps were used as agglutination test carriers; red-SiNps and blue-SiNps were prepared by reverse microemulsion with C.I. Reactive red 136 and C.I. Reactive Blue 14. Then the red-SiNps were sensitized with antibodies against E. sakazaki and denoted as IgG-red-SiNps; The blue-SiNps were coated with antibodies against S. pullorum and S. Gallinarum and denoted as IgGblue- SiNps. The mixture solution of IgG-red-SiNps and IgG-blue-SiNps could simultaneously agglutinate with E. sakazakii and S. pullorum and S. gallinarum on glass slide. The E. sakazakii and S. pullorum and S. gallinarum could be simultaneously detected by agglutination test with obvious agglutination phenomena. The E. sakazakii and S. pullorum and S. gallinarum could both be detected in a range from 4×10(3) to 4×10(9) CFU/mL. The pullorum and S. gallinarum and E. sakazakii in the infected food sample were detected by mixture solution of IgG-red-SiNps and IgG-blue-SiNps too. This agglutination test was easy and rapid, it might be useful for in situ rapid detection method for simultaneously screening different pathogenic microorganisms of foods and feeds in the field.

  11. Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the D2 Test of Attention in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Posen; Lu, Wen-Shian; Liu, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-12-08

    The d2 Test of Attention (D2) is a commonly used measure of selective attention for patients with schizophrenia. However, its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) are unknown in patients with schizophrenia, limiting its utility in both clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to examine the test-retest reliability and MDC of the D2 in patients with schizophrenia. A rater administered the D2 on 108 patients with schizophrenia twice at a 1-month interval. Test-retest reliability was determined through the calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We also carried out Bland-Altman analysis, which included a scatter plot of the differences between test and retest against their mean. Systematic biases were evaluated by use of a paired t-test. The ICCs for the D2 ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. The MDCs (MDC%) of the seven subscores were 102.3 (29.7), 19.4 (85.0), 7.2 (94.6), 21.0 (69.0), 104.0 (33.1), 105.0 (35.8), and 7.8 (47.8), which represented limited-to-acceptable random measurement error. Trends in the Bland-Altman plots of the omissions (E1), commissions (E2), and errors (E) were noted, presenting that the data had heteroscedasticity. According to the results, the D2 had good test-retest reliability, especially in the scores of TN, TN-E, and CP. For the further research, finding a way to improve the administration procedure to reduce random measurement error would be important for the E1, E2, E, and FR subscores.

  12. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Clinical outcome of subchromosomal events detected by whole‐genome noninvasive prenatal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, J.; Wardrop, J.; Boomer, T.; Almasri, E.; Paxton, W. B.; Saldivar, J. S.; Dharajiya, N.; Monroe, T. J.; Farkas, D. H.; Grosu, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective A novel algorithm to identify fetal microdeletion events in maternal plasma has been developed and used in clinical laboratory‐based noninvasive prenatal testing. We used this approach to identify the subchromosomal events 5pdel, 22q11del, 15qdel, 1p36del, 4pdel, 11qdel, and 8qdel in routine testing. We describe the clinical outcomes of those samples identified with these subchromosomal events. Methods Blood samples from high‐risk pregnant women submitted for noninvasive prenatal testing were analyzed using low coverage whole genome massively parallel sequencing. Sequencing data were analyzed using a novel algorithm to detect trisomies and microdeletions. Results In testing 175 393 samples, 55 subchromosomal deletions were reported. The overall positive predictive value for each subchromosomal aberration ranged from 60% to 100% for cases with diagnostic and clinical follow‐up information. The total false positive rate was 0.0017% for confirmed false positives results; false negative rate and sensitivity were not conclusively determined. Conclusion Noninvasive testing can be expanded into the detection of subchromosomal copy number variations, while maintaining overall high test specificity. In the current setting, our results demonstrate high positive predictive values for testing of rare subchromosomal deletions. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26088833

  14. Immunomagnetic separation and visual fluorescence detection of Salmonella spp., using AOAC approved SAS Molecular Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Maganty, Gayatri; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Morey, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular Tests method for detection of Salmonella spp. in various food matrixes has been certified by the AOAC Research Institute and designated Performance Tested Method No. 021202. The current method modification includes the optional immunomagnetic separation (IMS) to enrich the bacteria as well as optional visual fluorescence readout without the use of a turbidimeter. The modifications were validated against the U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) reference methods. Food matrixes (chicken carcass rinse, beef trim, and spinach) were inoculated with low levels of Salmonella spp. (0.2-2 CFU/test portion) to generate fractional positives (5-15) in 20 inoculated samples. Samples were enriched with SAS Enrichment medium and incubated at 42 +/- 1 degree C. Enrichments were tested directly and subjected to anti-Salmonella IMS prior to the SAS Molecular Tests. Results were determined via visual fluorescence and via turbidity using a turbidimeter. All replicates were confirmed using the MLG or BAM reference method procedures, regardless of presumptive result. The SAS Molecular Tests Salmonella Detection modified methods were determined to be equivalent to the reference methods for the detection of Salmonella in chicken carcass rinse, beef trim, and fresh spinach. The inclusion of IMS in the modified method improved the detection rate of Salmonella in chicken carcass rinses and spinach. The optional use of visual fluorescent reagent and heat block either with IMS or without IMS produced results that were comparable to the results obtained from using a real-time turbidimeter.

  15. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  16. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Wang, Limin; Xue, Juanjuan; Dong, Jinbo; Cai, Jia; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-01-01

    A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS) for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection) of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field.

  17. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Wang

    Full Text Available A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field.

  18. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juanjuan; Dong, Jinbo; Cai, Jia; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-01-01

    A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS) for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection) of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field. PMID:28072878

  19. Test Report for Cricket Radiation Detection System Used In EPA Port Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourbaji, AA

    2004-08-11

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted field radiological measurements at two port locations at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The radiological measurements were performed on five radiation detection systems at the port of Darrow, Louisiana and three systems at the port of Charleston, South Carolina. Darrow was visited on January 20-23, 2004 and Charleston on May 25, 2004. All tested systems are designed to detect radioactive material that might be present in scrap metals as the scrap is being unloaded from ships. All eight systems are commercially known as the Cricket and manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems. Each radiation detection system consists of a detector with two channels and a wireless transmitter, both mounted on the grapple, and a controller located in the crane cab. The cranes at both locations are operated by the Cooper T. Smith Company. The purpose of the radiological measurements was to evaluate the performance of the radiation detection systems in terms of their ability to detect elevated radiation levels, and to develop a routine testing method for all EPA Cricket systems.

  20. An empirical Bayes test for allelic-imbalance detection in ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Keles, Sündüz

    2017-11-03

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) has enabled discovery of genomic regions enriched with biological signals such as transcription factor binding and histone modifications. Allelic-imbalance (ALI) detection is a complementary analysis of ChIP-seq data for associating biological signals with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It has been successfully used in elucidating functional roles of non-coding SNPs. Commonly used statistical approaches for ALI detection are often based on binomial testing and mixture models, both of which rely on strong assumptions on the distribution of the unobserved allelic probability, and have significant practical shortcomings. We propose Non-Parametric Binomial (NPBin) test for ALI detection and for modeling Binomial data in general. NPBin models the density of the unobserved allelic probability non-parametrically, and estimates its empirical null distribution via curve fitting. We demonstrate the advantages of NPBin in terms of interpretability of the estimated density and the accuracy in ALI detection using simulations and analysis of several ChIP-seq data sets. We also illustrate the generality of our modeling framework beyond ALI detection by an application to a baseball batting average prediction problem. This article has supplementary material available at Biostatistics online. The code and the sample input data have been also deposited to github https://github.com/QiZhangStat/ALIdetection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Alternative test for detection of coliforms bacteria in manually expressed human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Franz R; de Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra

    2002-01-01

    To compare an alternative method to the most probable number (MPN) test for the detection of total coliform present in manually expressed human milk. 343 samples of manually expressed human milk from flasks donated to the Human Milk Bank of Instituto Fernandes Figueira--IFF were sent to the Laboratory of Food Control of IFF. The samples were used for comparing both methods, i.e., the most probable number (MPN) method, as described in the "Standard methods for the examination of dairy products", and the alternative method. Coliforms were detected in 31.2% of the samples analyzed, with populations ranging from 3.0 x 10(0) to 1.1 x 10(4) total coliform MPN/mL. The comparison between classical and alternative methods showed similar results regarding the presence of coliform microorganisms in expressed human milk samples. The alternative method detected the presence of total coliform in all contaminated and in four noncontaminated samples according to the MNP method. The alternative test allows the detection of the presence or absence of coliforms and it is useful for the quality control of pasteurized flasks containing manually expressed human milk manipulated at human milk banks. Therefore, we conclude that the alternative test can be used in the routine of human milk banks as a substitute for the MNP method, since its cost is equivalent to 1/7 of the cost of the traditional method.

  2. Replicate PCR Testing and Probit Analysis for Detection and Quantitation of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, M.; Mahony, J. B.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Chong, S.; Petrich, A.; Chernesky, M.

    2001-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification of clinical specimens with low target concentration has variable sensitivity. We examined whether testing multiple aliquots of extracted DNA increased the sensitivity and reproducibility of Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by PCR. Nested and non-nested C. pneumoniae PCR assays were compared using 10 replicates of 16 serial dilutions of C. pneumoniae ATCC VR-1310. The proportion positive versus the C. pneumoniae concentration was modeled by probit regression analysis. To validate the model, 10 replicates of 26 previously positive patient specimens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), sputum, or nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) were tested. The proportion of replicates that were positive varied with the concentration of C. pneumoniae in the sample. At concentrations above 5 infection-forming units (IFU)/ml, both nested and non-nested PCR assay sensitivities were 90% or greater. The nested PCR was more sensitive (median detection, 0.35 versus 0.61 IFU/ml; relative median detection, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.99; P = 0.04). In clinical specimens, replicate PCR detected 15 of 26 (nested) versus 1 of 26 (non-nested, P < 0.001). For PBMC specimens, testing 1, 3, or 5 replicates detected 3, 5, or 9 of 10 positive specimens, respectively. Median C. pneumoniae concentrations were estimated at 0.07 IFU/ml for PBMC and at <0.03 IFU/ml for NPS specimens. We conclude that performing 5 or 10 replicates considerably increased the sensitivity and reproducibility of C. pneumoniae PCR and enabled quantitation for clinical specimens. Due to sampling variability, PCR tests done without replication may miss a large proportion of positive specimens, particularly for specimens with small amounts of target C. pneumoniae DNA present. PMID:11325993

  3. Test and analysis on the abnormal noise of the ultrasonic detection device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the phenomenon that the abnormal noise appear suddenly when the ultrasonic detection device works at the rate of 800mm/min, a vibration testing for this detection device is designed and investigated in this paper. Deep analysis are carried out based on the experimental modal analysis method of point excitation with multiple point three vectors in response and spectrum analysis method. The analysis results demonstrate the main reasons of the abnormal noise, which is due to the resonance between the motor and the ultrasonic station.

  4. Advanced Ultra-Violet (UV) Aircraft Fire Detection System. Volume 2. System Hardware Design, Software Design, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    8217FIRE DETECT TEST’ on CWU. Note: If oscilloscope does not trigger, adjust trigger level in conjunction with repeat depresions of ’FIRE DETECT TEST’ p...full, except with the prior written approval of the Director, B.C.S., and of the issuing laborator . A.D. Skinner. Head of Laboratory. Tested for

  5. Testing and validation of high density resequencing microarray for broad range biothreat agents detection.

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    Tomasz A Leski

    Full Text Available Rapid and effective detection and identification of emerging microbiological threats and potential biowarfare agents is very challenging when using traditional culture-based methods. Contemporary molecular techniques, relying upon reverse transcription and/or polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR/PCR provide a rapid and effective alternative, however, such assays are generally designed and optimized to detect only a limited number of targets, and seldom are capable of differentiation among variants of detected targets. To meet these challenges, we have designed a broad-range resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM for detection of tropical and emerging infectious agents (TEI including biothreat agents: RPM-TEI v 1.0 (RPM-TEI. The scope of the RPM-TEI assay enables detection and differential identification of 84 types of pathogens and 13 toxin genes, including most of the class A, B and C select agents as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, GA. Due to the high risks associated with handling these particular target pathogens, the sensitivity validation of the RPM-TEI has been performed using an innovative approach, in which synthetic DNA fragments are used as templates for testing the assay's limit of detection (LOD. Assay specificity and sensitivity was subsequently confirmed by testing with full-length genomic nucleic acids of selected agents. The LOD for a majority of the agents detected by RPM-TEI was determined to be at least 10(4 copies per test. Our results also show that the RPM-TEI assay not only detects and identifies agents, but is also able to differentiate near neighbors of the same agent types, such as closely related strains of filoviruses of the Ebola Zaire group, or the Machupo and Lassa arenaviruses. Furthermore, each RPM-TEI assay results in specimen-specific agent gene sequence information that can be used to assess pathogenicity, mutations, and virulence markers, results that are not generally

  6. A miniaturised image based fluorescence detection system for point-of-care-testing of cocaine abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Rafał; Krüger, Jan; Moynihan, Shane

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we describe a miniaturised image-based fluorescence detection system and demonstrate its viability as a highly sensitive tool for point-of-care-analysis of drugs of abuse in human sweat with a focus on monitor individuals for drugs of abuse. Investigations of miniaturised and low power optoelectronic configurations and methodologies for real-time image analysis were successfully carried out. The miniaturised fluorescence detection system was validated against a reference detection system under controlled laboratory conditions by analysing spiked sweat samples in dip stick and then strip with sample pad. As a result of the validation studies, a 1 ng mL-1 limit of detection of cocaine in sweat and full agreement of test results with the reference detection system can be reported. Results of the investigations open the way towards a detection system that integrates a hand-held fluorescence reader and a wearable skinpatch, and which can collect and in situ analyse sweat for the presence of cocaine at any point for up to tenths hours.

  7. Development of an improved species specific PCR test for detection of Haemophilus parasuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angen, Oystein; Oliveira, Simone; Ahrens, Peter; Svensmark, Birgitta; Leser, Thomas D

    2007-01-31

    method for genetically based identification of H. parasuis. The high species specificity of the test makes it suitable for detection of H. parasuis in clinical samples, regardless of the presence of affiliated species and contaminating flora. As the two PCR tests differ in sensitivity and specificity, the use of both PCR tests for different purposes is a possibility.

  8. Validation of serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test.

  9. Validation of serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Knauf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG, however, could be considered as a confirmatory test.

  10. Expanding analytical options in sports drug testing: Mass spectrometric detection of prohibited substances in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-08-15

    Continuously refining and advancing the strategies and methods employed in sports drug testing is critical for efficient doping controls. Besides improving and expanding the spectrum of target analytes, alternative test matrices have warranted in-depth evaluation as they commonly allow for minimal-/non-invasive and non-intrusive sample collection. In this study, the potential of exhaled breath (EB) as doping control specimen was assessed. EB collection devices employing a non-woven electret-based air filter unit were used to generate test specimens, simulating a potential future application in doping controls. A multi-analyte sports drug testing approach configured for a subset of 12 model compounds that represent specific classes of substances prohibited in sports (anabolic agents, hormone and metabolic modulators, stimulants, and beta-blockers) was established using unispray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and applied to spiked and elimination study EB samples. The test method was characterized concerning specificity, assay imprecision, and limits of detection. The EB collection device allowed for retaining and extracting all selected model compounds from the EB aerosol. Following elution and concentration, LC/MS/MS analysis enabled detection limits between 5 and 100 pg/filter and imprecisions ranging from 3% to 20% for the 12 selected model compounds. By means of EB samples from patients and participants of administration studies, the elimination of relevant compounds and, thus, their traceability in EB for doping control purposes, was investigated. Besides stimulants such as methylhexaneamine and pseudoephedrine, also the anabolic-androgenic steroid dehydrochloromethyltestosterone, the metabolic modulator meldonium, and the beta-blocker bisoprolol was detected in exhaled breath. The EB aerosol has provided a promising proof-of-concept suggesting the expansion of this testing strategy as a complement to currently utilized sports drug

  11. Cluster Detection Tests in Spatial Epidemiology: A Global Indicator for Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, Aline; Li, Xinran; Feschet, Fabien; Gaudart, Jean; Demongeot, Jacques; Boire, Jean-Yves; Ouchchane, Lemlih

    2015-01-01

    In cluster detection of disease, the use of local cluster detection tests (CDTs) is current. These methods aim both at locating likely clusters and testing for their statistical significance. New or improved CDTs are regularly proposed to epidemiologists and must be subjected to performance assessment. Because location accuracy has to be considered, performance assessment goes beyond the raw estimation of type I or II errors. As no consensus exists for performance evaluations, heterogeneous methods are used, and therefore studies are rarely comparable. A global indicator of performance, which assesses both spatial accuracy and usual power, would facilitate the exploration of CDTs behaviour and help between-studies comparisons. The Tanimoto coefficient (TC) is a well-known measure of similarity that can assess location accuracy but only for one detected cluster. In a simulation study, performance is measured for many tests. From the TC, we here propose two statistics, the averaged TC and the cumulated TC, as indicators able to provide a global overview of CDTs performance for both usual power and location accuracy. We evidence the properties of these two indicators and the superiority of the cumulated TC to assess performance. We tested these indicators to conduct a systematic spatial assessment displayed through performance maps.

  12. The lateral flow card test: an alternative method for the detection of Trichinella infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrascu I.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel lateral flow card (TS-Card pork test was developed for the serological detection of Trichinella infected pigs. Based on extensive studies performed in Romania during 1 999-2000 this test proved to be highly specific, sensitive, rapid (3-12 minutes and easy to use (no need for laboratory facilities. It can be used both for the detection of Trichinella infection in carcasses and for epizootiological studies using a variety of samples including whole or dried blood, serum, or tissue fluids. The TS-Card pork test, used as a screening test, can be the foundation of an on-farm or field based inspection system to significantly improve food safety in countries with a high prevalence of Trichinella in pigs or other food animal species. The results presented are also promising for application of the test in an on-line laboratory based inspection system since the speed of the test allows sufficient time to rail out suspected hog carcasses during the slaughter process.

  13. Validation of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing Tests for Universal Pathogen Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Chiu, Charles Y; Miller, Steve; Procop, Gary W; Weinstock, George

    2017-06-01

    - Metagenomic sequencing can be used for detection of any pathogens using unbiased, shotgun next-generation sequencing (NGS), without the need for sequence-specific amplification. Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated in infectious disease outbreaks of unknown causes and in patients with suspected infections but negative results for conventional tests. Metagenomic NGS tests hold great promise to improve infectious disease diagnostics, especially in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. - To discuss challenges and provide example solutions for validating metagenomic pathogen detection tests in clinical laboratories. A summary of current regulatory requirements, largely based on prior guidance for NGS testing in constitutional genetics and oncology, is provided. - Examples from 2 separate validation studies are provided for steps from assay design, and validation of wet bench and bioinformatics protocols, to quality control and assurance. - Although laboratory and data analysis workflows are still complex, metagenomic NGS tests for infectious diseases are increasingly being validated in clinical laboratories. Many parallels exist to NGS tests in other fields. Nevertheless, specimen preparation, rapidly evolving data analysis algorithms, and incomplete reference sequence databases are idiosyncratic to the field of microbiology and often overlooked.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Commercial Dengue Diagnostic Tests for Early Detection of Dengue in Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Nur Akmalina Mat Jusoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The shattering rise in dengue virus infections globally has created a need for an accurate and validated rapid diagnostic test for this virus. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR diagnostic detection are useful tools for diagnosis of early dengue infection. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of nonstructural 1 (NS1 RDT and real-time RT-PCR diagnostic kits in 86 patient serum samples. Thirty-six samples were positive for dengue NS1 antigen while the remaining 50 were negative when tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Commercially available RDTs for NS1 detection, RTK ProDetect™, and SD Bioline showed high sensitivity of 94% and 89%, respectively, compared with ELISA. GenoAmp® Trioplex Real-Time RT-PCR and RealStar® Dengue RT-PCR tests presented a comparable kappa agreement with 0.722. The result obtained from GenoAmp® Real-Time RT-PCR Dengue test showed that 14 samples harbored dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1, 8 samples harbored DENV-2, 2 samples harbored DENV-3, and 1 sample harbored DENV-4. 1 sample had a double infection with DENV-1 and DENV-2. The NS1 RDTs and real-time RT-PCR tests were found to be a useful diagnostic for early and rapid diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue.

  15. Validity of Point-of-Care Testing with Mission Plus Hemoglobin in Detecting Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maria Awaluddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Point-of-care testing, POCT, was widely used to assess hemoglobin status before proceeding with the confirmation test. Our study aimed to assess the validity of Mission® Plus Hb in detecting hemoglobin levels in a general population compared with a standard laboratory hematology analyser as the gold standard. Methods: Two types of samples, capillary and venous blood, were collected from all respondents by trained nurses. Both blood samples were tested using Mission® Plus while the remaining venous blood in EDTA test tubes was sent to the reference laboratory. Results: A total of 622 respondents participated in this study, 75% of them females. The mean Hb tested from capillary blood using Mission® Plus Hb was 11.80±2.02g/dl. For venous blood, the mean Hb concentrations using Mission® Plus Hb and Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyser were 12.16±1.84g/dl and 13.07±1.87g/dl, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting anemia from venous samples were 98.8% and 73.4% respectively. Positive Predictive Value (PPV was 58.5%, while Negative Predictive Value (NPV was 99.4%. Conclusion: The findings of moderate PPV should alert the programme managers to the importance of a confirmatory test following screening using Mission® Plus Hb.

  16. Review: Diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection tests for Helicobacter Pylori in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadangi, Fatemeh; Yassi, Maryam; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-12-01

    Although different methods have been established to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, identifying infected patients is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide pooled diagnostic accuracy measures for stool PCR test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out on various sources, including MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and the Cochrane Library from April 1, 1999, to May 1, 2016. This meta-analysis adheres to the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses report (PRISMA Statement). The clinical value of DNA stool PCR test was based on the pooled false positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative of different genes. Twenty-six of 328 studies identified met the eligibility criteria. Stool PCR test had a performance of 71% (95% CI: 68-73) sensitivity, 96% (95% CI: 94-97) specificity, and 65.6 (95% CI: 30.2-142.5) diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) in diagnosis of H. pylori. The DOR of genes which showed the highest performance of stool PCR tests was as follows: 23S rRNA 152.5 (95% CI: 55.5-418.9), 16S rRNA 67.9 (95%CI: 6.4-714.3), and glmM 68.1 (95%CI: 20.1-231.7). The sensitivity and specificity of stool PCR test are relatively in the same spectrum of other diagnostic methods for the detection of H. pylori infection. In descending order of significance, the most diagnostic candidate genes using PCR detection were 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and glmM. PCR for 23S rRNA gene which has the highest performance could be applicable to detect H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of a microbiological indicator test for antibiotic detection in ewe and goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunian, R; Paba, A; Dupré, I; Daga, E S; Scintu, M F

    2010-12-01

    Antibiotics are widely used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in dairy animals. The presence of residual antibiotics in milk could cause potentially serious problems in human health and have technological implication in the manufacturing of dairy products. The aim of this study was to evaluate Delvotest Accelerator (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), a new system for a fully automated microbial test to detect antibiotic residues in ewe and goat milk. Forty-three samples of raw, whole, refrigerated bulk-tank milk samples (22 of ewe milk and 21 of goat milk) were analyzed during the whole lactation period. Four concentrations of 4 antibiotics were diluted in milk: penicillin G at 1, 2, 3, and 4 μg/L; sulfadiazine at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L; tetracycline at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L; and gentamicin at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L. The detection limit of the Delvotest Accelerator was calculated as the range of antibiotic concentrations within which 95% of positive result lie. The range of detection limit of penicillin G and sulfadiazine was easily detected by Delvotest Accelerator at or below the European Union maximum residue limits, both for ewe and goat milk samples. In contrast, the system showed a lower ability to detect tetracycline and gentamicin both for ewe and goat milk samples. Very low percentages of false-positive outcomes were obtained. Lactation phase did not seem to be a crucial factor affecting the ability of the Delvotest Accelerator to detect spiked milk samples. A higher detection ability was observed for goat milk samples compared with ewe milk samples. A negative correlation between the percentage of positive milk samples detected and milk fat, protein, and lactose contents was observed for gentamicin only. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of power analysis to develop detectable significance criteria for sea urchin toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    When sufficient data are available, the statistical power of a test can be determined using power analysis procedures. The term “detectable significance” has been coined to refer to this criterion based on power analysis and past performance of a test. This power analysis procedure has been performed with sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development data from sediment porewater toxicity tests. Data from 3100 and 2295 tests for the fertilization and embryological development tests, respectively, were used to calculate the criteria and regression equations describing the power curves. Using Dunnett's test, a minimum significant difference (MSD) (β = 0.05) of 15.5% and 19% for the fertilization test, and 16.4% and 20.6% for the embryological development test, for α ≤ 0.05 and α ≤ 0.01, respectively, were determined. The use of this second criterion reduces type I (false positive) errors and helps to establish a critical level of difference based on the past performance of the test.

  19. Pattern recognition techniques for failure trend detection in SSME ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a complex power plant. To evaluate its performance 1200 hot-wire ground tests have been conducted, varying in duration from 0 to 500 secs. During the test some 500 sensors are sampled every 20 ms. The sensors are generally bounded by red lines so that an excursion beyond could lead to premature shutdown. In 27 tests it was not possible to effect an orderly premature shutdown, resulting in major incidents with serious damage to the SSME and test stand. The application of pattern recognition are investigated to detect SSME performance trends that may lead to major incidents. Based on the sensor data a set of (n) features is defined. At any time during the test, the state of the SSME is given by a point in the n-dimensional feature space. The history of a test can now be represented as a trajectory in the n-dimensional feature space. Portions of the normal trajectories and failed test trajectories would lie in different regions of the n-dimensional feature space. The latter can now be partitioned into regions of normal and failed tests. Thus, it is possible to examine the trajectory of a test in progress and predict if it is going into the normal or failure region.

  20. Detection of antibiotics in goat's milk: effect of detergents on the response of microbial inhibitor tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Tamara; Beltrán, María Carmen; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro; Molina, María Pilar

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the interference of acid and alkaline detergents employed in the cleaning of milking equipment of caprine dairy farms on the performance of microbial tests used in antibiotic control (BRT MRL, Delvotest MCS, and Eclipse 100). Eight concentrations of commercial detergents, five acid (0-0.25%) and five alkaline (0-1%) were add to antimicrobial-free goat's milk to evaluate the detergent effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests. To evaluate the effect of detergents on the detection capability of microbial tests two detergents at 0.5 ml/l (one acid and one basic) and eight concentrations of four β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin and benzylpenicillin) were used. Milk without detergents was used as control. The spiked samples were analysed twelve times by three microbial tests. The results showed that the presence of acid detergents did not affect the response of microbial tests for any of the concentrations tested. However, at concentrations equal to or greater than 2 ml/l alkaline detergents positive results were found in microbial tests (16.7-100%). The detection limits of the screening tests for penicillins were not modified substantially by the presence of detergents. In general, the presence of acid and alkaline detergents in goat's milk did not produce a great interference in the microbial tests, only high concentrations of detergents could cause non-compliant results, but these concentrations are difficult to find in practice if proper cleaning procedures are applied in goat dairy farms.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of RUT, PCR and ELISA Tests for Detection of Infection with Cytotoxigenic H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalypour, Farzaneh; Farajnia, Safar; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Hojabri, Zoya; Yousefzadeh, Rana; Saeedi, Nazli

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in the world which causes a variety of gastrointestinal diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate invasive (rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction) and non-invasive (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests in diagnosis of infection with cytotoxigenic H. pylori. Biopsy specimens and sera were collected from 105 patients with gastric disorders. The presence of H. pylori infection in gastric biopsies was evaluated by RUT and PCR methods using chemotaxis signal transduction protein gene (CSTP), Urea C and HP-16srRNA primers. Serum samples were used for the ELISA test. Detection of infection with cag A-positive strains was performed by PCR and cag A-IgG ELISA kit. Patients with at least two out of three positive results were regarded as infected. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of the three different methods were evaluated. Of the 105 gastric biopsies, H. pylori were positive in 51 patients (48.57%). The best sensitivity (92.16%) belonged to RUT. The sensitivities of other tests including PCR and ELISA test were 88.24% and 90.20%, respectively. PCR showed the best specificity (94.44%), and the specificities of the other tests including RUT and ELISA test, were 90.74 % and 61.11%, respectively. Furthermore, results of PCR and cag A-IgG ELISA showed high prevalence of cag A-positive strain in the study population. Based on our findings, serum ELISA is a rapid noninvasive test for screening of H. pylori infection in the absence of endoscopy indication. In addition, considering the high prevalence of cytotoxigenic H. pylori strains, cag A is suggested as a promising target for PCR and non- invasive ELISA tests for detection of infection with toxigenic strains.

  2. The increasing application of multiplex nucleic acid detection tests to the diagnosis of syndromic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J; Coupland, L J

    2014-01-01

    On 14 January 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced permission for a multiplex nucleic acid test, the xTAG® Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP) (Luminex Corporation, USA), which simultaneously detects 11 common viral, bacterial and parasitic causes of infectious gastroenteritis, to be marketed in the USA. This announcement reflects the current move towards the development and commercialization of detection technologies based on nucleic acid amplification techniques for diagnosis of syndromic infections. We discuss the limitations and advantages of nucleic acid amplification techniques and the recent advances in Conformité Européene - in-vitro diagnostic (CE-IVD)-approved multiplex real-time PCR kits for the simultaneous detection of multiple targets within the clinical diagnostics market.

  3. Structure Detection of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Aeroelastic Flight Test Data. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Brenner, martin J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the 1. Motivation for the study 2. Nonlinear Model Form 3. Structure Detection 4. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) 5. Objectives 6. Results 7. Assess LASSO as a Structure Detection Tool: Simulated Nonlinear Models 8. Applicability to Complex Systems: F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Flight Test Data. The authors conclude that 1. this is a novel approach for detecting the structure of highly over-parameterised nonlinear models in situations where other methods may be inadequate 2. that it is a practical significance in the analysis of aircraft dynamics during envelope expansion and could lead to more efficient control strategies and 3. this could allow greater insight into the functionality of various systems dynamics, by providing a quantitative model which is easily interpretable

  4. Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change for the 10-Meter Walk Test in Older Adults With Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jesse T; Kassan, Thomas O; Devaney, Laurie Lee; Colon-Semenza, Cristina; Joseph, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of gait performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be challenging because of the daily fluctuations in performance and the progressive nature of the condition. The 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) is commonly used to measure gait speed of individuals with gait limitations. Existing research on the 10MWT in individuals with PD controls for many variables inherent to this condition, rendering the results of this test in settings where these variables are not controlled questionable. The purpose of this study was to estimate under commonly encountered clinical conditions the test-retest reliability and the minimal detectable change (MDC) of gait speed and step frequency determined during the 10MWT in individuals with PD. The 10MWT was administered by 2 testers, on 35 participants, across 2 sessions, separated by 5 to 14 days. Gait speed was measured using a hand-held stopwatch, and step frequency was assessed through visual observation. Test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the MDC was calculated using the standard error of measurement (SEM). Comfortable and fast gait speeds demonstrated excellent reliability between sessions (ICC = 0.92 and 0.96, respectively). The corresponding MDCs were 0.22 and 0.23 m/s, respectively. The test-retest reliability for step frequency was moderate for comfortable gait speed and good for fast gait speeds (ICC = 0.73 and 0.82, respectively). The corresponding MDCs were 15.1 and 17.4 steps per minute for comfortable and fast step frequency, respectively. Under both comfortable and fast conditions, measurements of gait speed and step frequency during the 10MWT are reliable between sessions in individuals with PD.

  5. Microbiota-based model improves the sensitivity of fecal immunochemical test for detecting colonic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Nielson T; Ruffin, Mack T; Rogers, Mary A M; Schloss, Patrick D

    2016-04-06

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death among cancers in the United States. Although individuals diagnosed early have a greater than 90% chance of survival, more than one-third of individuals do not adhere to screening recommendations partly because the standard diagnostics, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy, are expensive and invasive. Thus, there is a great need to improve the sensitivity of non-invasive tests to detect early stage cancers and adenomas. Numerous studies have identified shifts in the composition of the gut microbiota associated with the progression of CRC, suggesting that the gut microbiota may represent a reservoir of biomarkers that would complement existing non-invasive methods such as the widely used fecal immunochemical test (FIT). We sequenced the 16S rRNA genes from the stool samples of 490 patients. We used the relative abundances of the bacterial populations within each sample to develop a random forest classification model that detects colonic lesions using the relative abundance of gut microbiota and the concentration of hemoglobin in stool. The microbiota-based random forest model detected 91.7% of cancers and 45.5% of adenomas while FIT alone detected 75.0% and 15.7%, respectively. Of the colonic lesions missed by FIT, the model detected 70.0% of cancers and 37.7% of adenomas. We confirmed known associations of Porphyromonas assaccharolytica, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum with CRC. Yet, we found that the loss of potentially beneficial organisms, such as members of the Lachnospiraceae, was more predictive for identifying patients with adenomas when used in combination with FIT. These findings demonstrate the potential for microbiota analysis to complement existing screening methods to improve detection of colonic lesions.

  6. Validation studies of the latex agglutination test for the detection of Trichinella larvae in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Jennifer; Reckinger, Sabine; Thaben, Nora; Nöckler, Karsten; Mayer-Scholl, Anne

    2016-11-15

    Human trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by ingestion of meat infected with Trichinella muscle larvae. To control Trichinella spp. infection in the European Union, all slaughtered pigs from holdings that are not officially recognized as applying controlled housing conditions and other animals susceptible to Trichinella infection and intended for human consumption should be examined by one of the approved digestion methods described in Regulation (EU) No. 2015/1375. In the past, Trichinella outbreaks due to the consumption of cured wild boar or pork products have been described in several European countries, making the identification of the larvae from these products relevant for Trichinella control. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the newly approved latex agglutination test (Trichin-L) for routine testing of cured meat products. The test was validated based on the OIE Guidelines using pork products spiked with Trichinella larvae. The sensitivity of the method varied greatly depending on the investigated meat product and was usually lower than for the gold standard, the magnetic stirrer method. The detection rate reached 80% for three larvae and 60% for one larva in cured pork sausages. A detection rate of 100% for three larvae and 50% for one larva was found in bacon. For frozen samples (-20°C) the Trichin-L kit is similarly sensitive as for cured samples. Further, to determine the performance of the test under field conditions, pork products from regions with known high Trichinella prevalences confiscated by customs authorities at two German international airports were analyzed. Problems associated with the Trichin-L test were incomplete digestion due to fatty ingredients, spices and very dry meat products, resulting in data which could not be evaluated. Therefore, the test is currently not suitable for the detection of Trichinella larvae in cured meat products and needs further adaptation steps to increase both usability and sensitivity

  7. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  8. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A V; Goldberg, V; Viotti, H; Ciappesoni, G

    2015-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB). The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC). A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest(®) and Multistix(®)), blood for packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC), and FAMACHA(©) for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC). Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA(©) score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix(®) test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA(©) and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  9. Implementing and testing a fiber-optic polarization-based intrusion detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Rasha El; MacDonald, Gregory; Verma, Pramode; Huck, Robert

    2015-09-01

    We describe a layer-1-based intrusion detection system for fiber-optic-based networks. Layer-1-based intrusion detection represents a significant elevation in security as it prohibits an adversary from obtaining information in the first place (no cryptanalysis is possible). We describe the experimental setup of the intrusion detection system, which is based on monitoring the behavior of certain attributes of light both in unperturbed and perturbed optical fiber links. The system was tested with optical fiber links of various lengths and types, under different environmental conditions, and under changes in fiber geometry similar to what is experienced during tapping activity. Comparison of the results for perturbed and unperturbed links has shown that the state of polarization is more sensitive to intrusion activity than the degree of polarization or power of the received light. The testing was conducted in a simulated telecommunication network environment that included both underground and aerial links. The links were monitored for intrusion activity. Attempts to tap the link were easily detected with no apparent degradation in the visual quality of the real-time surveillance video.

  10. Detecting Malaria Hotspots: A Comparison of Rapid Diagnostic Test, Microscopy, and Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogeni, Polycarp; Williams, Thomas N; Omedo, Irene; Kimani, Domtila; Ngoi, Joyce M; Mwacharo, Jedida; Morter, Richard; Nyundo, Christopher; Wambua, Juliana; Nyangweso, George; Kapulu, Melissa; Fegan, Gregory; Bejon, Philip

    2017-11-27

    Malaria control strategies need to respond to geographical hotspots of transmission. Detection of hotspots depends on the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 3 sites within Kilifi County, Kenya, that had variable transmission intensities. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to detect asymptomatic parasitemia, and hotspots were detected using the spatial scan statistic. Eight thousand five hundred eighty-one study participants were surveyed in 3 sites. There were statistically significant malaria hotspots by RDT, microscopy, and PCR for all sites except by microscopy in 1 low transmission site. Pooled data analysis of hotspots by PCR overlapped with hotspots by microscopy at a moderate setting but not at 2 lower transmission settings. However, variations in degree of overlap were noted when data were analyzed by year. Hotspots by RDT were predictive of PCR/microscopy at the moderate setting, but not at the 2 low transmission settings. We observed long-term stability of hotspots by PCR and microscopy but not RDT. Malaria control programs may consider PCR testing to guide asymptomatic malaria hotspot detection once the prevalence of infection falls.

  11. Development and Testing of an Air Fluorescence Imaging System for the Detection of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inrig, Elizabeth [Defence R and D Canada - Ottawa, 3701 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Koslowsky, Vern; Andrews, Bob; Dick, Michael; Forget, Patrick; Ing, Harry [Bubble Technology Industries, Box 100, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Hugron, Roger [Director General Nuclear Safety, 101 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Wong, Larry [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, 3484 Limebank Road, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-12-13

    Detection of radionuclides emitting short-range radiation, such as {alpha} and low-energy {beta} particles, has always presented a challenge, particularly when such radionuclides are dispersed over a wide area. In this situation, conventional detection methods require the area of interest to be surveyed using a fragile probe at very close range--a slow, error-prone, and potentially dangerous process that may take many hours for a single room. The instrument under development uses a novel approach by imaging radiation-induced fluorescence in the air surrounding a contaminated area, rather than detecting the radiation directly. A robust and portable system has been designed and built that will allow contaminated areas to be rapidly detected and delineated. The detector incorporates position-sensitive photo-multiplier tubes, UV filters, a fast electronic shutter and an aspherical phase mask that significantly increases the depth-of-field. Preliminary tests have been conducted using sealed {sup 241}Am sources of varying activities and surface areas. The details of the instrument design will be described and the results of recent testing will be presented.

  12. TECRA Unique test for rapid detection of Salmonella in food: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D; Dailianis, A E; Hill, L; McIntyre, D A; Anderson, A

    2001-01-01

    The TECRA Unique Salmonella test uses the principle of immunoenrichment to allow rapid detection of Salmonellae in food. A collaborative study was conducted to compare the TECRA Salmonella Unique test with the reference culture method given in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Three food types (milk powder, pepper, and soy flour) were analyzed in Australia and 2 food types (milk chocolate and dried egg) were analyzed in the United States. Forty-one collaborators participated in the study. For each of the 5 foods at each of the 3 levels, a comparison showed no significant differences (p > or = 0.05) in the proportion of positive test samples for Unique and that for the reference method using the Chi-square test for independence with continuity correction.

  13. Electronic Nose for Quality Control of Colombian Coffee Through the Detection of Defects in ``Cup Tests''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan C.; Duran, Cristhian M.; Reyes, Adriana X.

    2009-05-01

    This article presents a preliminary study on the analysis of samples of Colombian coffee for the detection and classification of defects (i.e. using "Cup Tests"), which was conducted in Almacafé quality control laboratory Almacafé in Cúcuta, Colombia). The results obtained show the application of an Electronic Nose (EN), called "A-NOSE," used in the coffee sector for the cupping tests. The results show that e-nose technology can be a useful tool as quality control of coffee grain.

  14. Test-day records as a tool for subclinical ketosis detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gantner Vesna; Potočnik K.; Jovanovac Sonja

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence, as well as the effect of subclinical ketosis on daily milk yield, was observed using 1.299,630 test-day records collected from January 2000 to December 2005 on 73,255 Slovenian Holstein cows. Subclinical ketosis was indicated by the fat to protein ratio (F/P ratio) higher than 1.5 in cows that yielded between 33 to 50 kg of milk per day (Eicher, 2004). The ketosis index was defined in relation to the timing of subclinical ketosis detection to the subsequent measures of test-da...

  15. Hypothesis testing for evaluating a multimodal pattern recognition framework applied to speaker detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunt Murat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speaker detection is an important component of many human-computer interaction applications, like for example, multimedia indexing, or ambient intelligent systems. This work addresses the problem of detecting the current speaker in audio-visual sequences. The detector performs with few and simple material since a single camera and microphone meets the needs. Method A multimodal pattern recognition framework is proposed, with solutions provided for each step of the process, namely, the feature generation and extraction steps, the classification, and the evaluation of the system performance. The decision is based on the estimation of the synchrony between the audio and the video signals. Prior to the classification, an information theoretic framework is applied to extract optimized audio features using video information. The classification step is then defined through a hypothesis testing framework in order to get confidence levels associated to the classifier outputs, allowing thereby an evaluation of the performance of the whole multimodal pattern recognition system. Results Through the hypothesis testing approach, the classifier performance can be given as a ratio of detection to false-alarm probabilities. Above all, the hypothesis tests give means for measuring the whole pattern recognition process effciency. In particular, the gain offered by the proposed feature extraction step can be evaluated. As a result, it is shown that introducing such a feature extraction step increases the ability of the classifier to produce good relative instance scores, and therefore, the performance of the pattern recognition process. Conclusion The powerful capacities of hypothesis tests as an evaluation tool are exploited to assess the performance of a multimodal pattern recognition process. In particular, the advantage of performing or not a feature extraction step prior to the classification is evaluated. Although the proposed framework is

  16. A Simple Saliva-Based Test for Detecting Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus*

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, Willfried; Angulo, Gustavo Barriga; Torres, Patricia Castillo; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the feasibility of using saliva as a diagnostic medium for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 under nonlaboratory conditions and to evaluate the performance characteristics of such a test. We developed for this purpose a self-contained kit (Saliva · Strip [ST]), which combines the collection and processing, as well as the analysis, of the specimen. The kit’s performance was eval...

  17. Saberliner flight test for airborne wind shear forward looking detection and avoidance radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Bruce D.

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse conducted a flight test with its Sabreliner AN/APG-68 instrumented radar to assess the urban discrete/ground moving vehicle clutter environment. Glideslope approaches were flown into Washington National, BWI, and Georgetown, Delaware, airports employing radar mode timing, waveform, and processing configurations plausible for microburst windshear avoidance. The perceptions, both general and specific, of the clutter environment furnish an empirical foundation for beginning low false alarm detection algorithm development.

  18. A Novel Class of Tests for the Detection of Mitochondrial DNA–Mutation Involvement in Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Fengzhu; Cui, Jing; Gavras, Haralambos; Schwartz, Faina

    2003-01-01

    We develop a novel class of tests to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)–mutation involvement in complex diseases by the study of affected pedigree members. For a pedigree, affected individuals are first considered and are then connected through their relatives. We construct a reduced pedigree from an original pedigree. Each configuration of a reduced pedigree is given a score, with high scores given to configurations that are consistent with mtDNA-mutation involvement and low scores given to co...

  19. Metabolic profiling of the response to an oral glucose tolerance test detects subtle metabolic changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Wopereis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. METHODOLOGY: To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men.

  20. Using Signal Envelope Detection for Online and Offline RF MEMS Switch Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Simeu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The test of radiofrequency (RF integrated circuits at their ever-increasing operating frequency range requires sophisticated test equipment and is time-consuming and, therefore, very expensive. This paper introduces a new method combining low-frequency actuation signal as test stimuli and signal envelope detection applied on the RF output signal in order to provide a low-cost mean for production testing of RF MEMS switches embedded in system-in-package (SiP devices. The proposed approach uses the principle of alternate test that replaces conventional specification-based testing procedures. The basic idea is to extract the high-frequency characteristics of the switch from the signal envelope of the response. Output parameters like “on” and “off” transition time are extracted at low frequency and used in a regression process to predict RF conventional specifications like S-parameters. The paper also provides a set of recursive estimation algorithms suitable for online testing. In this context, “on” and “off” transition time estimated from the output low-frequency envelope is used as test metrics and is concurrently updated using recursive algorithms. Validation results obtained on a capacitive RF switch model are presented.

  1. Application of multiple laboratory tests for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis detection in Crohn's disease patient specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banche, Giuliana; Allizond, Valeria; Sostegni, Raffaello; Lavagna, Alessandro; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Sidoti, Francesca; Daperno, Marco; Rocca, Rodolfo; Cuffini, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The difficulties involved in detecting and enumerating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a pathogen potentially involved in Crohn's disease (CD) are well known. This study aimed to improve this situation through the application of multiple laboratory diagnostic tests to detect and isolate this bacterium from different specimens collected from CD-patients and non-CD subjects as controls. A total of 120 samples (terminal ileum and colon biopsies, blood and stool) were obtained from 19 CD-patients and from 11 individuals who did not have a clinicopathological diagnosis of CD (non-CD controls) attending for ileocolonoscopy. All samples were processed by staining techniques, culture on both solid and liquid media, and Insertion Sequence 900/F57 real-time PCR. The MAP frequency in CD-patients was found in a significantly greater proportion than in non-CD subjects; the most positive samples were biopsies from CD-patients tested by real-time PCR. MAP detection in biopsies, and in the other samples, by applying multiple and validated laboratory diagnostic tests, could be a marker of active infection, supporting MAP involvement in CD.

  2. False star detection and isolation during star tracking based on improved chi-square tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yanxiong; Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Guohua

    2017-08-01

    The star sensor is a precise attitude measurement device for a spacecraft. Star tracking is the main and key working mode for a star sensor. However, during star tracking, false stars become an inevitable interference for star sensor applications, which may result in declined measurement accuracy. A false star detection and isolation algorithm in star tracking based on improved chi-square tests is proposed in this paper. Two estimations are established based on a Kalman filter and a priori information, respectively. The false star detection is operated through adopting the global state chi-square test in a Kalman filter. The false star isolation is achieved using a local state chi-square test. Semi-physical experiments under different trajectories with various false stars are designed for verification. Experiment results show that various false stars can be detected and isolated from navigation stars during star tracking, and the attitude measurement accuracy is hardly influenced by false stars. The proposed algorithm is proved to have an excellent performance in terms of speed, stability, and robustness.

  3. Field Tests of a Tractor Rollover Detection and Emergency Notification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Koc, A B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of a rollover detection and emergency notification system for farm tractors using field tests. The emergency notification system was developed based on a tractor stability model and implemented on a mobile electronic device with the iOS operating system. A complementary filter was implemented to combine the data from the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to improve their accuracies in calculating the roll and pitch angles and the roll and pitch rates. The system estimates a stability index value during tractor operation, displays feedback messages when the stability index is lower than a preset threshold value, and transmits emergency notification messages when an overturn happens. Ten tractor rollover tests were conducted on a field track. The developed system successfully monitored the stability of the tractor during all of the tests. The iOS application was able to detect rollover accidents and transmit emergency notifications in the form of a phone call and email when an accident was detected. The system can be a useful tool for training and education in safe tractor operation. The system also has potential for stability monitoring and emergency notification of other on-road and off-road motorized vehicles.

  4. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  5. Combining the P300-complex trial-based concealed information test and the reaction time-based autobiographical implicit association test in concealed memory detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2012-08-01

    Despite the P300-concealed information test's validity in detecting concealed memory when it is conducted immediately after the mock crime, whether the P300-CIT's detection efficiency is moderated by time delay remains unknown. Here, we conducted a mock crime study in which guilty participants were tested immediately after the mock crime or 1 month later. An innocent group was also tested. Assuming that the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) and the P300-CIT rely on nonoverlapping mechanisms for memory detection, participants were tested using both the P300-CIT and the reaction time (RT)-based aIAT. Results suggested that the sensitivity of both tests remains even after the 1-month delay. The indicators from the RT-aIAT and P300-CIT were uncorrelated, thus combining P300-CIT and aIAT data further increased the efficiency of memory detection. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Specimen Validity Testing SVT) - Effects of Oxidizing Agents on Drugs in Urine and Procedures for Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B D; Dunkley, C S

    2007-07-01

    Since the inception of the drug-testing program in the U.S. Armed Forces in 1982, urine adulteration with the intent to conceal drug use has been a serious problem to forensic scientists. Initially, drug users tried almost anything that was available at the collection sites. Soon they recognized that certain chemicals could be used to destroy some drugs and interfere with the testing procedures. Some drug analytes, in particular morphine and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, a metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, could not be detected in presence of some oxidizing agents. As the use of adulterants increased, specimen validity testing was introduced by the Department of Health and Human Services in 2004. While specific reagents could be used to test nitrite, chromate, and iodine, test procedures for many other oxidizing agents were not available. In an attempt to detect most oxidants, a different approach has been introduced to identify urines adulterated with oxidizing adulterants. In this approach, the oxidizing property of normal urine is compared with that of urine containing oxidizing agents. In the procedure, samples are allowed to interact with excess ferrous (Fe2+) ions and then with chromogenic compounds. In the presence of oxidants, Fe2+ ions with low reduction potential (E0 0.771 V) are immediately oxidized to ferric (Fe3+) ions, which then change the chromogenic compounds to colored chromogens. Specific spectral pattern and intensity are the keys in quantification of oxidants in urine (milliEquivalent/liter, mE/L). The method appeared to be promising in differentiating normal urine from urine adulterated with oxidizing agents. Some oxidizing adulterants in urine are unstable. If reduced, it could be reconverted to the oxidizing agents and tested by the general oxidant test. Copyright © 2007 Central Police University.

  7. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P

    1997-12-31

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO{sub 2} after correction of endogenous production of CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, {sup 14} C-UBT and {sup 13} C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the {sup 13} C-UBT

  8. Evaluation of the duopath verotoxin test for detection of shiga toxins in cultures of human stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C H; Kim, H J; Hixon, D L; Bubert, A

    2003-06-01

    The Duopath Verotoxin test (Merck KgaA, Darmstadt, Germany) is a newly developed immunochromatographic test for the confirmation of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from food products. This test detects both Stx 1 (Stx1)-positive and Stx2-positive samples individually with the same device. By modification of the original protocol, the present study evaluated its performance and feasibility for clinical application with human stool samples, consisting of 41 frozen samples known to contain STEC isolates (O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes) and 250 fresh specimens. The test specimens were polymyxin B extracts of colony sweeps taken from overnight sorbitol-MacConkey agar cultures of stools containing STEC isolates and other bacteria. All 41 frozen STEC-positive stool samples were positive by the Duopath Verotoxin test, as were 2 fresh stool samples with culture-confirmed STEC O157 infection. Thus, 100% sensitivity and no false-positive results were obtained when the Premier EHEC assay (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio) was used as the "gold standard." The Duopath Verotoxin test is simple to perform and easy to interpret, providing a turnaround time of 24 h. Despite its original intended use, the Duopath Verotoxin test has a great potential for clinical application.

  9. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested.

  10. Proper Image Subtraction—Optimal Transient Detection, Photometry, and Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackay, Barak; Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2016-10-01

    Transient detection and flux measurement via image subtraction stand at the base of time domain astronomy. Due to the varying seeing conditions, the image subtraction process is non-trivial, and existing solutions suffer from a variety of problems. Starting from basic statistical principles, we develop the optimal statistic for transient detection, flux measurement, and any image-difference hypothesis testing. We derive a closed-form statistic that: (1) is mathematically proven to be the optimal transient detection statistic in the limit of background-dominated noise, (2) is numerically stable, (3) for accurately registered, adequately sampled images, does not leave subtraction or deconvolution artifacts, (4) allows automatic transient detection to the theoretical sensitivity limit by providing credible detection significance, (5) has uncorrelated white noise, (6) is a sufficient statistic for any further statistical test on the difference image, and, in particular, allows us to distinguish particle hits and other image artifacts from real transients, (7) is symmetric to the exchange of the new and reference images, (8) is at least an order of magnitude faster to compute than some popular methods, and (9) is straightforward to implement. Furthermore, we present extensions of this method that make it resilient to registration errors, color-refraction errors, and any noise source that can be modeled. In addition, we show that the optimal way to prepare a reference image is the proper image coaddition presented in Zackay & Ofek. We demonstrate this method on simulated data and real observations from the PTF data release 2. We provide an implementation of this algorithm in MATLAB and Python.

  11. Development of a multiplex autoantibody test for detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jing; Wang, Wenzhe; Meng, Wen; Ding, Mingjian; Ma, Shenglin; Wang, Xiaoju

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths for both men and women. Early diagnosis of lung cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 48.8%, however, nearly 35% of stage I patients relapses after surgical resection, thus portending a poor prognosis. Therefore, detecting lung cancer in early stage and further identifying the high-risk patients would allow the opportunity to provide adjuvant therapy and possibly increase survival. There is considerable evidence that the immune system produces an autoantibody response to neoplastic cells. The detection of such autoantibodies has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic value. Here we took advantage of the high-throughput Luminex technique to multiplex a total of 14 tumor-associated autoantigens to detect the autoantibody from the patients sera. The 14 antigens were expressed by in vitro transcription/translation system with HaloTag at N-terminus. The fusion proteins were then covalently immobilized onto the Luminex microspheres conjugated by the halo-link ligand, thus eliminating the protein purification procedure. Sera samples from cancer patients and healthy controls were interacted with the microsphere-antigen complex to measure the autoantibodies. We have developed a quick multiplex detection system for measuring autoantibody signature from patient sera with minimal cross-reaction. A panel of seven autoantibody biomarkers has generated an AUC>80% in distinguishing the lung cancers from healthy controls. This study is the first report by combining Luminex platform and HaloTag technology to detect humoral immune response in cancer patients. Due to the flexibility of the Luminex technology, this approach can be applied to others conditions such as infectious, neurological, and metabolic diseases. One can envision that this multiplex Luminex system as well as the panel of seven biomarkers could be used to screen the high-risk population with subsequent CT test based on the blood test result.

  12. Development of a multiplex autoantibody test for detection of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jia

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths for both men and women. Early diagnosis of lung cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 48.8%, however, nearly 35% of stage I patients relapses after surgical resection, thus portending a poor prognosis. Therefore, detecting lung cancer in early stage and further identifying the high-risk patients would allow the opportunity to provide adjuvant therapy and possibly increase survival. There is considerable evidence that the immune system produces an autoantibody response to neoplastic cells. The detection of such autoantibodies has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic value. Here we took advantage of the high-throughput Luminex technique to multiplex a total of 14 tumor-associated autoantigens to detect the autoantibody from the patients sera. The 14 antigens were expressed by in vitro transcription/translation system with HaloTag at N-terminus. The fusion proteins were then covalently immobilized onto the Luminex microspheres conjugated by the halo-link ligand, thus eliminating the protein purification procedure. Sera samples from cancer patients and healthy controls were interacted with the microsphere-antigen complex to measure the autoantibodies. We have developed a quick multiplex detection system for measuring autoantibody signature from patient sera with minimal cross-reaction. A panel of seven autoantibody biomarkers has generated an AUC>80% in distinguishing the lung cancers from healthy controls. This study is the first report by combining Luminex platform and HaloTag technology to detect humoral immune response in cancer patients. Due to the flexibility of the Luminex technology, this approach can be applied to others conditions such as infectious, neurological, and metabolic diseases. One can envision that this multiplex Luminex system as well as the panel of seven biomarkers could be used to screen the high-risk population with subsequent CT test based on the blood test

  13. Detection of aflatoxin B₁ with immunochromatographic test strips: Enhanced signal sensitivity using gold nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanwei; Ren, Meiling; Li, Yanping; Huang, Zhibing; Shu, Mei; Yang, Hongwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Xu, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Immunochromatographic test strips (ICTS) are commonly limited to higher concentrations of analytes. This limitation stems from the relatively low sensitivity of conventional gold nanospheres (AuNSs with a diameter of 20 nm) to emit detectable brightness values. The larger multi-branched gold nanoflowers (AuNFs) with a higher optical brightness as well as good colloidal stability exhibit significant improvements over conventional AuNSs for enhanced sensitivity of ICTS. In this study, blue AuNFs with an average diameter of 75±5 nm were synthetized and employed as a signal amplification probe for ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rice. A portable optical strip reader was used to record the optical densities of test and control lines of the strip. Under the optimal conditions, the AuNF based ICTS system accurately detected AFB1 linearly and dynamically over the range of 0.5-25 pg/mL with a half maximal inhibitory concentration at 4.17 pg/mL. The inhibitory concentration was achieved 10 times lower than that of the traditional AuNS based ICTS systems (41.25 pg/mL). The limit of detection for AFB1 in rice extract was achieved at 0.32 pg/mL. In summary, AuNFs are a novel probe that exhibited excellent sensitivity in the ICTS system and could be used for ultrasensitive detection of other analytes in food safety monitoring, and even medical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tests for detecting strabismus in children aged 1 to 6 years in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Sarah; Tailor, Vijay; Balduzzi, Sara; Rahi, Jugnoo; Schmucker, Christine; Virgili, Gianni; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2017-11-06

    Strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) is a risk factor for impaired visual development both of visual acuity and of stereopsis. Detection of strabismus in the community by non-expert examiners may be performed using a number of different index tests that include direct measures of misalignment (corneal or fundus reflex tests), or indirect measures such as stereopsis and visual acuity. The reference test to detect strabismus by trained professionals is the cover‒uncover test. To assess and compare the accuracy of tests, alone or in combination, for detection of strabismus in children aged 1 to 6 years, in a community setting by non-expert screeners or primary care professionals to inform healthcare commissioners setting up childhood screening programmes.Secondary objectives were to investigate sources of heterogeneity of diagnostic accuracy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 12) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) in the Cochrane Library, the Health Technology Assessment Database (HTAD) in the Cochrane Library (2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 5 January 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 5 January 2017), CINAHL (January 1937 to 5 January 2017), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) (January 1990 to 5 January 2017), BIOSIS Previews (January 1969 to 5 January 2017), MEDION (to 18 August 2014), the Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility database (ARIF) (to 5 January 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 5 January 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 5 January 2017 and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 5 January 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. In addition, orthoptic journals and conference proceedings without electronic listings were searched

  15. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A combination test for detection of gene-environment interaction in cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brandon; Basu, Saonli; McGue, Matt

    2017-07-01

    Identifying gene-environment (G-E) interactions can contribute to a better understanding of disease etiology, which may help researchers develop disease prevention strategies and interventions. One big criticism of studying G-E interaction is the lack of power due to sample size. Studies often restrict the interaction search to the top few hundred hits from a genome-wide association study or focus on potential candidate genes. In this paper, we test interactions between a candidate gene and an environmental factor to improve power by analyzing multiple variants within a gene. We extend recently developed score statistic based genetic association testing approaches to the G-E interaction testing problem. We also propose tests for interaction using gene-based summary measures that pool variants together. Although it has recently been shown that these summary measures can be biased and may lead to inflated type I error, we show that under several realistic scenarios, we can still provide valid tests of interaction. These tests use significantly less degrees of freedom and thus can have much higher power to detect interaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that the iSeq-aSum-min test, which combines a gene-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-G, and an interaction-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-I, provides a powerful alternative to test G-E interaction. We demonstrate the performance of these approaches using simulation studies and illustrate their performance to study interaction between the SNPs in several candidate genes and family climate environment on alcohol consumption using the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research dataset. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. From Ground Truth to Space: Surface, Subsurface and Remote Observations Associated with Nuclear Test Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Burt, C.; Craven, J.; Kimblin, C.; McKenna, I.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Miller, E.; Yocky, D. A.; Haas, D.

    2016-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) result in numerous signatures that manifest on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Currently, prompt signals, such as the detection of seismic waves provide only generalized locations and the timing and amplitude of non-prompt signals are difficult to predict. As such, research into improving the detection, location, and identification of suspect events has been conducted, resulting in advancement of nuclear test detection science. In this presentation, we demonstrate the scalar variably of surface and subsurface observables, briefly discuss current capabilities to locate, detect and characterize potential nuclear explosion locations, and explain how emergent technologies and amalgamation of disparate data sets will facilitate improved monitoring and verification. At the smaller scales, material and fracture characterization efforts on rock collected from legacy UNE sites and from underground experiments using chemical explosions can be incorporated into predictive modeling efforts. Spatial analyses of digital elevation models and orthoimagery of both modern conventional and legacy nuclear sites show subtle surface topographic changes and damage at nearby outcrops. Additionally, at sites where such technology cannot penetrate vegetative cover, it is possible to use the vegetation itself as both a companion signature reflecting geologic conditions and showing subsurface impacts to water, nutrients, and chemicals. Aerial systems based on RGB imagery, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral imaging can allow for combined remote sensing modalities to perform pattern recognition and classification tasks. Finally, more remote systems such as satellite based synthetic aperture radar and satellite imagery are other techniques in development for UNE site detection, location and characterization.

  18. USE OF-EPR-DL FIELD TEST EQUIPMENT FOR DETECTION OF SIGMA PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraão Danilo Gomes Barreto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work has objective to correlate the intergranular corrosion susceptibility test named EPR-DL (Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation of Double Loop with the sigma phase formation and other phases. It has been used samples from a UNS S32760 steel pipe for conducting various aging heat treatments. Held isothermal heat treatment at 850°C for 1 min, 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 1h30min and 10 h. Each heat treated sample and as received were tested using the electrochemical polarization reactivation of double loop technique (EPR-DL. It was possible the detection of deleterious phases with DL-EPR portable cell. The EPR-DL test of some samples showed a second peak of reactivation in which the results showed that this peak might be associated with ferrite or be related to the presence of chi phase

  19. Institutional protocol to manage consanguinity detected by genetic testing in pregnancy in a minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laura P; Beck, Anita E; Tsuchiya, Karen D; Chow, Penny M; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Wiester, Rebecca T; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2015-03-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and other types of genetic tests have the potential to detect first-degree consanguinity and uncover parental rape in cases of minor teenage pregnancy. We present 2 cases in which genetic testing identified parental rape of a minor teenager. In case 1, single-nucleotide polymorphism array in a patient with multiple developmental abnormalities demonstrated multiple long stretches of homozygosity, revealing parental rape of a teenage mother. In case 2, a vague maternal sexual assault history and diagnosis of Pompe disease by direct gene sequencing identified parental rape of a minor. Given the medical, legal, and ethical implications of such revelations, a protocol was developed at our institution to manage consanguinity identified via genetic testing. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Sensitivity of the immunochromatographic card test relative to detection of adult Wuchereria bancrofti worms by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Gerusa; Lins, Renato; Norões, Joaquim; Rizzo, José Angelo; Figueredo-Silva, José

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of active infection in bancroftian filariasis continues to pose an important and continuously evolving challenge to filariasis-endemic countries and to health personnel. Sensitivity of the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) relative to detection of adult Wuchereria bancrofti worms by ultrasound was evaluated in a retrospective study conducted in the Center for Teaching, Research and Tertiary Referral Hospital for bancroftian filariasis (Federal University of Pernambuco) in Recife, Brazil. The results showed that among 408 persons tested, the overall sensitivity of the ICT was 84.5% and varied from 52% to 100% when patients were grouped by different criteria (age, sex, presence or absence of living adult worms by ultrasound, microfilaremia status/density). The present study provides evidence that a negative antigen result should be interpreted cautiously and may help to explain the different sensitivities of the antigen test found by different investigators in settings with different transmission intensities.

  1. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of a Testing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of validating a probability of detection (POD) testing system using directed design of experiments (DOE) includes recording an input data set of observed hit and miss or analog data for sample components as a function of size of a flaw in the components. The method also includes processing the input data set to generate an output data set having an optimal class width, assigning a case number to the output data set, and generating validation instructions based on the assigned case number. An apparatus includes a host machine for receiving the input data set from the testing system and an algorithm for executing DOE to validate the test system. The algorithm applies DOE to the input data set to determine a data set having an optimal class width, assigns a case number to that data set, and generates validation instructions based on the case number.

  2. Variance change point detection for fractional Brownian motion based on the likelihood ratio test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Daniel; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Fractional Brownian motion is one of the main stochastic processes used for describing the long-range dependence phenomenon for self-similar processes. It appears that for many real time series, characteristics of the data change significantly over time. Such behaviour one can observe in many applications, including physical and biological experiments. In this paper, we present a new technique for the critical change point detection for cases where the data under consideration are driven by fractional Brownian motion with a time-changed diffusion coefficient. The proposed methodology is based on the likelihood ratio approach and represents an extension of a similar methodology used for Brownian motion, the process with independent increments. Here, we also propose a statistical test for testing the significance of the estimated critical point. In addition to that, an extensive simulation study is provided to test the performance of the proposed method.

  3. Comparison between the Traditional and a Rapid Screening Test for Cryoimmunoglobulins Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Romitelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A new rapid, automatic, and sensitive screening test useful to detect cryoglobulins in serum samples is proposed. Design and Methods. The increase of turbidity during the cryoglobulin aggregation was monitored spectrophotometrically in sera from 400 patients with clinical evidence of cryoglobulinemia related disorders and 100 controls. Results were correlated to those obtained by the traditional method. Results. Kinetics of the aggregation curves were described by their maximum turbidity increase, lag time, and slope. Despite a partial correspondence between the traditional and the rapid test, patients with symptomatic cryoglobulinemia showed turbidity values significantly higher than the determined cutoff. Moreover, a functional classification of cryoglobulins is proposed. Conclusions. Due to its high reproducibility, operator independence, low cost, and results obtained within 2 hours, the rapid test can be used as a “real time” monitoring of cryoglobulinemia related diseases and for the evaluation of plasmapheresis efficacy.

  4. Comparison of PCR, Culture, and Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Testing for Detection of Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffelholz, Mike J.; Thompson, Curt J.; Long, Karla S.; Gilchrist, Mary J. R.

    1999-01-01

    We prospectively compared the performance of culture, direct fluorescent-antibody testing (DFA), and an in-house-developed PCR test targeting the repeated insertion sequence IS481 for the detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. We tested 319 consecutive paired specimens on which all three tests were performed. A total of 59 specimens were positive by one or more tests. Of these, 5 were positive by all three tests, 2 were positive by culture and PCR, 16 were positive by PCR and DFA, 28 were positive by PCR only, and 8 were positive by DFA only. Any specimen positive by culture was considered to be a true positive, as were specimens positive by both PCR and DFA. Specimens positive only by PCR or DFA were considered discrepant, and their status was resolved by review of patient histories. Patients with symptoms meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical case definition for pertussis and who had a specimen positive by PCR or DFA were considered to have true B. pertussis infections. Of the 28 patients positive by PCR only, 20 met the clinical case definition for pertussis, while 3 of the 8 patients positive by DFA only met the clinical case definition. After resolution of the status of discrepant specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 15.2, 100, 100, and 87.5%, respectively, for culture; 93.5, 97.1, 84.3, and 98.9%, respectively, for PCR; and 52.2, 98.2, 82.8, and 92.4%, respectively, for DFA. The actual positive predictive value of PCR was probably greater, as several PCR-positive patients who did not meet the clinical case definition had symptoms consistent with typical or atypical pertussis. PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of B. pertussis. PMID:10449467

  5. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  6. Comparison and transfer testing of multiplex ligation detection methods for GM plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujhelyi Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of GMOs on the global market the maintenance of European GMO regulations is becoming more complex. For the analysis of a single food or feed sample it is necessary to assess the sample for the presence of many GMO-targets simultaneously at a sensitive level. Several methods have been published regarding DNA-based multidetection. Multiplex ligation detection methods have been described that use the same basic approach: i hybridisation and ligation of specific probes, ii amplification of the ligated probes and iii detection and identification of the amplified products. Despite they all have this same basis, the published ligation methods differ radically. The present study investigated with real-time PCR whether these different ligation methods have any influence on the performance of the probes. Sensitivity and the specificity of the padlock probes (PLPs with the ligation protocol with the best performance were also tested and the selected method was initially validated in a laboratory exchange study. Results Of the ligation protocols tested in this study, the best results were obtained with the PPLMD I and PPLMD II protocols and no consistent differences between these two protocols were observed. Both protocols are based on padlock probe ligation combined with microarray detection. Twenty PLPs were tested for specificity and the best probes were subjected to further evaluation. Up to 13 targets were detected specifically and simultaneously. During the interlaboratory exchange study similar results were achieved by the two participating institutes (NIB, Slovenia, and RIKILT, the Netherlands. Conclusions From the comparison of ligation protocols it can be concluded that two protocols perform equally well on the basis of the selected set of PLPs. Using the most ideal parameters the multiplicity of one of the methods was tested and 13 targets were successfully and specifically detected. In the

  7. The Development of an Embedded Figures Test for the Detection of Feigned Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Grabski, Meryem; Lange, Klaus W.; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It has been shown that an increasing number of adults deliberately feign attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which demonstrates the need for new tests designed to detect feigned ADHD. Methods An Embedded Figures Test ( EFT) was developed for the detection of feigned ADHD in

  8. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  9. Why humans do not make good vampires. Testing the ability of humans to detect true blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Delphine; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Verplaetse, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Research indicating the effects of real blood or of its iconic representation on human behaviour has thus far concentrated on phobia and aggressiveness. Little is known about other responses or, more fundamentally, about the biological basis of all such responses. In this study it is examined whether or not humans are able to detect real blood. Human subjects (n = 89) were asked to distinguish different kinds of blood from red control fluids under varying visual and choice conditions. Relevant differences between subjects were tested for through written questionnaires, including standardized scales for disgust sensitivity (DS-R) and blood phobia (MBPI) and performance on two clinical olfactory tests. Analysis of variance shows that humans are excellent detectors of animal blood (in casu pig blood), whereas the ability of detecting human blood is much less developed. Surprisingly, differences in olfactory capacities and personal experience with blood have no effect on blood detection, while blood fear lowers and disgust sensitivity ameliorates this performance. This study allows further mapping of the exact role of disgust sensitivity in human behaviour, as well as a deliberate choice of materials in blood-related experiments. It is imperative for further research on the behavioural and psychological impact 'blood' resorts on humans.

  10. Noninvasive prenatal testing in China: Future detection of rare genetic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Tang, Qi; Sun, Baiyu; Xu, Lingzhong

    2014-08-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) provides an innovative method to detect genetic conditions in fetuses using a maternal blood sample, thus avoiding the risk of miscarriage associated with traditional invasive procedures. Since 80% of rare diseases are genetic diseases, NIPT has the potential to detect rare genetic diseases early on and it has been used in many countries and regions. Since China has the world's largest population of patients with rare diseases, NIPT has been implemented in China since 2010. However, the regulations governing NIPT in China are weak and NIPT oversight and research are still lacking. Strict registration is needed to ensure the quality of NIPT, additional certification can help a developer/manufacturer of an NIPT test to compile clinical data and to improve innovation, and academic societies can provide committee opinions that are suited to the current situation in China. These efforts may improve regulations governing NIPT and NIPT oversight and research in China. With these improvements, NIPT may offer promise in terms of the early detection of rare diseases.

  11. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Soares F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino de Oliveira,1 Liliane Dias e Dias de Macedo,1 Alessandra Mendonça Tomás,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço-Diniz,2 João Bento-Torres,1,3 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção Belém, Pará, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Núcleo Universitário de Oriximiná, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, BrazilObjective: The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects.Method: We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years matched by educational level (years of schooling. All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group.Results: Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application

  12. A comparison of three tests to detect feigned amnesia: The effects of feedback and the measurement of response latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolan, Barbara; Foster, Jonathan K.; Schmand, Ben; Bolan, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments provided validation data for an English language version of the Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (ASTM test) developed to detect feigned memory impairment. Using a simulation design, the ASTM test compared favourably with the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and appeared better

  13. Evaluation of a PCR test for detection of treponema pallidum in swabs and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, P A; Gressier, L; Dion, P L; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J P; Deleuze, J; Pantoja, C; Bianchi, A; Lassau, F; Avril, M F; Janier, M; Dupin, N

    2012-03-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis.

  14. Detection of pathogenic Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis using water filtration, animal and bait testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Feldman, Sanford H; Heffron, Meghan; Hammond, Meagan; Ruehling, Margaret P Roth; Grayson, Kristine L; Mitchell, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can be challenging to detect at endangered amphibian reintroduction sites. Pre-release Bd detection can be confounded by imperfect animal sampling and the absence of animals. In Study 1, we used historical Bd-positive sites, to concurrently evaluate water filtrates and mouth bar (tadpoles) or skin swab (caudates) samples for Bd using molecular beacon realtime PCR. In Study 2, during a natural outbreak, we used PCR to detect Bd from zoospore-attracting keratin baits (three avian, three snake species). In Study 1, no captured animals (n=116) exhibited clinical signs, although 10.6% were positive, representing three of seven species sampled. In contrast, 5.4% of water filters (n=56) were Bd-positive. In Study 2, after short incubation times, a single duck down feather tested Bd-positive. In conclusion, Bd was detected in asymptomatic amphibians and water filtrate at two sites, and from water only, at two other sites. With continued refinement, semi-quantitative Bd water filtrate screening could better define zoospore-specific disease risk, allowing better characterization of the free-living phase of the organism's life cycle. Finally, these results suggest wild aquatic birds (e.g., waterfowl) should be systematically explored as a means of Bd spread. Since large numbers of aquatic birds migrate, even low Bd transfer rates could be a significant means for disease dissemination. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Detection of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B using fluorescent immunoliposomes as label for immunochromatographic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khreich, Nathalie; Lamourette, Patricia; Boutal, Hervé; Devilliers, Karine; Créminon, Christophe; Volland, Hervé

    2008-06-15

    Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of several toxins produced by the gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. SEB is a major cause of food poisoning and represents a significant biological threat with regard to bioterrorism. A rapid, sensitive, and specific method is required to monitor food and water in cases of both natural and intentional contamination by this toxin. This report presents an improved immunochromatographic test (ICT) using immunoliposomes as label for the detection of SEB. For the first time in an ICT, the signal generated by the sulforhodamine B encapsulated into immunoliposomes was measured by fluorescence, allowing a 15-fold increase in sensitivity compared with that for visual detection of colored labels. The ICT was completed within 30 min, providing a limit of detection close to 20 pg/ml in buffer and showing no cross-reactivity with the other major toxin of the bacterium, Staphylococcus enterotoxin A. This sensitivity was retained when analyzing SEB spiked in various alimentary matrices, mimicking contaminated foods. Due to the use of fluorescent immunoliposomes as label, the present assay offers the inherent simplicity and speed of a dipstick assay while providing detection of low levels of SEB in real samples.

  16. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Karen K W; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-15

    Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed.

  17. Binomial Test Method for Determining Probability of Detection Capability for Fracture Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that for a minimum flaw size and all greater flaw sizes, there is 0.90 probability of detection with 95% confidence (90/95 POD). Directed design of experiments for probability of detection (DOEPOD) has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields estimates of POD and confidence bounds for both Hit-Miss or signal amplitude testing, where signal amplitudes are reduced to Hit-Miss by using a signal threshold Directed DOEPOD uses a nonparametric approach for the analysis or inspection data that does require any assumptions about the particular functional form of a POD function. The DOEPOD procedure identifies, for a given sample set whether or not the minimum requirement of 0.90 probability of detection with 95% confidence is demonstrated for a minimum flaw size and for all greater flaw sizes (90/95 POD). The DOEPOD procedures are sequentially executed in order to minimize the number of samples needed to demonstrate that there is a 90/95 POD lower confidence bound at a given flaw size and that the POD is monotonic for flaw sizes exceeding that 90/95 POD flaw size. The conservativeness of the DOEPOD methodology results is discussed. Validated guidelines for binomial estimation of POD for fracture critical inspection are established.

  18. Detection of frailty in elderly cancer patients: Improvement of the G8 screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Monéger, Aurélie; Rainfray, Muriel; Soubeyran, Pierre; Bellera, Carine A; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone

    2016-03-01

    The G8 is a screening test to identify frail elderly patients with cancer. Objectives were to design and evaluate the performance of alternative tests taking into account other predictive domains for frailty. We conducted a literature review to identify predictive factors of frailty. Using a Delphi consensus, we collected 24 European experts' opinions to validate the most relevant items to improve the G8. Alternative tests were created and performance assessed on a development population (ONCODAGE cohort). The highest performing test was compared to the G8, and validated through both an internal and an external population validation (Aquitaine Geriatric Oncology cohort). The study population consisted of 1435 patients (ONCODAGE cohort) and 364 patients (Aquitaine Geriatric Oncology cohort). Twenty-three experts validated two items with a strong consensus (>75%): modification of the threshold for the G8 polypharmacy item to six drugs per day and replacement of the G8 item on neuropsychological problems by four Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) items predictive of incident dementia, creating three modified G8 tests (addition of either item, or both). Only the G8 IADL-modified test had better performance than the G8 when tested on the ONCODAGE cohort: sensitivity=77%, specificity=67%. This test was validated on the internal (sensitivity=78%, specificity=71%) and external (sensitivity=88%, specificity=69%) validation populations. Adding the four IADL items improves the performance of the G8. We have developed and validated a G8-modified test that is more specific than the G8 to detect frail elderly, while still sensitive and feasible in less than 10 min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionospheric detection of the 25 May 2009 North Korean underground nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; von Frese, Ralph R. B.; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Morton, Yu; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.

    2011-11-01

    The total electron content (TEC) measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) revealed traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) that locate North Korea's underground nuclear explosion (UNE) of 25 May 2009 to within about 3.5 km of its seismically determined epicenter. The random chance for this pattern of TIDs to register across the eleven GNSS stations is roughly 1 in 19 billion. Monte Carlo analysis of nearly 1,300 TIDs from a 7-station subset of the 11 GNSS stations supports the statistical strength of the array's signature. The UNE was also detected by seismic stations and possibly a local infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), but no radionuclide evidence was found. Thus, global GNSS infrastructure enables mapping spatial and temporal variations of TEC that augment and complement other methods of detecting and locating clandestine UNEs.

  20. Detection of bladder malignancy by bard BTA stat test among patients with haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Mohanty

    2000-01-01

    In our study of 120 patients (100 males and 20 females between the age group of 18 to 85 years presenting with haematuria we investigated with BTA (Stat, urine for cy-tology and cystoscopies as an outpatient procedure. Result: Result revealed BTA (Stat to be 87.5% sensi-tive and 71.4% specific in detecting TCC of urinary blad-der and upper tracts while urine cytology showed 25% sensitivity giving a statistically significant p-value (p< 0.0001 Conclusion: We conclude BTA Stat (Bard to be a sim-ple non-invasive, rapid and highly sensitive test signifi-cantly superior to urine for cytology in detection of TCC of genitourinary system and should be an adjunctive to cystoscopy in surveillance of bladder malignancy but be-cause of its relatively low specificity cannot replace cys-toscopies.

  1. [Pap test used for detection of cellular changes associated with human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Carrillo-Pacheco, Adia; Hernández-Quijano, Tomás; Zárate, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Human papilloma virus can infect any mucous of the body and can cause cancer of the uterine cervix. This suggests recommending the Papanicolaou smear combined with a test for detection of human papillomavirus with a frequency interval of 3 years, since it grants greater information and fidelity to the result. The detection studies should begin at the age of 21 years and should stop at 65 years age. Until recently specific treatments did not exist to treat human papilloma virus, but recently some drugs that have demonstrated good effectiveness in curing the infection of human papilloma virus. One example is glycirrhicinic acid, which has demonstrated fewer adverse effects, as well as the possibility that its systemic employment allows treatment of lesions that are difficult to approach. The medical recommendations should be in constant revision, since a clinical trial can modify the interpretation of what is necessary to individualize each patient's treatment.

  2. Structure Detection of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Aeroelastic Flight Test Data. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Brenner, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the applicability of NARMAX structure detection to aeroelastic systems. In conclusion, the simulation results demonstrate bootstrap approach for structure computation of aircraft structural stiffness provided a high rate of true model selection: 1. T-test and stepwise regression methods had difficulty providing accurate results 2. Work contributes to understanding of the use of structure detection for modelling and identification of aerospace systems. 3. Limitation of model complexity that can be studied with these structure computation techniques 4. Result of the large number of candidate terms, for a given model order, and the data length required to guarantee convergence 5. Another approach to structure computation problem uses a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)

  3. Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) performance of individuals with central auditory processing disorders from 5 to 25 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Jutras, Benoît; Acrani, Isabela Olszanski; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with central auditory processing disorders, to examine the maturation effect and to investigate the relationship between the performance on a temporal resolution test with the performance on other central auditory tests. Participants were divided in two groups: 131 with Central Auditory Processing Disorder and 94 with normal auditory processing. They had pure-tone air-conduction thresholds no poorer than 15 dB HL bilaterally, normal admittance measures and presence of acoustic reflexes. Also, they were assessed with a central auditory test battery. Participants who failed at least one or more tests were included in the Central Auditory Processing Disorder group and those in the control group obtained normal performance on all tests. Following the auditory processing assessment, the Random Gap Detection Test was administered to the participants. A three-way ANOVA was performed. Correlation analyses were also done between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests data as well as between Random Gap Detection Test data and the other auditory processing test results. There was a significant difference between the age-group performances in children with and without Central Auditory Processing Disorder. Also, 48% of children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder failed the Random Gap Detection Test and the percentage decreased as a function of age. The highest percentage (86%) was found in the 5-6 year-old children. Furthermore, results revealed a strong significant correlation between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests. There was a modest correlation between the Random Gap Detection Test results and the dichotic listening tests. No significant correlation was observed between the Random Gap Detection Test data and the results of the other tests in the battery. Random Gap Detection Test should not be administered to children younger than 7 years old because

  4. Commercial serological antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R Steingart

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global tuberculosis epidemic results in nearly 2 million deaths and 9 million new cases of the disease a year. The vast majority of tuberculosis patients live in developing countries, where the diagnosis of tuberculosis relies on the identification of acid-fast bacilli on unprocessed sputum smears using conventional light microscopy. Microscopy has high specificity in tuberculosis-endemic countries, but modest sensitivity which varies among laboratories (range 20% to 80%. Moreover, the sensitivity is poor for paucibacillary disease (e.g., pediatric and HIV-associated tuberculosis. Thus, the development of rapid and accurate new diagnostic tools is imperative. Immune-based tests are potentially suitable for use in low-income countries as some test formats can be performed at the point of care without laboratory equipment. Currently, dozens of distinct commercial antibody detection tests are sold in developing countries. The question is "do they work?" METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to assess the accuracy of commercial antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Studies from all countries using culture and/or microscopy smear for confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis were eligible. Studies with fewer than 50 participants (25 patients and 25 control participants were excluded. In a comprehensive search, we identified 68 studies. The results demonstrate that (1 overall, commercial tests vary widely in performance; (2 sensitivity is higher in smear-positive than smear-negative samples; (3 in studies of smear-positive patients, Anda-TB IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay shows limited sensitivity (range 63% to 85% and inconsistent specificity (range 73% to 100%; (4 specificity is higher in healthy volunteers than in patients in whom tuberculosis disease is initially suspected and subsequently ruled out; and (5 there are insufficient data to determine the accuracy of most

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of xpert test in tuberculosis detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravdeep Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB and detection of rifampicin resistance. This systematic review was done to know about the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar for relevant studies for studies published between 2010 and December 2014. Studies given in the systematic reviews were accessed separately and used for analysis. Selection of studies, data extraction and assessment of quality of included studies was performed independently by two reviewers. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay among adult or predominantly adult patients (≥14 years, presumed to have pulmonary TB with or without HIV infection were included in the review. Also, studies that had assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay using sputum and other respiratory specimens were included. Results: The included studies had a low risk of any form of bias, showing that findings are of high scientific validity and credibility. Quantitative analysis of 37 included studies shows that Xpert MTB/RIF is an accurate diagnostic test for TB and detection of rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a robust, sensitive and specific test for accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis as compared to conventional tests like culture and microscopic examination.

  6. PCR testing of a ventilated caging system to detect murine fur mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack.

  7. Evaluation of a rapid antigen test for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Angel; Fairley, Derek; McKenna, James; Coyle, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using lateral flow immunochromatography tests (ICTs) is an effective, rapid and low-cost method to diagnose pneumococcal meningitis. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Uni-Gold ICT to detect pneumococcal antigen in CSF specimens, compared with gold standard bacteriology and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) testing. CSF specimens (n=69) from patients with suspected bacterial meningitis were included in the study. 13/69 (19%) were positive and 56/69 (81%) were negative for pneumococcus by the gold standard tests. The ICT had sensitivity of 85% (55%-98%), specificity of 96% (88%-100%), positive likelihood ratio of 23.7 (6-94) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.16 (0.04-0.57). Overall, a strong correlation between the ICT and qPCR results was seen (κ=0.81). In contrast, CSF microscopy and culture were exceptionally insensitive. The ICT method is sufficiently robust and accurate for use in algorithms to diagnose bacterial meningitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. A novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based test for detecting Neospora caninum DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Andrea Estefanía; Muñoz, Marina; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús Alfredo; Barato, Paola; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2017-11-29

    Neospora caninum is a cyst-forming, coccidian parasite which is known to cause neurological disorders in dogs and abortion and neonatal mortality in cows and other livestock. This study reports the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the Neospora caninum Nc-5 gene and compares its efficacy for detecting DNA to that of a semi-nested PCR test. Six primers were designed based on the Nc-5 repeat region of N. caninum. Specific LAMP primers led to successful amplification of N. caninum DNA at 63 °C in 30 min. The LAMP assay was highly specific (i.e. it did not reveal cross-reactivity with other parasite species) and had a low N. caninum plasmid DNA limit of detection (1 fg), which is ten times higher than that for the semi-nested PCR. LAMP applicability was evaluated using a set of naturally-infected samples (59 from canine faeces and five from bovine abortions). Thirty-nine percent (25/64) of the naturally-infected samples were positive for N. caninum DNA by LAMP and 36% (23/64) by semi-nested PCR. However, the LAMP assay is much faster to perform than semi-nested PCR and provides results in 30 min. The optimized reaction conditions described in this study resulted in a sensitive, specific and rapid technique for detecting N. caninum DNA. Considering the advantages of LAMP for detecting N. caninum DNA, further assays aimed at testing its usefulness on a wider range of field samples are recommended.

  9. Laboratory tests in the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS screening test, the E-test, the double disk confirmatory test, and cefoxitin susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. d'Azevedo

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production by Klebsiella sp. and E. coli is an emerging problem. In this study, 107 clinical isolates (53 E. coli, 47 K. pneumoniae and 7 K. oxytoca screened as ESBL producers by the NCCLS disk diffusion procedure were submitted to a double disk confirmatory test (DDT and to the E-test double strip for confirmation of ESBL production by demonstration of clavulanic acid inhibition effect (CAIE. Only 72/107 (67% of the isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDT, with diverse results among species. By the E-test, 58/107 (54% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, and 18/107 (17% were not determinable. Susceptibility to cefoxitin was found in 57/68 (83% of strains that did not show CAIE. ESBL detection remains a controversial issue and clinical laboratories are in need of a simple and effective way to recognize strains with this kind of resistance.

  10. A Non-Parametric Surrogate-based Test of Significance for T-Wave Alternans Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Shamim; Abdala, Omar; Bazán, Violeta; Yim-Yeh, Susie; Malhotra, Atul; Clifford, Gari

    2010-01-01

    We present a non-parametric adaptive surrogate test that allows for the differentiation of statistically significant T-Wave Alternans (TWA) from alternating patterns that can be solely explained by the statistics of noise. The proposed test is based on estimating the distribution of noise induced alternating patterns in a beat sequence from a set of surrogate data derived from repeated reshuffling of the original beat sequence. Thus, in assessing the significance of the observed alternating patterns in the data no assumptions are made about the underlying noise distribution. In addition, since the distribution of noise-induced alternans magnitudes is calculated separately for each sequence of beats within the analysis window, the method is robust to data non-stationarities in both noise and TWA. The proposed surrogate method for rejecting noise was compared to the standard noise rejection methods used with the Spectral Method (SM) and the Modified Moving Average (MMA) techniques. Using a previously described realistic multi-lead model of TWA, and real physiological noise, we demonstrate the proposed approach reduces false TWA detections, while maintaining a lower missed TWA detection compared with all the other methods tested. A simple averaging-based TWA estimation algorithm was coupled with the surrogate significance testing and was evaluated on three public databases; the Normal Sinus Rhythm Database (NRSDB), the Chronic Heart Failure Database (CHFDB) and the Sudden Cardiac Death Database (SCDDB). Differences in TWA amplitudes between each database were evaluated at matched heart rate (HR) intervals from 40 to 120 beats per minute (BPM). Using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we found that significant differences in TWA levels exist between each patient group at all decades of heart rates. The most marked difference was generally found at higher heart rates, and the new technique resulted in a larger margin of separability between patient populations than

  11. Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE in stool specimens submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Özsoy

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the association between Clostridium difficile (C. difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE and efficacy of screening stools submitted for C. difficile toxin assay for prevalence of VRE. Between April 2012 and February 2014, 158 stool samples submitted for C. difficile toxin to the Marmara University Microbiology Laboratory, were included in the study. Stool samples were analyzed by enzyme immuno assay test; VIDAS (bioMerieux, France for Toxin A&B. Samples were inoculated on chromID VRE (bioMerieux, France and incubated 24 h at 37 °C. Manuel tests and API20 STREP (bioMerieux, France test were used to identify the Enterococci species. After the species identification, vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC's were performed by E test and molecular resistance genes for vanA vs vanB were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Of the 158 stool samples, 88 were toxin positive. The prevalence of VRE was 17%(n:19 in toxin positives however, 11.4% in toxin negatives(n:70. All VRE isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium. These results were evaluated according to Fischer's exact chi-square test and p value between VRE colonization and C. difficile toxin positivity was detected 0.047 (p < 0.05. PPV and NPV were 79% and 47% respectively. In our study, the presence of VRE in C. difficile toxin positives is statistically significant compared with toxin negatives (p < 0.05. Screening for VRE is both additional cost and work load for the laboratories. Therefore VRE screening among C. difficile toxin positive samples, will be cost effective for determination of high risk patients in the hospitals especially for developing countries.

  12. A blind test of nondestructive underground void detection by ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wallace W. L.; Chang, Ray K. W.; Sham, Janet F. C.

    2018-02-01

    Blind test/experiment is widely adopted in various scientific disciplines like medicine drug testing/clinical trials/psychology, but not popular in nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDTE) nor near-surface geophysics (NSG). This paper introduces a blind test of nondestructive underground void detection in highway/pavement using ground penetrating radar (GPR). Purpose of which is to help the Highways Department (HyD) of the Hong Kong Government to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale and nationwide application, and examine the ability of appropriate service providers to carry out such works. In the past failure case of such NDTE/NSG based on lowest bid price, it is not easy to know which part(s) in SWIMS (S - service provider, i.e. people; W - work procedure; I - instrumentation; M - materials in the complex underground; S - specifications by client) fails, and how it/they fail(s). This work attempts to carry out the blind test by burying fit balls (as voids) under a site with reinforced concrete road and paving block by PolyU team A. The blind test about the void centroid, spread and cover depth was then carried out by PolyU team B without prior information given. Then with this baseline, a marking scheme, acceptance criteria and passing mark were set to test six local commercial service providers, determine their scores and evaluate the performance. A pass is a prerequisite of the award of a service contract of similar nature. In this first attempt of the blind test, results were not satisfactory and it is concluded that 'S-service provider' and 'W-work procedure' amongst SWIMS contributed to most part of the unsatisfactory performance.+

  13. Preparing Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies II: Impact Detection/Attribution and Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, J. J.; Battisti, D.; Caldeira, K.; Eardley, D. M.; Katz, J. I.; Keith, D. W.; Koonin, S. E.; Patrinos, A. A.; Schrag, D. P.; Socolow, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    ) geophysical; (3) geochemical; and (4) ecological. The utility of present monitoring capabilities (e.g. the AeroNet network and ARM) for field-tests are considered, including the proposal and quantitative evaluation of methods for achieving maximal understanding from minimal amplitude tests (e.g. intermittent interventions with phase-sensitive "lock-in" detection methods to maximize sensitivity). Finally, large gaps between current monitoring capabilities and the basic detection limits are identified in each of these categories, and new detection systems are proposed to fill those gaps.

  14. Artificial cloud test confirms volcanic ash detection using infrared spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A. J.; Dezitter, F.; Davies, I.; Weber, K.; Birnfeld, M.; Moriano, D.; Bernardo, C.; Vogel, A.; Prata, G. S.; Mather, T. A.; Thomas, H. E.; Cammas, J.; Weber, M.

    2016-05-01

    Airborne volcanic ash particles are a known hazard to aviation. Currently, there are no means available to detect ash in flight as the particles are too fine (radii ash clouds are difficult or impossible to detect by eye. The economic cost and societal impact of the April/May 2010 Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull generated renewed interest in finding ways to identify airborne volcanic ash in order to keep airspace open and avoid aircraft groundings. We have designed and built a bi-spectral, fast-sampling, uncooled infrared camera device (AVOID) to examine its ability to detect volcanic ash from commercial jet aircraft at distances of more than 50 km ahead. Here we report results of an experiment conducted over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of France, confirming the ability of the device to detect and quantify volcanic ash in an artificial ash cloud created by dispersal of volcanic ash from a second aircraft. A third aircraft was used to measure the ash in situ using optical particle counters. The cloud was composed of very fine ash (mean radii ~10 μm) collected from Iceland immediately after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and had a vertical thickness of ~200 m, a width of ~2 km and length of between 2 and 12 km. Concentrations of ~200 μg m-3 were identified by AVOID at distances from ~20 km to ~70 km. For the first time, airborne remote detection of volcanic ash has been successfully demonstrated from a long-range flight test aircraft.

  15. Artificial cloud test confirms volcanic ash detection using infrared spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A J; Dezitter, F; Davies, I; Weber, K; Birnfeld, M; Moriano, D; Bernardo, C; Vogel, A; Prata, G S; Mather, T A; Thomas, H E; Cammas, J; Weber, M

    2016-05-09

    Airborne volcanic ash particles are a known hazard to aviation. Currently, there are no means available to detect ash in flight as the particles are too fine (radii ash clouds are difficult or impossible to detect by eye. The economic cost and societal impact of the April/May 2010 Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull generated renewed interest in finding ways to identify airborne volcanic ash in order to keep airspace open and avoid aircraft groundings. We have designed and built a bi-spectral, fast-sampling, uncooled infrared camera device (AVOID) to examine its ability to detect volcanic ash from commercial jet aircraft at distances of more than 50 km ahead. Here we report results of an experiment conducted over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of France, confirming the ability of the device to detect and quantify volcanic ash in an artificial ash cloud created by dispersal of volcanic ash from a second aircraft. A third aircraft was used to measure the ash in situ using optical particle counters. The cloud was composed of very fine ash (mean radii ~10 μm) collected from Iceland immediately after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and had a vertical thickness of ~200 m, a width of ~2 km and length of between 2 and 12 km. Concentrations of ~200 μg m(-3) were identified by AVOID at distances from ~20 km to ~70 km. For the first time, airborne remote detection of volcanic ash has been successfully demonstrated from a long-range flight test aircraft.

  16. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.; Shannon, Gary W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  17. Fluorescent detection of Southern blots and PCR-based genetic typing tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, E.S.; Worley, J.M. [Molecular Dynamics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Zimmerman, P.A. [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Southern blot is used to study gene organization, to identify disease-causing genomic rearrangements, or for typing RFLP markers in forensic, paternity, or prenatal diagnostic testing. Fluorescence offers a much greater dynamic range and a more linear response than film used in radioactive or chemiluminescent detection of RFLPs. We therefore investigated using the Fluorimager{trademark} 575 (Molecular Dynamics, Inc.) for analyzing Southern blots. Using a single-locus probe to D2S44 (YNH24) (Promega Corp.), we detect as little as 100 ng (0.05 attomole) genomic DNA. The alkaline phosphatase-labeled probe is detected using AttoPhos (JBL Scientific), and the developed membrane is scanned with the Fluorimager. Biotinylated hybridization probes can also be developed using a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and AttoPhos. The instrument scan parameters can be adjusted to prevent overexposure and accompanying loss of resolution in images of blots, gels, or 96-well microplates. We have used these other sample formats in PCR-based genetic typing assays. We use FluorKit DQS (Molecular Dynamics) to accurately quantify PCR template DNA (1-500 ng) in 96-well microplates scanned using the same instrument. Mutation detection assays run include heteroduplex gels (5% polyacrylamide, 2.7 M urea), short tandem repeat (STR) markers, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AmpFLP), competitive priming PCR, and allele-specific oligotyping. These assays are run using either 1- or 2-color labeling. We detect unlabeled PCR products, such as the AmpFLP marker D1S80 (Perkin-Elmer) by post-staining gels for 10 minutes with SYBR Green 1 (Molecular Probes) and scanning the wet gel. The Fluorimager scans a 20 x 25 cm sample within three minutes, allowing rapid optimization of fluorescent protocols and high sample throughput.

  18. Specificity tests of an oligonucleotide probe against food-outbreak salmonella for biosensor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-H.; Horikawa, S.; Xi, J.; Wikle, H. C.; Barbaree, J. M.; Chin, B. A.

    2017-05-01

    Phage based magneto-elastic (ME) biosensors have been shown to be able to rapidly detect Salmonella in various food systems to serve food pathogen monitoring purposes. In this ME biosensor platform, the free-standing strip-shaped magneto-elastic sensor is the transducer and the phage probe that recognizes Salmonella in food serves as the bio-recognition element. According to Sorokulova et al. at 2005, a developed oligonucleotide probe E2 was reported to have high specificity to Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. In the report, the specificity tests were focused in most of Enterobacterace groups outside of Salmonella family. Here, to understand the specificity of phage E2 to different Salmonella enterica serotypes within Salmonella Family, we further tested the specificity of the phage probe to thirty-two Salmonella serotypes that were present in the major foodborne outbreaks during the past ten years (according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The tests were conducted through an Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) format. This assay can mimic probe immobilized conditions on the magnetoelastic biosensor platform and also enable to study the binding specificity of oligonucleotide probes toward different Salmonella while avoiding phage/ sensor lot variations. Test results confirmed that this oligonucleotide probe E2 was high specific to Salmonella Typhimurium cells but showed cross reactivity to Salmonella Tennessee and four other serotypes among the thirty-two tested Salmonella serotypes.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maciel de Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA, decreased sensitivity (83.3% and increased specificity (92.5% were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL.

  20. 2D adaptive prediction-based Gaussianity tests in microcalcification detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Yardimci, Yasemin C.; Cetin, Enis A.

    1998-01-01

    With increasing use of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, computer-aided diagnosis methods will be more widely utilized. In this paper, we develop a CAD method for the detection of microcalcification clusters in mammograms, which are an early sign of breast cancer. The method we propose makes use of 2D adaptive filtering and a Gaussianity test recently developed by Ojeda et al. for causal invertible time series. The first step of this test is adaptive linear prediction. It is assumed that the prediction error sequence has a Gaussian distribution as the mammogram images do not contain sharp edges. Since microcalcifications appear as isolated bright spots, the prediction error sequence contains large outliers around microcalcification locations on the second step of the algorithm is the computation of a test statistic from the prediction error values to determine whether the samples are from a Gaussian distribution. The Gaussianity test is applied over small, overlapping square regions. The regions, in which the Gaussianity test fails, are marked as suspicious regions. Experimental results obtained from a mammogram database are presented.

  1. Sensitivity of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test for hepatitis C antibodies detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Delphine; Vaghefi, Parissa; Savary, Jeanine; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2008-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) are the most widely used anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening tests but simple, instrument and electricity-free screening tests have been developed with results available in a few minutes. The sensitivity of a rapid immuno-chromatographic assay for the detection of anti-HCV antibodies was evaluated on 421 HCV RNA-positive samples from chronic carriers and compared with ELISA method. The sensitivity of the ELISA method was 99.3% and the sensitivity of the rapid test was 95.5%. False negative results were independent of HCV genotype, but were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive status. Among HIV-negative people, sensitivities of the rapid test and the EIA assay were 99.2% and 100%, respectively. Whereas among HIV-positive people, sensitivities were 77.5% and 96.3%. The immuno-chromatographic test is rapid and simple, and could be used along with rapid anti-HIV determination, in settings with limited facilities or when rapid results are required.

  2. Peritonsillar abscess and cellulitis and their relation to a positive antigen detection test for streptococcal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, Stefan; Engfeldt, Peter; Hugosson, Svante

    2010-10-01

    The microbiological cause of peritonsillar abscess and the role of group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) are unclear. We performed a retrospective study at the ear, nose and throat clinic (ENT) of Orebro University Hospital, Sweden, and included 376 events of peritonsillitis between 2002 and 2004. We determined if the patients had visited a primary healthcare centre (PHCC) within 30 days prior to inclusion. The results of the rapid antigen detection test for GAS (Strep A) taken at the PHCC were compared with the occurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and peritonsillar cellulitis (PTC). A Strep A test was performed in 61% (229/376) of the events studied. Strep A was positive in 22% of PTA events and in 35% of PTC events (p = 0.036). Of 48,000 Strep A tests taken in primary healthcare, mainly for sore throat, 22% were positive. We examined the relationship between age, the incidence of PTA, and positive Strep A tests. We also determined if there was a monthly correlation between number of positive Strep A tests and number of PTA events. We found no significant correlations. In conclusion, our findings indicate that GAS does not play a major role in the development of PTA/PTC.

  3. Revisiting the Roles of Culture and Culture-Independent Detection Tests for Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Marc Roger

    2016-05-01

    Culture-independent detection tests (CIDTs) for Campylobacter have become an area of intense controversy and confusion among laboratorians in the field of clinical microbiology. To date, the true analytical and clinical performance of stool antigen CIDTs versus truly optimized culture conditions is unknown. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Fitzgerald and colleagues (C. Fitzgerald et al., J Clin Microbiol 54:1209-1215, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01925-15) report comprehensive performance data for four Campylobacter stool antigen CIDTs versus culture and molecular diagnostics. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. A Comparison of the Roche Cobas HPV Test With the Hybrid Capture 2 Test for the Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levi, Angelique W; Bernstein, Jane I; Hui, Pei; Duch, Kara; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C

    2016-01-01

    .... To compare the performance of the Roche cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 tests for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus using both ThinPrep and SurePath preparations as part of a validation study...

  5. Phenotypic Tests for the Detection of β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Different Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Daniele V; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2016-07-01

    Some bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family are showing a significant capability to disseminate β-lactams resistance mechanisms among them, and these same mechanisms can be carried out from the hospital environment to superficial water. The aim of this study was to evaluate different phenotypic methods for the detection β-lactamases production by enterobacteria isolated from the anthropogenic environment: hospital wastewater and from a stream that cross the city of Porto Alegre. The applied tests were the modified Hodge test (MHT) and phenotypic tests with the following inhibitors: carbapenemase-phenylboronic acid (APB), metallo-β-lactamase-EDTA, AmpC β-lactamase-cloxacillin, and the confirmatory test for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-clavulanic acid. For this evaluation, 131 isolates were initially subjected to antibiogram using the following antimicrobials: cefotaxime (30 µg), cefpodoxime (10 μg), ceftazidime (30 µg), ertapenem (10 μg), meropenem (10 μg), and aztreonam (30 μg). After this first screening, 62 isolates showed a profile resistance for at least one antimicrobial. These isolates were subjected to all phenotypic tests. Of those, 40 isolates were positive for at least one phenotypic test. In MHT test, one isolate was positive and five were with inconclusive results. The results achieved with the inhibitors are as follows: APB 25/40 positive strains; EDTA 8/40 positive strains; and with CLOXA 2/40 positive strains. ESBL production was observed for 34/40 strains. This assessment shows a high level of bacteria which can produce enzymes that inactivate β-lactams present in the different environment like the stream waters and from the hospital settings.

  6. The lateralized smell test for detecting Alzheimer's disease: failure to replicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L; Bayona, Edgardo A; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Cuadros, Juan; Chung, Inna; Vazquez, Britney; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2014-05-15

    A widely publicized study by Stamps, Bartoshuk and Heilman (2013) reported that a simple measure of left:right naris differences in the ability to detect the odor of peanut butter is a sensitive marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD patients were said to have abnormal smell function on the left side of the nose and normal function on right side of the nose. In light of its implications for medical practice and the world-wide publicity that it engendered, we sought to replicate and expand this work. Two studies were performed. In the first, 15 AD patients were tested according to the procedures described by Stamps et al. in which the nostril contralateral to the tested side was occluded by the patient using lateral pressure from the index finger. Since this can potentially distort the contralateral naris, we repeated the testing using tape for naris occlusion. In the second, 20 AD patients were administered 20 odors of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to each side of the nose, with the contralateral naris being closed with tape. In both studies, the order of the side of testing was systematically counterbalanced. No evidence of a left:right asymmetry on any test measure was observed. Although hyposmia is well-established in AD, no meaningful asymmetry in smell perception is apparent. If olfactory function on the right side of the nose was normal as claimed, then AD patients should exhibit normal function when tested bilaterally, a phenomenon not seen in dozens of AD-related olfactory studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Study on the Different Testing Techniques in Tree Classification for Detecting the Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliane, C.; Arman, A. A.; Sastramihardja, H. S.; Supriana, I.

    2017-03-01

    Having motivation to learn is a successful requirement in a learning process, and needs to be maintained properly. This study aims to measure learning motivation, especially in the process of electronic learning (e-learning). Here, data mining approach was chosen as a research method. For the testing process, the accuracy comparative study on the different testing techniques was conducted, involving Cross Validation and Percentage Split. The best accuracy was generated by J48 algorithm with a percentage split technique reaching at 92.19 %. This study provided an overview on how to detect the presence of learning motivation in the context of e-learning. It is expected to be good contribution for education, and to warn the teachers for whom they have to provide motivation.

  8. Detecting, measuring, and testing dyadic patterns in the actor-partner interdependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, David A; Ledermann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Family researchers have used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to study romantic couples, parent-child dyads, and siblings. We discuss a new method to detect, measure, and test different theoretically important patterns in the APIM: equal actor and partner effect (couple pattern); same size, but different signs of actor and partner effects (contrast pattern); and zero partner effects (actor-only pattern). To measure these different patterns, as well as others, we propose the estimation of the parameter k, which equals the partner effect divided by the actor effect. For both indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., twins) and distinguishable dyad members (e.g., heterosexual couples), we propose strategies for estimating and testing different models. We illustrate our new approach with four data sets. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity tests with crustaceans for detecting sublethal effects of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah

    New and updated test methods to detect and characterise endocrine disrupting chemicals are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment. Although endocrine disruption in invertebrates has not been studied as extensive as in vertebrates, in particular in fish, numerous reports...... regulated by hormones such as growth, molting, sexual maturation and reproduction. The primary endpoints were larval development ratio, egg production and sex ratio. Exposure experiments were conducted with naturally occurring and synthetic vertebrate and invertebrate hormones as well as compounds known...... to act as endocrine disrupters in vertebrates. Larval development ratio was identified to be a remarkably sensitive endpoint. The larval development test with A. tonsa is rapid, cost-effective, easily to perform and results in full concentration-response relationships allowing the determination...

  10. Test system for defect detection in cementitious material with artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowanee Saechai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a newly developed test system for defect detection, classification of number of defects andidentification of defect materials in cement-based products. With the system, the pattern of ultrasonic waves for each case ofspecimen can be obtained from direct and indirect measurements. The machine learning algorithm called artificial neuralnetwork classifier with back-propagation model is employed for classification and verification of the wave patterns obtainedfrom different specimens. By applying the system, the presence or absence of a defect in mortar can be identified. Moreover,the system is applied to identify the number and materials of defects inside the mortar. The methodology is explained and theclassification results are discussed. The effectiveness of the developed test system is evaluated. Comparison of the classification results between different input features with different number of training sets is demonstrated. The results show that thistechnique based on pattern recognition has a potential for practical inspection of concrete structures.

  11. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  12. Current guidelines for BRCA testing of breast cancer patients are insufficient to detect all mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Mæhle, Lovise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Norum, Jan; Schlichting, Ellen

    2017-06-21

    Identification of BRCA mutations in breast cancer (BC) patients influences treatment and survival and may be of importance for their relatives. Testing is often restricted to women fulfilling high-risk criteria. However, there is limited knowledge of the sensitivity of such a strategy, and of the clinical aspects of BC caused by BRCA mutations in less selected BC cohorts. The aim of this report was to address these issues by evaluating the results of BRCA testing of BC patients in South-Eastern Norway. 1371 newly diagnosed BC patients were tested with sequencing and Multi Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Prevalence of mutations was calculated, and BC characteristics among carriers and non-carriers compared. Sensitivity and specificity of common guidelines for BRCA testing to identify carriers was analyzed. Number of identified female mutation positive relatives was evaluated. A pathogenic BRCA mutation was identified in 3.1%. Carriers differed from non-carriers in terms of age at diagnosis, family history, grade, ER/PR-status, triple negativity (TNBC) and Ki67, but not in HER2 and TNM status. One mutation positive female relative was identified per mutation positive BC patient. Using age of onset below 40 or TNBC as criteria for testing identified 32-34% of carriers. Common guidelines for testing identified 45-90%, and testing all below 60 years identified 90%. Thirty-seven percent of carriers had a family history of cancer that would have qualified for predictive BRCA testing. A Variant of Uncertain Significance (VUS) was identified in 4.9%. Mutation positive BC patients differed as a group from mutation negative. However, the commonly used guidelines for testing were insufficient to detect all mutation carriers in the BC cohort. Thirty-seven percent had a family history of cancer that would have qualified for predictive testing before they were diagnosed with BC. Based on our combined observations, we suggest it is time to discuss whether all BC patients

  13. The diagnostic accuracy of E6 & 7 mRNA detection as a primary screening test for the detection of severe cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Koliopoulos, George; Zygouris, Dimitrios; Pappas, Asimakis; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Chrelias, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    This prospective accuracy study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of nucleic acid sequence amplification (NASBA) and flow cytometry for E6/7 human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA detection as a primary screening test compared to cytology in the triage of severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. 1083 women referred to our outpatient gynecology clinics for a routine Pap test were recruited. Residual material of the Pap smears was tested by NASBA and by flow cytometry for E6/7 mRNA expression. Biopsy results were used as reference standards. The accuracy indices of both techniques and of NASBA type-16 HPV were assessed for the detection of CIN2+ lesions and were compared to cytology. An increased lesion severity was associated with increased positivity rates of both NASBA and flow cytometry tests (x(2), pmRNA detection in the screening for severe cervical lesions remains to be clarified.

  14. Alkaline peptone water enrichment with a dipstick test to quickly detect and monitor cholera outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection, confirmation and monitoring of cholera outbreaks in many developing countries including Uganda is a big challenge due to lack of the required resources and the time the test takes. Culture method which takes 24–48 h to get the feedback and requires highly skilled laboratory staff plus other complex resources is the standard test. This study evaluated the new cholera rapid detection method that relies on Crystal VC dipsticks after enrichment with alkaline peptone water (APW against the culture method for monitoring the progress of cholera outbreaks in rural setting. Methods We conducted the study between March and June 2015. Fresh stool samples and rectal swabs were incubated in 1% APW for 6 h at room temperature before testing with RDT following the manufacturer’s instruction. The same stool sample was cultured to isolate V. cholerae in the standard manner. We also reviewed patient registers to epidemiologically describe the cholera epidemic. Results We tested stool from 102 consenting suspected cholera patients reporting during daytime at Bwera Hospital (n = 69, Kilembe Mines Hospital (n = 4 and Kinyabwama Health Centre (n = 29. Ninety one (91 samples were positive and nine samples were negative according to both methods. One (1 sample was positive only by dipstick and one sample was positive only by culture (sensitivity of 99%, specificity of 90%, Positive Predictive Value of 99% and Negative Predictive Value of 90%. Overall, 146 suspected cholera cases and two deaths, (case fatality rate of 1.36% were recorded during the study period. Among the cases aged 1–9 years, 63% (50/79 were males while in those aged 20–49 years, 76% (34/45 were females. Conclusions Our findings showed that the modified dipstick test after enrichment with 1% APW had high level of accuracy in detection of V. cholerae and is quick, affordable alternative cholera outbreak monitoring tool in resource constrained

  15. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  16. Automated Streak Detection for High Velocity Objects: Test with YSTAR-NEOPAT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Won Chung

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to efficiently detect streaks in survey images and made a performance test with YSTAR-NEOPAT images obtained by the 0.5m telescope stationed in South Africa. Fast moving objects whose apparent speeds exceed 10 arcsec/min are the main target of our algorithm; these include artificial satellites, space debris, and very fast Near-Earth Objects. Our algorithm, based on the outline shape of elongated sources employs a step of image subtraction in order to reduce the confusion caused by dense distribution of faint stars. It takes less than a second to find and characterize streaks present in normal astronomical images of 2K format. Comparison with visual inspection proves the efficiency and completeness of our automated detection algorithm. When applied to about 7,000 time-series images from YSTAR telescope, nearly 700 incidents of streaks are detected. Fast moving objects are identified by the presence of matching streaks in adjoining frames. Nearly all of confirmed fast moving objects turn out to be artificial satellites or space debris. Majority of streaks are however meteors and cosmic ray hits, whose identity is often difficult to classify.

  17. Distance-based microfluidic quantitative detection methods for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Li, Jiuxing; Song, Yanling; Zhou, Leiji; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-04-07

    Equipment-free devices with quantitative readout are of great significance to point-of-care testing (POCT), which provides real-time readout to users and is especially important in low-resource settings. Among various equipment-free approaches, distance-based visual quantitative detection methods rely on reading the visual signal length for corresponding target concentrations, thus eliminating the need for sophisticated instruments. The distance-based methods are low-cost, user-friendly and can be integrated into portable analytical devices. Moreover, such methods enable quantitative detection of various targets by the naked eye. In this review, we first introduce the concept and history of distance-based visual quantitative detection methods. Then, we summarize the main methods for translation of molecular signals to distance-based readout and discuss different microfluidic platforms (glass, PDMS, paper and thread) in terms of applications in biomedical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and environmental analysis. Finally, the potential and future perspectives are discussed.

  18. Clinical validation of a noninvasive prenatal test for genomewide detection of fetal copy number variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Roy B; Tynan, John A; Liu, Tong; Wu, Yijin; Mazloom, Amin R; Almasri, Eyad; Hogg, Grant; Angkachatchai, Vach; Zhao, Chen; Grosu, Daniel S; McLennan, Graham; Ehrich, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Current cell-free DNA assessment of fetal chromosomes does not analyze and report on all chromosomes. Hence, a significant proportion of fetal chromosomal abnormalities are not detectable by current noninvasive methods. Here we report the clinical validation of a novel noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) designed to detect genomewide gains and losses of chromosomal material ≥7 Mb and losses associated with specific deletions NIPT for detection of genomewide abnormalities. This retrospective, blinded study included maternal plasma collected from 1222 study subjects with pregnancies at increased risk for fetal chromosomal abnormalities that were assessed for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), trisomy 13 (T13), sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs), fetal sex, genomewide copy number variants (CNVs) ≥7 Mb, and select deletions test results with findings from G-band karyotyping, microarray data, or high coverage sequencing. Clinical sensitivity within this study was determined to be 100% for T21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.6-100%), T18 (95% CI, 84.4-100%), T13 (95% CI, 74.7-100%), and SCAs (95% CI, 84-100%), and 97.7% for genomewide CNVs (95% CI, 86.2-99.9%). Clinical specificity within this study was determined to be 100% for T21 (95% CI, 99.6-100%), T18 (95% CI, 99.6-100%), and T13 (95% CI, 99.6-100%), and 99.9% for SCAs and CNVs (95% CI, 99.4-100% for both). Fetal sex classification had an accuracy of 99.6% (95% CI, 98.9-99.8%). This study has demonstrated that genomewide NIPT for fetal chromosomal abnormalities can provide high resolution, sensitive, and specific detection of a wide range of subchromosomal and whole chromosomal abnormalities that were previously only detectable by invasive karyotype analysis. In some instances, this NIPT also provided additional clarification about the origin of genetic material that had not been identified by invasive karyotype analysis. Copyright © 2016 Sequenom, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFICACY OF ROSE BENGAL PLATE TEST (I{BPT AND SERUM AGGLUTINATION TEST (SAT FOR DETECTING THE INCIDENE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN BUFFALOES (Bubolus bubolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid, Ishtiaq Ahmad and Umer Hayat

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT were applied for the diagnosis of brucellosis in 240 buffaloes maintained at organized livestock farms in Punjab, to measure their comparative efficacy. Based on RBPT and SAT, 11.25 (n=27 and 10.42 percent (n=25 buffaloes were found seropositive, 11.67 (n 28 and 4.58 percent (n= 11 animals showed doubtful results, while 77.08 (n= 185 and 85 percept (n= 204 animals were found seronegative, respectively. Rose Bengal Plate Test detected higher percentages of seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases than those detected by Serum Agglutination Test, which showed lower percentages or seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases. This study indicated that SAT is more sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for the detection of Brucella aborlus, antibodies in buffaloes.

  20. Damage detection in composite under in-plane load using tap test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Joon [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents an approach to detect damage in composite laminates. The physical basis of the coin-tap method has been investigated in previous studies. The tap test has the ability to indicate damage such as delamination and disbond in a composite structure due to a localized change of stiffness. The changes in vibration signature may be detected by ears or more precisely by measurement instrumentation. It has been shown that the characteristics of sound radiating from a structure during a tap are changed by the presence of defects in the composite laminate. For structurally radiated sounds, the sound field is directly coupled to the structural motion. Therefore, impact response analysis should be performed. In this study, the radiated sound induced by tap was computed by solving the Rayleigh integral equation. Some damage models were also used to analyze the impact response and acoustic analysis of damaged composite laminates. The predicted impact force and sound pressure histories were compared with tap test data. The effects of in-plane load on the impact force and radiated sound were also investigated numerically.

  1. Deep breathing: A simple test for white coat effect detection in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomičić, Marion; Petric, Dragomir; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Carević, Vedran; Rumboldt, Zvonko

    2015-06-01

    White coat hypertension (WCH) is hard to differentiate from sustained hypertension without the use of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). This invaluable procedure is nevertheless cumbersome and expensive. A simple test of deep breathing over 30 s (DBT) was proposed as a method to unveil WCH. Two hundred and fourteen outpatients referred for the evaluation of uncontrolled hypertension (blood pressure, BP > 140/90 mmHg despite therapy) were enrolled in a controlled clinical trial. The examinees were randomly divided in two groups: control (n = 108; sequential standard BP measurement only) and intervention (n = 106; the same+DBT), using ABPM as the reference standard. The relative decrease in BP was significantly larger in the intervention group than in the control group, by 15/4 mmHg (p = 0.005). The best detection of WCH was obtained at ≥ 15% systolic BP reduction following DBT, with a positive predictive value of 94.0% (95% CI 72.0-100.0). BP reduction of ≤ 8% may rule WCH out with a negative predictive value of 78.4% (95% CI 64.0 - 85.9). DBT is a reliable, inexpensive and fast test for the detection of WCH in primary care.

  2. FRET on lateral flow test strip to enhance sensitivity for detecting cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jidong; Cao, Fengjing; He, Songliang; Xia, Yong; Liu, Xinyu; Jiang, Wenxiao; Yu, Yangyang; Zhang, Huisheng; Chen, Wenwen

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is introduced in the lateral flow strip to detect cancer biomarker CEA with the color and fluorescence dual-readout. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody coated Au NPs were on the conjugate pad and FITC labelled antibody (FITC-Ab) for CEA was coated on the test line. All the reagents were general in the lateral flow strip or commercially available and no new materials or technique were involved, which make our proposal a more universal method and easier to operate. With the addition of CEA on the sample pad, anti-CEA monoclonal antibody coated Au NPs-CEA-FITC-Ab complex formed on the test line, leading to a megascopic red line and simultaneous quenched fluorescence of FITC via FRET. The visual limit of detection (LOD) through distinguishing red color change was 10ng/mL and the LOD by differentiating fluorescence intensity was 0.1ng/mL, which was two orders of magnitude lower than that without considering fluorescence in the strip. And the linear range changed from 10-80ng/mL to 5-80ng/mL with the analysis of fluorescence change. Meanwhile, the feasibility of our method applied in real clinical samples was also confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Highly Sensitive Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Saikosaponin d

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    Yue Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative lateral-flow immunoassay using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated with a monoclonal antibody (MAb against saikosaponin d (SSd was developed for the analysis of SSd. The AuNPs were prepared in our laboratory. The AuNPs were polyhedral, with an average diameter of approximately 18 nm. We used the conjugation between AuNPs and MAbs against SSd to prepare immunochromatographic strips (ICSs. For the quantitative experiment, the strips with the test results were scanned using a membrane strip reader, and a detection curve (regression equation, y = −0.113ln(x + 1.5451, R2 = 0.983, representing the averages of the scanned data, was obtained. This curve was linear from 96 ng/mL to 150 μg/mL, and the IC50 value was 10.39 μg/mL. In this study, we bring the concept of POCT (point-of-care testing to the measurement of TCM compounds, and this is the first report of quantitative detection of SSd by an ICS.

  4. [Evaluation of a fast urease test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, D; Carol, A; Rivera, P; Hernández, F; Hevia, F; Guillén, F; Duran, S

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter Pylori colonize the gastric mucosa and their adaptation to this environment is related with its high activity urease. This enzyme hydrolyzes the gastric urea, neutralizing the acid environment of the bacteria. Based on that reaction numerous presumptive diagnosis tests, have been developed using a solution of urea (usually 6%) with a pH indicator (usually 0.05% fenol-red); nevertheless, the color changes are so light that some persons do not detect it. For that reason, a modification of that reaction was proposed using a mix of pH indicators (0.05% fenolred and 0.002 bromothymol blue) which induces a color change from light green to deep purple. Also, the reaction of urease was evaluated using only bromothymol blue. The reaction using fenol red as indicator showed the higher values for sensitivity of 58.8% and the specificity of 66.6%; whereas using only bromothymol-blue those values were 46 y 71.4% respectively. The efficiency of the test using fenol-red or the mix of this bromothymol- was 64.2 y 62.2%, respectively; however, the mix of indicators induce a change color easily detected, because of changes from ligh-green to deep-purple.

  5. Toothpick test: a methodology for the detection of RR soybean plants1

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    Fabiana Mota da Silva

    Full Text Available Due to the large increase in the area cultivated with genetically modified soybean in Brazil, it has become necessary to determine methods that are fast and efficient for detecting these cultivars. The aim of this work was to test the efficiency of the toothpick method in the detection of RR soybean plants, as well as to distinguish between cultivars, for sensitivity caused by herbicide. Ten transgenic soybean cultivars, resistant to the active ingredient glyphosate, and ten conventional soybean cultivars were used. Toothpicks soaked in glyphosate were applied to all the plants at stage V6 and evaluations were made at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days after application (DAA. The effects of the glyphosate on the cultivars, and the symptoms of phytotoxicity caused in the transgenic plants were evaluated by means of grading scales. The toothpick test is effective in identifying RR soybean cultivars and also in separating them into groups by sensitivity to the symptoms caused by the glyphosate.

  6. Rapid detection of avian influenza A virus by immunochromatographic test using a novel fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Cuc, Bui Thi; Kim, Soon-Ai; Kim, Do Thi Hoang; Bao, Duong Tuan; Tien, Trinh Thi Thuy; Anh, Nguyen Thi Viet; Choi, Do-Young; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak Sung; Park, Hyun

    2017-08-15

    Sensitive and rapid diagnostic systems for avian influenza (AI) virus are required to screen large numbers of samples during a disease outbreak and to prevent the spread of infection. In this study, we employed a novel fluorescent dye for the rapid and sensitive recognition of AI virus. The styrylpyridine phosphor derivative was synthesized by adding allyl bromide as a stable linker and covalently immobilizing it on latex beads with antibodies generating the unique Red dye 53-based fluorescent probe. The performance of the innovative rapid fluorescent immnunochromatographic test (FICT) employing Red dye 53 in detecting the AI virus (A/H5N3) was 4-fold and 16-fold higher than that of Europium-based FICT and the rapid diagnostic test (RDT), respectively. In clinical studies, the presence of human nasopharyngeal specimens did not alter the performance of Red dye 53-linked FICT for the detection of H7N1 virus. Furthermore, in influenza A virus-infected human nasopharyngeal specimens, the sensitivity of the Red dye 53-based assay and RDT was 88.89% (8/9) and 55.56% (5/9) relative to rRT-PCR, respectively. The photostability of Red dye 53 was higher than that of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), showing a stronger fluorescent signal persisting up to 8min under UV. The Red dye 53 could therefore be a potential probe for rapid fluorescent diagnostic systems that can recognize AI virus in clinical specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence detection platform for point-of-care testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Marcel; Hilbig, Urs; Schubert, Markus B.; Gauglitz, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices for continuous low-cost monitoring of critical patient parameters require miniaturized and integrated setups for performing quick high-sensitivity analyses, away from central clinical laboratories. This work presents a novel and promising laser-induced fluorescence platform for measurements in direct optical test formats that leads towards such powerful POCT devices based on fluorescence-labeled immunoassays. Ultimate sensitivity of thin film photodetectors, integrated with microfluidics, and a comprehensive optimization of all system components aim at low-level signal detection in the targeted biosensor application. The setup acquires fluorescence signals from the volume of a microfluidic channel. An innovative sandwiching process forms a flow channel in the microfluidic chips by embedding laser-cut double-sided adhesive tapes. The custom fit of amorphous silicon based photodiode arrays to the geometry of the flow channel enables miniaturization, fully adequate for POCT devices. A free-beam laser excitation with line focus provides excellent alignment stability, allows for easy and reliable swapping of the disposable microfluidic chips, and therewith greatly improves the ease of use of the resulting integrated device. As a proof-of-concept of this novel in-volume measurement approach, the limit of detection for the dye DY636-COOH in pure water as a model fluorophore is examined and found to be 26 nmol l-1 .

  8. Testing the robustness of the anthropogenic climate change detection statements using different empirical models

    KAUST Repository

    Imbers, J.

    2013-04-27

    This paper aims to test the robustness of the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change using four different empirical models that were previously developed to explain the observed global mean temperature changes over the last few decades. These studies postulated that the main drivers of these changes included not only the usual natural forcings, such as solar and volcanic, and anthropogenic forcings, such as greenhouse gases and sulfates, but also other known Earth system oscillations such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). In this paper, we consider these signals, or forced responses, and test whether or not the anthropogenic signal can be robustly detected under different assumptions for the internal variability of the climate system. We assume that the internal variability of the global mean surface temperature can be described by simple stochastic models that explore a wide range of plausible temporal autocorrelations, ranging from short memory processes exemplified by an AR(1) model to long memory processes, represented by a fractional differenced model. In all instances, we conclude that human-induced changes to atmospheric gas composition is affecting global mean surface temperature changes. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  10. Evaluation of rapid tests for anti-HIV detection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Junior, Orlando C; Ferreira, Cristine; Riedel, Maristela; Widolin, Marcya Regina Visinoni; Barbosa-Júnior, Aristides

    2005-10-01

    This assessment in Brazil was to evaluate the performance of commercially available HIV rapid test (RT) against the gold standard testing and to establish a highly sensitive and specific RT algorithm for HIV diagnosis. A prospective, anonymous and unlinked study. An evaluation of seven commercially available RT to compare their performance against the gold standard tests for Brazil. This includes two competing enzyme immunoassays plus a Western blot for confirmation. After informed consent, whole blood samples were collected from volunteers in voluntary counselling and testing sites (n = 400), antenatal clinics (n = 500) and from HIV-positive controls in AIDS treatment centres (n = 200). Two seroconversion panels, one HIV-1 subtype (B, B', C and F) panel and an operational assay performance evaluation were also part of the study parameters. For the seven RT the clinical sensitivity ranged from 97.74 to 100% and clinical specificity from 99.43 to 100%. However, only four RT were considered acceptable after full evaluation. The two EIA had a clinical sensitivity of 100% and clinical specificity of 99.32 and 99.66%. Two RT had the same performance on the seroconversions panels as the EIA. The operational assay performance evaluation for the RT indicated that Hexagon and Capillus could not be classified as simple assays. We have provided evidence that RT assays can perform equally or better than EIA for the detection of HIV antibodies. The simplicity and rapidity of the RT warrants its utilization in an algorithm for a rapid diagnosis of HIV infection.

  11. Standardization of serological tests for detecting anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lauricella

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the standardization of four serological reactions currently used in human serodiagnosis for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT and hemagglutination test (IHAT were standardized, and complement fixation test (CFT and direct agglutination test (DAT were used for diagnostic confirmation. Four hundred and eighty one mongrel dogs that were studied by xenodiagnosis were used: (1 parasitemic dogs of two localities of endemic area (EA of Santiago del Estero province in Argentina (n = 134; (2 non-parasitemic dogs of the same area (n = 285; (3 dogs experimentally infected with T. cruzi in the patent period (n = 6; (4 non-infected dogs (n = 56 which were born in the city of Buenos Aires (BA, one non-EA for Chagas' disease. For IFAT, parasitemic dogs EA showed 95% of reactive sera. Non parasitemic dogs EA showed 77% of non reactive sera. None sera from BA were reactive for dilutions higher than four. For IHAT, 84% of sera of parasitemic dogs EA showed serological reactivity and among non parasitemic dogs BA, 61% were non reactive, while the remainder showed at most titres of 1/16. The cut-off titres for IFAT and IHAT were 1/16 and 1/32 respectively, and for CFT and DAT 1/1 and 1/128 respectively. Sensitivity for IFAT, IHAT, CF and DAT were 95%, 84%, 97% and 95% respectively.

  12. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, D A; Down, M P; Shillcock, R C; Eagleman, D M; Simner, J

    2015-05-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a single test session. This battery has been widely used but has never been previously validated against conventional long-term retesting, and with a randomly recruited sample from the general population. We recruited 2847 participants to complete The Synesthesia Battery and found the prevalence of grapheme-colour synesthesia in the general population to be 1.2%. This prevalence was in line with previous conventional prevalence estimates based on conventional long-term testing (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). This reproduction of similar prevalence rates suggests that the Synesthesia Battery is indeed a valid methodology for assessing synesthesia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of transgenic events in maize using immunochromatographic strip test and conventional PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjara Fonseca Cantelmo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth in the transgenic market, fast and economically viable methodologies are necessary for undertaking transgene detection tests, both for identification of contamination in seeds and in grain. Seeds from commercial conventional GNZ 2004, and transgenic VT-Pro (MON89034, Roundup Ready (NK603 and Herculex (TC1507 maize cultivars were used. In order to simulate different levels of contamination, the transgenic seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2%, 0.4%, 1.0% and 1.6% for VT-Pro, and 0.2%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 1.2% for Roundup Ready and Herculex. The lateral flow membrane strip test was performed in the whole seed, endosperm and embryo. For evaluation of the specificity of the technique in detection of the TC1507 event by means of the conventional PCR technique, seeds of the commercial maize hybrid GNZ 2004 were used as negative control, and the maize hybrid 2B655Hx as positive control. In order to simulate different levels of contamination, transgenic seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at the levels of 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.1%. Seeds from each sample were crushed, and then DNA extraction was performed by the CTAB 2% method. Using the immunochromatographic strip, it was possible to evaluate the expression of proteins related to the VT-Pro, Roundup Ready and Herculex events when whole seeds were used at the 0.2% level of contamination, whereas by the conventional PCR technique, it was possible to detect the TC1507 event in samples with 1% contamination.

  14. Detecting suboptimal cognitive effort: classification accuracy of the Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II, Brief Test Of Attention, and Trail Making Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Michelle; Whiteside, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Many cognitive measures have been studied for their ability to detect suboptimal cognitive effort; however, attention measures have not been extensively researched. The current study evaluated the classification accuracy of commonly used attention/concentration measures, the Brief Test of Attention (BTA), Trail Making Test (TMT), and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II). Participants included 413 consecutive patients who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Participants were separated into two groups, identified as either unbiased responders or biased responders as determined by performance on the TOMM. Based on Mann-Whitney U results, the two groups differed significantly on all attentional measures. Classification accuracy of the BTA (.83), CPT-II omission errors (OE; .76) and TMT B (.75) were acceptable; however, classification accuracy of CPT-II commission errors (CE; .64) and TMT A (.62) were poor. When variables were combined in different combinations, sensitivity did not significantly increase. Results indicated for optimal cut-off scores, sensitivity ranged from 48% to 64% when specificity was at least 85%. Given that sensitivity rates were not adequate, there remains a need to utilize highly sensitive measures in addition to these embedded measures. Results were discussed within the context of research promoting the need for multiple measures of cognitive effort.

  15. A core in vitro genotoxicity battery comprising the Ames test plus the in vitro micronucleus test is sufficient to detect rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Reeve, Lesley; Gatehouse, David; Vanparys, Philippe

    2011-03-18

    In vitro genotoxicity testing needs to include tests in both bacterial and mammalian cells, and be able to detect gene mutations, chromosomal damage and aneuploidy. This may be achieved by a combination of the Ames test (detects gene mutations) and the in vitro micronucleus test (MNvit), since the latter detects both chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy. In this paper we therefore present an analysis of an existing database of rodent carcinogens and a new database of in vivo genotoxins in terms of the in vitro genotoxicity tests needed to detect their in vivo activity. Published in vitro data from at least one test system (most were from the Ames test) were available for 557 carcinogens and 405 in vivo genotoxins. Because there are fewer publications on the MNvit than for other mammalian cell tests, and because the concordance between the MNvit and the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CAvit) test is so high for clastogenic activity, positive results in the CAvit test were taken as indicative of a positive result in the MNvit where there were no, or only inadequate data for the latter. Also, because Hprt and Tk loci both detect gene-mutation activity, a positive Hprt test was taken as indicative of a mouse-lymphoma Tk assay (MLA)-positive, where there were no data for the latter. Almost all of the 962 rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins were detected by an in vitro battery comprising Ames+MNvit. An additional 11 carcinogens and six in vivo genotoxins would apparently be detected by the MLA, but many of these had not been tested in the MNvit or CAvit tests. Only four chemicals emerge as potentially being more readily detected in MLA than in Ames+MNvit--benzyl acetate, toluene, morphine and thiabendazole--and none of these are convincing cases to argue for the inclusion of the MLA in addition to Ames+MNvit. Thus, there is no convincing evidence that any genotoxic rodent carcinogens or in vivo genotoxins would remain undetected in an in vitro test battery

  16. Testing seismic amplitude source location for fast debris-flow detection at Illgraben, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Walter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation can mobilize tens to hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of sediment in steep Alpine torrents in a short time. The resulting debris flows (mixtures of water, sediment and boulders move downstream with velocities of several meters per second and have a high destruction potential. Warning protocols for affected communities rely on raising awareness about the debris-flow threat, precipitation monitoring and rapid detection methods. The latter, in particular, is a challenge because debris-flow-prone torrents have their catchments in steep and inaccessible terrain, where instrumentation is difficult to install and maintain. Here we test amplitude source location (ASL as a processing scheme for seismic network data for early warning purposes. We use debris-flow and noise seismograms from the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, a torrent system which produces several debris-flow events per year. Automatic in situ detection is currently based on geophones mounted on concrete check dams and radar stage sensors suspended above the channel. The ASL approach has the advantage that it uses seismometers, which can be installed at more accessible locations where a stable connection to mobile phone networks is available for data communication. Our ASL processing uses time-averaged ground vibration amplitudes to estimate the location of the debris-flow front. Applied to continuous data streams, inversion of the seismic amplitude decay throughout the network is robust and efficient, requires no manual identification of seismic phase arrivals and eliminates the need for a local seismic velocity model. We apply the ASL technique to a small debris-flow event on 19 July 2011, which was captured with a temporary seismic monitoring network. The processing rapidly detects the debris-flow event half an hour before arrival at the outlet of the torrent and several minutes before detection by the in situ alarm system. An analysis of continuous seismic

  17. Testing seismic amplitude source location for fast debris-flow detection at Illgraben, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Burtin, Arnaud; McArdell, Brian W.; Hovius, Niels; Weder, Bianca; Turowski, Jens M.

    2017-06-01

    Heavy precipitation can mobilize tens to hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of sediment in steep Alpine torrents in a short time. The resulting debris flows (mixtures of water, sediment and boulders) move downstream with velocities of several meters per second and have a high destruction potential. Warning protocols for affected communities rely on raising awareness about the debris-flow threat, precipitation monitoring and rapid detection methods. The latter, in particular, is a challenge because debris-flow-prone torrents have their catchments in steep and inaccessible terrain, where instrumentation is difficult to install and maintain. Here we test amplitude source location (ASL) as a processing scheme for seismic network data for early warning purposes. We use debris-flow and noise seismograms from the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, a torrent system which produces several debris-flow events per year. Automatic in situ detection is currently based on geophones mounted on concrete check dams and radar stage sensors suspended above the channel. The ASL approach has the advantage that it uses seismometers, which can be installed at more accessible locations where a stable connection to mobile phone networks is available for data communication. Our ASL processing uses time-averaged ground vibration amplitudes to estimate the location of the debris-flow front. Applied to continuous data streams, inversion of the seismic amplitude decay throughout the network is robust and efficient, requires no manual identification of seismic phase arrivals and eliminates the need for a local seismic velocity model. We apply the ASL technique to a small debris-flow event on 19 July 2011, which was captured with a temporary seismic monitoring network. The processing rapidly detects the debris-flow event half an hour before arrival at the outlet of the torrent and several minutes before detection by the in situ alarm system. An analysis of continuous seismic records furthermore

  18. TaqMan Salmonella enterica Detection Kit. Performance Tested Method 020803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbs, Robert S; Cao, Yan Y; Balachandran, Priva; Petrauskene, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Peanut butter spiked with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium was prepared by an independent laboratory and sent to Applied Biosystems to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan Salmonella enterica Detection Kit for detecting Salmonella in peanut butter. The samples were spiked at three levels: five no-spike (0 CFU/25 g); 20 low-spike (0.2 CFU/25 g); and 20 high-spike (2 CFU/25 g). They were coded to create a blind set of 45 samples. The samples were processed based on an unpaired test design that included enrichment in buffered peptone water for the candidate method and lactose broth for the reference method. In the candidate method, a 1 mL aliquot of enriched sample was extracted using PrepMan Ultra Sample Preparation Reagent; the sample was amplified on the Applied Biosystems 7500 real-time PCR system, and analyzed for detection of Salmonella using RapidFinder Version 1.0 software. All samples processed by the candidate method were confirmed by culture according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures. Sensitivity, specificity, and Chi-square analysis were calculated by combining candidate method results with those of the reference method that were collected by the independent laboratory. The TaqMan Salmonella enterica Detection Kit showed 40% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and a Chi-square value equal to 1.52. Chi-square analysis indicated the candidate method and the reference method were comparable. Although the candidate method sensitivity was only 40% when compared with the reference method (unpaired samples), the sensitivity was > 100% when the candidate method results were compared with those of the confirmation method (same sample enrichment).

  19. Proposed test for detection of nonlinear responses in biological preparations exposed to RF energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Quirino

    2002-05-01

    Demodulation of amplitude modulated radio frequency (RF) energy has been proposed as a mechanism for the biological responses to these fields. The experiment proposed here tests whether the electric and magnetic structures of biological cells exhibit the nonlinear responses necessary for demodulation. A high Q cavity and very low noise amplification can be used to detect ultraweak nonlinear responses that appear as a second harmonic of a RF field incident on the sample. Nonlinear fields scattered from metabolically active biological cells grown in monolayer or suspended in medium can be distinguished from nonlinearities of the apparatus. Estimates for the theoretical signal sensitivity and analysis of system noise indicate the possibility of detecting a microwave signal at 1.8 GHz (2nd harmonic of 900 MHz) as weak as one microwave photon per cell per second. The practical limit, set by degradation of the cavity Q, is extremely low compared to the much brighter thermal background, which has its peak in the infrared at a wavelength of about 17 microm and radiates 10(10) infrared photons per second per cell in the narrow frequency band within 0.5% of the peak. The system can be calibrated by introduction of known quantities of nonlinear material, e.g., a Schottky diode. For an input power of 160 microW at 900 MHz incident on such biological material, the apparatus is estimated to produce a robust output signal of 0.10 mV at 1.8 GHz if detected with a spectrum analyzer and a 30-dB gain low noise amplifier. The experimental threshold for detection of nonlinear interaction phenomena is 10(10) below the signal produced by a Schottky diode, giving an unprecedented sensitivity to the measurement of nonlinear energy conversion processes in living tissue. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Immunochromatographic Lateral-flow test strip for the rapid detection of added bovine rennet whey in milk and milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, C.; Munoz, M.; Daury, C.; Weymuth, H.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.; Corbation, V.; Toribo, T.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2009-01-01

    An immunochromatographic lateral-flow test dipstick test was developed for the fast detection of bovine rennet whey in liquid milk and milk powder. The test is based on the binding of casein glycomacropeptide (cGMP) by two specific anti-bovine ¿-casein monoclonal antibodies and has a visual

  1. A comparison of three tests to detect feigned amnesia: The effects of feedback and the measurement of response latency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolan, B.; Foster, J.K.; Schmand, B.; Bolan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments provided validation data for an English language version of the Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (ASTM test) developed to detect feigned memory impairment. In all 3 experiments a total of 91 Ss (aged 17-66 yrs) participated. Using a simulation design, the ASTM test compared

  2. Congenital toxoplasmosis: late pregnancy infections detected by neonatal screening and maternal serological testing at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Eleonor G; Neto, Eurico C; Melamed, Jacobo; Rucks, Ana P; Presotto, Carolina; Coelho, Jaqueline C; Parise, Cassiana; Vargas, Paula R; Goldbeck, Ana S; Fiori, Renato M

    2007-11-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborn infants treated by the public health system in Porto Alegre, a city in southern Brazil, using neonatal screening for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM. The second aim was to investigate whether the cases detected by this approach could have been identified by the prenatal screening for antibodies to T. gondii that was performed in the same population. A fluorometric assay was used to analyse T. gondii-specific IgM in filter paper specimens obtained from newborn infants for routine screening for metabolic diseases. When the specific IgM was positive, serum samples from the infant and the mother were requested for confirmatory serological testing, and the infant underwent clinical examination. Among 10 000 infants screened for T. gondii-specific IgM, seven filter paper samples were positive, and congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed in six patients. The prevalence of IgM specific for T. gondii was 6/10 000 [95% CI 2/10 000, 13/10 000]. One infected infant had already been identified in the maternity ward before birth, three had been identified by maternal serology at delivery, and two infants with congenital toxoplasmosis were identified solely through neonatal screening. Although four mothers of the patients with congenital toxoplasmosis received prenatal care, and three mothers had one or two serological tests for T. gondii-specific antibodies (one at first trimester, one at first and second trimesters, and the other at second and third trimesters), they were not identified during pregnancy as infected. Neonatal screening identified cases of infection not detected by obtaining only one or two serum samples from pregnant women for T. gondii serology, mainly when infection was acquired and transmitted in late pregnancy. Maternal serology at delivery and neonatal screening were especially useful in the identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis when the mother

  3. Validation of the shake test for detecting freeze damage to adsorbed vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgüler, Nejat Kenan; Wolfson, Lara J; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the validity of the shake test for detecting freeze damage in aluminium-based, adsorbed, freeze-sensitive vaccines. Methods A double-blind crossover design was used to compare the performance of the shake test conducted by trained health-care workers (HCWs) with that of phase contrast microscopy as a “gold standard”. A total of 475 vials of 8 different types of World Health Organization prequalified freeze-sensitive vaccines from 10 different manufacturers were used. Vaccines were kept at 5 °C. Selected numbers of vials from each type were then exposed to −25 °C and −2 °C for 24-hour periods. Findings There was complete concordance between HCWs and phase-contrast microscopy in identifying freeze-damaged vials and non-frozen samples. Non-frozen samples showed a fine-grain structure under phase contrast microscopy, but freeze-damaged samples showed large conglomerates of massed precipitates with amorphous, crystalline, solid and needle-like structures. Particles in the non-frozen samples measured from 1 μm (vaccines against diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis; Haemophilus influenzae type b; hepatitis B; diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis–hepatitis B) to 20 μm (diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, alone or in combination). By contrast, aggregates in the freeze-damaged samples measured up to 700 μm (diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis) and 350 μm on average. Conclusion The shake test had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in this study, which confirms its validity for detecting freeze damage to aluminium-based freeze-sensitive vaccines. PMID:20680128

  4. Clinical Validation of Anyplex II HPV HR Detection Test for Cervical Cancer Screening in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunkyung; Lee, Byungdoo; Lee, Kap No; Kim, Yonggoo; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2016-03-01

    The Anyplex II HPV HR detection kit (Seegene Inc, Seoul, Korea) is a new, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect individual 14 high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types in a single tube. To evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV HR kit in predicting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse in cervical cancer screening. We analyzed 1137 cervical samples in Huro Path medium (CelltraZone, Seoul, Korea) from Korean women. The clinical performance of the HPV HR kit was compared with Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen, Valencia, California) using the noninferiority score test in a routine cervical cancer screening setting. The intralaboratory and interlaboratory agreements of HPV HR were also evaluated. Overall agreement between the 2 assays was 92.4% (1051 of 1137) with a κ value of 0.787. Clinical sensitivity of HPV HR for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse was 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.2-99.7) and 92.5% (95% CI, 84.3-100.0), respectively. The respective values for Hybrid Capture 2 were 93.1% (95% CI, 87.2-98.9) and 87.5% (95% CI, 77.3-99.7). Clinical sensitivity and specificity of HPV HR were not inferior to those of Hybrid Capture 2 (P = .005 and P = .04, respectively). The HPV HR showed good intralaboratory and interlaboratory reproducibility at 98.0% (κ = 0.953) and 97.4% (κ = 0.940), respectively. The HPV HR demonstrates comparable performance to the Hybrid Capture 2 test and can be useful for HPV-based cervical cancer screening testing.

  5. The Detection and Influence of Problematic Item Content in Ability Tests: An Examination of Sensitivity Review Practices for Personnel Selection Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, James A.; Golubovich, Juliya; Ryan, Ann Marie; Schmitt, Neal

    2013-01-01

    In organizational and educational practices, sensitivity reviews are commonly advocated techniques for reducing test bias and enhancing fairness. In the present paper, results from two studies are reported which investigate how effective individuals are at detecting problematic test content and the influence such content has on important testing…

  6. Evaluation of simple microbiol tests for detection of fecal coliforms directly at 44.5 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Suman; Ramteke, P W; Garg, S K

    2003-06-01

    Simple microbial test comprising H2S paper strip test, presence-absence (PA) test, and fluorogenic brila broth (BB) test performed directly at 44.5 degrees C were evaluated and compared with the standard most probable number (MPN) method for detection of fecal coliforms in 173 drinking water sources. BB and PA test were comparable with standard MPN method, whereas, poor compliance was noted for H2S test. PA test when compared with standard MPN test only 15% disagreement was detected, whereas, highest disagreement of 40% was observed in case of H2S test. BB test was found to be highly sensitive as only 7.8% disagreement with that of standard MPN test was found. Three hundred cultures obtained from positive tests were identified in order to evaluate the specificities of test used in detection of fecal indicator Escherichia coli. BB test was also found highly specific in detection of indicator organism as compared to PA and H2S test. Among the organisms isolated from BB test 84.4% of them were identified as E. coli as compared to 43.4 and 33.3 in PA and H2S test, respectively. The low incidence of recovery of E. coli (18.1%) for the standard MPN method places doubt on the validity of its application in tropical areas. The result of this investigation suggest that BB performed directly at 44.5 degrees C could be suitable cost effective test to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in India and other tropical countries.

  7. High Stringency Evaluation of the Automated BD Phoenix™ CPO Detect and RAPIDEC® CARBA NP Tests for Detection and Classification of Carbapenemases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Gina; Turner, David; Brasso, William; Kircher, Susan; Guillet, Thierry; Thomson, Kenneth

    2017-10-04

    There is an urgent need for rapid, accurate detection and classification of carbapenemases. The current study evaluated the automated BD Phoenix™ CPO Detect and the manual bioMérieux RAPIDEC® CARBA NP for meeting these needs. Both tests were challenged with 294 Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii chosen to provide extreme diagnostic difficulty. Carbapenemases such as KPC, NMC-A, IMI, SME, NDM, SPM, IMP, VIM, OXA-23, 40, 48, 58, 72, 181, and 232 were produced by 243 isolates and 51 carbapenemase-negative isolates included porin mutants and producers of ESBLs, AmpCs, K1, and broad spectrum β-lactamases. Both tests exhibited high sensitivity of carbapenemase detection (> 97%). Due to the highly challenging carbapenemase-negative isolates, specificities were lower than typical of evaluations involving mostly routine clinical isolates. BD Phoenix™ CPO Detect was 68.6% specific and RAPIDEC® CARBA NP was 60.8% to 78.4% specific depending on how borderline results were interpreted. Only BD Phoenix™ CPO Detect classified carbapenemases. It correctly classified 85.0% of class A, 72.4% of class B, and 88.6% of class D carbapenemases. Importantly with respect to empirical therapy with new β-lactamase inhibitor combinations such as ceftazidime/avibactam, no class B carbapenemases were misclassified as class A carbapenemases. Both tests offer advantages. Used alone, without initial susceptibility tests, RAPIDEC® CARBA NP can provide positive results for some isolates after only 10 to 30 minutes incubation. BD Phoenix™ CPO Detect provides novel advantages such as automated carbapenemase detection, inclusion in susceptibility panels to eliminate delays and subjectivity in initiating carbapenemase tests, and classification of most carbapenemases. Copyright © 2017 Thomson et al.

  8. Integrated geophysical measurements on a test site for detection of buried steel drums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Settimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical methods are increasingly used to detect and locate illegal waste disposal and buried toxic steel drums. This study describes the results of a test carried out in clayey-sandy ground where 12 empty steel drums had previously been buried at 4-5 m below ground level. This test was carried out with three geophysical methods for steel-drum detection: a magnetometric survey, electrical resistivity tomography with different arrays, and a multifrequency frequency-domain electromagnetic induction survey. The data show that as partially expected, the magnetometric and electromagnetic induction surveys detected the actual steel drums buried in the subsurface, while the electrical resistivity tomography mainly detected the changes in some of the physical properties of the terrain connected with the digging operations, rather than the actual presence of the steel drums.

  1. VALIDATION OF PCR-RFLP TESTING METHOD TO DETECT PORCINE CONTAMINATION IN CHICKEN NUGGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR-RFLP technique to detect porcine contamination in chicken nugget has been developed and validated in this research. Various concentrations of pork were fortified during preparation of the nugget. DNA was then isolated from the nugget followed by PCR employed primers which targeted a 359 bp cytB gene fragment of mitochondrial DNA. For RFLP, the PCR product was digested by means of BamHI and BseDI enzymes. Cutting DNA fragments from nugget containing pork using BseDI enzyme produced DNA fragment with size 228 and 131 bp, while cutting with BamHI enzyme produce DNA fragments with sizes 244 and 115 bp. All of these fragments were not present in RFLP analysis of pork-free nugget. The method shows good specificity and precision and could detect porcine contamination in the nugget up to 5%. The method has been applied to test commercial nugget. Four brand of Halal-labeled commercial nugget as well as four brand of non labeled one gave negative porcine contamination.

  2. Development and irradiation test of lost alpha detection system for ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M; Nagasaka, T; Fujioka, K; Fujimoto, Y; Tanaka, T; Ido, T; Yamamoto, S; Kashiwa, S; Sasao, M

    2010-10-01

    We developed a lost alpha detection system to use in burning plasma experiments. The scintillators of Ag:ZnS and polycrystalline Ce:YAG were designed for a high-temperature environment, and the optical transmission line was designed to transmit from the scintillator to the port plug. The required optical components of lenses and mirrors were irradiated using the fission reactor with the initial result that there was no clear change after the irradiation with a neutron flux of 9.6×10(17) nm(-2)  s(-1) for 48 h. We propose a diagnostic of alpha particle loss, so-called alpha particle induced gamma ray spectroscopy. The initial laboratory test has been carried out by the use of the Ce doped Lu(2)SiO(5) scintillator detector and an Am-Be source to detect the 4.44 MeV high energy gamma ray due to the (9)Be(α,nγ)(12)C reaction.

  3. Development and irradiation test of lost alpha detection system for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiura, M.; Nagasaka, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ido, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Fujioka, K.; Fujimoto, Y. [ILE, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yamamoto, S. [Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kashiwa, S.; Sasao, M. [Tohoku University, Aoba 6-01-2, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    We developed a lost alpha detection system to use in burning plasma experiments. The scintillators of Ag:ZnS and polycrystalline Ce:YAG were designed for a high-temperature environment, and the optical transmission line was designed to transmit from the scintillator to the port plug. The required optical components of lenses and mirrors were irradiated using the fission reactor with the initial result that there was no clear change after the irradiation with a neutron flux of 9.6x10{sup 17} nm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 48 h. We propose a diagnostic of alpha particle loss, so-called alpha particle induced gamma ray spectroscopy. The initial laboratory test has been carried out by the use of the Ce doped Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} scintillator detector and an Am-Be source to detect the 4.44 MeV high energy gamma ray due to the {sup 9}Be({alpha},n{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction.

  4. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing).

  5. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The “gold standard” for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). PMID:17804652

  6. Radiation Detection Scenario Analysis Toolbox (RADSAT) Test Case Implementation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.

    2010-09-27

    Final report for the project. This project was designed to demonstrate the use of the Radiation Detection Scenario Analysis Toolbox (RADSAT) radiation detection transport modeling package (developed in a previous NA-22 project) for specific radiation detection scenarios important to proliferation detection.

  7. Hybrid capture II and PapilloCheck® tests for detection of anal high-risk human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Bravo Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the level of concordance between hybrid capture II (HCII and PapilloCheck® for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV in anal samples. Methods Anal cell samples collected from 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ patients were analyzed. Results Considering only the 13 high-risk HPV types that are detectable by both tests, HCII was positive for 52.3% of the samples, and PapilloCheck® was positive for 52.3%. The level of concordance was 80.9% (Kappa = 0.61. Conclusions Good concordance was observed between the tests for the detection of high-risk HPV.

  8. Hybrid capture II and PapilloCheck® tests for detection of anal high-risk human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Cavalcante Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; Costa, Patrícia Godoy Garcia; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves de

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the level of concordance between hybrid capture II (HCII) and PapilloCheck® for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in anal samples. Anal cell samples collected from 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ patients were analyzed. Considering only the 13 high-risk HPV types that are detectable by both tests, HCII was positive for 52.3% of the samples, and PapilloCheck® was positive for 52.3%. The level of concordance was 80.9% (Kappa = 0.61). Good concordance was observed between the tests for the detection of high-risk HPV.

  9. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE in human Trichinellosis: Creating a new test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dević Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease of humans caused by the nematode from the genus Trichinella, predominantly Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis. If Trichinella infection is suspected, based on epidemiological link and clinical criteria within defined period of time, then finding of Trichinella-specific antibodies in the examined sera provides a definitive proof of the infection establishment. Detection of Trichinella-specific IgE that could precede, coincide or follow IgG seroconversion not only confirms the infection existence, but could narrow the time frame in which the infection took place to a year or even less. Since there are no commercially available tests for monitoring the Trichinella-specific IgE presence during the course of the disease, our work was aimed to establish this kind of ELISA test. Specificity and sensitivity of so far described Trichinella-specific IgE ELISAs are not satisfying enough; two major problems are poor discrimination between positive and negative results and cross reactivity with sera of patients with different parasitic diseases. In this study, we have developed Trichinella-specific IgE Capture ELISA that overcomes problems with specificity and sensitivity and enables determination of Trichinella-specific IgE. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173047

  10. A statistical test for detecting parent-of-origin effects when parental information is missing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Chiara; Viroli, Cinzia; Falchi, Mario

    2017-09-26

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that leads to differential contributions of maternal and paternal alleles to offspring gene expression in a parent-of-origin manner. We propose a novel test for detecting the parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome wide genotype data from related individuals (twins) when the parental origin cannot be inferred. The proposed method exploits a finite mixture of linear mixed models: the key idea is that in the case of POEs the population can be clustered in two different groups in which the reference allele is inherited by a different parent. A further advantage of this approach is the possibility to obtain an estimation of parental effect when the parental information is missing. We will also show that the approach is flexible enough to be applicable to the general scenario of independent data. The performance of the proposed test is evaluated through a wide simulation study. The method is finally applied to known imprinted genes of the MuTHER twin study data.

  11. Efficiency of a rapid test for detection of tetrodotoxin in puffer fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattiyaphong, Aree; Unahalekhaka, Jirapa; Mekha, Nanthawan; Nispa, Wansatip; Kluengklangdon, Panawan; Rojanapantip, Laddawan

    2014-01-01

    The selling and importing of puffer fish species and their products was banned in Thailand in 2002, because of possible neurotoxic effects. However, the sale of their flesh is still happening in Thai markets. Standard methods for toxin quantification (HPLC and LC-MS) have significant limitations, therefore a lateral flow, immuno-chromatographic test (TTX-IC) was developed as a tool for rapid detection of toxin. A total of 750 puffer fishes (387 Lagocephalus lunaris(LL), and 363 Lagocephalus spadiceus (LS)) and 100 edible fishes were caught in Thailand from June 2011-February 2012. Screening of TTX from their flesh by TTX-IC revealed that 69 samples (17.8%) of LL possessed TTX at dangerous levels but LS and edible fishes did not. A selected 339 samples were quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing 50 LL possessed TTX at dangerous levels. Comparison of results with LC-MS/MS showed the TTX-IC to have 94.0% sensitivity and 92.4% specificity. The TTX-IC will be a useful tool for TTX screening of a large number of samples, reducing the testing required by LC-MS/MS, thus reducing costs. All positive cases found should be confirmed by standard methods.

  12. A microcosting study of diagnostic tests for the detection of coronary artery disease in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, S.S. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: s.s.tan@erasmusmc.nl; Oppe, M. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.oppe@erasmusmc.nl; Zoet-Nugteren, S.K. [Ikazia Hospital Rotterdam, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 5009, 3008 AA Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: sk.zoet@ikazia.nl; Niezen, R.A. [Medical Center Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9100, 3007 AC Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: niezenr@mcrz.nl; Kofflard, M.J.M. [Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 444, 3300 AK Dordrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.m.kofflard@asz.nl; Ten Cate, F.J. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.j.tencate@erasmusmc.nl; Roijen, L. Hakkaart-van [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.hakkaart-vanroijen@erasmusmc.nl

    2009-10-15

    Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to calculate the actual costs of four diagnostic tests for the detection of coronary artery disease in the Netherlands using a microcosting methodology. As a secondary objective, the cost effectiveness of eight diagnostic strategies was examined, using microcosting and reimbursement fees subsequently as the cost estimate. Design: A multicenter, retrospective cost analysis from a hospital perspective. Setting: The study was conducted in three general hospitals in the Netherlands for 2006. Interventions: Exercise electrocardiography (exECG), stress echocardiography (sECHO), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and coronary angiography (CA). Results: The actual costs of exECG, sECHO, SPECT and CA were Euro 33, 216, 614 and 1300 respectively. For all diagnostic tests, labour and indirect cost components (overheads and capital) together accounted for over 75% of the total costs. Consumables played a relatively important role in SPECT (14%). Hotel and nutrition were only applicable to SPECT and CA. Diagnostic services were solely performed for CA, but their costs were negligible (2%). Using microcosting estimates, exECG-sECHO-SPECT-CA was the most and CA the least cost effective strategy ( Euro 397 and 1302 per accurately diagnosed patient). Using reimbursement fees, exECG-sECHO-CA was most and SPECT-CA least cost effective ( Euro 147 and 567 per accurately diagnosed patient). Conclusions: The use of microcosting estimates instead of reimbursement fees led to different conclusions regarding the relative cost effectiveness of alternative strategies.

  13. Temperature Trend Detection in Upper Indus Basin by Using Mann-Kendall Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeq Ur Rauf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and Climate change are commonly acknowledged as the most noteworthy environmental quandary the world is undergoing today. Contemporary studies have revealed that the Earth’s surface air temperature has augmented by 0.6°C – 0.8°C in the course of the 20th century, together with alterations in the hydrological cycle. This study focuses on detecting trends in seasonal temperature for the five selected stations in the Upper Indus Basin. The Mann-Kendall test was run at 5% significance level on time series data for each of the five stations during the time period, 1985 to 2014. The Standard Test Statistic (Zs indicates the presence of trend and whether it is increasing or decreasing. The analysis showed an increasing trend in mean monthly temperature at Astore, Gilgit and Gupiz in March and a decreasing trend for Astore, Drosh, Gilgit and Skardu in September. Gilgit and Gupiz showed unexpected increasing trend in October. This study concludes that the temperature starts increasing in March and stays elevated till the month of June and starts rising again in October thus resulting in expansion of summer season and prolonged glacial melting.

  14. Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, J; Benoit, L; Barrios-Lopez, B; Thienes, C; Meshgi, M; Agapov, A; Dobritsa, A; Nadala, C; Samadpour, M

    2016-11-01

    Mislabeling, contamination, and economic adulteration of meat products with undeclared pork tissues are illegal under regulations promulgated by numerous regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, analysis of the European meat industry has revealed pervasive meat adulteration, necessitating more extensive application of meat authentication testing. As existing methods for meat speciation require specialized equipment and/or training, we developed a detection system based on a lateral flow device (LFD) assay format capable of rapidly (~35min) identifying porcine residues derived from raw meat, cooked meat, and gelatin down to 0.01%, 1.0%, and 2.5% contamination, respectively. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with meat derived from chicken, turkey, horse, beef, lamb, or goat. Comparison with a commercial ELISA kit and PCR method revealed similar if not improved sensitivity, with the added feature that the LFD-based system required considerably less time to perform. Accordingly, this test system should aid the food industry and food control authorities in monitoring for adulteration with pork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of immunoenzymatic tests for the detection of aflatoxin present in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilov Irena M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of this study is reflected in proving the reliability of the ELISA test for the detection of aflatoxin in food and feed. Verification tests were based on the use of reference materials with known concentrations of aflatoxins, contamination of samples by adding known concentrations of analyte and participation in inter-laboratory studies, by different perpetrators and different laboratories. By measuring the known con­centrations of analytes it was proved that aflatoxins, in the selected samples, were determined in accordance with the requirements defined for a given method, and it was demonstrated that it is possible to determine the level / concentration of mycotoxins in relation to the MRL defined by the Regulation on amendments to the Ordinance on the maximum allowable residue levels of pesticides in food and feed and feed and feed for which maximum allowed quantities of residues of plant protection products (Službeni Glasnik RS broj 28/2011 član 2. prilog 5. tačka 2.

  16. Validation of the Argentine version of the Memory Binding Test (MBT for Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Roman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: "Forgetfulness" is frequent in normal aging and characteristic of the early stages of dementia syndromes. The episodic memory test is central for detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The Memory Binding Test (MBT is a simple, easy and brief memory test to detect the early stage of episodic memory impairment. Objective: To validate the Argentine version of the MBT in a Latin American population and to estimate the diagnostic accuracy as a tool for early detection of MCI. Methods: 88 subjects (46 healthy controls and 42 patients with amnestic MCI matched for age and educational level were evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological battery and the memory binding test. Results: A significantly better performance was detected in the control group; all MBT scales were predictive of MCI diagnosis (p<.01. The MBT showed high sensitivity (69% and high specificity (88%, with a PPV of 93% and a NPV of 55% for associative paired recall. A statistically significant difference (c2=14,164, p<.001 was obtained when comparing the area under the curve (AUC of the MBT (0.88 and the MMSE (0.70. Conclusion: The Argentine version of the MBT correlated significantly with the MMSE and the memory battery and is a useful tool in the detection of MCI. The operating characteristics of the MBT are well suited, surpassing other tests commonly used for detecting MCI.

  17. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  18. Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Case Detection Increased When Testing Increased in a Multisite US HIV Cohort, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raifman, Julia R; Gebo, Kelly A; Mathews, William Christopher; Korthuis, Philip Todd; Ghanem, Khalil G; Aberg, Judith A; Moore, Richard D; Nijhawan, Ank E; Monroe, Anne K; Berry, Stephen A

    2017-12-01

    Annual screening for gonorrhea [Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)] and chlamydia [Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)] is recommended for all sexually active persons living with HIV but is poorly implemented. Studies demonstrating no increases in NG and/or CT (NG/CT) case detection in clinics that successfully expanded NG/CT screening raise questions about this broad screening approach. We evaluated NG/CT case detection in the HIV Research Network during 2004-2014, a period of expanding testing. We analyzed linear time trends in annual testing (patients tested divided by all patients in care), test positivity (patients positive divided by all tested), and case detection (the number of patients with a positive result divided by all patients in care) using multivariate repeated measures logistic regression. We determined trends overall and stratified by men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex exclusively with women, and women. Among 15,614 patients (50% MSM, 26% men who have sex exclusively with women, and 24% women), annual NG/CT testing increased from 22% in 2004 to 60% in 2014 [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) per year 1.22 (1.21-1.22)]. Despite the increase in testing, test positivity also increased [AOR per year 1.10 (1.07-1.12)], and overall case detection increased from 0.8% in 2004 to 3.9% in 2014 [AOR per year 1.20 (1.17-1.22)]. Case detection was highest among MSM but increased over time among all 3 groups. NG/CT case detection increased as testing expanded in the population. This supports a broad approach to NG/CT screening among persons living with HIV to decrease transmission and complications of NG/CT and of HIV.

  19. Comparison of two commercial rapid in-clinic serological tests for detection of antibodies against Leishmania spp. in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Petanides, Theodoros A; Chatzis, Manolis K; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Apostolidis, Kosmas N; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2014-03-01

    Antibodies against Leishmania spp. are detected in most dogs with clinical signs of leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. Accurate, rapid in-clinic serological tests may permit immediate confirmation of the diagnosis and implementation of therapeutic measures. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial, rapid in-clinic serological tests for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in sera of dogs, the Snap Canine Leishmania Antibody Test kit (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine) and the ImmunoRun Antibody Detection kit (Biogal Galed Labs, Kibbutz Galed, Israel), using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) as the reference method. A total of 109 sera collected from 65 seropositive and 44 seronegative dogs were used. The sensitivities of the Snap and ImmunoRun kits were 89.23% (95% confidence interval: 79.05-95.54%) and 86.15% (95% confidence interval: 75.33-93.45%), respectively, and the specificity of both tests was 100%. A good agreement between each of the rapid in-clinic serological tests and IFAT and between the 2 rapid in-clinic serological tests was witnessed. Both rapid in-clinic serological tests showed an adequate diagnostic accuracy and can be used for the fast detection of antibodies against L. infantum in dogs.

  20. A novel automatic molecular test for detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis in sputum specimen: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ou, Xi C; Pang, Yu; Xia, Hui; Huang, Hai R; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Sheng F; Zhao, Yan L

    2017-07-01

    MiniLab tuberculosis (ML TB) assay is a new automatic diagnostic tool for diagnosis of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This study was conducted with aims to know the performance of this assay. Sputum sample from 224 TB suspects was collected from tuberculosis suspects seeking medical care at Beijing Chest hospital. The sputum samples were directly used for smear and ML TB test. The left sputum sample was used to conduct Xpert MTB/RIF, Bactec MGIT culture and drug susceptibility test (DST). All discrepancies between the results from DST, molecular and phenotypic methods were confirmed by DNA Sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test for detecting MTBC from TB suspects were 95.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The sensitivity for smear negative TB suspects was 64.3%. For detection of RIF resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 89.2% and 95.7%, respectively. For detection of INH resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 78.3% and 98.1%, respectively. ML TB test showed similar performance to Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of MTBC and RIF resistance. In addition, ML TB also had good performance for INH resistance detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The role of the random dot Stereo Butterfly test as an adjunct test for the detection of constant strabismus in vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Angela M; Rao, Rajesh C; Rotberg, Leemor B; Roarty, John D; Bohra, Lisa I; Baker, John D

    2009-08-01

    A goal of vision screening is the detection of amblyopia risk factors, including strabismus. The random dot Stereo Butterfly test requires no instruction, has a simple pass/fail response with no monocular clues, and is easily administered. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this test could be used as a cost-effective and reliable component of preschool vision screening. The Stereo Butterfly was presented to children with no previous history of ocular problems or treatment. The test was presented with the use of polarized glasses at a 16-inch testing distance. A "pass" was recorded if the patient reported seeing a butterfly; a "refer" was denoted otherwise. Vision and motility measurements were recorded, and the patient underwent a complete eye examination with cycloplegic refraction. A total of 281 children 3 to 6 years of age were tested: 221 children passed the test. Of those who passed, 7 (3.2%) had intermittent strabismus, 1 had a small-angle constant strabismus, 60 failed screening for constant strabismus (of whom 24 [40%] had constant strabismus), and 6 were false-negative results. The sensitivity of the Stereo Butterfly for detecting constant strabismus was 96%; the specificity, 86%. The Stereo Butterfly test may be a valuable adjunctive tool in vision screening programs for the detection of manifest strabismus because it is easy to administer and effectively detects constant strabismus. It has a high specificity for detection of constant strabismus but, if used alone, the low positive predictive value would allow for many false-positive results.

  2. Evaluation of the Rapidec Carba NP Test Kit for Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Atul; Garg, Jaya; Upadhyay, G C; Agarwal, Anurag; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2015-12-01

    Recently, bioMérieux, France, introduced the Rapidec Carba NP test kit for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria. This kit was evaluated in this study, and we report sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 92.6%, 96.2%, 95.83%, and 92.6%, respectively. The test was easy to perform and interpret and relatively inexpensive ($5/Rs 300 per test) and provides a practical solution for early detection of carbapenemase-producing, multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Visualization of and Software for Omnibus Test Based Change Detected in a Time Series of Polarimetric SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Based on an omnibus likelihood ratio test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and a factorization of this test statistic with associated p-values, change analysis in a time series of multilook polarimetric SAR data...... in the covariance matrix representation is carried out. The omnibus test statistic and its factorization detect if and when change occurs. Using airborne EMISAR and spaceborne RADARSAT-2 data this paper focuses on change detection based on the p-values, on visualization of change at pixel as well as segment level......, and on computer software....

  4. SAR-based change detection using hypothesis testing and Markov random field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Martinis, S.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to automatically detect changed areas caused by natural disasters from bi-temporal co-registered and calibrated TerraSAR-X data. The technique in this paper consists of two steps: Firstly, an automatic coarse detection step is applied based on a statistical hypothesis test for initializing the classification. The original analytical formula as proposed in the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) edge detector is reviewed and rewritten in a compact form of the incomplete beta function, which is a builtin routine in commercial scientific software such as MATLAB and IDL. Secondly, a post-classification step is introduced to optimize the noisy classification result in the previous step. Generally, an optimization problem can be formulated as a Markov random field (MRF) on which the quality of a classification is measured by an energy function. The optimal classification based on the MRF is related to the lowest energy value. Previous studies provide methods for the optimization problem using MRFs, such as the iterated conditional modes (ICM) algorithm. Recently, a novel algorithm was presented based on graph-cut theory. This method transforms a MRF to an equivalent graph and solves the optimization problem by a max-flow/min-cut algorithm on the graph. In this study this graph-cut algorithm is applied iteratively to improve the coarse classification. At each iteration the parameters of the energy function for the current classification are set by the logarithmic probability density function (PDF). The relevant parameters are estimated by the method of logarithmic cumulants (MoLC). Experiments are performed using two flood events in Germany and Australia in 2011 and a forest fire on La Palma in 2009 using pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X data. The results show convincing coarse classifications and considerable improvement by the graph-cut post-classification step.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Imaging in Detecting Biliary Strictures After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Divyanshoo R; Vachhani, Ravi; Shah, Tilak U; BouHaidar, Doumit S; Siddiqui, M Shadab

    2017-05-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is often required to diagnose post-liver transplant (LT) biliary strictures. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive laboratory and imaging tests in detecting post-LT biliary strictures. Adult LT recipients who underwent ERCP between 2008 and 2015 were evaluated. Biliary strictures were diagnosed after blinded review of cholangiograms by three interventional endoscopists. The accuracy of liver enzymes, ultrasound, and MRI was determined using cholangiography as the reference standard. To evaluate the accuracy of change in liver enzymes, the difference between baseline and liver enzymes prior to ERCP (Δlab) was utilized. Biliary strictures were present on cholangiogram in 48 (58%) of 82 LT recipients meeting inclusion criteria. Baseline liver enzyme values did not differ significantly between patients with and without strictures. The optimal cutoffs for ΔALT, ΔAST, Δbilirubin, and Δalkaline phosphatase (AP) were determined to be 174 IU/L, 75 IU/L, 3.1 mg/dL, and 225 IU/L, respectively. ΔALT had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 43%, and negative predictive value 100%. ΔAP had the highest specificity (53%) but modest sensitivity (69%) with a positive predictive value of 67%. Ultrasound had sensitivity of 29% and specificity of 69%, while MRI had sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 56%. The diagnostic accuracy of liver enzymes and imaging modalities is modest in detecting post-LT biliary strictures and cannot be used solely to identify patients needing further workup.

  6. Accuracy of tests used to detect infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Siew-Veena; Rogozińska, Ewelina; Sobhy, Soha; Khan, Khalid S

    2017-12-01

    Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy is linked to increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and preterm birth. Currently, PCR or DNA-based tests are the gold standard when detecting the infection; however, they are costly and require access to specialist equipment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the accuracy of available tests to detect infection in an asymptomatic pregnant population. There was evidence of the superior accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests to cell culture in nonpregnant asymptomatic women; however, there are multiple commercial nucleic acid amplification tests with varying sensitivities and specificities. There is a gap in current literature on accuracy studies in an asymptomatic pregnant population, particularly within routine antenatal settings. There is a need for a point-of-care test for Chlamydia in pregnancy. Future test accuracy studies for this population should aim to use a universally established reference standard. Further research should provide relevant evidence to guide practice.

  7. Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Pixel-Level Transit Injection Tests of Pipeline Detection Efficiency for Data Release 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jessie L.

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the results of the fourth pixel-level transit injection experiment, which was designed to measure the detection efficiency of both the Kepler pipeline (Jenkins 2002, 2010; Jenkins et al. 2017) and the Robovetter (Coughlin 2017). Previous transit injection experiments are described in Christiansen et al. (2013, 2015a,b, 2016).In order to calculate planet occurrence rates using a given Kepler planet catalogue, produced with a given version of the Kepler pipeline, we need to know the detection efficiency of that pipeline. This can be empirically determined by injecting a suite of simulated transit signals into the Kepler data, processing the data through the pipeline, and examining the distribution of successfully recovered transits. This document describes the results for the pixel-level transit injection experiment performed to accompany the final Q1-Q17 Data Release 25 (DR25) catalogue (Thompson et al. 2017)of the Kepler Objects of Interest. The catalogue was generated using the SOC pipeline version 9.3 and the DR25 Robovetter acting on the uniformly processed Q1-Q17 DR25 light curves (Thompson et al. 2016a) and assuming the Q1-Q17 DR25 Kepler stellar properties (Mathur et al. 2017).

  8. Development and validation of a novel molecular biomarker diagnostic test for the early detection of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Allison; Thomas, Mervyn; Brandon, Roslyn A; Brandon, Richard B; Lipman, Jeffrey; Tang, Benjamin; McLean, Anthony; Pascoe, Ranald; Price, Gareth; Nguyen, Thu; Stone, Glenn; Venter, Deon

    2011-06-20

    modulation pathways. Comparisons against GEO data confirmed the definitive separation of the sepsis cohort. Quantitative PCR results suggest the capacity for this test to differentiate severe systemic inflammation from HC is 92%. The area under the curve (AUC) receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve findings demonstrated sepsis prediction within a mixed inflammatory population, was between 86 and 92%. This novel molecular biomarker test has a clinically relevant sensitivity and specificity profile, and has the capacity for early detection of sepsis via the monitoring of critical care patients.

  9. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  10. Recommendations for Improving Consistency in the Radiation Fields Used During Testing of Radiation Detection Instruments for Homeland Security Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pibida, L.; Mille, M; Norman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Several measurements and calculations were performed to illustrate the differences that can be observed in the determination of exposure rate or ambient dose equivalent rate used for testing radiation detection systems against consensus standards. The large variations observed support our recommendation that better consistency in the test radiation fields can be achieved by specifying the source activity and testing distance instead of the field strength.

  11. Recommendations for Improving Consistency in the Radiation Fields Used During Testing of Radiation Detection Instruments for Homeland Security Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pibida, L; Mille, M; Norman, B

    2013-01-01

    Several measurements and calculations were performed to illustrate the differences that can be observed in the determination of exposure rate or ambient dose equivalent rate used for testing radiation detection systems against consensus standards. The large variations observed support our recommendation that better consistency in the test radiation fields can be achieved by specifying the source activity and testing distance instead of the field strength.

  12. Point-Counterpoint: A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test for Streptococcus pyogenes Should Replace Antigen Detection and Culture for Detection of Bacterial Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Bobbi S; Patel, Robin; Kirn, Thomas J; Thomson, Richard B

    2016-10-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have frequently been the standard diagnostic approach when specific infectious agents are sought in a clinic specimen. They can be applied for specific agents such as S. pyogenes, or commercial multiplex NAATs for detection of a variety of pathogens in gastrointestinal, bloodstream, and respiratory infections may be used. NAATs are both rapid and sensitive. For many years, S. pyogenes testing algorithms used a rapid and specific group A streptococcal antigen test to screen throat specimens, followed, in some clinical settings, by a throat culture for S. pyogenes to increase the sensitivity of its detection. Now S. pyogenes NAATs are being used with increasing frequency. Given their accuracy, rapidity, and ease of use, should they replace antigen detection and culture for the detection of bacterial pharyngitis? Bobbi Pritt and Robin Patel of the Mayo Clinic, where S. pyogenes NAATs have been used for well over a decade with great success, will explain the advantages of this approach, while Richard (Tom) Thomson and Tom Kirn of the NorthShore University HealthSystem will discuss their concerns about this approach to diagnosing bacterial pharyngitis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Development of an immunochromatographic test with anti-LipL32-coupled gold nanoparticles for Leptospira detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirathaworn, Chintana; Janwitthayanan, Weena; Sereemaspun, Amornpun; Lertpocasombat, Kanchalee; Rungpanich, Utane; Ekpo, Pattama; Suwancharoen, Duangjai

    2014-04-01

    Detection of antibody specific to Leptospira by various immunological techniques has been used for leptospirosis diagnosis. However, the sensitivity of antibody detection during the first few days after infection is low. Molecular techniques are suggested to provide earlier diagnosis than antibody detection, but a rapid and easy to perform assay for Leptospira antigen detection would provide an additional useful tool for disease diagnosis. In this study, we coupled gold nanoparticles with antibody to LipL32, a protein commonly found in pathogenic Leptospira. This coupled gold reagent was used in the immunochromatographic strip for Leptospira detection. We demonstrated that the sensitivity of Leptospira detection by this strip was 10(3) ml(-1). There was no positive result detected when strips were tested with non-pathogenic Leptospira, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus group B, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium. These data suggest that gold nanoparticles coupled with antibody to LipL32 could be used for Leptospira detection by a rapid test based on an immunochromatographic technique.

  14. E-test method for detecting antibiotic synergy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from neutropenic patients: a cost-effective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonaventura, G; Picciani, C; Spedicato, I; Piccolomini, R

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of E-test for the detection of synergy or antagonism of antibiotic combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from neutropenic patients. The activity of levofloxacin or grepafloxacin combined with ceftriaxone or cefotaxime against 20 P. aeruginosa clinical strains was assessed by checkerboard technique in comparison with results performed by E-test. The combination grepafloxacin + ceftriaxone appeared to be most effective (synergy, 55%) by checkerboard technique. The agreement between checkerboard and E-test results was 71.2%. Synergy was detected by checkerboard and E-test methods in 35 (43.8%) and 23 (31.3%) of 80 possible combinations, respectively. Antagonism was detected once (1.2%) by checkerboard method only. No major errors were recorded. E-test was preferable to checkerboard method for the total cost (reagent cost + cost of technologist time) (8,60 vs 21,80 euros/test, respectively). E-test appeared a promising alternative for testing antibiotic combinations although further testing should be performed to better refine this metodology.

  15. Detection of isolated covert saccades with the video head impulse test in peripheral vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blödow, Alexander; Pannasch, Sebastian; Walther, Leif Erik

    2013-08-01

    The function of the semicircular canal receptors and the pathway of the vestibulo-ocular-reflex (VOR) can be diagnosed with the clinical head impulse test (cHIT). Recently, the video head impulse test (vHIT) has been introduced but so far there is little clinical experience with the vHIT in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the horizontal VOR (hVOR) by means of vHIT in peripheral vestibular disorders. Using the vHIT, we examined the hVOR in a group of 117 patients and a control group of 20 healthy subjects. The group of patients included vestibular neuritis (VN) (n=52), vestibular schwannoma (VS) (n=31), Ménière's disease (MD) (n=22) and bilateral vestibulopathy (BV) (n=12). Normal hVOR gain was at 0.96 ± 0.08, while abnormal hVOR gain was at 0.44 ± 0.20 (79.1% of all cases). An abnormal vHIT was found in VN (94.2%), VS (61.3%), MD (54.5%) and BV (91.7%). Three conditions of refixation saccades occurred frequently in cases with abnormal hVOR: isolated covert saccades (13.7%), isolated overt saccades (34.3%) and the combination of overt and covert saccades (52.0%). The vHIT detects abnormal hVOR changes in the combination of gain assessment and refixation saccades. Since isolated covert saccades in hVOR changes can only be seen with vHIT, peripheral vestibular disorders are likely to be diagnosed incorrectly with the cHIT to a certain amount. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M Zetola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis.Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 had patient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language.By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17-6.60, p<0.001 over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase. The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3-11.5 to 14.9 (CI, 10.6-19.2, p<0.001, representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change.The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.

  17. Dual Immunomagnetic Nanobeads-Based Lateral Flow Test Strip for Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Neuron Specific Enolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenting; Wang, Kan; Xiao, Kun; Qin, Weijian; Hou, Yafei; Xu, Hao; Yan, Xinyu; Chen, Yanrong; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2017-01-01

    A novel immunomagnetic nanobeads -based lateral flow test strip was developed for the simultaneous quantitative detection of neuron specific enolase (NSE) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which are sensitive and specific in the clinical diagnosis of small cell lung cancer. Using this nanoscale method, high saturation magnetization, carboxyl-modified magnetic nanobeads were successfully synthesized. To obtain the immunomagnetic probes, a covalent bioconjugation of the magnetic nanobeads with the antibody of NSE and CEA was carried out. The detection area contained test line 1 and test line 2 which captured the immune complexes sensitively and formed sandwich complexes. In this assay, cross-reactivity results were negative and both NSE and CEA were detected simultaneously with no obvious influence on each other. The magnetic signal intensity of the nitrocellulose membrane was measured by a magnetic assay reader. For quantitative analysis, the calculated limit of detection was 0.094 ng/mL for NSE and 0.045 ng/mL for CEA. One hundred thirty clinical samples were used to validate the test strip which exhibited high sensitivity and specificity. This dual lateral flow test strip not only provided an easy, rapid, simultaneous quantitative detection strategy for NSE and CEA, but may also be valuable in automated and portable diagnostic applications. PMID:28186176

  18. Impact of the rapid antigen detection test in diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in a pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Débora Morais; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Hsin, Shieh Huei; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; de Paulis, Milena; Lotufo, João Paulo B; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Grisi, Sandra Josefina E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the routine use of rapid antigen detection test in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in children. This is a prospective and observational study, with a protocol compliance design established at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of Universidade de São Paulo for the care of children and adolescents diagnosed with acute pharyngitis. 650 children and adolescents were enrolled. Based on clinical findings, antibiotics would be prescribed for 389 patients (59.8%); using the rapid antigen detection test, they were prescribed for 286 patients (44.0%). Among the 261 children who would not have received antibiotics based on the clinical evaluation, 111 (42.5%) had positive rapid antigen detection test. The diagnosis based only on clinical evaluation showed 61.1% sensitivity, 47.7% specificity, 44.9% positive predictive value, and 57.5% negative predictive value. The clinical diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis had low sensitivity and specificity. The routine use of rapid antigen detection test led to the reduction of antibiotic use and the identification of a risk group for complications of streptococcal infection, since 42.5% positive rapid antigen detection test patients would not have received antibiotics based only on clinical diagnosis.

  19. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Willyandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  1. [Diagnosis of streptococcal tonsillitis in the pediatric department with the help of antigen detection test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jesper Brandt; Dahm, Thomas Lee; Nielsen, Claus Thøger; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2003-05-26

    The aim was to examine the validity in the paediatric hospital department of an antigen detection test (ADT) for the diagnosis of streptococcal tonsillitis. A prospective multicenter study including three Danish paediatric hospital departments was performed from May 1, 1998 to April 30, 1999. In 353 children aged 0-14 years the result of the ADT, Clearview Strep A, was compared with the result obtained with cultivation in an aerobic culture and the clinical parameters: hyperaemia, swelling, coating, adenitis and a temperature > or = 38.5 degrees C. In 126 patients the results of the ADT were also compared with white blood cell count (WBC), neutrofil count (NC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The prevalence of Group A Streptococci (GAS) from culture was 15%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ADT were 67%, 95%, 72% and 94%, respectively. The positive predictive value of the ADT was significantly lower in patients aged 0-4 years than in patients aged > or = 5 years (p = 0.02). The prevalence of positive ADT was significantly higher in patients with heavy growth of GAS than in patients with moderate or sparse growth (p = 0.01). The prevalence of adenitis (p = 0.003) and coating (p = 0.003) was significantly raised in ADT-positive patients. In patients with growth of Group A Streptococci in cultivation in an aerobic culture the prevalence of adenitis (p = 0.006) and elevated CRP (p = 0.03) was significantly raised. The sensitivity of 67% for the ADT is not satisfactory. However, in our opinion, this is not a sufficient argument against using ADT. It was a problem that the result of the ADT was sometimes difficult to read. Adjustment of the test procedure and the use of easy readable and high-sensitive optical immunoassay tests would probably improve the results significantly. Until the results of such studies exist, we suggest that the method of cultivation in an aerobic culture is used in the case of negative ADT, at least in patients

  2. Utility of a rapid immunochromatographic strip test in detecting canine parvovirus infection compared with polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaran S. Tinky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV in fecal samples of diarrheic dogs by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunochromatographic (IC strip test and to compare the diagnostic potential of these tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 fecal samples collected from diarrheic dogs suspected for CPV infection were subjected to PCR using CPV-555 primer amplifying the gene coding for the VP1 protein. These samples were also tested by IC strip test using a commercial rapid Ag test kit. The results were statistically analyzed using McNemar test. Results: A total of 22 samples (44% were detected as positive by PCR, which yielded a specific amplicon of 583 bp. In IC strip test, 18 (36% samples were found to be positive. The sensitivity of the test as compared to PCR was found to be 72.22% and specificity was 92.86%. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IC strip test was found to be 88.89% and 81.25%, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results of PCR and IC assay using McNemar test revealed no significant difference (p>0.05. Conclusion: The IC strip test could be employed as a rapid field level diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of canine parvoviral diarrhea.

  3. Diagnostic Value of ELISA Tests for the Detection of Specific Antibodies in Cats and Rabbits with Dermatophytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka Drobnič-Košorok

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two indirect ELISA tests developed for the detection of specific IgG in cats and rabbits, infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively, were evaluated and compared. The levels of specific antibodies were determined in sera of 20 cats and 25 rabbits naturally infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively. Infection was confirmed by the results of fungal culture. Blood samples from 12 cats and 17 rabbits, previously unexposed to dermatophytes, served as negative controls. A significant increase in the level of specific antibodies in groups of infected animals was demonstrated. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a positive and a negative test were determined to evaluate the diagnostic potential. ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies in cats infected with M. canis (ELISA-cats test exhibited 75.0 % of sensitivity at 91.7 % of specificity, whereas the test for the detection of specific antibodies in rabbits, infected with T. mentagrophytes (ELISA-rabbits test is highly sensitive (96.0 % and highly specific (94.1 %, confirming its encouraging diagnostic potential. The cross-reactivity of fungal antigens was tested by performing the assays with antigens M. canis, T. mentagrophytes, M. pachydermatis and A. fumigatus. There were no significant indications of cross-reactions in the test T. mentagrophytes-rabbits, whereas strong cross-reaction between dermatophyte antigens was observed in the test M. canis-cats.

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Thermocouple Sensor-Fault Detection and Classification Using Deep Learning and Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Santhi, B.; Sridhar, S.; Vinolia, K.; Swaminathan, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, an online fault detection and classification method is proposed for thermocouples used in nuclear power plants. In the proposed method, the fault data are detected by the classification method, which classifies the fault data from the normal data. Deep belief network (DBN), a technique for deep learning, is applied to classify the fault data. The DBN has a multilayer feature extraction scheme, which is highly sensitive to a small variation of data. Since the classification method is unable to detect the faulty sensor; therefore, a technique is proposed to identify the faulty sensor from the fault data. Finally, the composite statistical hypothesis test, namely generalized likelihood ratio test, is applied to compute the fault pattern of the faulty sensor signal based on the magnitude of the fault. The performance of the proposed method is validated by field data obtained from thermocouple sensors of the fast breeder test reactor.

  5. Early detection of fatigue cracks by means of nondestructive testing, NDT; Tidig detektering av utmattningssprickor genom ofoerstoerande provning, OFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broddegaard, Mattias [Siemens Industrial Turbines, Finspaang (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Components in gas turbines, steam turbines and boilers are subjected to both high and low cycle fatigue. The lifetime of components is established by calculations based on conservative assumptions and safety factors, which means that most components will have a real life far exceeding the calculated. Conventional nondestructive testing is aimed at detecting macroscopic defects, such as cracks, inclusions and other discontinuities in the material. By having the possibility of detecting damage at a microscopic level, the risk of fractures in components subjected to fatigue can be reduced and the interval between testing occasions can be extended. The project goal has been to establish knowledge about possibilities and limitations for early detection of low and high cycle fatigue damage, by a literature survey and by practical experiments on low cycle fatigue specimens in 12% Cr-steel, for the following nondestructive testing methods: MWM (Meandering Winding Magnetometer) eddy current testing; and Nonlinear ultrasonics, both classical (second harmonic) and non-classical (crack closure). The project started with a literature survey. This resulted in a proposal for specimen design and selection of testing techniques and project partners. Manufacturing of specimens in 12% Cr-steel, designation X22CrMoV12-1, and low cycle fatigue testing at 300 deg C testing temperature was carried out at Siemens Industrial Turbines in Finspaang. Specimens with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% consumed life, based on the number of cycles to presence of macroscopic cracks, were produced. MWM eddy current testing was carried out by Jentek Sensors Inc. in the USA. Measurements with nonlinear ultrasonics were carried out by Siemens Corporate Technology in Munich and at Blekinge Univ. The specimens were finally examined in SEM and light optical microscope in Finspaang. In the literature, results showing that early detection of fatigue damage by nondestructive testing is possible, can be found. By

  6. Immunoserologic Pepsin Detection in The Saliva as a Non-Invasive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Emre; Kubat, Gözde; Yorulmaz, İrfan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common tool for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still 24-hours esophageal pH monitoring; there is lack of non-invasive, less expensive and accurate diagnostic tools for this frequent disease. Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of immunoserologic pepsin detection in the saliva for the diagnosis of LPR. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A two channeled 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring catheter was placed in patients with a suspicion of LPR. During the 24-hour period, each patient gave one sample of sputum for the immunoserologic pepsin detection test. Pathologic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) findings, LPR findings, pH score in the proximal and distal probes when the sputum sample was given were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the pepsin detection test were analyzed and compared to pH monitoring scores. Results: The study group consisted of 20 patients who met the criteria. A positive pepsin detection test was elicited from 6 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the pepsin detection test was 33% and 100%, respectively. A positive predictive value of 100% was recorded. When the pH results of the pepsin positive patients (PPP) and the rest of the study group in the proximal probe at the sample time were compared, the PPP had an apparent acidic pH value compared to the pepsin negative patients (pH: 3.26 for the PPP, pH: 6.81 for the pepsin negative patients). Conclusion: Pepsin detection in the saliva is a recent method and becoming increasingly popular. Because of the benefits and ease of application, a positive salivary pepsin test in a patient suspected of having LPR can be a cost effective, accurate and alternative diagnostic method. Increasing the daily number of sputum samples may increase the sensitivity of the test. PMID:25759771

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF TUBERCULOUS RECOMBINANT ALLERGEN SKIN TESTS FOR DETECTING TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS OF MOSCOW IN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Slogotskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanation. Mantoux test is used to detect the tuberculous infection; however, low specificity of this method results in a high rate of false positive responses due to cross-reactions of PPD (protein purified derivate antigens contained in many mycobacterial species and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG strains. New drug Diaskintest (DST — recombinant protein CFP10-ESAT6 produced by Escherichia coli BL21(DE3/pCFP-ESAT proved to be the best acceptable diagnostic drug. The article was aimed at studying effectiveness of tuberculous recombinant allergen tests for detecting tuberculosis in the children and adolescents, who were registered in Moscow in 2013. Methods. Mantoux tests were used to examine 1,420,100 persons; positive reactions were observed in 1,020,000 children and adolescents (71,8%; 131,361 (12.9% of them were examined using DSTs. Results. Positive reactions to DST were observed in 3,304 persons (2.5% of the persons with positive reactions to Mantoux test. The tuberculosis detection rate among the persons with positive reactions to Mantoux tests using 2TU PPD-L (Leningrad Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums is 0.13%, among the persons with positive reactions to DSTs — 4.9%, i.e. 40 times more often (p = 0.000. Post-tuberculosis alterations were detected in 169 persons: in 0.13% of the persons with positive reactions to Mantoux tests using 2TU PPD-L and in 5.1% of the persons with positive reactions to DSTs (p = 0.000. Conclusion. Cohort studies conducted in Moscow demonstrated high effectiveness of Diaskintests for detecting tuberculosis in children and adolescents. High sensitivity of the method helps to detect the overwhelming majority of the persons with tuberculosis.

  8. Development and initial evaluation of a lateral flow dipstick test for antigen detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidin, Syazwan; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Nik Zairi; Noordin, Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a public health concern in developing countries. Early diagnosis of amoebiasis can avoid disease complications, thus this study was aimed at developing a test that can rapidly detect the parasite antigens in stool samples. Rabbits were individually immunized with recombinant pyruvate phosphate dikinase (rPPDK) and E. histolytica excretory-secretory antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. A rapid dipstick test was produced using anti-rPPDK PAb lined on the dipstick as capture reagent and anti-EhESA PAb conjugated to colloidal gold as the detector reagent. Using E. histolytica-spiked in stool sample of a healthy individual, the detection limit of the dipstick test was found to be 1000 cells ml -1 . Meanwhile when rPPDK was spiked in the stool sample, the minimum concentration detected by the dipstick test was 0.1 μg ml -1 . The performances of the dipstick, commercial Techlab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR were compared using 70 stool samples from patients infected with Entamoeba species (n = 45) and other intestinal pathogens (n = 25). When compared to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity of the dipstick for detection of E. histolytica was 65.4% (n = 17/26); while the diagnostic specificity when tested with stool samples containing other intestinal pathogens was 92% (23/25). In contrast, Techlab E. histolytica II ELISA detected 19.2% (5/26) of the E. histolytica-positive samples as compared to real-time PCR. The lateral flow dipstick test produced in this study enabled rapid detection of E. histolytica, thus it showed good potential to be further developed into a diagnostic tool for intestinal amoebiasis.

  9. Performance evaluation of the Verigene(®)Clostridium difficile nucleic acid test, an automated multiplex molecular testing system for detection of C. difficile toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Kosuke; Iwanaga, Yuki; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Okada, Yuya; Kaku, Norihito; Uno, Naoki; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Miyazaki, Taiga; Izumikawa, Koichi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2017-10-01

    The Verigene(®)Clostridium difficile nucleic acid test (Verigene(®) CDF test) is an automatic and rapid detection system for the genes encoding tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin, and the single nucleotide deletion at base pair 117 in the tcdC based on microarray and PCR amplification. We compared the performance of the Verigene(®) CDF test to that of two enzyme immunoassays, C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE and X/Pect Toxin A/B, using 118 specimens. We found overall concordance rates of 81.4% and 78.8% between C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE and Verigene(®) CDF test, and X/Pect Toxin A/B and Verigene(®) CDF test. The Verigene(®) CDF test showed the highest sensitivity (93.9%) and had a specificity of 96.5%. The sensitivity and specificity were respectively 45.5 and 94.1% for C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE and 27.3 and 100.0% for X/Pect Toxin A/B. These results indicated that the Verigene(®) CDF test was highly accurate for the detection of C. difficile toxin in fecal specimens and supported its use in daily diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the β-CARBA™ test, a colorimetric test for the rapid detection of carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Sandrine; Dortet, Laurent; Naas, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Here, we have evaluated a novel colorimetric test (the β-CARBA™ test; Bio-Rad) to detect carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli from cultured colonies. The performance of the β-CARBA™ test was compared with that of the Carba NP test (or the CarbAcineto NP test) and RAPIDEC ® CARBA NP (bioMérieux) using a collection of 290 isolates with characterized β-lactamase content. This collection included 199 carbapenemase producers (121 Enterobacteriaceae, 36 Pseudomonas and 42 Acinetobacter baumannii ) and 91 non-carbapenemase producers (55 Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas and 16 A. baumannii ). The β-CARBA™ test correctly detected 84.9% of the carbapenemase producers, including all KPC and IMP, 96.4% of VIM, 85.3% of NDM, 80.5% of OXA-48-like and 91.2% of A. baumannii -related OXA carbapenemases (OXA-23, OXA-40, OXA-58, OXA-143 and overexpressed OXA-51). All rare metallo-β-lactamases (SPM, AIM, GIM, DIM and SIM) were detected. Importantly, all non-KPC Ambler class A carbapenemases were not detected, including GES variants with carbapenemase activity ( n  = 6), IMI ( n  = 3), NMC-A ( n  = 1), SME ( n  = 2), FRI-1 ( n  = 1) and BIC-1 ( n  = 1). All non-carbapenemase producers gave a negative result except with OXA-163-, OXA-405- and one TEM-3-producing Citrobacter freundii . The overall sensitivity and specificity of the β-CARBA™ test were 84.9% and 95.6%, respectively. This test is easy to perform and to interpret by non-specialized staff members. Despite lack of specificity towards non-KPC Ambler class A and OXA-48-like carbapenemases, the β-CARBA™ test could complete the existing panel of tests available for the confirmation of carbapenemases in Gram-negatives.

  11. Detection of Early Sero-Conversion HIV Infection Using the INSTITM HIV-1 Antibody Point-of-Care Test

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Darrel; Gilbert, Mark; DiFrancesco, Lillo; Krajden, Mel

    2010-01-01

    We compared the INSTITM HIV-1 Antibody Point-of-Care (POC) Test to laboratory-based tests for detection of early sero-conversion (i.e. acute) HIV infections. Fifty-three (53) individuals with early HIV infection, (i.e. 3rd generation anti-HIV EIA non-reactive or reactive, HIV-1 Western Blot non-reactive or indeterminate and HIV-1 p24 antigen reactive) were tested by INSTITM. The INSTITM test was reactive for 34/49 (sensitivity 69.4%; 95% confidence interval 54.6-81.8%) early-infected individu...

  12. Group Testing Based Detection of Web Service DDoS Attackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashat, Dalia; Jiang, Xiaohong; Kameyama, Michitaka

    The Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) is one of the major threats to network security that exhausts network bandwidth and resources. Recently, an efficient approach Live Baiting was proposed for detecting the identities of DDoS attackers in web service using low state overhead without requiring either the models of legitimate requests nor anomalous behavior. However, Live Baiting has two limitations. First, the detection algorithm adopted in Live Baiting starts with a suspects list containing all clients, which leads to a high false positive probability especially for large web service with a huge number of clients. Second, Live Baiting adopts a fixed threshold based on the expected number of requests in each bucket during the detection interval without the consideration of daily and weekly traffic variations. In order to address the above limitations, we first distinguish the clients activities (Active and Non-Active clients during the detection interval) in the detection process and then further propose a new adaptive threshold based on the Change Point Detection method, such that we can improve the false positive probability and avoid the dependence of detection on sites and access patterns. Extensive trace-driven simulation has been conducted on real Web trace to demonstrate the detection efficiency of the proposed scheme in comparison with the Live Baiting detection scheme.

  13. Hypercoagulability following major partial liver resection - detected by thrombomodulin-modified thrombin generation testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potze, W.; Alkozai, E. M.; Adelmeijer, J.; Porte, R. J.; Lisman, T.

    BackgroundConventional coagulation tests are frequently prolonged after liver surgery, suggesting a post-operative hypocoagulability. However, these tests are unreliable for assessment of the haemostatic status in these patients. In contrast, thrombin generation testing measures the true balance

  14. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF DETECTION OF CARCINOGENIC TYPES OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS BY QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TESTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, E T; Labigina, A V; Leshenko, O Ya; Rusanov, D N; Kuzmenko, V V; Fedko, L P; Pak, I P

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of results of screening (n = 3208; sexually active citizen aged from 18 to 59 years) was carried out to detect oncogene types of human papilloma virus in using qualitative (1150 females and 720 males) and quantitative (polymerase chain reaction in real-time (843 females and 115 males) techniques. The human papilloma virus of high oncogene type was detected in 65% and 68.4% of females and in 48.6% and 53% of males correspondingly. Among 12 types of human papilloma virus the most frequently diagnosed was human papilloma virus 16 independently of gender of examined and technique of analysis. In females, under application of qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 18.3% (n = 280) and under application of quantitative tests Rte of human papilloma virus made up to 14.9% (n = 126; p ≤ 0.05). Under examination of males using qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 8.3% (n = 60) and under application of qualitative tests made up to 12.2% (n = 14; p ≥ 0.05). Under application of qualitative tests rate of detection on the rest ofoncogene types of human papilloma virus varied in females from 3.4% to 8.4% and in males from 1.8% to 5.9%. Under application of qualitative tests to females rate of human papilloma virus with high viral load made up to 68.4%, with medium viral load - 2.85% (n = 24) and with low viral load -0.24% (n = 2). Under application of quantitative tests in males rate of detection of types of human papilloma virus made up to 53% and at that in all high viral load was established. In females, the most of oncogene types of human papilloma virus (except for 31, 39, 59) are detected significantly more often than in males.

  15. Do We Need to Detect Isoniazid Resistance in Addition to Rifampicin Resistance in Diagnostic Tests for Tuberculosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkinger, Claudia M.; Pai, Madhukar; Dowdy, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is resistant to both rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Whereas many TB diagnostics detect RIF-resistance, few detect INH-monoresistance, which is common and may increase risk of acquired MDR-TB. Whether inclusion of INH-resistance in a first-line rapid test for TB would have an important impact on MDR-TB rates remains uncertain. Methods We developed a transmission model to evaluate three tests in a population similar to that of India: a rapid molecular test for TB, the same test plus RIF-resistance detection (“TB+RIF”), and detection of RIF and INH-resistance (“TB+RIF/INH”). Our primary outcome was the prevalence of INH-resistant and MDR-TB at ten years. Results Compared to the TB test alone and assuming treatment of all diagnosed MDR cases, the TB+RIF test reduced the prevalence of MDR-TB among all TB cases from 5.5% to 3.8% (30.6% reduction, 95% uncertainty range, UR: 17–54%). Despite using liberal assumptions about the impact of INH-monoresistance on treatment outcomes and MDR-TB acquisition, expansion from TB+RIF to TB+RIF/INH lowered this prevalence only from 3.8% to 3.6% further (4% reduction, 95% UR: 3–7%) and INH-monoresistant TB from 15.8% to 15.1% (4% reduction, 95% UR: (-8)-19%). Conclusion When added to a rapid test for TB plus RIF-resistance, detection of INH-resistance has minimal impact on transmission of TB, MDR-TB, and INH-monoresistant TB. PMID:24404155

  16. DYNAMIC SOFTWARE TESTING MODELS WITH PROBABILISTIC PARAMETERS FOR FAULT DETECTION AND ERLANG DISTRIBUTION FOR FAULT RESOLUTION DURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Khomonenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Software reliability and test planning models are studied taking into account the probabilistic nature of error detection and discovering. Modeling of software testing enables to plan the resources and final quality at early stages of project execution. Methods. Two dynamic models of processes (strategies are suggested for software testing, using error detection probability for each software module. The Erlang distribution is used for arbitrary distribution approximation of fault resolution duration. The exponential distribution is used for approximation of fault resolution discovering. For each strategy, modified labeled graphs are built, along with differential equation systems and their numerical solutions. The latter makes it possible to compute probabilistic characteristics of the test processes and states: probability states, distribution functions for fault detection and elimination, mathematical expectations of random variables, amount of detected or fixed errors. Evaluation of Results. Probabilistic characteristics for software development projects were calculated using suggested models. The strategies have been compared by their quality indexes. Required debugging time to achieve the specified quality goals was calculated. The calculation results are used for time and resources planning for new projects. Practical Relevance. The proposed models give the possibility to use the reliability estimates for each individual module. The Erlang approximation removes restrictions on the use of arbitrary time distribution for fault resolution duration. It improves the accuracy of software test process modeling and helps to take into account the viability (power of the tests. With the use of these models we can search for ways to improve software reliability by generating tests which detect errors with the highest probability.

  17. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  18. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Grace

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design are less effective than picture-based signs at catching drivers’ attention. Methods: We used a driving simulator to test (1 the effects of the RADS on collision rate, driver speed, and latency to brake; and (2 whether the RADS would be more effective if warning signs were picture-based. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: no warning (control, word-based RADS signs (current design, and picture-based RADS signs (proposed design. During the simulations, a deer entered the road in front of the driver, and we recorded whether drivers “crashed” or not. Results: Both the picture-based and word-based RADS signs resulted in significantly lower crash probabilities. The picture-based RADS signs performed better than the word-based signs in reducing speed and latency to brake, although the effect varied between twilight and night. However, the word-based RADS signs still did produce significant reductions in speed and braking latency. Conclusions: We conclude that the word-based RADS in Big Cypress should help prevent dangerous wildlife-vehicle collisions, but that redesigning the warning signs to be picture-based could yield even greater benefits.

  19. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Farwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A classification concealed information test (CIT used the brain fingerprinting method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP in detecting information that is 1 acquired in real life and 2 unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to 3 types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified. We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP? versus comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant? using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER. Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20% and lower statistical confidences -- mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%. We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  20. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Drew C.; Richardson, Graham M.; Furedy, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the “brain fingerprinting” method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  1. NASA-STD-6001B Test 7: Impact of Test Methodology and Detection Advancements on the Obsolescence of Historical Offgas Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Woods, Brenton; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Perez, Horacio; Ryder, Valerie; Tapia, Alma S.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA-STD-6001B states "all nonmetals tested in accordance with NASA-STD-6001 should be retested every 10 years or as required by the responsible program/project." The retesting of materials helps ensure the most accurate data are used in material selection. Manufacturer formulas and processes can change over time, sometimes without an update to product number and material information. Material performance in certain NASA-STD-6001 tests can be particularly vulnerable to these changes, such as material offgas (Test 7). In addition, Test 7 analysis techniques at NASA White Sands Test Facility were dramatically enhanced in the early 1990s, resulting in improved detection capabilities. Low level formaldehyde identification was improved again in 2004. Understanding the limitations in offgas analysis data prior to 1990 puts into question the validity and current applicability of that data. Case studies on Super Koropon (Registered trademark) and Aeroglaze (Registered trademark) topcoat highlight the importance of material retesting.

  2. Development of a simultaneous lateral flow strip test for the rapid and simple detection of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong-Yeol; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a 1-step simultaneous lateral flow strip test for the rapid and simple detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in grains. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DON and ZEA were respectively conjugated with gold nanoparticles and used to develop a lateral flow strip test for a single toxin and multiple toxins. First, individual lateral flow strips for a single toxin were optimized, and their conditions were used to develop a simultaneous lateral flow strip for multiple toxins. Limits of detection of both lateral flow strip tests for DON and ZEA were the same (DON: 50 ng/mL, ZEA: 1 ng/mL). Both methods showed cross-reactivity for α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, but no cross-reaction to other mycotoxins. The results can be completed obtained within 15 min. The cut-off values of the simultaneous lateral flow strip for the spiked rice and corn were 500 and 10 ng/g for DON and ZEA, respectively. The results demonstrated that the developed simultaneous lateral flow strip test offers a rapid, easy-to-use, and portable analytical system and can be used as a convenient qualitative tool for the on-site detection of DON and ZEA in food and agricultural commodities. Simultaneous lateral strip test is useful for a rapid detection of DON and ZEA at a time in food and grain samples. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay Test Kit for Dual Detection of Casein and β-Lactoglobulin Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, Jongkit; Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Benoit, Lora; Tamayo, Joshua; Day, Jeffrey; Nadala, Cesar; Sung, Shao-Lei; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Allergies to cow's milk are very common and can present as life-threatening anaphylaxis. Consequently, food labeling legislation mandates that foods containing milk residues, including casein and/or β-lactoglobulin, provide an indication of such on the product label. Because contamination with either component independent of the other can occur during food manufacturing, effective allergen management measures for containment of milk residues necessitates the use of dual screening methods. To assist the food industry in improving food safety practices, we have developed a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test kit that reliably reports both residues down to 0.01 μg per swab and 0.1 ppm of protein for foods. The assay utilizes both sandwich and competitive format test lines and is specific for bovine milk residues. Selectivity testing using a panel of matrices with potentially interfering substances, including commonly used sanitizing agents, indicated reduction in the limit of detection by one-to fourfold. With food, residues were easily detected in all cow's milk-based foods tested, but goat and sheep milk residues were not detected. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with common commodities, with the exception of kidney beans when present at high concentrations (> 1%). The development of a highly sensitive and rapid test method capable of detecting trace amounts of casein and/or β-lactoglobulin should aid food manufacturers and regulatory agencies in monitoring for milk allergens in environmental and food samples.

  4. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in turkey blood samples by ELISA and by the slide agglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, E; Czifra, G; Stipkovits, L

    1994-01-01

    Comparative examination of a total of 1,030 blood samples from six turkey flocks of three Eastern Hungarian turkey farms was performed by the conventional haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and slide agglutination (SA) tests and by a competitive ELISA visualizing the inhibition by a positive test serum of the reaction between a monoclonal antibody and the specific epitope of Mycoplasma gallisepticum recognized by it. All the three tests detected the flocks which were certainly infected. The highest rate of positivity (93% of the samples tested) was revealed by the ELISA. By SA and HI the positivity rate was 56% and 55%, respectively. Thirty-five per cent of the positive blood samples reacted in all three tests, 17% of them only by ELISA and HI, another 17% only by ELISA and SA, while 3% only by SA and HI. In the case of positive flocks first the SA test and ELISA, then the HI test and ELISA give parallel results.

  5. Evaluation of Six Commercial Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Other Neisseria Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Unemo, Magnus; Limnios, Athena E.; Hogan, Tiffany R.; Hjelmevoll, Stig-Ove; Garland, Susanne M.; Tapsall, John

    2011-01-01

    Molecular detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in extragenital samples may result in false-positive results due to cross-reaction with commensal Neisseria species or Neisseria meningitidis. This study examined 450 characterized clinical culture isolates, comprising 216 N. gonorrhoeae isolates and 234 isolates of nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 218) and 16 isolates of other closely related bacteria, with six commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The six NAATs tested were Gen-Probe APTIMA COMBO 2 and APTIMA GC, Roche COBAS Amplicor CT/NG and COBAS 4800 CT/NG tests, BD ProbeTec GC Qx amplified DNA assay, and Abbott RealTime CT/NG test. All assays except COBAS Amplicor CT/NG test where four (1.9%) isolates were not detected showed a positive result with all N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 216). Among the 234 nongonococcal isolates examined, initial results from all assays displayed some false-positive results due to cross-reactions. Specifically, the COBAS Amplicor and ProbeTec tests showed the highest number of false-positive results, detecting 33 (14.1%) and 26 (11%) nongonococcal Neisseria isolates, respectively. On the first testing, APTIMA COMBO 2, APTIMA GC, Abbott RealTime, and Roche COBAS 4800 showed lower level of cross-reactions with five (2.1%), four (1.7%), two (1%), and two (1%) of the isolates showing low-level positivity, respectively. Upon retesting of these nine nongonococcal isolates using freshly cultured colonies, none were positive by the APTIMA COMBO 2, Abbott RealTime, or COBAS 4800 test. In conclusion, the COBAS Amplicor and ProbeTec tests displayed high number of false-positive results, while the remaining NAATs showed only sporadic low-level false-positive results. Supplementary testing for confirmation of N. gonorrhoeae NAATs remains recommended with all samples tested, in particular those from extragenital sites. PMID:21813721

  6. [Seroprevalence and detection of primary infection by cytomegalovirus with IgG avidity test during the first quarter of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Conne L; Reyes-Méndez, Miguel A; Ortega-Pierres, Luz E; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Adriana P; Sandoval-Guido, Verónica; Sereno-Coló, José A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence and detection of primary infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) with immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity test during the first quarter of pregnancy in the General Hospital in Morelia, Michoacan. A total of 177 patients were studied employing a modified Elisa test using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the detection of CMV antibodies (IgG and immunoglobulin M [IgM]), and IgG avidity. 90.4% were positive for IgG, and of these, 2.3% were also reactive for IgM, and in this group the IgG avidity test reported low avidity for 1.1% and higher avidity in the same percentage. 9.6% were seronegative. Similarity was found with published studies in Mexico. Health professionals should know the clinical algorithms for diagnosis and proper management of CMV infection using the IgG avidity test.

  7. Bayes factor based on the trend test incorporating Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium: more power to detect genetic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinfeng; Yuan, Ao; Zheng, Gang

    2012-07-01

    In the analysis of case-control genetic association, the trend test and Pearson's test are the two most commonly used tests. In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), Bayes factor (BF) is a useful tool to support significant P-values, and a better measure than P-value when results are compared across studies with different sample sizes. When reporting the P-value of the trend test, we propose a BF directly based on the trend test. To improve the power to detect association under recessive or dominant genetic models, we propose a BF based on the trend test and incorporating Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in cases. When the true model is unknown, or both the trend test and Pearson's test or other robust tests are applied in genome-wide scans, we propose a joint BF, combining the previous two BFs. All three BFs studied in this paper have closed forms and are easy to compute without integrations, so they can be reported along with P-values, especially in GWAS. We discuss how to use each of them and how to specify priors. Simulation studies and applications to three GWAS are provided to illustrate their usefulness to detect nonadditive gene susceptibility in practice. © 2012 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  8. KAtex antigen-detection test as a diagnostic tool for latent visceral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    non invasive and simple tool for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), capable of detecting and distinguishing between recovered, subclinical and latent cases. The study was carried out in endemic areas of Kalibar and Ahar districts, East Azerbaijan province, Northwest Iran. Urine and Sera samples were collected ...

  9. The gap detection test: can it be used to diagnose tinnitus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Dijk; K. Boyen; D. Baskent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Animals with induced tinnitus showed difficulties in detecting silent gaps in sounds, suggesting that the tinnitus percept may be filling the gap. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this approach to detect tinnitus in human patients. The authors first

  10. The Gap Detection Test : Can It Be Used to Diagnose Tinnitus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; Başkent, Deniz; van Dijk, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Animals with induced tinnitus showed difficulties in detecting silent gaps in sounds, suggesting that the tinnitus percept may be filling the gap. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this approach to detect tinnitus in human patients. The authors first

  11. AMADEUS-The acoustic neutrino detection test system of the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Sen, N. Chon; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchneri, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Provost, H.; Lefevre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.

    2011-01-01

    The AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for the Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system which is described in this article aims at the investigation of techniques for acoustic detection of neutrinos in the deep sea. It is integrated into the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Its acoustic

  12. Strategies for Testing Statistical and Practical Significance in Detecting DIF with Logistic Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Angel M.; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study examines three controversial aspects in differential item functioning (DIF) detection by logistic regression (LR) models: first, the relative effectiveness of different analytical strategies for detecting DIF; second, the suitability of the Wald statistic for determining the statistical significance of the parameters of interest; and…

  13. Multiplexed Lateral Flow Test for Detection and Differentiation ofCronobacter sakazakiiSerotypes O1 and O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Eva J; Dietrich, Richard; Wittwer, Tobias; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Schauer, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is responsible for severe meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants associated with ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). The current ISO method for isolation and detection of Cronobacter spp. is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. In this study, a multiplexed lateral flow test strip was developed to rapidly detect and simultaneously serotype O1 and O2 C. sakazakii serotypes. The assay is based on two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that specifically bind to the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of these pathogens. The test strip provides results very quickly; C. sakazakii could be detected in pure culture within 15 min with a sensitivity of 10 7 CFU/ml. After non-selective enrichment for 18 h as low as one Cronobacter cell per g PIF could be detected. Moreover, the established lateral flow assay (LFA) offers excellent specificity showing no cross-reactivity with other C. sakazakii serotypes, Cronobacter species or Enterobacteriaceae tested. These characteristics, together with several advantages such as speed, simplicity in performance, low analysis cost, and no requirement of specialized skills or sophisticated equipment make the developed multiplexed LFA suitable for reliable detection and serotyping of C. sakazakii serotypes O1 and O2.

  14. Multiplexed Lateral Flow Test for Detection and Differentiation of Cronobacter sakazakii Serotypes O1 and O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva J. Scharinger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is responsible for severe meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants associated with ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF. The current ISO method for isolation and detection of Cronobacter spp. is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. In this study, a multiplexed lateral flow test strip was developed to rapidly detect and simultaneously serotype O1 and O2 C. sakazakii serotypes. The assay is based on two monoclonal antibodies (MAb that specifically bind to the lipopolysaccharides (LPS of these pathogens. The test strip provides results very quickly; C. sakazakii could be detected in pure culture within 15 min with a sensitivity of 107 CFU/ml. After non-selective enrichment for 18 h as low as one Cronobacter cell per g PIF could be detected. Moreover, the established lateral flow assay (LFA offers excellent specificity showing no cross-reactivity with other C. sakazakii serotypes, Cronobacter species or Enterobacteriaceae tested. These characteristics, together with several advantages such as speed, simplicity in performance, low analysis cost, and no requirement of specialized skills or sophisticated equipment make the developed multiplexed LFA suitable for reliable detection and serotyping of C. sakazakii serotypes O1 and O2.

  15. Detection of acute HIV infections in an urban HIV counseling and testing population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddy, Frances H; Pilcher, Christopher D; Moore, Renee H; Tambe, Pradnya; Park, Mahin N; Fiscus, Susan A; Feinberg, Mark B; del Rio, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    The southeastern United States has an increasing burden of HIV, particularly among blacks, women, and men who have sex with men. To evaluate HIV nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and antibody-based algorithms in determination of HIV incidence, detection of acute HIV infections, and surveillance of drug-resistant virus transmission in the urban southeastern United States, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of prospectively collected data from 2202 adults receiving HIV testing and counseling at 3 sites in Atlanta, GA from October 2002 through January 2004. After standard testing with an HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot confirmation, HIV-positive specimens were tested with 2 standardized assays to detect recent infection. HIV antibody-negative specimens were pooled and screened for HIV using NAAT. Seventy (3.2%) of 2202 subjects were HIV infected. Only 66 were positive on the standard HIV antibody test; 4 were antibody-negative but acutely HIV infected. The overall annual HIV incidence was 1.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 1.8) based on the Vironostika-LS assay and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.6 to 2.1) based on the BED Incidence Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). The prevalence of acute HIV infection was 1.8 per 1000 persons (95% CI: 0.7 to 4.6). The sensitivity of the current testing algorithm using an EIA and Western blot test for detectable infections was only 94.3% (95% CI: 86.2 to 97.8). All 3 of the acutely infected subjects genotyped had drug resistance mutations, and 1 had multiclass resistance. Adding NAAT-based screening to standard HIV antibody testing increased case identification by 6% and uncovered the first evidence of multidrug-resistant HIV transmission in Atlanta. Antibody tests alone are insufficient for public health practice in high-risk urban HIV testing settings.

  16. Qualitative evaluation of selective tests for detection of Neospora hughesi antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of experimentally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, Andrea E; Conrad, Patricia A; Wilson, W David; Jeanes, Lisa V; Sverlow, Karen W; Gardner, Ian A; Daft, Barbara M; Marsh, Antoinette E; Blagburn, Byron L; Ferraro, Gregory L; Barr, Bradd C

    2002-12-01

    Neospora hughesi is a newly recognized protozoan pathogen in horses that causes a myeloencephalitis similar to Sarcocystis neurona. There are no validated serologic tests using the gold standard sera that are currently available to detect specific N. hughesi antibodies and, thus, no tests available to detect antemortem exposure or estimate seroprevalence in the horse. The objectives of the present study were to establish a bank of gold standard equine sera through experimental infections with N. hughesi and to assess several serologic tests for the detection of related protozoan antibodies. Seven horses were inoculated with N. hughesi tachyzoites, and 7 horses received uninfected cell culture material. The horses were monitored, and blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected repeatedly over a 4-mo period. With the sera, 4 different serologic techniques were evaluated. including a whole-parasite lysate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a recombinant protein ELISA, a modified direct agglutination test, and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the results showed that the N. hughesi indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) consistently discriminated between experimentally infected and noninfected horses, using a cutoff of 1:640. Sera from 3 naturally infected horses had titers >1:640. Cerebrospinal fluid in all but I infected horse had very low N. hughesi IFAT titers (<1:160), starting at postinoculation day 30.

  17. MTB-DR-RIF 9G test: Detection and discrimination of tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Cho, Nam Hoon; Sung, Nackmoon; Kim, Hee-Jin; Yang, Jeongseong; Kim, Taisun

    2015-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the novel MTB-DR-RIF 9G test for the accurate detection and discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis (MTB-DR-RIF) in the clinical samples. The procedure included the amplification of a nucleotide fragment of the rpoB gene of the MTB and MTB-DR-RIF strains and their hybridization with the immobilized probes. The MTB-DR-RIF 9G test was evaluated for its ability to detect and discriminate MTB and MTB-DR-RIF strains in 113 known clinical samples. The accuracy of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test was determined by comparing its results with sequencing analysis and drug susceptibility testing. The sensitivity and specificity of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test at 95% confidence interval were found to be 95.4% (89.5-98.5) and 100% (69.2-100), respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test at 95% confidence interval were found to be 100% (85.0-95.9) and 66.7% (38.4-88.18), respectively. Sequencing analysis of all samples indicated that the mutations present in the regions identified with the MTB-DR-RIF 9G assay can be detected accurately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D.

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  19. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Jessica U; Del Amo, Yolanda; Costes, Laurence; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-03-05

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae)-an FP7-funded EU project-used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU) as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR) and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3) and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  20. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Medlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae—an FP7-funded EU project—used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3 and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  1. Test Sensitivity in the Computer-Aided Detection of Breast Cancer from Clinical Mammographic Screening: a Meta-analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess evaluative methodologies for comparative measurements of test sensitivity in clinical mammographic screening trials of computer-aided detection (CAD) technologies. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis was performed by analytically reviewing the relevant literature on the clinical application of computer-aided detection (CAD) technologies as part of a breast cancer screening program based on x-ray mammography. Each clinical study's method for measuring the CAD system's improvement in test sensitivity is examined in this meta-analysis. The impact of the chosen sensitivity measurement on the study's conclusions are analyzed. Results: This meta-analysis demonstrates that some studies have inappropriately compared sensitivity measurements between control groups and CAD enabled groups. The inappropriate comparison of control groups and CAD enabled groups can lead to an underestimation of the benefits of the clinical application of computer-aided detection technologies. Conclusions: The po...

  2. EU-Approved Rapid Tests for Bovine Spongform Encephalopathy Detect Atypical Forms: A Study for Their Sensitivities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meloni, D.; Davidse, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; varello, K.; Casalone, C.; Corona, C.; Balkema-Buschmann, A.; Groschup, M.; Ingravalle, F.; Bozzetta, E.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004 it become clear that atypical bovine spongiform encephalopthies (BSEs) exist in cattle. Whenever their detection has relied on active surveillance plans implemented in Europe since 2001 by rapid tests, the overall and inter-laboratory performance of these diagnostic systems in the

  3. Adding family history to faecal immunochemical testing increases the detection of advanced neoplasia in a colorectal cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F. G. J.; Vleugels, J. L. A.; de Wijkerslooth, T. R.; Stegeman, I.; Stoop, E. M.; van Leerdam, M. E.; Kuipers, E. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Dekker, E.

    Background Faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has suboptimal sensitivity for detecting advanced neoplasia. To increase its performance, FIT could be combined with other risk factors. Aim To evaluate the incremental yield of a screening programme using a

  4. Adding family history to faecal immunochemical testing increases the detection of advanced neoplasia in a colorectal cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F. G. J.; Vleugels, J. L. A.; de Wijkerslooth, T. R.; Stegeman, I.; Stoop, E. M.; van Leerdam, M. E.; Kuipers, E. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Dekker, E.

    2016-01-01

    Faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has suboptimal sensitivity for detecting advanced neoplasia. To increase its performance, FIT could be combined with other risk factors. To evaluate the incremental yield of a screening programme using a positive FIT or a CRC

  5. Change detection in a time series of polarimetric SAR data by an omnibus test statistic and its factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2016-01-01

    in the covariance matrix representation is carried out. The omnibus test statistic and its factorization detect if and when change(s) occur. The technique is demonstrated on airborne EMISAR L-band data but may be applied to Sentinel-1, Cosmo-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, ALOS and RadarSat-2 or other dual- and quad...

  6. Test and validation of methods to sample and detect human virus from environmental surfaces using norovirus as a model virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, T.; Frandsen, T.; Permin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    : To validate and test efficient and reliable procedures to detect multiple human pathogenic viruses on surfaces. Methods: The study was divided into two parts. In Part A, six combinations of three different swabs (consisting of cotton, foamed cotton, or polyester head) and two different elution methods (direct...

  7. 10 CFR 32.103 - Schedule D-prototype tests for ice detection devices containing strontium-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... containing strontium-90. 32.103 Section 32.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC... § 32.103 Schedule D—prototype tests for ice detection devices containing strontium-90. An applicant for... visible evidence of physical contact between the water and the strontium-90. Absolute pressure of the air...

  8. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-08

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  9. Evaluation of an automated immunochemical fecal occult blood test for colorectal neoplasia detection in a Chinese population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Wai Man; Lam, Shiu Kum; Cheung, Kwan Lok; Tong, Teresa Sze Man; Rozen, Paul; Young, Graeme P; Chu, Kin Wah; Ho, Judy; Law, Wai Lun; Tung, Hiu Ming; Choi, Hok Kwok; Lee, Yee Man; Lai, Kam Chuen; Hu, Wayne H. C; Chan, Chi Kuen; Yuen, Man Fung; Wong, Benjamin Chun‐Yu

    2003-01-01

    ..., and Denmark) using a guaiac‐based fecal occult blood test (FOBT) reported a reduction in CRC mortality of 15–33% on an intent‐to‐screen basis. 3–5 These trials also demonstrated that when screening was repeated annually or biennially, an even higher level of sensitivity was achieved (i.e., program sensitivity in detecting colorectal neoplasia at a t...

  10. The testing techniques of the automatics fire detection monitoring systems (A receiver and A transmitter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yon Woo; Soong, Woong Sup; Kim, Kee Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The major function of the automatic fire detection system is to use effectively the fire-fighting equipments and the shelter apparatus detecting immediately the fire and notifying the fire to a person in charge. To perform these functions, the automatic fire detection system is composed of a receiver and a transmitter which indicate the origin of a fire, sound facility, wiring and power supply. And the main purpose using this system is to stop the spread of the fire and minimize the damage of human life and properties of the facility. 12 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  11. AN UNSUPERVISED CHANGE DETECTION BASED ON TEST STATISTIC AND KI FROM MULTI-TEMPORAL AND FULL POLARIMETRIC SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Q. Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely change detection of Earth’s surface features is extremely important for understanding relationships and interactions between people and natural phenomena. Many traditional methods of change detection only use a part of polarization information and the supervised threshold selection. Those methods are insufficiency and time-costing. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised change-detection method based on quad-polarimetric SAR data and automatic threshold selection to solve the problem of change detection. First, speckle noise is removed for the two registered SAR images. Second, the similarity measure is calculated by the test statistic, and automatic threshold selection of KI is introduced to obtain the change map. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by the quad-pol SAR images acquired by Radarsat-2 over Wuhan of China.

  12. Comparison between the Counter Immunoelectrophoresis Test and Mouse Neutralization Test for the Detection of Antibodies against Rabies Virus in Dog Sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Helena Queiroz da Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of rabies antibodies is extremely valuable for epidemiological studies, determination of immune status in man, animals, and for the diagnosis of the disease. Several serological procedures have been described for this purpose. The present study reports a comparison between counterimmunoelectrophoresis test (CIET and mouse neutralization test (MNT in the detection of antibodies against rabies virus from 212 serum samples of vaccinated dogs. The agreement between both techniques was 79.7% and a significative association was demonstrated. The correlation coefficients between MNT and the CIET titers was determined considering 88 samples showing positive results in both techniques [CIET = 2 and MNT = 5 (0.13 IU/ml] and resulted r² = 0.7926 (p < 0.001. The performance of CIET system was technically simple, cheap and rapid, and thereby it could be useful for serological monitoring of dog vaccination campaigns as well as for individual analysis.

  13. Simple screening tests for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL production in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheda Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no standard methods for the detection of metallo-b-lactamase (MBL production in gram negative organism in routine microbiology practice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the screening tests like double disk synergy test (DDST and disk potentiation test (DPT using ceftazidime (CAZ and imipenem (IPM disks with chelating agents like EDTA, 2-mercaptopropionic acid (2-MPA. A total of 132 Pseudomonas and 76 Acinetobacter isolates were obtained from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU and Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM hospitals of Dhaka city. A total of 53 and 29 IPM resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates were selected. EDTA-IPM microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (EDTA-IPM MIC method detected MBL in 44 (83% IPM resistant Pseudomonas and 19 (65.5% Acinetobacter isolates. DDST with CAZ-0.1M EDTA and CAZ-2-MPA detected MBL in 73.6% and 67.9% of IPM resistant Pseudomonas and 55.2% and 48.3% of Acinetobacter isolates respectively. The detection rate was 67.9% and 66.1% in Pseudomonas and 51.7% and 44.8% in Acinetobacter isolates by EDTA-IPM and IPM-2-MPA methods respectively. In comparison to DDST, DPT with CAZ-0.1M EDTA showed higher sensitivity (89.7% and specificity (100% for detection of MBL in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The results showed that simple screening tests like DPT with 0.1M EDTA was able to detect MBL producing Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter from clinical samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(1: 26-30

  14. Comparison of the analytical and clinical performance of five tests for the detection of human papillomavirus genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, M; Alonso, I; Rodriguez-Trujillo, A; Bernal, S; Geraets, D; Guimerà, N; Torne, A; Ordi, J

    2017-10-01

    HPV-based screening provides greater protection against cervical cancer (CC) than cytology-based strategies. Currently, several molecular diagnostic assays for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) are available. In this study, we analyzed 5 different HPV testing and genotyping techniques (Hybrid Capture 2 [HC2; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany], AnyplexTMII HPV28 [Anyplex; Seegene, Seoul, Korea], Linear Array [Roche, Branchburg, NJ, USA], GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA-RH [Labo Bio-medical Products, Rijswijk, The Netherlands] and CLART2 [Genomica, Madrid, Spain]) in 295 women referred to the hospital Colposcopy Clinic from 2007 to 2008 due to positive HPV test results or an abnormal Pap test. DNA extraction for HPV genotyping was performed in cervical sample specimens after Pap test and HPV detection by HC2. The inclusion criteria were: (1) adequate cervical sampling with sufficient material for the Pap test and HPV detection and genotyping, and (2) colposcopically-directed biopsy and/or endocervical curettage. HC2 showed the highest sensitivity for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and CC (HSIL+) detection (96.1%), but all the HPV genotyping tests showed a higher specificity. (Anyplex 86.8%; Linear Array 86.0%; GP5+/6+ 78.8%; CLART2 76.5%). The agreement between HC2 results and the other techniques was similar: 82.4%, kappa=0.650 for Anyplex; 83.4%, kappa=0.670 for Linear Array, 79.93%, kappa=0.609 for GP5+/6+ and 82.4%, kappa=0.654 for CLART2. HPV 16 and/or 18 infection was a risk factor for underlying HSIL+ in the univariate analysis. Anyplex showed the highest risk of underlying HSIL+ after positive HPV 16 and/or 18 tests (OR 31.1; 95% CI 12.1-80.0). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing ElEvoHI on a multi-point in situ detected Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerstorfer, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Hess, Phillip; Mays, M. Leila; Temmer, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    The Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) has provided us a deep insight into the interplanetary propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Especially the wide-angle heliospheric imagers (HI) enabled the development of a multitude of methods for analyzing the evolution of CMEs through interplanetary (IP) space. Methods able to forecast arrival times and speeds at Earth (or other targets) use the advantage of following a CME's path of propagation up to 1 AU. However, these methods were not able to reduce today's errors in arrival time forecasts to less than ±6 hours, arrival speeds are mostly overestimated by some 100 km s-1. One reason for that is the assumption of constant propagation speed, which is clearly incorrect for most CMEs—especially for those being faster than the ambient solar wind. ElEvoHI, the Ellipse Evolution model (ElEvo) based on HI observations, is a new prediction tool, which uses the benefits of different methods and observations. It provides the possibility to adjust the CME frontal shape (angular width, ellipse aspect ratio) and the direction of motion for each CME event individually. This information can be gained from Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) flux-rope fitting within coronagraph images. Using the Ellipse Conversion (ElCon) method, the observed HI elongation angle is converted into a unit of distance, which reveals the kinematics of the event. After fitting the time-distance profile of the CME using the drag-based equation of motion, where real-time in situ solar wind speed from 1 AU is used as additional input, we receive all input parameters needed to run a forecast using the ElEvo model and to predict arrival times and speeds at any target of interest in IP space. Here, we present a test on a slow CME event of 3 November 2010, in situ detected by the lined-up spacecraft MESSENGER and STEREO Behind. We gain the shape of the CME front from a cut of the 3D GCS CME shape with the ecliptic plane, resulting in an

  16. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  17. Comparison of a rapid immunochromatographic assay with an immunofluorescent antibody test for detection of Leishmania infantum antibodies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Baggiani, Luciana; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Migliazzo, Antonella; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    Identification of Leishmania infantum-infected dogs is crucial for control of canine leishmaniosis. In particular, in areas where access to specialized laboratories is limited, the availability of reliable and rapid in-clinic serologic tests may support immediate diagnosis in suspected cases and permit detection of asymptomatic canine carriers of L infantum infection. The purpose of the study was to validate the immunochromatographic test (ICT) Anigen Rapid Leishmania Ab Test kit for detection of L infantum antibodies in naturally exposed dogs in comparison with the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Serum samples from 66 dogs, including 20 healthy control dogs and 46 dogs suspected or confirmed with canine leishmaniosis, were measured by both tests. Anti-Leishmania IgG titers ≥ 1:40 by IFAT were considered positive. Kappa statistic with a 95% CI was calculated to evaluate agreement between the 2 testing methods, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated. Anti-L infantum IgG antibodies were found in 35 of 66 samples using the IFAT test (titers 1:40-1:5120). Thirty-one out of 66 samples tested positive with the qualitative ICT. Four IFAT-positive (titers ICT-negative. The Kappa value of 0.853 demonstrated very good agreement between the 2 tests. The Anigen Rapid Leishmania Ab Test kit reliably identified canine sera with anti-L infantum IgG antibody titers ≥ 1:40. The ICT requires neither special preparation of the serum nor specialized equipment and can be stored at ambient temperature. The test is applicable as a field test because it is easy to use and provides rapid results. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. [The shuttle run test is not valid for the detection of asthma in school physical education programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Eider; González Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo; de la Paz, Alicia Figueroa; Aldasoro, Ane; Aramendi, José Francisco; Bardagi, Santiago; Emparanza, José I

    2006-11-01

    Certain sporting activities may trigger asthma exacerbations of varying intensity in children. Such exacerbations may lead to limitations in and rejection of such activities. During school hours, teachers are in a good position to observe these phenomena. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shuttle run, a test of physical fitness used in school physical education programs, as a way of detecting asthma. We carried out a cross-sectional observational study of school children between the ages of 6 and 12 years using the asthma symptom questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), a shuttle run test, and a free running test at maximum effort in order to study bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The principal measure of bronchial hyperresponsiveness used in both physical fitness tests was peak expiratory flow rate as measured with a peak flow meter. In comparing the results of the shuttle run test with those of the free running test and the ISAAC questionnaire we used the chi(2) test to measure association and the Cohen kappa coefficient to measure agreement. We distributed the ISAAC questionnaire (n=919) to 460 (50.1%) boys and 459 (49.9%) girls between the ages of 6 and 12 years. All the tests were completed by 826 children. The level of agreement between the shuttle run test and free running test was positive but low for decreases in peak expiratory flow rate compared to baseline of 15% (chi(2)=5.6; Prun test (kappa=0.095; SE, 0.63). The shuttle run test using peak expiratory flow rate as the principal measure of bronchial hyperresponsiveness is not valid for the detection of asthma in schoolchildren.

  19. Triple faeces test: An effective tool for detection of intestinal parasites in routine clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, T.; Weijts, R.; Lommerse, E.; Mank, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    Microscopic examination of stool specimens is the cornerstone of detection of intestinal parasites in parasitology laboratories. In Europe, fresh, nonpreserved stool specimens are generally used for examination. Because intestinal parasites are shed intermittently, patients are asked to deliver

  20. The First Case Report in Italy of Di George Syndrome Detected by Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Rapacchia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panorama Plus (Natera, a single-nucleotide polymorphism- (SNP- based approach that relies on the identification of maternal and fetal allele distributions, allows the detection of common aneuploidies and also incorporates a panel of 5 microdeletions including Di George syndrome. We report here the first case of Di George syndrome detected by NIPT in Italy; blood was drawn at 12 weeks’ gestation. The patient had an amniocentesis to confirm the diagnosis by MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and an ultrasound aimed to detect the features associated with the syndrome. A right aortic arch and suspect of thymus atrophy were detected, but not other severe malformations typical of the disease. The patient terminated the pregnancy at 17 weeks. NIPT allowed an early screening of Di George syndrome. As the patient was at low risk, it is likely that an ultrasound would have missed the condition.