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Sample records for cochlear sensory epithelium

  1. Piezoelectric materials mimic the function of the cochlear sensory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takatoshi; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kawano, Satoyuki; Ogita, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Hamanishi, Shinji; Wada, Hiroshi; Ito, Juichi

    2011-11-08

    Cochlear hair cells convert sound vibration into electrical potential, and loss of these cells diminishes auditory function. In response to mechanical stimuli, piezoelectric materials generate electricity, suggesting that they could be used in place of hair cells to create an artificial cochlear epithelium. Here, we report that a piezoelectric membrane generated electrical potentials in response to sound stimuli that were able to induce auditory brainstem responses in deafened guinea pigs, indicating its capacity to mimic basilar membrane function. In addition, sound stimuli were transmitted through the external auditory canal to a piezoelectric membrane implanted in the cochlea, inducing it to vibrate. The application of sound to the middle ear ossicle induced voltage output from the implanted piezoelectric membrane. These findings establish the fundamental principles for the development of hearing devices using piezoelectric materials, although there are many problems to be overcome before practical application.

  2. Stem/progenitor cells derived from the cochlear sensory epithelium give rise to spheres with distinct morphologies and features.

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    Diensthuber, Marc; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates regenerate lost sensory hair cells by means of asymmetric division of supporting cells. Inner ear or lateral line supporting cells in birds, amphibians, and fish consequently serve as bona fide stem cells resulting in high regenerative capacity of hair cell-bearing organs. Hair cell regeneration does not happen in the mammalian cochlea, but cells with proliferative capacity can be isolated from the neonatal cochlea. These cells have the ability to form clonal floating colonies, so-called spheres, when cultured in nonadherent conditions. We noticed that the sphere population derived from mouse cochlear sensory epithelium cells was heterogeneous, consisting of morphologically distinct sphere types, hereby classified as solid, transitional, and hollow. Cochlear sensory epithelium-derived stem/progenitor cells initially give rise to small solid spheres, which subsequently transition into hollow spheres, a change that is accompanied by epithelial differentiation of the majority of sphere cells. Only solid spheres, and to a lesser extent, transitional spheres, appeared to harbor self-renewing stem cells, whereas hollow spheres could not be consistently propagated. Solid spheres contained significantly more rapidly cycling Pax-2-expressing presumptive otic progenitor cells than hollow spheres. Islet-1, which becomes upregulated in nascent sensory patches, was also more abundant in solid than in hollow spheres. Likewise, hair cell-like cells, characterized by the expression of multiple hair cell markers, differentiated in significantly higher numbers in cell populations derived from solid spheres. We conclude that cochlear sensory epithelium cell populations initially give rise to small solid spheres that have self-renewing capacity before they subsequently convert into hollow spheres, a process that is accompanied by loss of stemness and reduced ability to spontaneously give rise to hair cell-like cells. Solid spheres might, therefore, represent

  3. Artificial Cochlear Sensory Epithelium with Functions of Outer Hair Cells Mimicked Using Feedback Electrical Stimuli

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    Tetsuro Tsuji

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel vibration control technique of an artificial auditory cochlear epithelium that mimics the function of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. The proposed piezoelectric and trapezoidal membrane not only has the acoustic/electric conversion and frequency selectivity of the previous device developed mainly by one of the authors and colleagues, but also has a function to control local vibration according to sound stimuli. Vibration control is achieved by applying local electrical stimuli to patterned electrodes on an epithelium made using micro-electro-mechanical system technology. By choosing appropriate phase differences between sound and electrical stimuli, it is shown that it is possible to both amplify and dampen membrane vibration, realizing better control of the response of the artificial cochlea. To be more specific, amplification and damping are achieved when the phase difference between the membrane vibration by sound stimuli and electrical stimuli is zero and π , respectively. We also demonstrate that the developed control system responds automatically to a change in sound frequency. The proposed technique can be applied to mimic the nonlinear response of the outer hair cells in a cochlea, and to realize a high-quality human auditory system.

  4. Aquaporin-6 Expression in the Cochlear Sensory Epithelium Is Downregulated by Salicylates

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    Paola Perin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the expression pattern of aquaporin-6 in the mouse inner ear by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our data show that in the inner ear aquaporin-6 is expressed, in both vestibular and acoustic sensory epithelia, by the supporting cells directly contacting hair cells. In particular, in the Organ of Corti, expression was strongest in Deiters' cells, which provide both a mechanical link between outer hair cells (OHCs and the Organ of Corti, and an entry point for ion recycle pathways. Since aquaporin-6 is permeable to both water and anions, these results suggest its possible involvement in regulating OHC motility, directly through modulation of water and chloride flow or by changing mechanical compliance in Deiters' cells. In further support of this role, treating mice with salicylates, which impair OHC electromotility, dramatically reduced aquaporin-6 expression in the inner ear epithelia but not in control tissues, suggesting a role for this protein in modulating OHCs' responses.

  5. Aquaporin-6 expression in the cochlear sensory epithelium is downregulated by salicylates.

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    Perin, Paola; Tritto, Simona; Botta, Laura; Fontana, Jacopo Maria; Gastaldi, Giulia; Masetto, Sergio; Tosco, Marisa; Laforenza, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the expression pattern of aquaporin-6 in the mouse inner ear by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our data show that in the inner ear aquaporin-6 is expressed, in both vestibular and acoustic sensory epithelia, by the supporting cells directly contacting hair cells. In particular, in the Organ of Corti, expression was strongest in Deiters' cells, which provide both a mechanical link between outer hair cells (OHCs) and the Organ of Corti, and an entry point for ion recycle pathways. Since aquaporin-6 is permeable to both water and anions, these results suggest its possible involvement in regulating OHC motility, directly through modulation of water and chloride flow or by changing mechanical compliance in Deiters' cells. In further support of this role, treating mice with salicylates, which impair OHC electromotility, dramatically reduced aquaporin-6 expression in the inner ear epithelia but not in control tissues, suggesting a role for this protein in modulating OHCs' responses.

  6. Cell-cell junctions: a target of acoustic overstimulation in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea

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    Zheng Guiliang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to intense noise causes the excessive movement of the organ of Corti, stretching the organ and compromising sensory cell functions. We recently revealed changes in the transcriptional expression of multiple adhesion-related genes during the acute phases of cochlear damage, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is an early event in the process of cochlear pathogenesis. However, the functional state of cell junctions in the sensory epithelium is not clear. Here, we employed graded dextran-FITC, a macromolecule tracer that is impermeable to the organ of Corti under physiological conditions, to evaluate the barrier function of cell junctions in normal and noise-traumatized cochlear sensory epithelia. Results Exposure to an impulse noise of 155 dB (peak sound pressure level caused a site-specific disruption in the intercellular junctions within the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. The most vulnerable sites were the junctions among the Hensen cells and between the Hensen and Deiters cells within the outer zone of the sensory epithelium. The junction clefts that formed in the reticular lamina were permeable to 40 and 500 but not 2,000 kDa dextran-FITC macromolecules. Moreover, this study showed that the interruption of junction integrity occurred in the reticular lamina and also in the basilar membrane, a site that had been considered to be resistant to acoustic injury. Finally, our study revealed a general spatial correlation between the site of sensory cell damage and the site of junction disruption. However, the two events lacked a strict one-to-one correlation, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is a contributing, but not the sole, factor for initiating acute sensory cell death. Conclusions Impulse noise causes the functional disruption of intercellular junctions in the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. This disruption occurs at an early phase of cochlear

  7. Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma

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    Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  8. Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in relation to otolith growth in the perch Perca fluviatilis (Telostei) ... Electron microscopy indicated: 1) The apical surface of each hair cell is covered with a ciliary bundle which varies in length in different epithelial regions. Each bundle is formed from a long ...

  9. Six1 is essential for differentiation and patterning of the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium.

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    Ting Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The organ of Corti in the cochlea is a two-cell layered epithelium: one cell layer of mechanosensory hair cells that align into one row of inner and three rows of outer hair cells interdigitated with one cell layer of underlying supporting cells along the entire length of the cochlear spiral. These two types of epithelial cells are derived from common precursors in the four- to five-cell layered primordium and acquire functionally important shapes during terminal differentiation through the thinning process and convergent extension. Here, we have examined the role of Six1 in the establishment of the auditory sensory epithelium. Our data show that prior to terminal differentiation of the precursor cells, deletion of Six1 leads to formation of only a few hair cells and defective patterning of the sensory epithelium. Previous studies have suggested that downregulation of Sox2 expression in differentiating hair cells must occur after Atoh1 mRNA activation in order to allow Atoh1 protein accumulation due to antagonistic effects between Atoh1 and Sox2. Our analysis indicates that downregulation of Sox2 in the differentiating hair cells depends on Six1 activity. Furthermore, we found that Six1 is required for the maintenance of Fgf8 expression and dynamic distribution of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in the organ of Corti during differentiation. Together, our analyses uncover essential roles of Six1 in hair cell differentiation and formation of the organ of Corti in the mammalian cochlea.

  10. [Characterization of stem cells derived from the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium].

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    Diensthuber, M; Heller, S

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to regenerating hair cell-bearing organs of nonmammalian vertebrates the adult mammalian organ of Corti appears to have lost its ability to maintain stem cells. The result is a lack of regenerative ability and irreversible hearing loss following auditory hair cell death. Unexpectedly, the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium has recently been shown to harbor cells with stem cell features. The origin of these cells within the cochlea's sensory epithelium is unknown. We applied a modified neurosphere assay to identify stem cells within distinct subregions of the neonatal mouse auditory sensory epithelium. Sphere cells were characterized by multiple markers and morphologic techniques. Our data reveal that both the greater and the lesser epithelial ridge contribute to the sphere-forming stem cell population derived from the auditory sensory epithelium. These self-renewing sphere cells express a variety of markers for neural and otic progenitor cells and mature inner ear cell types. Stem cells can be isolated from specific regions of the auditory sensory epithelium. The distinct features of these cells imply a potential application in the development of a cell replacement therapy to regenerate the damaged sensory epithelium.

  11. Epithelium

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    The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make ... Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL. Epithelium. In: Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL, ... to Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  12. Expression of insulin signalling components in the sensory epithelium of the human saccule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degerman, Eva; Rauch, Uwe; Lindberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    signalling components in the inner ear is sparce. Our immunohistochemistry approach has shown that the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), protein kinase B (PKB) and insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) are expressed in the sensory epithelium of the human saccule, which also...

  13. Synaptic reorganization in the adult rat's ventral cochlear nucleus following its total sensory deafferentation.

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    Heika Hildebrandt

    Full Text Available Ablation of a cochlea causes total sensory deafferentation of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem, providing a model to investigate nervous degeneration and formation of new synaptic contacts in the adult brain. In a quantitative electron microscopical study on the plasticity of the central auditory system of the Wistar rat, we first determined what fraction of the total number of synaptic contact zones (SCZs in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN is attributable to primary sensory innervation and how many synapses remain after total unilateral cochlear ablation. Second, we attempted to identify the potential for a deafferentation-dependent synaptogenesis. SCZs were ultrastructurally identified before and after deafferentation in tissue treated for ethanolic phosphotungstic acid (EPTA staining. This was combined with pre-embedding immunocytochemistry for gephyrin identifying inhibitory SCZs, the growth-associated protein GAP-43, glutamate, and choline acetyltransferase. A stereological analysis of EPTA stained sections revealed 1.11±0.09 (S.E.M.×10(9 SCZs per mm(3 of AVCN tissue. Within 7 days of deafferentation, this number was down by 46%. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses were differentially affected on the side of deafferentation. Excitatory synapses were quickly reduced and then began to increase in number again, necessarily being complemented from sources other than cochlear neurons, while inhibitory synapses were reduced more slowly and continuously. The result was a transient rise of the relative fraction of inhibitory synapses with a decline below original levels thereafter. Synaptogenesis was inferred by the emergence of morphologically immature SCZs that were consistently associated with GAP-43 immunoreactivity. SCZs of this type were estimated to make up a fraction of close to 30% of the total synaptic population present by ten weeks after sensory deafferentation. In conclusion, there appears to be a substantial potential

  14. Sensory-motor relationships in speech production in post-lingually deaf cochlear-implanted adults and normal-hearing seniors: Evidence from phonetic convergence and speech imitation.

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    Scarbel, Lucie; Beautemps, Denis; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Sato, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Speech communication can be viewed as an interactive process involving a functional coupling between sensory and motor systems. One striking example comes from phonetic convergence, when speakers automatically tend to mimic their interlocutor's speech during communicative interaction. The goal of this study was to investigate sensory-motor linkage in speech production in postlingually deaf cochlear implanted participants and normal hearing elderly adults through phonetic convergence and imitation. To this aim, two vowel production tasks, with or without instruction to imitate an acoustic vowel, were proposed to three groups of young adults with normal hearing, elderly adults with normal hearing and post-lingually deaf cochlear-implanted patients. Measure of the deviation of each participant's f 0 from their own mean f 0 was measured to evaluate the ability to converge to each acoustic target. showed that cochlear-implanted participants have the ability to converge to an acoustic target, both intentionally and unintentionally, albeit with a lower degree than young and elderly participants with normal hearing. By providing evidence for phonetic convergence and speech imitation, these results suggest that, as in young adults, perceptuo-motor relationships are efficient in elderly adults with normal hearing and that cochlear-implanted adults recovered significant perceptuo-motor abilities following cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Progression of changes in the sensorial elements of the cochlear and peripheral vestibular systems: The otitis media continuum.

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    Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Schachern, Patricia; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate pathologic changes in the cochlear (inner and outer hair cells and stria vascularis) and vestibular (vestibular hair cells, dark, and transitional cells) sensorial elements in temporal bones from donors who had otitis media. We studied 40 temporal bones from such donors, which were categorized in serous otitis media (SOM), serous-purulent otitis media (SPOM), mucoid/mucoid-purulent otitis media (MOM/MPOM), and chronic otitis media (COM); control group comprised 10 nondiseased temporal bones. We found significant loss of inner and outer cochlear hair cells in the basal turn of the SPOM, MOM/MPOM and COM groups; significant loss of vestibular hair cells was observed in the MOM/MPOM and COM groups. All otitis media groups had smaller mean area of the stria vascularis in the basal turn of the cochlea when compared to controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated more severe pathologic changes in the later stages of the continuum of otitis media (MOM/MPOM and COM). Those changes seem to progress from the basal turn of the cochlea (stria vascularis, then inner and outer hair cells) to the middle turn of the cochlea and to the saccule and utricle in the MOM/MPOM and COM stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired Perception of Sensory Consonance and Dissonance in Cochlear Implant Users.

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    Caldwell, Meredith T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2016-03-01

    In light of previous research demonstrating poor pitch perception in cochlear implant (CI) users, we hypothesized that the presence of consonant versus dissonant chord accompaniment in real-world musical stimuli would not impact subjective assessment of degree of pleasantness in CI users. Consonance/dissonance are perceptual features of harmony resulting from pitch relationships between simultaneously presented musical notes. Generally, consonant sounds are perceived as pleasant and dissonant ones as unpleasant. CI users exhibit impairments in pitch perception, making music listening difficult and often unenjoyable. To our knowledge, consonance/dissonance perception has not been studied in the CI population. Twelve novel melodies were created for this study. By altering the harmonic structures of the accompanying chords, we created three permutations of varying dissonance for each melody (36 stimuli in all). Ten CI users and 12 NH listeners provided Likert scale ratings from -5 (very unpleasant) to +5 (very pleasant) for each of the stimuli. A two-way ANOVA showed main effects for Dissonance Level and Subject Type as well as a two-way interaction between the two. Pairwise comparisons indicated that NH stimuli pleasantness ratings decreased with increasing dissonance, whereas CI ratings did not. NH pleasantness ratings were consistently lower than CI ratings. For CI users, consonant versus dissonant chord accompaniment had no significant impact on whether a melody was considered pleasant or unpleasant. This finding may be partially responsible for the decreased enjoyment of many CI users during music perception and is another manifestation of impaired pitch perception in CI users.

  17. Ultrastructure of photo-sensory cells and pigment epithelium in the retina of the Antarctic fish Notothenia neglecta Nybelin (Nototheniidae

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    Lucelia Donatti

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic nototheniid Notothenia neglecta is the dominant fish in its habitat in Admiralty Bay, King George Island. They are predators, often ambush feeders, with accurate visual behaviour. For that reason, the ultrastructure of retinal photoreceptive cells and the pigment epithelium was analysed through electron microscopy. Their retina has a pigment epithelium, five different photoreceptors : rods, short single, long single, double, and triple cones, and neurones and support cells. The pigment epithelium is characterised by infoldings of the basal membrane, basal mitochondria, smooth reticule, large amount of microtubules, melanin granules, phagosomes and detached membranes of photoreceptors. Cones show bimembranous discs in the outer segment, an accessory outer segment, a connecting cilium, calycal processes, microtubules in the inferior ellipsoid and myoid, centrioles in the ellipsoid, interdigitating myoid fins and apical microvilli of Muller cells in the myoid and elliposid region. All these features allow all sorts of adaptations to the environmental photic variations, and situate N. neglecta among fish with a complex retina, with cells that are arranged in ten layers, allowing horizontal and vertical integration among them. This allows optimal visual behaviour and perception of food and environment in every Antarctic season.

  18. Molecular mechanisms involved in cochlear implantation trauma and the protection of hearing and auditory sensory cells by inhibition of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling.

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    Eshraghi, Adrien A; Gupta, Chhavi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Bohorquez, Jorge E; Garnham, Carolyn; Bas, Esperanza; Talamo, Victoria Maria

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in electrode insertion trauma (EIT) and to test the otoprotective effect of locally delivered AM-111. An animal model of cochlear implantation. Guinea pigs' hearing thresholds were measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) before and after cochlear implantation in four groups: EIT; pretreated with hyaluronate gel 30 minutes before EIT (EIT+Gel); pretreated with hyaluronate gel/AM-111 30 minutes before EIT (EIT+AM-111); and unoperated contralateral ears as controls. Neurofilament, synapsin, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin staining for hair cell counts were performed at 90 days post-EIT. Immunostaining for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), activated caspase-3, CellROX, and phospho-c-Jun were performed at 24 hours post-EIT. ABR thresholds increased post-EIT in the cochleae of EIT only and EIT+Gel treated animals. There was no significant increase in hearing thresholds in cochleae from either EIT+AM-111 treated or unoperated control ears. AM-111 protection of organ of Corti sensory elements (i.e., hair cells [HCs], supporting cells [SCs], nerve fibers, and synapses) was documented at 3 months post-EIT. Immunostaining of 24-hour post-EIT specimens demonstrated increased levels of HNE in HCs and SCs; increased levels of CellROX and activation of caspase-3 was observed only in SCs, and phosphorylation of c-Jun occurred only in HCs of the EIT-only and EIT+Gel specimens. There was no immunostaining for either HNE, CellROX, caspase-3, or phospho-c-Jun in the organ of Corti specimens from AM-111 treated cochleae. Molecular mechanisms involved in programmed cell death of HCs are different than the ones involved in programmed cell death of SCs. Local delivery of AM-111 provided a significant level of protection against EIT-induced hearing losses, HC losses, and damage to neural elements. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. The goya mouse mutant reveals distinct newly identified roles for MAP3K1 in the development and survival of cochlear sensory hair cells

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    Andrew Parker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAP3K1, plays an important role in a number of cellular processes, including epithelial migration during eye organogenesis. In addition, studies in keratinocytes indicate that MAP3K1 signalling through JNK is important for actin stress fibre formation and cell migration. However, MAP3K1 can also act independently of JNK in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified a mouse mutant, goya, which exhibits the eyes-open-at-birth and microphthalmia phenotypes. In addition, these mice also have hearing loss. The goya mice carry a splice site mutation in the Map3k1 gene. We show that goya and kinase-deficient Map3k1 homozygotes initially develop supernumerary cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs that subsequently degenerate, and a progressive profound hearing loss is observed by 9 weeks of age. Heterozygote mice also develop supernumerary OHCs, but no cellular degeneration or hearing loss is observed. MAP3K1 is expressed in a number of inner-ear cell types, including outer and inner hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. Investigation of targets downstream of MAP3K1 identified an increase in p38 phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182 in multiple cochlear tissues. We also show that the extra OHCs do not arise from aberrant control of proliferation via p27KIP1. The identification of the goya mutant reveals a signalling molecule involved with hair-cell development and survival. Mammalian hair cells do not have the ability to regenerate after damage, which can lead to irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Given the observed goya phenotype, and the many diverse cellular processes that MAP3K1 is known to act upon, further investigation of this model might help to elaborate upon the mechanisms underlying sensory hair cell specification, and pathways important for their survival. In addition, MAP3K1 is revealed as a new candidate gene for human sensorineural hearing loss.

  20. Cochlear neuropathy in human presbycusis: Confocal analysis of hidden hearing loss in post-mortem tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lucas M; O'Malley, Jennifer T; Burgess, Barbara J; Jones, Dianne D; Oliveira, Carlos A C P; Santos, Felipe; Merchant, Saumil N; Liberman, Leslie D; Liberman, M Charles

    2015-09-01

    Recent animal work has suggested that cochlear synapses are more vulnerable than hair cells in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss. This synaptopathy is invisible in conventional histopathological analysis, because cochlear nerve cell bodies in the spiral ganglion survive for years, and synaptic analysis requires special immunostaining or serial-section electron microscopy. Here, we show that the same quadruple-immunostaining protocols that allow synaptic counts, hair cell counts, neuronal counts and differentiation of afferent and efferent fibers in mouse can be applied to human temporal bones, when harvested within 9 h post-mortem and prepared as dissected whole mounts of the sensory epithelium and osseous spiral lamina. Quantitative analysis of five "normal" ears, aged 54-89 yrs, without any history of otologic disease, suggests that cochlear synaptopathy and the degeneration of cochlear nerve peripheral axons, despite a near-normal hair cell population, may be an important component of human presbycusis. Although primary cochlear nerve degeneration is not expected to affect audiometric thresholds, it may be key to problems with hearing in noise that are characteristic of declining hearing abilities in the aging ear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The goya mouse mutant reveals distinct newly identified roles for MAP3K1 in the development and survival of cochlear sensory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Cross, Sally H; Jackson, Ian J; Hardisty-Hughes, Rachel; Morse, Susan; Nicholson, George; Coghill, Emma; Bowl, Michael R; Brown, Steve D M

    2015-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAP3K1, plays an important role in a number of cellular processes, including epithelial migration during eye organogenesis. In addition, studies in keratinocytes indicate that MAP3K1 signalling through JNK is important for actin stress fibre formation and cell migration. However, MAP3K1 can also act independently of JNK in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified a mouse mutant, goya, which exhibits the eyes-open-at-birth and microphthalmia phenotypes. In addition, these mice also have hearing loss. The goya mice carry a splice site mutation in the Map3k1 gene. We show that goya and kinase-deficient Map3k1 homozygotes initially develop supernumerary cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) that subsequently degenerate, and a progressive profound hearing loss is observed by 9 weeks of age. Heterozygote mice also develop supernumerary OHCs, but no cellular degeneration or hearing loss is observed. MAP3K1 is expressed in a number of inner-ear cell types, including outer and inner hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. Investigation of targets downstream of MAP3K1 identified an increase in p38 phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182) in multiple cochlear tissues. We also show that the extra OHCs do not arise from aberrant control of proliferation via p27KIP1. The identification of the goya mutant reveals a signalling molecule involved with hair-cell development and survival. Mammalian hair cells do not have the ability to regenerate after damage, which can lead to irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Given the observed goya phenotype, and the many diverse cellular processes that MAP3K1 is known to act upon, further investigation of this model might help to elaborate upon the mechanisms underlying sensory hair cell specification, and pathways important for their survival. In addition, MAP3K1 is revealed as a new candidate gene for human sensorineural hearing loss. © 2015. Published by The Company of

  2. Dynamic activation of basilar membrane macrophages in response to chronic sensory cell degeneration in aging mouse cochleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mitchell D; Yang, Weiping; Zhang, Celia; Xiong, Binbin; Hu, Bo Hua

    2017-02-01

    In the sensory epithelium, macrophages have been identified on the scala tympani side of the basilar membrane. These basilar membrane macrophages are the spatially closest immune cells to sensory cells and are able to directly respond to and influence sensory cell pathogenesis. While basilar membrane macrophages have been studied in acute cochlear stresses, their behavior in response to chronic sensory cell degeneration is largely unknown. Here we report a systematic observation of the variance in phenotypes, the changes in morphology and distribution of basilar membrane tissue macrophages in different age groups of C57BL/6J mice, a mouse model of age-related sensory cell degeneration. This study reveals that mature, fully differentiated tissue macrophages, not recently infiltrated monocytes, are the major macrophage population for immune responses to chronic sensory cell death. These macrophages display dynamic changes in their numbers and morphologies as age increases, and the changes are related to the phases of sensory cell degeneration. Notably, macrophage activation precedes sensory cell pathogenesis, and strong macrophage activity is maintained until sensory cell degradation is complete. Collectively, these findings suggest that mature tissue macrophages on the basilar membrane are a dynamic group of cells that are capable of vigorous adaptation to changes in the local sensory epithelium environment influenced by sensory cell status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective deletion of cochlear hair cells causes rapid age-dependent changes in spiral ganglion and cochlear nucleus neurons.

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    Tong, Ling; Strong, Melissa K; Kaur, Tejbeer; Juiz, Jose M; Oesterle, Elizabeth C; Hume, Clifford; Warchol, Mark E; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-05-20

    During nervous system development, critical periods are usually defined as early periods during which manipulations dramatically change neuronal structure or function, whereas the same manipulations in mature animals have little or no effect on the same property. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (CN) are dependent on excitatory afferent input for survival during a critical period of development. Cochlear removal in young mammals and birds results in rapid death of target neurons in the CN. Cochlear removal in older animals results in little or no neuron death. However, the extent to which hair-cell-specific afferent activity prevents neuronal death in the neonatal brain is unknown. We further explore this phenomenon using a new mouse model that allows temporal control of cochlear hair cell deletion. Hair cells express the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor behind the Pou4f3 promoter. Injections of DT resulted in nearly complete loss of organ of Corti hair cells within 1 week of injection regardless of the age of injection. Injection of DT did not influence surrounding supporting cells directly in the sensory epithelium or spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Loss of hair cells in neonates resulted in rapid and profound neuronal loss in the ventral CN, but not when hair cells were eliminated at a more mature age. In addition, normal survival of SGNs was dependent on hair cell integrity early in development and less so in mature animals. This defines a previously undocumented critical period for SGN survival. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357878-14$15.00/0.

  4. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIDCD A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense ... Hearing Aids Retinitis Pigmentosa - National Eye Institute Telecommunications Relay Services Usher Syndrome Your Baby's Hearing Screening News ...

  5. Progenitor Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Santos, Leilani

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells within the vertebrate fetal pancreas acquire their fate in a step-wise manner. Whereas the intrinsic factors dictating the transcriptional or epigenetic status of pancreatic lineages have been intensely examined, less is known about cell–cell interactions that might constitute a niche for the developing β cell lineage. It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding and recapitulating these steps may instruct in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells and/or therapeutic regeneration. Indeed, directed differentiation techniques have improved since transitioning from 2D to 3D cultures, suggesting that the 3D microenvironment in which β cells are born is critical. However, to date, it remains unknown whether the changing architecture of the pancreatic epithelium impacts the fate of cells therein. An emerging challenge in the field is to elucidate how progenitors are allocated during key events, such as the stratification and subsequent resolution of the pre-pancreatic epithelium, as well as the formation of lumens and branches. Here, we assess the progenitor epithelium and examine how it might influence the emergence of pancreatic multipotent progenitors (MPCs), which give rise to β cells and other pancreatic lineages. PMID:26216134

  6. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Na [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Chen, Yan [Central Laboratory, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Wang, Zhengmin [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Guoling [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lin, Qin [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Otolaryngology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Otolaryngology Institute of Fujian Province, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Zheng-Yi, E-mail: Zheng-yi_chen@meei.harvard.edu [Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Li, Huawei, E-mail: hwli@shmu.edu.cn [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  7. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhengmin; Chen, Guoling; Lin, Qin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Li, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. ► Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. ► Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. ► Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  8. Depletion of resident macrophages does not alter sensory regeneration in the avian cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Warchol

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary effector cells of the innate immune system and are also activated in response to tissue injury. The avian cochlea contains a population of resident macrophages, but the precise function of those cells is not known. The present study characterized the behavior of cochlear macrophages after aminoglycoside ototoxicity and also examined the possible role of macrophages in sensory regeneration. We found that the undamaged chick cochlea contains a large resting population of macrophages that reside in the hyaline cell region, immediately outside the abneural (inferior border of the sensory epithelium. Following ototoxic injury, macrophages appear to migrate out of the hyaline cell region and towards the basilar membrane, congregating immediately below the lesioned sensory epithelium. In order to determine whether recruited macrophages contribute to the regeneration of sensory receptors, we quantified supporting cell proliferation and hair cell recovery after the elimination of most resident macrophages via application of liposomally-encapsulated clodronate. Examination of macrophage-depleted specimens at two days following ototoxic injury revealed no deficits in hair cell clearance, when compared to normal controls. In addition, we found that elimination of macrophages did not affect either regenerative proliferation of supporting cells or the production of replacement hair cells. However, we did find that macrophage-depleted cochleae contained reduced numbers of proliferative mesothelial cells below the basilar membrane. Our data suggest that macrophages are not required for normal debris clearance and regeneration, but that they may play a role in the maintenance of the basilar membrane.

  9. Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Karimi

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available People with profound hearing loss are not able to use some kinds of conventional amplifiers due to the nature of their loss . In these people, hearing sense is stimulated only when the auditory nerve is activated via electrical stimulation. This stimulation is possible through cochlear implant. In fact, for the deaf people who have good mental health and can not use surgical and medical treatment and also can not benefit from air and bone conduction hearing aids, this device is used if they have normal central auditory system. The basic parts of the device included: Microphone, speech processor, transmitter, stimulator and receiver, and electrode array.

  10. What factors are associated with good performance in children with cochlear implants? From the outcome of various language development tests, research on sensory and communicative disorders project in Japan: nagasaki experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Yukihiko; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Hara, Minoru; Sainoo, Yuzuru; Sato, Chisei; Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Yoshida, Haruo; Ito, Akiko; Tanaka, Chiharu; Baba, Kyoko; Nakata, Ayaka; Tanaka, Hideo; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kasai, Norio; Takahashi, Haruo

    2012-04-01

    We conducted multi-directional language development tests as a part of the Research on Sensory and Communicative Disorders (RSVD) in Japan. This report discusses findings as well as factors that led to better results in children with severe-profound hearing loss. We evaluated multiple language development tests in 33 Japanese children with cochlear implants (32 patients) and hearing aid (1 patient), including 1) Test for question and answer interaction development, 2) Word fluency test, 3) Japanese version of the Peabody picture vocabulary test-revised, 4) The standardized comprehension test of abstract words, 5) The screening test of reading and writing for Japanese primary school children, 6) The syntactic processing test of aphasia, 7) Criterion-referenced testing (CRT) for Japanese language and mathematics, 8) Pervasive development disorders ASJ rating scales, and 9) Raven's colored progressive matrices. Furthermore, we investigated the factors believed to account for the better performances in these tests. The first group, group A, consisted of 14 children with higher scores in all tests than the national average for children with hearing difficulty. The second group, group B, included 19 children that scored below the national average in any of the tests. Overall, the results show that 76.2% of the scores obtained by the children in these tests exceeded the national average scores of children with hearing difficulty. The children who finished above average on all tests had undergone a longer period of regular habilitation in our rehabilitation center, had their implants earlier in life, were exposed to more auditory verbal/oral communication in their education at affiliated institutions, and were more likely to have been integrated in a regular kindergarten before moving on to elementary school. In this study, we suggest that taking the above four factors into consideration will have an affect on the language development of children with severe

  11. Sonic Hedgehog Initiates Cochlear Hair Cell Regeneration through Downregulation of Retinoblastoma Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhengmin; Chen, Guoling; Lin, Qin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Li, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration. PMID:23211596

  12. Imaging of acquired non-traumatic cochlear lesions: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Gonzaga, Juliana Gontijo

    2006-01-01

    Different non-traumatic acquired cochlear lesions are shown in this article with imaging methods. They may be responsible for neuro sensorial hearing loss or vertigo. The method of choice is computed tomography when evaluating the osseous labyrinth whereas magnetic resonance imaging has superior resolution in the studies of the membranaceous labyrinth. (author)

  13. Trends in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management.

  14. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin ... the Use of Cochlear Implants What are the Benefits of Cochlear Implants? For people with implants: Hearing ...

  15. Cochlear injury and adaptive plasticity of the auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA R. eFETONI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cochlear stressors as noise exposure and aging can induce homeostatic/maladaptive changes in the central auditory system from the brainstem to the cortex. Studies centered on such changes have revealed several mechanisms that operate in the context of sensory disruption after insult (noise trauma, drug- or age-related injury. The oxidative stress is central to current theories of induced sensory neural hearing loss and aging, and interventions to attenuate the hearing loss are based on antioxidant agent. The present review addresses the recent literature on the alterations in hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons due to noise-induced oxidative stress in the cochlea, as well on the impact of cochlear damage on the auditory cortex neurons. The emerging image emphasizes that noise-induced deafferentation and upward spread of cochlear damage is associated with the altered dendritic architecture of auditory pyramidal neurons. The cortical modifications may be reversed by treatment with antioxidants counteracting the cochlear redox imbalance. These findings open new therapeutic approaches to treat the functional consequences of the cortical reorganization following cochlear damage.

  16. Barrier properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    The principal function of an epithelium is to form a dynamic barrier that regulates movement between body compartments. Each epithelium is specialized with barrier functions that are specific for the tissues it serves. The apical surface commonly faces a lumen, but the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to be unique by a facing solid tissue, the sensory retina. Nonetheless, there exists a thin (subretinal) space that can become fluid filled during pathology. RPE separates the subretinal space from the blood supply of the outer retina, thereby forming the outer blood-retinal barrier. The intricate interaction between the RPE and sensory retina presents challenges for learning how accurately culture models reflect native behavior. The challenge is heightened by findings that detail the variation of RPE barrier proteins both among species and at different stages of the life cycle. Among the striking differences is the expression of claudin family members. Claudins are the tight junction proteins that regulate ion diffusion across the spaces that lie between the cells of a monolayer. Claudin expression by RPE varies with species and life-stage, which implies functional differences among commonly used animal models. Investigators have turned to transcriptomics to supplement functional studies when comparing native and cultured tissue. The most detailed studies of the outer blood-retinal barrier have focused on human RPE with transcriptome and functional studies reported for human fetal, adult, and stem-cell derived RPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic as...

  18. Characterization of Cochlear, Vestibular and Cochlear-Vestibular Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potentials in Patients with a Vestibulo-Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. K. Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral vestibular system is critical for the execution of activities of daily life as it provides movement and orientation information to motor and sensory systems. Patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction experience a significant decrease in quality of life and have currently no viable treatment option. Vestibular implants could eventually restore vestibular function. Most vestibular implant prototypes to date are modified cochlear implants to fast-track development. These use various objective measurements, such as the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP, to supplement behavioral information. We investigated whether eCAPs could be recorded in patients with a vestibulo-cochlear implant. Specifically, eCAPs were successfully recorded for cochlear and vestibular setups, as well as for mixed cochlear-vestibular setups. Similarities and slight differences were found for the recordings of the three setups. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of eCAP recording with a vestibulo-cochlear implant. They could be used in the short term to reduce current spread and avoid activation of non-targeted neurons. More research is warranted to better understand the neural origin of vestibular eCAPs and to utilize them for clinical applications.

  19. Hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer S; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of sensory hair cells in the mature avian inner ear was first described just over 20 years ago. Since then, it has been shown that many other non-mammalian species either continually produce new hair cells or regenerate them in response to trauma. However, mammals exhibit limited hair cell regeneration, particularly in the auditory epithelium. In birds and other non-mammals, regenerated hair cells arise from adjacent non-sensory (supporting) cells. Hair cell regeneration was initially described as a proliferative response whereby supporting cells re-enter the mitotic cycle, forming daughter cells that differentiate into either hair cells or supporting cells and thereby restore cytoarchitecture and function in the sensory epithelium. However, further analyses of the avian auditory epithelium (and amphibian vestibular epithelium) revealed a second regenerative mechanism, direct transdifferentiation, during which supporting cells change their gene expression and convert into hair cells without dividing. In the chicken auditory epithelium, these two distinct mechanisms show unique spatial and temporal patterns, suggesting they are differentially regulated. Current efforts are aimed at identifying signals that maintain supporting cells in a quiescent state or direct them to undergo direct transdifferentiation or cell division. Here, we review current knowledge about supporting cell properties and discuss candidate signaling molecules for regulating supporting cell behavior, in quiescence and after damage. While significant advances have been made in understanding regeneration in non-mammals over the last 20 years, we have yet to determine why the mammalian auditory epithelium lacks the ability to regenerate hair cells spontaneously and whether it is even capable of significant regeneration under additional circumstances. The continued study of mechanisms controlling regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium may lead to strategies for inducing

  20. Hey2 functions in parallel with Hes1 and Hes5 for mammalian auditory sensory organ development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Michael T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During mouse development, the precursor cells that give rise to the auditory sensory organ, the organ of Corti, are specified prior to embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5. Subsequently, the sensory domain is patterned precisely into one row of inner and three rows of outer sensory hair cells interdigitated with supporting cells. Both the restriction of the sensory domain and the patterning of the sensory mosaic of the organ of Corti involve Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and cellular rearrangement characteristic of convergent extension. This study explores the expression and function of a putative Notch target gene. Results We report that a putative Notch target gene, hairy-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcriptional factor Hey2, is expressed in the cochlear epithelium prior to terminal differentiation. Its expression is subsequently restricted to supporting cells, overlapping with the expression domains of two known Notch target genes, Hairy and enhancer of split homolog genes Hes1 and Hes5. In combination with the loss of Hes1 or Hes5, genetic inactivation of Hey2 leads to increased numbers of mis-patterned inner or outer hair cells, respectively. Surprisingly, the ectopic hair cells in Hey2 mutants are accompanied by ectopic supporting cells. Furthermore, Hey2-/-;Hes1-/- and Hey2-/-;Hes1+/- mutants show a complete penetrance of early embryonic lethality. Conclusion Our results indicate that Hey2 functions in parallel with Hes1 and Hes5 in patterning the organ of Corti, and interacts genetically with Hes1 for early embryonic development and survival. Our data implicates expansion of the progenitor pool and/or the boundaries of the developing sensory organ to account for patterning defects observed in Hey2 mutants.

  1. Reactive neurogenesis and down-regulation of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in the cochlear nuclei after cochlear deafferentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Tighilet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have been devoted to investigating the homeostatic plasticity triggered by cochlear hearing loss, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these central changes remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of reactive neurogenesis after unilateral cochlear nerve section in the cochlear nucleus of cats. We found a strong cell proliferation in all the cochlear nucleus sub-divisions ipsilateral to the lesion. Most of the newly generated cells survive up to one month after cochlear deafferentation in all cochlear nuclei (except the dorsal cochlear nucleus and give rise to a variety of cell types, i.e. microglial cells, astrocytes and neurons. Interestingly, many of the newborn neurons had an inhibitory (GABAergic phenotype. This result is intriguing since sensory deafferentation is usually accompanied by enhanced excitation, consistent with a reduction in central inhibition. The membrane potential effect of GABA depends, however, on the intra-cellular chloride concentration, which is maintained at low levels in adults by the potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. The KCC2 density on the plasma membrane of neurons was then assessed after cochlear deafferentation in the cochlear nuclei ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Cochlear deafferentation is accompanied by a strong down-regulation of KCC2 ipsilateral to the lesion at 3 and 30 days post-lesion. This study suggests that reactive neurogenesis and downregulation of KCC2 is part of the vast repertoire involved in homeostatic plasticity triggered by hearing loss. These central changes may also play a role in the generation of tinnitus and hyperacusis.

  2. Effect of cochlear nerve electrocautery on the adult cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseli, Claire E; Merwin, William H; Klatt-Cromwell, Cristine; Hutson, Kendall A; Ewend, Matthew G; Adunka, Oliver F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Buchman, Craig A

    2015-04-01

    Electrocauterization and subsequent transection of the cochlear nerve induce greater injury to the cochlear nucleus than sharp transection alone. Some studies show that neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) patients fit with auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) fail to achieve speech perception abilities similar to ABI recipients without NF2. Reasons for these differences remain speculative. One hypothesis posits poorer performance to surgically induced trauma to the cochlear nucleus from electrocautery. Sustained electrosurgical depolarization of the cochlear nerve may cause excitotoxic-induced postsynaptic nuclear injury. Equally plausible is that cautery in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus induces necrosis. The cochlear nerve was transected in anesthetized adult gerbils sharply with or without bipolar electrocautery at varying intensities. Gerbils were perfused at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days postoperatively; their brainstem and cochleas were embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 10 μm. Alternate sections were stained with flourescent markers for neuronal injury or Nissl substance. In additional experiments, anterograde tracers were applied directly to a sectioned eighth nerve to verify that fluorescent-labeled profiles seen were terminating auditory nerve fibers. Cochlear nerve injury was observed from 72 hours postoperatively and was identical across cases regardless of surgical technique. Postsynaptic cochlear nucleus injury was not seen after distal transection of the nerve. By contrast, proximal transection was associated with trauma to the cochlear nucleus. Distal application of bipolar electrocautery seems safe for the cochlear nucleus. Application near the root entry zone must be used cautiously because this may compromise nuclear viability needed to support ABI stimulation.

  3. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e., language, working memory, and executive control). Relative to normally hearing (NH) peers, CI users displayed significantly poorer performance in several s...

  4. Electrophysiological evidence for altered visual, but not auditory, selective attention in adolescent cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill; Kamke, Marc R

    2014-11-01

    Selective attention fundamentally alters sensory perception, but little is known about the functioning of attention in individuals who use a cochlear implant. This study aimed to investigate visual and auditory attention in adolescent cochlear implant users. Event related potentials were used to investigate the influence of attention on visual and auditory evoked potentials in six cochlear implant users and age-matched normally-hearing children. Participants were presented with streams of alternating visual and auditory stimuli in an oddball paradigm: each modality contained frequently presented 'standard' and infrequent 'deviant' stimuli. Across different blocks attention was directed to either the visual or auditory modality. For the visual stimuli attention boosted the early N1 potential, but this effect was larger for cochlear implant users. Attention was also associated with a later P3 component for the visual deviant stimulus, but there was no difference between groups in the later attention effects. For the auditory stimuli, attention was associated with a decrease in N1 latency as well as a robust P3 for the deviant tone. Importantly, there was no difference between groups in these auditory attention effects. The results suggest that basic mechanisms of auditory attention are largely normal in children who are proficient cochlear implant users, but that visual attention may be altered. Ultimately, a better understanding of how selective attention influences sensory perception in cochlear implant users will be important for optimising habilitation strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cochlear implantation in Mondini dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshi, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh, Saeid; Abasalipour, Parvaneh; Emamdjomeh, Hessamaddin; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    The use of cochlear implantation to treat patients with inner ear malformations such as Mondini dysplasia has been increasingly successful. Until now, conventional hearing aids in these patients have not performed well. Consequently, the hearing problem for patients with this condition has been somewhat improved with the use of cochlear implants. Various results of cochlear implantation have been reported in these patients so far. This is a report of 5 patients with Mondini malformation who have undergone cochlear implant surgery. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Efter cochlear implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders

    Dit barn har netop fået et cochlear implant. Hvad nu? Skal barnet fokusere udelukkende på at lære talt sprog, eller skal det også lære/fortsætte med tegnsprog eller støttetegn? Det er et vanskeligt spørgsmål, og før valget foretages, er det vigtigt at vurdere hvilke konsekvenser valget har, dels...... for den sproglige udvikling isoleret set, og dels for barnets udvikling ud fra en helhedsbetragtning. Dette indlæg fokuserer på, hvilke forventninger man kan have til cochlear implant-brugeres sproglige udvikling med talt sprog alene, hhv. med to sprog (tale og tegn). Disse forventninger er baseret på...

  7. Modelling Cochlear Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea plays a crucial role in mammal hearing. The basic function of the cochlea is to map sounds of different frequencies onto corresponding characteristic positions on the basilar membrane (BM. Sounds enter the fluid-filled cochlea and cause deflection of the BM due to pressure differences between the cochlear fluid chambers. These deflections travel along the cochlea, increasing in amplitude, until a frequency-dependent characteristic position and then decay away rapidly. The hair cells can detect these deflections and encode them as neural signals. Modelling the mechanics of the cochlea is of help in interpreting experimental observations and also can provide predictions of the results of experiments that cannot currently be performed due to technical limitations. This paper focuses on reviewing the numerical modelling of the mechanical and electrical processes in the cochlea, which include fluid coupling, micromechanics, the cochlear amplifier, nonlinearity, and electrical coupling.

  8. Cochlear implantation in patients with bilateral cochlear trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Gediz Murat; Derinsu, Ufuk; Sari, Murat; Gergin, Ozgül; Ciprut, Ayça; Akdaş, Ferda; Batman, Cağlar

    2010-01-01

    Temporal bone fracture, which involves the otic capsule, can lead to complete loss of auditory and vestibular functions, whereas the patients without fractures may experience profound sensorineural hearing loss due to cochlear concussion. Cochlear implant is indicated in profound sensorineural hearing loss due to cochlear trauma but who still have an intact auditory nerve. This is a retrospective review study. We report 5 cases of postlingually deafened patients caused by cochlear trauma, who underwent cochlear implantation. Preoperative and postoperative hearing performance will be presented. These patients are cochlear implanted after the cochlear trauma in our department between 2001 and 2006. All patients performed very well with their implants, obtained open-set speech understanding. They all became good telephone users after implantation. Their performance in speech understanding was comparable to standard postlingual adult patients implanted. Cochlear implantation is an effective aural rehabilitation in profound sensorineural hearing loss caused by temporal bone trauma. Preoperative temporal bone computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and promontorium stimulation testing are necessary to make decision for the surgery and to determine the side to be implanted. Surgery could be challenging and complicated because of anatomical irregularity. Moreover, fibrosis and partial or total ossification within the cochlea must be expected. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Histological, Topographical and Ultrastructural Organization of Different Cells Lining the Olfactory Epithelium of Red Piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S. K.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization of the olfactory epithelium in Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858 was studied with the help of light as well as scanning and transmission electron microscope. The oval shaped olfactory rosette consisted of 26–28 primary lamellae radiated from midline raphe. The olfactory epithelium of each lamella was well distributed by sensory and non-sensory epithelium. The sensory epithelium contained morphologically distinct ciliated and microvillous receptor cells, supporting cells and basal cells. The non-sensory epithelium was made up of labyrinth cells, mucous cells and stratified epithelial cells. According to TEM investigation elongated rod emerging out from dendrite end of the receptor cells in the free space. The dendrite process of microvillous receptor cells contained microvilli. The supporting cells had lobular nucleus with clearly seen electron dense nucleolus. The apex of the ciliated non-sensory cells was broad and provided with plenty of kinocilia. Basal cells provided with oval nucleus and contained small number of secretory granules. The mucous cells were restricted to the non-sensory areas and the nuclei situated basally and filled with about two-third of the vesicles. The functional significance of various cells lining the olfactory epithelium was discussed with mode of life and living of fish concerned.

  10. Gated Word Recognition by Postlingually Deafened Adults with Cochlear Implants: Influence of Semantic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Chhayakanta; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The main goal of this study was to investigate the minimum amount of sensory information required to recognize spoken words (isolation points [IPs]) in listeners with cochlear implants (CIs) and investigate facilitative effects of semantic contexts on the IPs. Method: Listeners with CIs as well as those with normal hearing (NH)…

  11. Cochlear implant magnet retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N L; Breda, S D; Hoffman, R A

    1988-06-01

    An implantable magnet is now available for patients who have received the standard Nucleus 22-channel cochlear implant and who are not able to wear the headband satisfactorily. This magnet is attached in piggy-back fashion to the previously implanted receiver/stimulator by means of a brief operation under local anesthesia. Two patients have received this magnet retrofit, and are now wearing the headset with greater comfort and satisfaction. It is felt that the availability of this magnet will increase patient compliance in regard to hours of implant usage.

  12. Cochlear implants in Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Robert D; Zdanski, Carlton; Roush, Patricia; Brown, Carolyn; Teagle, Holly; Pillsbury, Harold C; Buchman, Craig

    2006-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by dystopia canthorum, hyperplasia of the eyebrows, heterochromia irides, a white forelock, and sensorineural hearing loss in 20% to 55% of patients. This patient population accounts for approximately 2% of congenitally deaf children. The purpose of this retrospective case review was to describe the outcomes for those children with Waardenburg syndrome who have undergone cochlear implantation. Pediatric cochlear implant recipients with documented evidence of Waardenburg syndrome underwent retrospective case review. All patients received their cochlear implants at the study institution followed by outpatient auditory habilitation. Charts were reviewed for etiology and duration of deafness, age at time of cochlear implantation, perioperative complications, duration of use, and performance outcomes. Results of standard tests batteries for speech perception and production administered as a part of the patients' auditory habilitation were reviewed. Seven patients with Waardenburg syndrome and cochlear implants were identified. The average age at implantation was 37 months (range, 18-64 months) and the average duration of use was 69 months (range, 12-143 months). All of these patients are active users of their devices and perform very well after implantation. There were no major complications in this small group of patients. Children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss without other comorbidities (e.g., developmental delay, inner ear malformations) perform well when they receive cochlear implantation and auditory habilitation. Patients with Waardenburg syndrome can be expected to have above-average performance after cochlear implantation.

  13. COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION PREVALENCE IN ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Starokha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current paper describes an experience of cochlear implantation in elderly. Cochlear implantation has become a widely accepted intervention in the treatment of individuals with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Cochlear implants are now accepted as a standard of care to optimize hearing and subsequent speech development in children and adults with deafness. But cochlear implantation affects not only hearing abilities, speech perception and speech production; it also has an outstanding impact on the social life, activities and self-esteem of each patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cochlear implantation efficacy in elderly with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. There were 5 patients under our observation. Surgery was performed according to traditional posterior tympanotomy and cochleostomy for cochlear implant electrode insertion for all observed patients. The study was conducted in two stages: before speech processor’s activation and 3 months later. Pure tone free field audiometry was performed to each patient to assess the efficiency of cochlear implantation in dynamics. The aim of the study was also to evaluate quality of life in elderly with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss after unilateral cochlear implantation. Each patient underwent questioning with 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. SF-36 is a set of generic, coherent, and easily administered quality-of-life measures. The SF-36 consists of eight scaled scores, which are the weighted sums of the questions in their section. Each scale is directly transformed into a 0-100 scale on the assumption that each question carries equal weight. The eight sections are: physical functioning; physical role functioning; emotional role functioning; vitality; emotional well-being; social role functioning; bodily pain; general health perceptions. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in elderly consistently improved quality of life

  14. Phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies have demonstrated a close relationship between phonological working memory and language abilities in normal children and children with language developmental disorders, such as those with cochlear implants. A review of these studies would clarify communication and learning in such children and provide more comprehensive information regarding their education and treatment. In this study, the characteristics of phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities in children with cochlear implants was examined.Recent Findings: In this study, the authors studied the characteristics of phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities of children with cochlear implants. These studies showed that in addition to demographic variables, phonological working memory is a factor that affects language development in children with cochlear implants. Children with cochlear implants typically have a shorter memory span.Conclusion: It is thought that the deficiency in primary auditory sensory input and language stimulation caused by difficulties in the processing and rehearsal of auditory information in phonological working memory is the main cause of the short memory span in such children. Conversely, phonological working memory problems may have adverse effects on the language abilities in such children. Therefore, to provide comprehensive and appropriate treatment for children with cochlear implants, the reciprocal relationship between language abilities and phonological working memory should be considered.

  15. Is there a best side for cochlear implants in post-lingual patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria Stella Arantes do; Damico, Thiago A; Gonçales, Alina S; Reis, Ana C M B; Isaac, Myriam de Lima; Massuda, Eduardo T; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo

    2017-07-29

    Cochlear Implant is a sensory prosthesis capable of restoring hearing in patients with severe or profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate if there is a better side to be implanted in post-lingual patients. Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants were 40 subjects, of both sex, mean age of 47 years, with post-lingual hearing loss, users of unilateral cochlear implant for more than 12 months and less than 24 months, with asymmetric auditor reserve between the ears (difference of 10dBNA, In at least one of the frequencies with a response, between the ears), divided into two groups. Group A was composed of individuals with cochlear implant in the ear with better auditory reserve and Group B with auditory reserve lower in relation to the contralateral side. There was no statistical difference for the tonal auditory threshold before and after cochlear implant. A better speech perception in pre-cochlear implant tests was present in B (20%), but the final results are similar in both groups. The cochlear implant in the ear with the worst auditory residue favors a bimodal hearing, which would allow the binaural summation, without compromising the improvement of the audiometric threshold and the speech perception. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Labyrinthectomy with cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolan, T A; Shepard, N T; Niparko, J K

    1993-05-01

    Numerous reports indicate that the cochlea remains responsive to electrical stimulation following labyrinthectomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss from birth, who developed episodic vertigo with symptoms suggestive of delayed onset endolymphatic hydrops. Following 8 months of failed medical and vestibular rehabilitation management, a right-sided labyrinthectomy combined with cochlear implantation was performed without complication. Postoperatively the patient was free of vertigo. Attempts to activate the patient's device between 4 to 12 weeks after surgery were unsuccessful as stimulation of the electrodes resulted in discomfort. However, all 20 electrodes elicited comfortable hearing sensations 16 weeks postsurgery. One year after the successful activation, the patient demonstrated improved sound awareness and speech recognition with the implant when compared with preoperative performance with a hearing aid. This case study suggests that electrical detection thresholds with prosthetic stimulation may be unstable in the recently labyrinthectomized ear but supports and extends prior observations of preserved cochlear responsiveness after labyrinthectomy.

  17. A Rare Complication of Cochlear Implantation After Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Reversion of the Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Erkan; Doruk, Can; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Çelik, Mehmet; Polat, Beldan; Güldiken, Yahya

    2017-06-01

    Cochlear implants are mechanical devices used for patients with severe sensory-neural hearing loss, which has an inner magnet. It is proven that 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are safe to use in patients with cochlear implant. In our patient, the authors aim to introduce a rare complication caused after a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanning and the management of this situation; the reversion of the magnet of the implant without displacement and significance of surgery in management.

  18. Cochlear implants and medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Brian J; Bhatt, Nishant

    2010-09-01

    To compare the costs of medical tourism in cochlear implant surgery performed in India as compared to the United States. In addition, the cost savings of obtaining cochlear implant surgery in India were compare d to those of other surgical interventions obtained as a medical tourist. Searches were conducted on Medline and Google using the search terms: 'medical tourism', 'medical offshoring', 'medical outsourcing', 'cochlear implants' and 'cochlear implantation'. The information regarding cost of medical treatment was obtained from personal communication with individuals familiar with India's cochlear implantation medical tourism industry. The range of cost depended on length of stay as well as the device chosen. Generally the cost, inclusive of travel, surgery and device, was in the range of $21,000-30,000, as compared to a cost range of $40,000-$60,000 in the US. With the escalating cost of healthcare in the United States, it is not surprising that some patients would seek to obtain surgical care overseas at a fraction of the cost. Participants in medical tourism often have financial resources, but lack health insurance coverage. While cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery performed outside the United States in India at centers that cater to medical tourists are often performed at one-quarter to one-third of the cost that would have been paid in the United States, the cost differential for cochlear implants is not nearly as favorable.

  19. Deafferentation-Induced Redistribution of MMP-2, but Not of MMP-9, Depends on the Emergence of GAP-43 Positive Axons in the Adult Rat Cochlear Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Fredrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9 and MMP-2, major modulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM, were changed in amount and distribution in the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN following its sensory deafferentation by cochlear ablation. To determine what causal relationships exist between the redistribution of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and deafferentation-induced reinnervation, kainic acid was stereotaxically injected into the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB prior to cochlear ablation, killing cells that deliver the growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 into AVCN. Deafferentation-induced changes in the pattern of MMP-9 staining remained unaffected by VNTB lesions. By contrast, changes in the distribution of MMP-2 normally evoked by sensory deafferentation were reversed if GAP-43 positive axons were prevented to grow in AVCN. In conclusion, GAP-43-containing axons emerging in AVCN after cochlear ablation seem to be causal for the maintenance of MMP-2-mediated ECM remodeling.

  20. Cochlear implantation in a bilateral Mondini dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, M; Orzan, E; Gabana, M; Genovese, E; Arslan, E; Fisch, U

    1997-01-01

    We report the speech perception progress and programming procedures of a case of congenital profound deafness and bilateral Mondini dysplasia implanted with a Nucleus 20 + 2 cochlear implant at the age of six. Unclear relations between electrodes array and cochlear partition made implant programming difficult and non-standard procedures were set. Cochlear implantation may give excellent rehabilitative results also in cochleae with malformation.

  1. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  2. EEG frontal asymmetry related to pleasantness of music perception in healthy children and cochlear implanted users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Marsella, P; Di Francesco, G; Vitiello, S; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, the international debate about the quality of music fruition for cochlear implanted users does not take into account the hypothesis that bilateral users could perceive music in a more pleasant way with respect to monolateral users. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to investigate if cerebral signs of pleasantness during music perception in healthy child are similar to those observed in monolateral and in bilateral cochlear implanted users. In fact, previous observations in literature on healthy subjects have indicated that variations of the frontal EEG alpha activity are correlated with the perceived pleasantness of the sensory stimulation received (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we described differences between cortical activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a healthy child and in patients having a monolateral or a bilateral cochlear implant during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns observed in a healthy child and that of a bilateral cochlear implanted patient are congruent with the approach-withdrawal theory. Conversely, the scalp topographic distribution of EEG power spectra in the alpha band resulting from the monolateral cochlear user presents a different EEG pattern from the normal and bilateral implanted patients. Such differences could be explained at the light of the approach-withdrawal theory. In fact, the present findings support the hypothesis that a monolateral cochlear implanted user could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to a healthy subject or to a bilateral cochlear user.

  3. Congenitally Deafblind Children and Cochlear Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2008-01-01

    There has been much research conducted demonstrating the positive benefits of cochlear implantation (CI) in children who are deaf. Research on cochlear implantation in children who are both deaf and blind, however, is lacking. The purpose of this article is to present a study of 5 congenitally...... deafblind children who received cochlear implants between 2.2 and 4.2 years of age.  Ratings of video observations were used to measure the children's early communication development with and without the use of their cochlear implants. In addition, parental interviews were used to assess the benefits...... parents perceived regarding their children's cochlear implants. Two examples are included in this article to illustrate the parents' perspectives about cochlear implantation in their deafblind children. Benefits of cochlear implantation in this cohort of children included improved attention and emotional...

  4. [Bilateral cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J

    2017-07-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) are standard for the hearing rehabilitation of severe to profound deafness. Nowadays, if bilaterally indicated, bilateral implantation is usually recommended (in accordance with German guidelines). Bilateral implantation enables better speech discrimination in quiet and in noise, and restores directional and spatial hearing. Children with bilateral CI are able to undergo hearing-based hearing and speech development. Within the scope of their individual possibilities, bilaterally implanted children develop faster than children with unilateral CI and attain, e.g., a larger vocabulary within a certain time interval. Only bilateral implantation allows "binaural hearing," with all the benefits that people with normal hearing profit from, namely: better speech discrimination in quiet and in noise, as well as directional and spatial hearing. Naturally, the developments take time. Binaural CI users benefit from the same effects as normal hearing persons: head shadow effect, squelch effect, and summation and redundancy effects. Sequential CI fitting is not necessarily disadvantageous-both simultaneously and sequentially fitted patients benefit in a similar way. For children, earliest possible fitting and shortest possible interval between the two surgeries seems to positively influence the outcome if bilateral CI are indicated.

  5. Solitary Chemoreceptor Cell Proliferation in Adult Nasal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbransen, Brian D.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003). Many nasal SCCs express the G-protein α-gustducin as well as other elements of the bitter-taste signaling cascade including phospholipase Cβ2, TRPM5 and T2R bitter-taste receptors. While some populations of sensory cells are replaced throughout life (taste and olfaction), others are not (hair cells and carotid body chemoreceptors). These ...

  6. Intracochlear pressure measurements in scala media inform models of cochlear mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sushrut; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2015-12-01

    In the classic view of cochlear mechanics, the cochlea is comprised of two identical fluid chambers separated by the cochlear partition (CP). In this view the traveling wave pressures in the two chambers mirror each other; they are equal in magnitude and opposite in phase. A fast pressure mode adds approximately uniformly. More recent models of cochlear mechanics take into account the structural complexity of the CP and the resulting additional mechanical modes would lead to distinct (non-symmetric) patterns of pressure and motion on the two sides of the CP. However, there was little to no physiological data that explored these predictions. To this aim, we measured intracochlear fluid pressure in scala media (SM), including measurements close to the sensory tissue, using miniaturized pressure sensors (˜ 80 μm outer diameter). Measurements were made in-vivo from the basal cochlear turn in gerbils. SM pressure was measured at two longitudinal locations in different preparations. In a subset of the experiments SM and ST (scala tympani) pressures were measured at the same longitudinal location. Traveling wave pressures were observed in both SM and ST, and showed the relative phase predicted by the classical theory. In addition, SM pressure showed spatial variations that had not been observed in ST, which points to a relatively complex CP motion on the SM side. These data both underscore the first-order validity of the classic cochlear traveling wave model, and open a new view to CP mechanics.

  7. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Falk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies.

  8. Reading skills after cochlear implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    It has frequently been found that profoundly deaf children with conventional hearing aids have difficulties with the comprehension of written text. Cochlear Implants (CIs) were expected to enhance the reading comprehension of these profoundly deaf children because they provide auditory access to

  9. Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Dietz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue contains a collection of 13 papers highlighting the collaborative research and engineering project entitled Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology—ABCIT—as well as research spin-offs from the project. In this introductory editorial, a brief history of the project is provided, alongside an overview of the studies.

  10. [Cochlear implant treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Stelzig, Y

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of impaired auditory function through cochlear implant is possible, with high reliably and great success. Nevertheless, there are regular disputes between patients and insurance companies due to high costs. In Germany, approx. 1.9 Mio. people are severely hearing impaired. It can be estimated that for adequate hearing rehabilitation about 30,000 cochlear implants/year are necessary. Currently, less than 10% of those affected are offered cochlear implant. A handicap is defined if there is deviation from normal hearing for more than 6 months. This sets a time frame for the supply with cochlear implant after sudden deafness. The professional code requires to advice all medical options to a person seeking help for hearing loss. This includes benefit-risk consideration. At this point, the economic aspect plays no role. The indication for medical treatment is only subject to the treating physician and should not be modified by non-physicians or organizations. It should be noted that a supply of hearing aids is qualitatively different to the help from a cochlear implant, which provides a restoration of lost function. In social law (SGB V and IX) doctors are requested to advise and recommend all measures which contribute to normal hearing (both sides). This indicates that doctors may be prosecuted for not offering help when medically possible, just because health insurance employees did not approve the cost balance. The current situation, with insufficient medical care for the hearing impaired, needs clarifying. To do this, patients, health insurance companies, the political institutions, legislation and professional societies need to accept their responsibilities.

  11. Solitary chemoreceptor cell proliferation in adult nasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Finger, Thomas E

    2005-03-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003). Many nasal SCCs express the G-protein alpha-gustducin as well as other elements of the bitter-taste signaling cascade including phospholipase Cbeta2, TRPM5 and T2R bitter-taste receptors. While some populations of sensory cells are replaced throughout life (taste and olfaction), others are not (hair cells and carotid body chemoreceptors). These experiments were designed to test whether new SCCs are generated within the epithelium of adult mice. Wild type C57/B6 mice were injected with the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. At various times after injection (1-40 days), the mice were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and prepared for dual-label immunocytochemistry. Double labeled cells were detected as early as 3 days post BrdU injection and remained for as long as 12 days post-injection suggesting that SCCs do undergo turnover like the surrounding nasal epithelium. No BrdU labeled cells were detected after 24 days suggesting relatively rapid replacement of the SCCs.

  12. Diversity in cochlear morphology and its influence on cochlear implant electrode position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K.S. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Wolterbeek, R..; Snel-Bongers, J.; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    To define a minimal set of descriptive parameters for cochlear morphology and study its influence on the cochlear implant electrode position in relation to surgical insertion distance.Cochlear morphology and electrode position were analyzed using multiplanar reconstructions of the pre- and

  13. Cochlear implant revision surgeries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria Stella Arantes do; Reis, Ana Cláudia Mirândola B; Massuda, Eduardo T; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo

    2018-02-16

    The surgery during which the cochlear implant internal device is implanted is not entirely free of risks and may produce problems that will require revision surgeries. To verify the indications for cochlear implantation revision surgery for the cochlear implant internal device, its effectiveness and its correlation with certain variables related to language and hearing. A retrospective study of patients under 18 years submitted to cochlear implant Surgery from 2004 to 2015 in a public hospital in Brazil. Data collected were: age at the time of implantation, gender, etiology of the hearing loss, audiological and oral language characteristics of each patient before and after Cochlear Implant surgery and any need for surgical revision and the reason for it. Two hundred and sixty-five surgeries were performed in 236 patients. Eight patients received a bilateral cochlear implant and 10 patients required revision surgery. Thirty-two surgeries were necessary for these 10 children (1 bilateral cochlear implant), of which 21 were revision surgeries. In 2 children, cochlear implant removal was necessary, without reimplantation, one with cochlear malformation due to incomplete partition type I and another due to trauma. With respect to the cause for revision surgery, of the 8 children who were successfully reimplanted, four had cochlear calcification following meningitis, one followed trauma, one exhibited a facial nerve malformation, one experienced a failure of the cochlear implant internal device and one revision surgery was necessary because the electrode was twisted. The incidence of the cochlear implant revision surgery was 4.23%. The period following the revision surgeries revealed an improvement in the subject's hearing and language performance, indicating that these surgeries are valid in most cases. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Immediate and delayed cochlear neuropathy after noise exposure in pubescent mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Bjerg Jensen

    Full Text Available Moderate acoustic overexposure in adult rodents is known to cause acute loss of synapses on sensory inner hair cells (IHCs and delayed degeneration of the auditory nerve, despite the completely reversible temporary threshold shift (TTS and morphologically intact hair cells. Our objective was to determine whether a cochlear synaptopathy followed by neuropathy occurs after noise exposure in pubescence, and to define neuropathic versus non-neuropathic noise levels for pubescent mice. While exposing 6 week old CBA/CaJ mice to 8-16 kHz bandpass noise for 2 hrs, we defined 97 dB sound pressure level (SPL as the threshold for this particular type of neuropathic exposure associated with TTS, and 94 dB SPL as the highest non-neuropathic noise level associated with TTS. Exposure to 100 dB SPL caused permanent threshold shift although exposure of 16 week old mice to the same noise is reported to cause only TTS. Amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response, which reflects the summed activity of the cochlear nerve, was complemented by synaptic ribbon counts in IHCs using confocal microscopy, and by stereological counts of peripheral axons and cell bodies of the cochlear nerve from 24 hours to 16 months post exposure. Mice exposed to neuropathic noise demonstrated immediate cochlear synaptopathy by 24 hours post exposure, and delayed neurodegeneration characterized by axonal retraction at 8 months, and spiral ganglion cell loss at 8-16 months post exposure. Although the damage was initially limited to the cochlear base, it progressed to also involve the cochlear apex by 8 months post exposure. Our data demonstrate a fine line between neuropathic and non-neuropathic noise levels associated with TTS in the pubescent cochlea.

  15. CT evaluation of preoperative cochlear implantation cochlear implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Xiuzhong; Zhong Lansheng; Lan Bowen; Huang Yaosheng; Du Baowen; Zhu Jian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT scan as a preoperative evaluation for cochlear implantation candidates. Methods: Axial high-resolution temporal bone CT and three-dimensional reconstruction of inner ear were performed in 93 patients with sensorineural hearing loss. results: Among 81 patients with congenital sensorineural deafness, Mondini malformation was seen in 7 case (13 ears); large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) was revealed in 5 cases (8 ears); and inner ear ossification was found in 1 case (2 ears). In 1 case (2 ears) of inner ear fibrosis, reduced cochlear signal was noted on MRI but no unremarkable findings was shown on CT scan, however, in the operation, the device could not inserted into the basal circle of the cochlea, due to fibrous obliteration. In 12 patients with post-speech deafness, chronic suppurative tympanitis was seen in 2 cases (4 ears), and inner ear ossification was revealed in 1 case (2 ears). Conclusion: CT plays an indispensable role in the pre-operative evaluation of cochlear implantation. T 2 -weighted FSE-MRI of the inner ear is a useful complementary to CT scan. (authors)

  16. Microanatomy of the cochlear hook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Changyow Claire; Tan, Xiaodong; Stock, Stuart R.; Soriano, Carmen; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2017-09-01

    Communication among humans occurs through coding and decoding of acoustic information. The inner ear or cochlea acts as a frequency analyzer and divides the acoustic signal into small frequency bands, which are processed at different sites along the cochlea. The mechano-electrical conversion is accomplished by the soft tissue structures in the cochlea. While the anatomy for most of the cochlea has been well described, a detailed description of the very high frequency and vulnerable cochlear hook region is missing. To study the cochlear hook, mice cochleae were imaged with synchrotron radiation and high-resolution reconstructions have been made from the tomographic scans. This is the first detailed description of the bony and soft tissues of the hook region of the mammalian cochlea.

  17. Serotonin projection patterns to the cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A M; Thompson, G C

    2001-07-13

    The cochlear nucleus is well known as an obligatory relay center for primary auditory nerve fibers. Perhaps not so well known is the neural input to the cochlear nucleus from cells containing serotonin that reside near the midline in the midbrain raphe region. Although the specific locations of the main, if not sole, sources of serotonin within the dorsal cochlear nucleus subdivision are known to be the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, sources of serotonin located within other cochlear nucleus subdivisions are not currently known. Anterograde tract tracing was used to label fibers originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei while fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to simultaneously label specific serotonin fibers in cat. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and was visualized with Texas Red, while serotonin was visualized with fluorescein. Thus, double-labeled fibers were unequivocally identified as serotoninergic and originating from one of the labeled neurons within the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Double-labeled fiber segments, typically of fine caliber with oval varicosities, were observed in many areas of the cochlear nucleus. They were found in the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, in the small cell cap region, and in the granule cell and external regions of the cochlear nuclei, bilaterally, of all cats. However, the density of these double-labeled fiber segments varied considerably depending upon the exact region in which they were found. Fiber segments were most dense in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (especially in the molecular layer) and the large spherical cell area of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus; they were moderately dense in the small cell cap region; and fiber segments were least dense in the octopus and multipolar cell regions of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus. Because of the presence of labeled fiber segments in subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus other than the

  18. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes’ Hearing Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, J.; Loubes, J-M.; Descouens, D.; Dumoncel, J.; Thackeray, J. F.; Kahn, J-L.; de Beer, F.; Riberon, A.; Hoffman, K.; Balaresque, P.; Gilissen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species’ sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the “hypertrophied” cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record. PMID:26083484

  19. Investigation of Balance Function Using Dynamic Posturography under Electrical-Acoustic Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schwab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI patients by using the EquiTest and to help answer the question of whether electrically stimulating the inner ear using a cochlear implant influences the balance system in any way. Material and Methods. A test population (=50 was selected at random from among the cochlear implant recipients. Dynamic posturography (using the EquiTest was performed with the device switched off an switched on. Results. In summary, it can be said that an activated cochlear implant affects the function of the vestibular system and may, to an extent, even lead to a stabilization of balance function under the static conditions of dynamic posturography, but nevertheless also to a significant destabilization. Significant improvements in vestibular function were seen mainly in equilibrium scores under conditions 4 and 5, the composite equilibrium score, and the vestibular components as revealed by sensory analysis. Conclusions. Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the explanation for any symptoms of dizziness lies precisely in the fact that they occur in supposedly noncritical situations, since, when the cochlear implant makes increased demands on the balance system, induced disturbances can be centrally suppressed.

  20. Deafblind People's Experiences of Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implants are electronic devices that create the sensation of hearing in those who cannot obtain any benefit from conventional hearing aids. This article examines the experience of cochlear implantation in a select group of individuals with acquired deafblindness, focusing on three key themes: access to communication, information and…

  1. Imaging of acquired non-traumatic cochlear lesions: iconographic essay; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes cocleares adquiridas (nao-traumaticas): ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Gonzaga, Juliana Gontijo [Clinica Axial - Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cidbh@cidbh.com.br; marcelogarcia@superig.com.br

    2006-04-15

    Different non-traumatic acquired cochlear lesions are shown in this article with imaging methods. They may be responsible for neuro sensorial hearing loss or vertigo. The method of choice is computed tomography when evaluating the osseous labyrinth whereas magnetic resonance imaging has superior resolution in the studies of the membranaceous labyrinth. (author)

  2. Lesion of the olfactory epithelium accelerates prion neuroinvasion and disease onset when prion replication is restricted to neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Crowell

    Full Text Available Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain.

  3. Lesion of the Olfactory Epithelium Accelerates Prion Neuroinvasion and Disease Onset when Prion Replication Is Restricted to Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Jenna; Wiley, James A.; Bessen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain. PMID:25822718

  4. Importance of cochlear health for implant function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingst, Bryan E; Zhou, Ning; Colesa, Deborah J; Watts, Melissa M; Strahl, Stefan B; Garadat, Soha N; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C; Budenz, Cameron L; Raphael, Yehoash; Zwolan, Teresa A

    2015-04-01

    Amazing progress has been made in providing useful hearing to hearing-impaired individuals using cochlear implants, but challenges remain. One such challenge is understanding the effects of partial degeneration of the auditory nerve, the target of cochlear implant stimulation. Here we review studies from our human and animal laboratories aimed at characterizing the health of the implanted cochlea and the auditory nerve. We use the data on cochlear and neural health to guide rehabilitation strategies. The data also motivate the development of tissue-engineering procedures to preserve or build a healthy cochlea and improve performance obtained by cochlear implant recipients or eventually replace the need for a cochlear implant. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human myosin VIIA responsible for the Usher 1B syndrome: a predicted membrane-associated motor protein expressed in developing sensory epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, D; Levy, G; Sahly, I; Levi-Acobas, F; Blanchard, S; El-Amraoui, A; Crozet, F; Philippe, H; Abitbol, M; Petit, C

    1996-04-16

    The gene encoding human myosin VIIA is responsible for Usher syndrome type III (USH1B), a disease which associates profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. The reconstituted cDNA sequence presented here predicts a 2215 amino acid protein with a typical unconventional myosin structure. This protein is expected to dimerize into a two-headed molecule. The C terminus of its tail shares homology with the membrane-binding domain of the band 4.1 protein superfamily. The gene consists of 48 coding exons. It encodes several alternatively spliced forms. In situ hybridization analysis in human embryos demonstrates that the myosin VIIA gene is expressed in the pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor cells of the retina, thus indicating that both cell types may be involved in the USH1B retinal degenerative process. In addition, the gene is expressed in the human embryonic cochlear and vestibular neuroepithelia. We suggest that deafness and vestibular dysfunction in USH1B patients result from a defect in the morphogenesis of the inner ear sensory cell stereocilia.

  6. Spiral ligament and stria vascularis changes in cochlear otosclerosis: effect on hearing level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joni K; Linthicum, Fred H

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the effect of changes within the spiral ligament and stria vascularis on hearing in cochlear otosclerosis, we examined spiral ligament hyalinization, stria vascularis atrophy, and sensory hearing loss in cochlear otosclerosis and described changes in ion transport molecule expression. Retrospective. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-two cochleae from 24 temporal bone donors with histologic evidence of cochlear otosclerosis, including spiral ligament hyalinization. Audiography. Measurements of spiral ligament width, stria vascularis, and bone-conduction thresholds were compared by the amount of hyalinization. Expression of the ion transport molecules Na,K-ATPase, connexin 26, and carbonic anhydrase II were assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. Hyalinization most often involved the posterior basal turn (88%) and the posterior middle turn (27%). Spiral ligament hyalinization correlated significantly with stria vascularis atrophy in the posterior middle turn of the cochlea (rho = -0.63, p Bone-conduction thresholds at 2,000 and 4,000 Hz were significantly associated with the amount of stria vascularis atrophy (rho = -0.44, -0.40, p recycling, resulting in loss of endocochlear potential and sensory hearing loss.

  7. Audiovisual segregation in cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Landry

    Full Text Available It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition, as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i noise ii reverse speech sound and iii non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users.

  8. Assessment of Cochlear Function during Cochlear Implantation by Extra- and Intracochlear Electrocochleography

    OpenAIRE

    Dalbert, Adrian; Pfiffner, Flurin; Hoesli, Marco; Koka, Kanthaiah; Veraguth, Dorothe; Roosli, Christof; Huber, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were: (1) To investigate the correlation between electrophysiological changes during cochlear implantation and postoperative hearing loss, and (2) to detect the time points that electrophysiological changes occur during cochlear implantation. Material and Methods: Extra- and intracochlear electrocochleography (ECoG) were used to detect electrophysiological changes during cochlear implantation. Extracochlear ECoG recordings were conducted through a needle elec...

  9. Ancestral amphibian v2rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Adnan S.; Sansone, Alfredo; Nadler, Walter; Manzini, Ivan; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptor families are segregated into different olfactory organs, with type 2 vomeronasal receptor (v2r) genes expressed in a basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium. In contrast, teleost fish v2r genes are intermingled with all other olfactory receptor genes in a single sensory surface. We report here that, strikingly different from both lineages, the v2r gene family of the amphibian Xenopus laevis is expressed in the main olfactory as well as the vomeronasal epithelium. Interestingly, late diverging v2r genes are expressed exclusively in the vomeronasal epithelium, whereas “ancestral” v2r genes, including the single member of v2r family C, are restricted to the main olfactory epithelium. Moreover, within the main olfactory epithelium, v2r genes are expressed in a basal zone, partially overlapping, but clearly distinct from an apical zone of olfactory marker protein and odorant receptor-expressing cells. These zones are also apparent in the spatial distribution of odor responses, enabling a tentative assignment of odor responses to olfactory receptor gene families. Responses to alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones show an apical localization, consistent with being mediated by odorant receptors, whereas amino acid responses overlap extensively with the basal v2r-expressing zone. The unique bimodal v2r expression pattern in main and accessory olfactory system of amphibians presents an excellent opportunity to study the transition of v2r gene expression during evolution of higher vertebrates. PMID:23613591

  10. Prevention and management of cochlear implant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Singh, Rajesh; Atlas, Marcus D

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the issues of infection related to an implantable medical device is crucial to all cochlear implant teams. Furthermore, given the risk of central nervous system complications and the relatively high quantity of underlying resource investment associated with cochlear implantation, the stakes of infection are high. The optimal strategies to prevent and manage such infections are still evolving as good-quality prospective data to guide such management decisions are not yet abundant within the medical literature and many recommendations are based on retrospective reviews or anecdotal evidence. We will outline a general strategy to deal with cochlear implant-related infection based on both the authors' experience and the published literature.

  11. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  12. Is All Human Hearing Cochlear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Faranak Emami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the possibility that the saccule may contribute to human hearing. The forty participants included twenty healthy people and twenty other subjects selected from patients who presented with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo to Audiology Department of Hazrat Rasoul Akram hospital (Tehran, Iran. Assessments comprised of audiological evaluations, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs, recognition of spoken phonemes in white noise (Rsp in wn, and auditory brainstem response to 500 Hz tone burst (ABR500 HZ. Twenty affected ears with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs revealed decreased scores of Rsp in wn and abnormal findings of ABR500 HZ. Both unaffected and normal ears had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs and ABR500 HZ between three groups were significant (P<0.05, ANOVA. The correlation between RSP in wn and p13 latencies was significant. The peak-to-peak amplitudes showed significant correlation to RSP in wn. The correlation between RSP in wn and the latencies of n23 was significant. In high-level of noisy competing situations, healthy human saccular sensation can mediate the detection of low frequencies and possibly help in cochlear hearing for frequency and intensity discrimination. So, all human hearing is not cochlear.

  13. Cochlear implant: the family's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sheila de Souza; Dupas, Giselle; Chiari, Brasilia Maria

    2018-07-01

    To understand the family's experience of a child who uses a cochlear implant (CI). Specifically, to identify the difficulties, changes, and feelings entailed by deafness and the use of the CI; the coping strategies; and to understand the role of the family for the child with a CI. Qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Straussian Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semi-structured interview. A total of 9 families (32 individuals) participated in the study. The children's ages ranged from 6 to 11 years old (mean = 8.9 years old). Their experience is described in the following categories: Having to fight for results, Coping with difficult situations, Recognizing that you are not alone, Learning to overcome, and Having one's life restored by the implant. Cochlear implantation changes the direction of the child and the family's life by restoring the child's opportunity to hear and to obtain good results in her personal, social, and academic development. Even after implantation, the child continues to experience difficulties and requires the family's mobilization in order to be successful. The family is the principal actor in the process of the child's rehabilitation.

  14. Degradation of labial information modifies audiovisual speech perception in cochlear-implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyse, Aurélie; Berthommier, Frédéric; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    groups were not only because of differences in unisensory perception but also because of differences in the process of audiovisual integration per se. Visual reduction led to an increase in the weight of audition, even in cochlear-implanted children, whose perception is generally dominated by vision. This result suggests that the natural bias in favor of vision is not immutable. Audiovisual speech integration partly depends on the experimental situation, which modulates the informational content of the sensory channels and the weight that is awarded to each of them. Consequently, participants, whether deaf with cochlear implants or having normal hearing, not only base their perception on the most reliable modality but also award it an additional weight.

  15. Cochlear implant: what the radiologist should know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Natalia Delage; Couto, Caroline Laurita Batista; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2013-01-01

    Cochlear implant is the method of choice in the treatment of deep sensorineural hypoacusis, particularly in patients where conventional amplification devices do not imply noticeable clinical improvement. Imaging findings are crucial in the indication or contraindication for such surgical procedure. In the assessment of the temporal bone, radiologists should be familiar with relative or absolute contraindication factors, as well as with factors that might significantly complicate the implantation. Some criteria such as cochlear nerve aplasia, labyrinthine and/or cochlear aplasia are still considered as absolute contraindications, in spite of studies bringing such criteria into question. Cochlear dysplasias constitute relative contraindications, among them labyrinthitis ossificans is highlighted. Other alterations may be mentioned as complicating agents in the temporal bone assessment, namely, hypoplasia of the mastoid process, aberrant facial nerve, otomastoiditis, otosclerosis, dehiscent jugular bulb, enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac. The experienced radiologist assumes an important role in the evaluation of this condition. (author)

  16. Cochlear implant: what the radiologist should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Delage Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is the method of choice in the treatment of deep sensorineural hypoacusis, particularly in patients where conventional amplification devices do not imply noticeable clinical improvement. Imaging findings are crucial in the indication or contraindication for such surgical procedure. In the assessment of the temporal bone, radiologists should be familiar with relative or absolute contraindication factors, as well as with factors that might significantly complicate the implantation. Some criteria such as cochlear nerve aplasia, labyrinthine and/or cochlear aplasia are still considered as absolute contraindications, in spite of studies bringing such criteria into question. Cochlear dysplasias constitute relative contraindications, among them labyrinthitis ossificans is highlighted. Other alterations may be mentioned as complicating agents in the temporal bone assessment, namely, hypoplasia of the mastoid process, aberrant facial nerve, otomastoiditis, otosclerosis, dehiscent jugular bulb, enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac. The experienced radiologist assumes an important role in the evaluation of this condition.

  17. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  18. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-05-02

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.

  19. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  20. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus...... is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature......, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system...

  1. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  2. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  3. Cortical Plasticity after Cochlear Implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Gjedde, Albert; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners...... with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss...... occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only...

  4. Music enjoyment with cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoteau, Charlotte; Chen, Stephanie Y; Lalwani, Anil K

    2018-10-01

    Since the advent of cochlear implant (CI) surgery in the 1960s, there have been remarkable technological and surgical advances enabling excellent speech perception in quiet with many CI users able to use the telephone. However, many CI users struggle with music perception, particularly with the pitch-based and melodic elements of music. Yet remarkably, despite poor music perception, many CI users enjoy listening to music based on self-report questionnaires, and prospective studies have suggested a disassociation between music perception and enjoyment. Music enjoyment is arguably a more functional measure of one's listening experience, and thus enhancing one's listening experience is a worthy goal. Recent studies have shown that re-engineering music to reduce its complexity may enhance enjoyment in CI users and also delineate differences in musical preferences from normal hearing listeners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immediate and delayed cochlear neuropathy after noise exposure in pubescent mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Lysaght, Andrew C; Liberman, M Charles

    2015-01-01

    Moderate acoustic overexposure in adult rodents is known to cause acute loss of synapses on sensory inner hair cells (IHCs) and delayed degeneration of the auditory nerve, despite the completely reversible temporary threshold shift (TTS) and morphologically intact hair cells. Our objective...... to 16 months post exposure. Mice exposed to neuropathic noise demonstrated immediate cochlear synaptopathy by 24 hours post exposure, and delayed neurodegeneration characterized by axonal retraction at 8 months, and spiral ganglion cell loss at 8-16 months post exposure. Although the damage...

  6. The Human Cochlear Mechanical Nonlinearity Inferred via Psychometric Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizami Lance

    2013-12-01

    Extension of the model of Schairer and colleagues results in credible cochlear nonlinearities in man, suggesting that forward-masking provides a non-invasive way to infer the human mechanical cochlear nonlinearity.

  7. Three challenges for future research on cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Pisoni

    2017-12-01

    which specific biological and neurocognitive factors are responsible for individual differences or understanding the underlying sensory and neurocognitive basis for variability in performance, it is impossible to select a specific approach to habilitation after a deaf adult or child receives a CI. Deaf adults and children who are performing poorly with their CIs are not a homogeneous group and may differ in many different ways from each other, reflecting the dysfunction of multiple brain systems associated with both congenital and acquired deafness. Hearing loss is not only an ear issue, it is also a brain issue too reflecting close links between perception and action and brain, body and world working together as a functionally integrated information processing system to support robust speech recognition and spoken language processing after implantation. Keywords: Hearing loss, Cochlear implants, Outcomes following implantation

  8. Retrolabyrinthine approach for cochlear nerve preservation in neurofibromatosis type 2 and simultaneous cochlear implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few cases of cochlear implantation (CI in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 patients had been reported in the literature. The approaches described were translabyrinthine, retrosigmoid or middle cranial fossa. Objectives: To describe a case of a NF2- deafened-patient who underwent to vestibular schwannoma resection via RLA with cochlear nerve preservation and CI through the round window, at the same surgical time. Resumed Report: A 36-year-old woman with severe bilateral hearing loss due to NF2 was submitted to vestibular schwannoma resection and simultaneous CI. Functional assessment of cochlear nerve was performed by electrical promontory stimulation. Complete tumor removal was accomplishment via RLA with anatomic and functional cochlear and facial nerve preservation. Cochlear electrode array was partially inserted via round window. Sound field hearing threshold improvement was achieved. Mean tonal threshold was 46.2 dB HL. The patient could only detect environmental sounds and human voice but cannot discriminate vowels, words nor do sentences at 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Cochlear implantation is a feasible auditory restoration option in NF2 when cochlear anatomic and functional nerve preservation is achieved. The RLA is adequate for this purpose and features as an option for hearing preservation in NF2 patients.

  9. The cochlear implant as a tinnitus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallés-Varela, Héctor; Royo-López, Juan; Carmen-Sampériz, Luis; Sebastián-Cortés, José M; Alfonso-Collado, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is a symptom of high prevalence in patients with cochlear pathology. We studied the evolution of tinnitus in patients undergoing unilateral cochlear implantation for treatment of profound hearing loss. This was a longitudinal, retrospective study of patients that underwent unilateral cochlear implantation and who had bilateral tinnitus. Tinnitus was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively before surgery and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. We evaluated 20 patients that underwent unilateral cochlear implantation with a Nucleus(®) CI24RE Contour Advance™ electrode device. During the periods in which the device was in operation, improvement or disappearance of tinnitus was evidenced in the ipsilateral ear in 65% of patients, and in the contralateral ear, in 50%. In periods in which the device was disconnected, improvement or disappearance of tinnitus was found in the ipsilateral ear in 50% of patients, and in the ear contralateral to the implant in 45% of the patients. In 10% of the patients, a new tinnitus appeared in the ipsilateral ear. The patients with profound hearing loss and bilateral tinnitus treated with unilateral cochlear implantation improved in a high percentage of cases, in the ipsilateral ear and in the contralateral ear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Usher syndrome and cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loundon, Natalie; Marlin, Sandrine; Busquet, Denise; Denoyelle, Françoise; Roger, Gilles; Renaud, Francis; Garabedian, Erea Noel

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the symptoms leading to diagnosis and the quality of rehabilitation after cochlear implantation in Usher syndrome. Retrospective cohort study. ENT department of a tertiary referral hospital. Among 210 patients given an implantation in the Ear, Nose, and Throat department, 185 were congenitally deaf and 13 had Usher syndrome (7.0%). Five had a family history of Usher, and eight were sporadic cases. Eleven cases were Usher type I, one was Usher type III, and one was not classified. The age at implantation ranged from 18 months to 44 years (mean, 6 years 1 month). The mean follow-up was 52 months (range, 9 months to 9 years). All patients had audiophonological and clinical examination, computed tomography scan of the temporal bones, ophthalmologic examination with fundoscopy, and an electroretinogram. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and vestibular examination were performed in 9 of 13 and 10 of 13 cases, respectively. Logopedic outcome measured preimplant and postimplant closed- and open-set word recognition and oral expression at follow-up. The most frequent initial sign of Usher syndrome was delayed walking, with a mean age of 20 months. Among the 172 other congenitally deaf children with implants, when deafness was not associated with other neurologic disorders, the mean age at walking was 14 months (p < 0.001). The fundoscopy was always abnormal after the age of 5 years, and the electroretinogram was abnormal in all cases. Vestibular function was abnormal in all but one case (nonclassified). The computed tomography scan and the magnetic resonance imaging were always normal. Logopedic results with cochlear implants showed good perception skills in all but one case. The best perceptive results were obtained in children implanted before the age of 9 years. Oral language had significantly progressed in 9 of 13 at follow-up. There was no relation between the visual acuity and the logopedic results. The earliest clinical sign associated with deafness

  11. Parental expectations and outcomes of pediatric cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Elizabeth; Kandathil, Cherian; Carron, Jeffrey D

    2009-10-01

    Cochlear implants have been used with increasing frequency over the past twenty years, including very young patients. To determine if parents are satisfied with their children's performance after cochlear implantation. Survey mailed to parents of children receiving cochlear implants. 31 questionnaires were returned out of 69 mailed (45 %). The vast majority of responding parents felt that their children benefited substantially from cochlear implant surgery. Cochlear implantation is effective in helping children develop auditory-oral communication skills. Access to auditory/oral communication programs in this state remains an obstacle in postoperative habilitation.

  12. Hearing after congenital deafness: central auditory plasticity and sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, A; Hartmann, R; Tillein, J; Heid, S; Klinke, R

    2002-08-01

    The congenitally deaf cat suffers from a degeneration of the inner ear. The organ of Corti bears no hair cells, yet the auditory afferents are preserved. Since these animals have no auditory experience, they were used as a model for congenital deafness. Kittens were equipped with a cochlear implant at different ages and electro-stimulated over a period of 2.0-5.5 months using a monopolar single-channel compressed analogue stimulation strategy (VIENNA-type signal processor). Following a period of auditory experience, we investigated cortical field potentials in response to electrical biphasic pulses applied by means of the cochlear implant. In comparison to naive unstimulated deaf cats and normal hearing cats, the chronically stimulated animals showed larger cortical regions producing middle-latency responses at or above 300 microV amplitude at the contralateral as well as the ipsilateral auditory cortex. The cortex ipsilateral to the chronically stimulated ear did not show any signs of reduced responsiveness when stimulating the 'untrained' ear through a second cochlear implant inserted in the final experiment. With comparable duration of auditory training, the activated cortical area was substantially smaller if implantation had been performed at an older age of 5-6 months. The data emphasize that young sensory systems in cats have a higher capacity for plasticity than older ones and that there is a sensitive period for the cat's auditory system.

  13. Cochlear implant after bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille, Jesper; Ovesen, Therese

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective case study at a tertiary referral center was to investigate the outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) in children with sensorineural hearing loss due to meningitis compared to CI in children with deafness due to other reasons. This post-meningial group (PMG) consisted of 22 children undergoing CI due to deafness induced by meningitis, between December 1996 and January 2012. Five children had bilateral simultaneous implantation. None was excluded and the children were followed for at least 3 years. Operations were carried out by one of two surgeons using similar techniques in all cases. Each patient from the PMG was matched 2:1 with children having implantation for other reasons according to age and follow up (control group). Overall, the median category of auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) score were not statistically significantly different between the two groups. The presence of additional central nervous system (CNS) disorders (post-meningeal sequelae), however, correlated significantly with poorer outcome CI was a safe procedure without surgical complications in the present study. It is possible to restore auditory capacity and speech performance to a degree comparable to children undergoing implantation for other reasons. A statistically important variable is secondary CNS involvement. The rehabilitation program after CI should be adjusted according to these additional handicaps. It is recommended to screen meningitis patients as fast as possible to identify those with hearing loss and initiate treatment with hearing aids or CI. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Tinnitus and Sleep Difficulties After Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzycki, Robert H; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Dawes, Piers; Munro, Kevin J; Moore, David R; Kitterick, Pádraig T

    To estimate and compare the prevalence of and associations between tinnitus and sleep difficulties in a sample of UK adult cochlear implant users and those identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation. The study was conducted using the UK Biobank resource, a population-based cohort of 40- to 69-year olds. Self-report data on hearing, tinnitus, sleep difficulties, and demographic variables were collected from cochlear implant users (n = 194) and individuals identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation (n = 211). These "candidates" were selected based on (i) impaired hearing sensitivity, inferred from self-reported hearing aid use and (ii) impaired hearing function, inferred from an inability to report words accurately at negative signal to noise ratios on an unaided closed-set test of speech perception. Data on tinnitus (presence, persistence, and related distress) and on sleep difficulties were analyzed using logistic regression models controlling for gender, age, deprivation, and neuroticism. The prevalence of tinnitus was similar among implant users (50%) and candidates (52%; p = 0.39). However, implant users were less likely to report that their tinnitus was distressing at its worst (41%) compared with candidates (63%; p = 0.02). The logistic regression model suggested that this difference between the two groups could be explained by the fact that tinnitus was less persistent in implant users (46%) compared with candidates (72%; p reported difficulties with sleep were similar among implant users (75%) and candidates (82%; p = 0.28), but participants with tinnitus were more likely to report sleep difficulties than those without (p explanation is supported by the similar prevalence of sleep problems among implant users and potential candidates for cochlear implantation, despite differences between the groups in tinnitus persistence and related emotional distress. Cochlear implantation may therefore not be an appropriate intervention

  15. Identification and Characterization of Mouse Otic Sensory Lineage Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron H. Hartman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5 as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting

  16. Music Therapy for Preschool Cochlear Implant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides research and clinical information relevant to music therapy for preschool children who use cochlear implants (CI). It consolidates information from various disciplinary sources regarding (a) cochlear implantation of young prelingually-deaf children (~age 2-5), (b) patterns of auditory and speech-language development, and (c) research regarding music perception of children with CIs. This information serves as a foundation for the final portion of the article, which describes typical music therapy goals and examples of interventions suitable for preschool children. PMID:23904691

  17. Activation of Six1 Expression in Vertebrate Sensory Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Sato

    Full Text Available SIX1 homeodomain protein is one of the essential key regulators of sensory organ development. Six1-deficient mice lack the olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organs, cochlea, vestibule and vestibuloacoustic ganglion, and also show poor neural differentiation in the distal part of the cranial ganglia. Simultaneous loss of both Six1 and Six4 leads to additional abnormalities such as small trigeminal ganglion and abnormal dorsal root ganglia (DRG. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular mechanism that controls Six1 expression in sensory organs, particularly in the trigeminal ganglion and DRG. To this end, we focused on the sensory ganglia-specific Six1 enhancer (Six1-8 conserved between chick and mouse. In vivo reporter assays using both animals identified an important core region comprising binding consensus sequences for several transcription factors including nuclear hormone receptors, TCF/LEF, SMAD, POU homeodomain and basic-helix-loop-helix proteins. The results provided information on upstream factors and signals potentially relevant to Six1 regulation in sensory neurons. We also report the establishment of a new transgenic mouse line (mSix1-8-NLSCre that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of mouse Six1-8. Cre-mediated recombination was detected specifically in ISL1/2-positive sensory neurons of Six1-positive cranial sensory ganglia and DRG. The unique features of the mSix1-8-NLSCre line are the absence of Cre-mediated recombination in SOX10-positive glial cells and central nervous system and ability to induce recombination in a subset of neurons derived from the olfactory placode/epithelium. This mouse model can be potentially used to advance research on sensory development.

  18. Expressions of TRPVs in the cholesteatoma epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ba Hung; Koizumi, Hiroki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Kawaguchi, Rintaro; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2017-10-01

    We have recently proposed a hypothesis that acid leakage through the cholesteatoma epithelium mediates bone resorption in middle ear cholesteatoma. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which have been shown to play roles in the regulation of epidermal barrier function, in the cholesteatoma epithelium in comparison with the normal skin. Cholesteatoma epithelium and postauricular skin were collected from 17 patients with primary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma who underwent tympanomastoidectomy. Expressions of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 were explored by fluorescence immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 mRNAs were all detected by qRT-PCR both in the skin and cholesteatoma tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TRPV1 and TRPV3 were positive in the viable cell layers of the epidermis of the skin, and only TRPV3 was positive in those of the cholesteatoma epithelium. The immunoreactivity for TRPV3 was significantly weaker in cholesteatoma than in the skin. The lower expression of TRPV3 in cholesteatoma may be one of the mechanisms underlying the increased permeability of this tissue. On the other hand, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6 are unlikely to be involved in the regulation of epithelial permeability in cholesteatoma.

  19. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-06-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1 ) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system development, 2 ) the choroid plexus as a route for microorganisms and immune cells into the central nervous system, and 3 ) the choroid plexus as a potential route for drug delivery into the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight current active areas of research in the choroid plexus physiology and a few matters of continuous controversy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Paraquat initially damages cochlear support cells leading to anoikis-like hair cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhui; Sun, Hong; Salvi, Richard; Ding, Dalian

    2018-07-01

    Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used herbicides, is extremely dangerous because it generates the highly toxic superoxide radical. When paraquat was applied to cochlear organotypic cultures, it not only damaged the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs), but also caused dislocation of the hair cell rows. We hypothesized that the dislocation arose from damage to the support cells (SCs) that anchors hair cells within the epithelium. To test this hypothesis, rat postnatal cochlear cultures were treated with PQ. Shortly after PQ treatment, the rows of OHCs separated from one another and migrated radially away from IHCs suggesting loss of cell-cell adhesion that hold the hair cells in proper alignment. Hair cells dislocation was associated with extensive loss of SCs in the organ of Corti, loss of tympanic border cells (TBCs) beneath the basilar membrane, the early appearance of superoxide staining and caspase-8 labeling in SCs below the OHCs and disintegration of E-cadherin and β-catenin in the organ of Corti. Damage to the TBCs and SCs occurred prior to loss of OHC or IHC loss suggesting a form of detachment-induced apoptosis referred to as anoikis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Follow-up of cochlear implant use in patients who developed bacterial meningitis following cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Patrizia; D'Elia, Chiara; Bosco, Ersilia; De Seta, Elio; Panebianco, Valeria; Vergari, Valeria; Filipo, Roberto

    2008-08-01

    The present study is a long-term follow-up of speech perception outcomes and cochlear implant use in three cases of meningitis that occurred after cochlear implantation. Case series study. Study was performed on three children implanted with different models of Clarion devices, two of them with positioner. Recognition and comprehension were assessed via the Italian adaptation of GASP (TAP) test, and phonetically balanced bi-syllabic words in open-set. High resolution computed tomography scan acquisition was performed to obtain axial coronal and oblique multiplanar reconstructions of the cochlea. Two patients were affected by enlarged cochlear acqueduct and Mondini malformation the first carrying positioner. One patient had a normal cochlea, and the positioner could have been the main cause of bacterial spread. As a consequence of meningitis the child with normal cochlea and the other with enlarged vestibular acqueduct developed cochlear ossification, increased M-level and worsening of hearing outcomes. The child with Mondini malformation developed facial nerve stimulation. Contralateral implantation was performed in the first two patients. Bacterial meningitis occurring after cochlear implantation may induce cochlear ossification, facial nerve stimulation, and permanent or temporary loss of implant use. Planned follow-up with high resolution computed tomography and evaluation of M-levels could be useful prognostic tools in the management of these patients.

  2. Progressive age-dependence and frequency difference in the effect of gap junctions on active cochlear amplification and hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Liang; Chen, Jin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Hong-Bo

    2017-07-22

    Mutations of Connexin 26 (Cx26, GJB2), which is a predominant gap junction isoform in the cochlea, can induce high incidence of nonsyndromic hearing loss. We previously found that targeted-deletion of Cx26 in supporting Deiters cells and outer pillar cells in the cochlea can influence outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility and reduce active cochlear amplification leading to hearing loss, even though there are no gap junction connexin expressions in the auditory sensory hair cells. Here, we further report that hearing loss and the reduction of active amplification in the Cx26 targeted-deletion mice are progressive and different at high and low frequency regions, first occurring in the high frequency region and then progressively extending to the middle and low frequency regions with mouse age increased. The speed of hearing loss extending was fast in the basal high frequency region and slow in the apical low frequency region, showing a logarithmic function with mouse age. Before postnatal day 25, there were no significant hearing loss and the reduction of active cochlear amplification in the low frequency region. Hearing loss and the reduction of active cochlear amplification also had frequency difference, severe and large in the high frequency regions. These new data indicate that the effect of gap junction on active cochlear amplification is progressive, but, consistent with our previous report, exists in both high and low frequency regions in adulthood. These new data also suggest that cochlear gap junctions may have an important role in age-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  4. The Structure of Urethral Epithelium in Merinos Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile RUS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate by histological techniques the structure of urethral epithelium in lambs. In this study, we harvested several fragments (prostatic, membranous and cavernous from urethra from 5 merino’s lambs of 3 months old. The first anatomical segment, the prostatic urethra, is lined by a urinary epithelium. The intermediary layer of this epithelium is formed of 5-6 rows of oval cells. The second segment of urethra has the same type of epithelium but the intermediary layer is formed of 6-7 rows of oval cells. In the last anatomical segment, the penile urethra, the epithelium is the same, but the intermediary layer has 3-4 rows of oval cells. In lambs, the urethra is lined by urinary epithelium. The urethral epithelium does not have the same thickness in all segments. The thinner epithelium it is in the cavernous urethra, the ticker is the membranous urethra.

  5. Cochlear Implantation in Siblings With Refsum's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähr, Kerstin; Kuechler, Alma; Gencik, Martin; Arnolds, Judith; Dendy, Meaghan; Lang, Stephan; Arweiler-Harbeck, Diana

    2017-08-01

    Whether the origin of severe hearing loss in Refsum's syndrome is caused by cochlear impairment or retrocochlear degeneration remains unclear. This case report aims to investigate hearing performance before and after cochlear implantation to shed light on this question. Also, identification of new mutations causing Refsum's syndrome would be helpful in generating additional means of diagnosis. A family of 4 individuals was subjected to genetic testing. Two siblings (56 and 61 years old) suffered from severe hearing and vision loss and received bilateral cochlear implants. Genetic analysis, audiological outcome, and clinical examinations were performed. One new mutation in the PHYH gene (c.768del63bp) causing Refsum's disease was found. Preoperative distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPAOEs) were absent. Postoperative speech perception in Freiburger speech test was 100% for bisyllabic words and 85% (patient No. 1) and 65% (patient No. 2), respectively, for monosyllabic words. Five years after implantation, speech perception remained stable for bisyllabic words but showed decreasing capabilities for monosyllabic words. A new mutation causing Refsum's disease is presented. Cochlear implantation in case of severe hearing loss leads to an improvement in speech perception and should be recommended for patients with Refsum's disease, especially when the hearing loss is combined with a severe loss of vision. Decrease of speech perception in the long-term follow-up could indicate an additional retrocochlear degeneration.

  6. Libyan cochlear implant programme: achievements, difficulties, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data relating to the patients who received cochlear implantation at Tripoli Medical Centre between October 2007 and February 2010 were analysed. Implant operations were performed on 37 patients. All patients received Med-El SONATATI100 devices. Thirty-four (91.9%) of these patients were children, whilst three (8.1%) ...

  7. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  8. Multichannel cochlear implantation in the scala vestibuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Karen; Marrinan, Michelle S; Waltzman, Susan B; Roland, J Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss resulting from otosclerosis, meningitis, chronic otitis media, autoimmune ear disease, and trauma can be associated with partial or total obstruction of the cochlear scalae. Multichannel cochlear implantation may be difficult in a cochlea with an obstructed scala tympani. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of scala tympani electrode insertion. Retrospective chart review. Academic medical center. Eight children and adults with profound sensorineural hearing loss who underwent cochlear implantation with known scala vestibuli electrode array insertion were subjects for this study. Eight study subjects underwent implantation: five with the Nucleus 24RCS (Contour) device and three with the Nucleus 24M device. Imaging findings, operative findings, and age-appropriate speech perception testing. All patients had full electrode insertion. Various obstructive patterns on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were found, and there was a range of speech perception results. All but one patient improved based on age-appropriate monosyllabic word and sentence tests. Scala vestibuli multielectrode insertion is a viable alternative when scala tympani insertion is not possible because of abnormal anatomy or anatomical changes secondary to disease or previous implantation. We will also present an algorithm of options for decision making for implantation when encountering cochlear obstruction and difficult electrode insertion.

  9. Gender Categorization in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massida, Zoe; Marx, Mathieu; Belin, Pascal; James, Christopher; Fraysse, Bernard; Barone, Pascal; Deguine, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the ability of subjects with cochlear implants (CIs) to discriminate voice gender and how this ability evolved as a function of CI experience. Method: The authors presented a continuum of voice samples created by voice morphing, with 9 intermediate acoustic parameter steps between a typical male and a…

  10. Simplifying cochlear implant speech processor fitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willeboer, C.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional fittings of the speech processor of a cochlear implant (CI) rely to a large extent on the implant recipient's subjective responses. For each of the 22 intracochlear electrodes the recipient has to indicate the threshold level (T-level) and comfortable loudness level (C-level) while

  11. The preoperative imaging evaluation for cochlear implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhonglin; Wang Zhenchang; Fu Lin; Li Yong; Xian Junfang; Yang Bentao; Lan Baosen; Li Yongxin; Zheng Jun; Song Yan; Liu Bo; Chen Xueqing; He Haili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT and MRI findings of temporal bone and to evaluate preoperative diagnostic value for cochlear implantation. Methods: One hundred and sixty candidates for cochlear implantation were examined with axial CT scan, 64 of them also with coronal CT scan, and 119 patients with MRI. Results: All of 320 ears were well-aerated, and 206 ears had mastoid cavities extended posteriorly to the sigmoid sinus. The length from posterior-lateral tympanic wall to the outer cortex was (2.34±0.42) mm (left side) and (2.25±0.40) mm (right side) (U=1.887, P 1 and T 2 signal on MRI. The congenital malformations of inner ear occurred in 67 ears, including complete dysplasia in 1 ear, cochlear hypodysplasia in 6 ears, Mondini deformation in 5 ears, enlarged vestibular aqueduct in 40 ears, dysplastic semicircular canal and the vestibulae in 10 ears, and narrowing of internal auditory canal in 5 ears. Conclusion: Preoperative imaging examinations can provide critical information to ensure successful cochlear' implantation. (authors)

  12. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  13. Concept formation skills in long-term cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G; Henning, Shirley C; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e., language, working memory, and executive control). Relative to normally hearing (NH) peers, CI users displayed significantly poorer performance in several specific areas of concept formation, especially when multiple comparisons and relational concepts were components of the task. Differences in concept formation between CI users and NH peers were fully explained by differences in language and inhibition-concentration skills. Language skills were also found to be more strongly related to concept formation in CI users than in NH peers. The present findings suggest that complex relational concepts may be adversely affected by a period of early prelingual deafness followed by access to underspecified and degraded sound patterns and spoken language transmitted by a CI. Investigating a unique clinical population such as early-implanted prelingually deaf children with CIs can provide new insights into foundational brain-behavior relations and developmental processes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e., language, working memory, and executive control). Relative to normally hearing (NH) peers, CI users displayed significantly poorer performance in several specific areas of concept formation, especially when multiple comparisons and relational concepts were components of the task. Differences in concept formation between CI users and NH peers were fully explained by differences in language and inhibition–concentration skills. Language skills were also found to be more strongly related to concept formation in CI users than in NH peers. The present findings suggest that complex relational concepts may be adversely affected by a period of early prelingual deafness followed by access to underspecified and degraded sound patterns and spoken language transmitted by a CI. Investigating a unique clinical population such as early-implanted prelingually deaf children with CIs can provide new insights into foundational brain–behavior relations and developmental processes. PMID:25583706

  15. Glucose, epithelium, and enteric nervous system: dialogue in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2009-06-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium is in close contact with the various components of the chymus, including nutrients, bacteria and toxins. The epithelial barrier has to decide which components are effectively absorbed and which components are extruded. In the small intestine, a nutrient like glucose is mainly absorbed by the sodium linked glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The expression and activity of both transport proteins is directly linked to the amount of intraluminal glucose. Besides the direct interaction between glucose and the enterocytes, glucose also stimulates different sensory mechanisms within the intestinal wall. The most important types of cells involved in the sensing of intraluminal contents are enteroendocrine cells and neurones of the enteric nervous system. Regarding glucosensing, a distinct type of enteroendocrine cells, the enterochromaffine (EC) cells are involved. Excitation of EC cells by intraluminal glucose results in the release of serotonin (5-HT), which modulates epithelial functions and activates enteric secretomotorneurones. Enteric neurones are not only activated by 5-HT, but also directly by glucose. The activation of different cell types and the subsequent crosstalk between these cells may trigger appropriate absorptive and secretory processes within the intestine.

  16. Anomalous facial nerve canal with cochlear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L V; Curtin, H D

    2001-05-01

    Anteromedial "migration" of the first segment of the facial nerve canal has been previously identified in a patient with a non-Mondini-type cochlear malformation. In this study, several patients with the same facial nerve canal anomaly were reviewed to assess for the association and type of cochlear malformation. CT scans of the temporal bone of 15 patients with anteromedial migration of the first segment of the facial nerve canal were collected from routine departmental examinations. In seven patients, the anomalous course was bilateral, for a total of 22 cases. The migration was graded relative to normal as either mild/moderate or pronounced. The cochlea in each of these cases was examined for the presence and size of the basilar, second, and apical turns. The turns were either absent, small, normal, or enlarged. The CT scans of five patients with eight Mondini malformations were examined for comparison. The degree of the facial nerve migration was pronounced in nine cases and mild/moderate in 13. All 22 of these cases had associated cochlear abnormalities of the non-Mondini variety. These included common cavity anomalies with lack of definition between the cochlea and vestibule (five cases), cochleae with enlarged basilar turns and absent second or third turns (five cases), and cochleae with small or normal basilar turns with small or absent second or third turns (12 cases). None of the patients with Mondini-type cochlear malformations had anteromedial migration of the facial nerve canal. Anteromedial migration of the facial nerve canal occurs in association with some cochlear malformations. It did not occur in association with the Mondini malformations. A cochlea with a Mondini malformation, being similar in size to a normal cochlea, may physically prohibit such a deviation in course.

  17. Sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  18. [Morphologic feature and cochlear implant surgical approach for cochlear modiolus deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoxing

    2014-09-01

    To review the classification of cochlear modiolus deficiency and decision on surgical approach for above case,in order to provide mastery for cochlear implant (CI) indication. Basing on temporal bone HRCT pre-operation, CI subjects with modiolus deficiency were defined as following groups: (1) deficiency caused by cochlear dysplasia (Mondini malformation); (2) deficiency caused by dysplasia of cochlear and vestibule (Common cavity malformation); (3) deficiency caused by absence of internal acoustic meatus fundus (IP-III malformation). Three types of surgical approach were utilized: type I, electrode array was introduced through facial recess, enlarged the round window, type II, opened the surface of chchlea, electrode array was introduced through facial recess, fenestration on posterior promontory and then inserted around lateral wall of inner-cochlear cavity. type III, electrode array was introduce through fenestration of lateral semicircular canal and then placed close to the bony wall of common cavity. One hundred and sixty-six cochlear modiolus deficiency cases were identified into 3 groups as following: 135 Mondini malformation cases into group a, 18 common cavity malformation cases into group b, and 13 IP-III malformation cases into group c. Surgical approach: type I were used in 136 cases (123 Mondini cases and 13 IP-III cases), while approach type II in 12 cases (12 Mondini cases), and approach type III in 18 cases (18 common cavity cases). Income post-operation of CI: For group a (Mondini malformation), post-activation mean hearing threshold in sound field was 65 dB, speech recognition score is 95% (single finals test) and 25% (signal initials test), while it was 80 dB, 60% and 0 for group b (Conmon cavity malformation), and it was 55 dB, 100% and 45% for group c (IP-III malformation). The income of speech recognition score for cochlear modiolus deficiency was relatively poor, group b was worst and group c was best, while group a moderate.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  20. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  1. What Does Music Sound Like for a Cochlear Implant User?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiam, Nicole T; Caldwell, Meredith T; Limb, Charles J

    2017-09-01

    Cochlear implant research and product development over the past 40 years have been heavily focused on speech comprehension with little emphasis on music listening and enjoyment. The relatively little understanding of how music sounds in a cochlear implant user stands in stark contrast to the overall degree of importance the public places on music and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to describe what music sounds like to cochlear implant users, using a combination of existing research studies and listener descriptions. We examined the published literature on music perception in cochlear implant users, particularly postlingual cochlear implant users, with an emphasis on the primary elements of music and recorded music. Additionally, we administered an informal survey to cochlear implant users to gather first-hand descriptions of music listening experience and satisfaction from the cochlear implant population. Limitations in cochlear implant technology lead to a music listening experience that is significantly distorted compared with that of normal hearing listeners. On the basis of many studies and sources, we describe how music is frequently perceived as out-of-tune, dissonant, indistinct, emotionless, and weak in bass frequencies, especially for postlingual cochlear implant users-which may in part explain why music enjoyment and participation levels are lower after implantation. Additionally, cochlear implant users report difficulty in specific musical contexts based on factors including but not limited to genre, presence of lyrics, timbres (woodwinds, brass, instrument families), and complexity of the perceived music. Future research and cochlear implant development should target these areas as parameters for improvement in cochlear implant-mediated music perception.

  2. Radiobiology of intestinal epithelium stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyannikova, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    After a single or three-fold whole body irradiation of mice with a dose of 4 Gy and the time interval for the proliferation to be restored (5 days or 3 weeks) the survival curve for stem cells of small intestine epithelium with regard to radiation dose was the same as that for non-preirradiated mice. This indicated that the proliferative potential of stem cells in these experimental conditions was not reduced

  3. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  4. BMP4 signaling is involved in the generation of inner ear sensory epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yucheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust expression of BMP4 in the incipient sensory organs of the inner ear suggests possible roles for this signaling protein during induction and development of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia. Homozygous BMP4-/- animals die before the inner ear's sensory organs develop, which precludes determining the role of BMP4 in these organs with simple gene knockout experiments. Results Here we use a chicken otocyst culture system to perform quantitative studies on the development of inner ear cell types and show that hair cell and supporting cell generation is remarkably reduced when BMP signaling is blocked, either with its antagonist noggin or by using soluble BMP receptors. Conversely, we observed an increase in the number of hair cells when cultured otocysts were treated with exogenous BMP4. BMP4 treatment additionally prompted down-regulation of Pax-2 protein in proliferating sensory epithelial progenitors, leading to reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results implicate BMP4 in two events during chicken inner ear sensory epithelium formation: first, in inducing the switch from proliferative sensory epithelium progenitors to differentiating epithelial cells and secondly, in promoting the differentiation of hair cells within the developing sensory epithelia.

  5. [The development of musicality in children after cochlear implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Liu, Bo; Dong, Ruijuan; Xu, Tianqiu; Chen, Jing; Chen, Xuejing; Zhong, Yan; Meng, Chao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Xueqing

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of musicality in children after cochlear implantation, and provide a clinical database for the evaluation of their musicality. Twenty-six children with cochlear implants (CI group) participated in this research. They received cochlear implants at the age of 11 to 68 months with a mean of 35.6 months. Seventy-six infants as a control group aged from 1 to 24 months with a mean of 6.1 months participated in this study, whose hearing were considered normal by passing the case history collection, high-risk registers for hearing loss and hearing screening using DPOAE. The music and young children with CIs: Musicality Rating Scale was used to evaluate their musicality. The evaluation was performed before cochlear implantation and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 months after cochlear implantation for children with cochlear implants. The evaluation was also performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 months for children with normal hearing. The mean scores of musicality showed significant improvements with time of CI use for CI group (Pmusicality also showed significant improvements with time for control group (P0.05). Significant difference was noted between the two groups at 24 months (Pmusicality of children with cochlear implants improved significantly with time after cochlear implantation. The most rapid growth was found in the first year after cochlear implantation.

  6. [Multi-channel cochlear implants in patients with Mondini malformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-xin; Han, De-min; Zhao, Xiao-tian; Chen, Xue-qing; Kong, Ying; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Bo; Liu, Sha; Mo, Ling-yan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Shuo

    2004-02-01

    To describe clinical experiences with multi-channel cochlear implantation in patients with Mondini malformation. Among 300 patients who received multi-channel cochlear implants from 1996 to 2002 in Beijing Tongren Hospital, 15 patients were diagnosed with Mondini malformation. A retrospective analysis was performed dealing with the surgical techniques, mapping and rehabilitations characteristics after surgery. 15 patients with normal cochlear structure are consider as control group. Gusher is found more common than the normal cochlear implantation, most of them are serious. The electrodes are inserted in the "cochleostomy" in full length of 13 Patients, 2 pairs of electrodes remains outside of "cochleostomy" in 2 patients. No serious complications occurred after implantation. All patients have auditory sensations. The impedance of the electrodes, the T level, C level and the hearing threshold are similar with the normal cochlear implantation group. The results have no significant difference in compare with normal cochlear group(P > 0.05). Multi-channel cochlear implantation could be performed safely in patients with Mondini malformation. The primary outcome for patients with Mondini malformation are similar to those with normal cochlear structure following the multi-channel cochlear implantation.

  7. Neurogenesis in the vomeronasal epithelium of adult garter snakes: 3. Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography to trace the genesis and migration of bipolar neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.T.; Halpern, M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography and unilateral vomeronasal (VN) axotomy has permitted us to demonstrate directly the existence of VN stem cells in the adult garter snake and to trace continuous bipolar neuron development and migration in the normal VN and deafferentated VN epithelium in the same animal. The vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of adult garter snakes are both capable of incorporating 3H-thymidine. In the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, 3H-thymidine-labeled cells were initially restricted to the base of the undifferentiated cell layer in animals surviving 1 day following 3H-thymidine injection. With increasing survival time, labeled cells progressively migrated vertically within the receptor cell column toward the apex of the bipolar neuron layer. In both the normal and denervated VN epithelium, labeled cells were observed through the 56 days of postoperative survival. In the normal epithelium, labeled cells were always located within the matrix of the intact receptor cell columns. However, labeled cells of the denervated epithelium were always located at the apical front of the newly formed cell mass following depletion of the original neuronal cell population. In addition, at postoperative days 28 and 56, labeled cells of the denervated VN epithelium achieved neuronal differentiation and maturation by migrating much farther away from the base of the receptor cell column than the labeled cells on the normal, unoperated contralateral side. This study directly demonstrates that basal cells initially incorporating 3H-thymidine are indeed stem cells of the VN epithelium in adult garter snakes

  8. In vivo models of human airway epithelium repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coraux

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions. The in vivo study of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to reconstitute a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Humanised tracheal xenograft models have been developed in immunodeficient nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice in order to mimic the natural regeneration process of the human airway epithelium and to analyse the cellular and molecular events involved during the different steps of airway epithelial reconstitution. These models represent very powerful tools for analysing the modulation of the biological functions of the epithelium during its regeneration. They are also very useful for identifying stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration, as well as the characterisation of the epithelial stem and progenitor cells, may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.

  9. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  10. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  11. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. RESULTS: Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. CONCLUSION: Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  12. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  13. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt Hanns

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  14. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  15. Cochlear pathology: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of 50 patients with perceptive hearing loss. The neuro physiological work-up (evoked potentials, audiometric tests and otoemissions) identified the cochlea as the site of origin of the hearing loss. The imaging studies (high resolution CT and MR, including 3D volumes) showed petrous bone trauma (n=5) infections (bacterial or viral origin) (n=12) otosclerosis (n=8), Paget disease (n=3), and labyrinthine neurinomas (n=2). The other 20 cases showed development-linked disorders (Mitchel's, Mondini, Scheibe, Alexander, and hypoplasia of the cochlear canal). Imaging with CT and MR can identify in detail the structural abnormality affecting the cochlea and occasionally the immediate peri-cochlear region (otic capsule); the affected portion of the cochlea may thus be determined. (author)

  16. Meningitis after cochlear implantation in Mondini malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, E L; Eby, T L

    1997-01-01

    Although the potential for CSF leakage and subsequent meningitis after cochlear implantation in the malformed cochlea has been recognized, this complication has not been previously reported. We report a case of CSF otorhinorrhea and meningitis after minor head trauma developing 2 years after cochlear implantation in a child with Mondini malformation. Leakage of CSF was identified from the cochleostomy around the electrode of the implant, and this leak was sealed with a temporalis fascia and muscle plug. Although this complication appears to be rare, care must be taken to seal the cochleostomy in children with inner ear malformations at the initial surgery, and any episode of meningitis after surgery must be thoroughly investigated to rule out CSF leakage from the labyrinth.

  17. Prevention of Noise Damage to Cochlear Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of synapse regeneration : Twelve week old CBA/CaJ mice are exposed to a moderate noise that destroys synapses on inner hair cells (IHCs) but spares...result of excitotoxic trauma to cochlear synapses due to glutamate released from the hair cells . Excitotoxic trauma damages the postsynaptic cell by...components ............................................. 12 d) Quantitative analysis of effects of neurotrophic factors on synapse regeneration in vitro

  18. Rehabilitation of deaf persons with cochlear implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gstoettner, W.; Hamzavi, J.; Czerny, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the last decade, the rehabilitation of postlingually deaf adults and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants has been established as a treatment of deafness. The technological development of the implant devices and improvement of the surgical technique have led to a considerable increase of hearing performance during the last years. The postlingually deaf adults are able to use the telephone and may be integrated in their original job. Prelingually deaf children can even visit normal schools after cochlear implantation and hearing rehabilitation training. In order to preoperatively establish the state of the cochlear, radiological diagnosis of the temporal bone is necessary. High resolution computerized tomography imaging of the temporal bone with coronar and axial 1 mm slices and MRI with thin slice technique (three dimensional, T2 weighted turbo-spinecho sequence with 0.7 mm slices) have proved to be valuable according to our experience. Furthermore a postoperative synoptical X-ray, in a modified Chausse III projection, offers good information about the position of the implant and insertion of the stimulating electrode into the cochlea. (orig.) [de

  19. Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Carvalho Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a “soft surgery” cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients.

  20. Cochlear pathology in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, A P; Barrera, A; Schuknecht, H F

    1983-01-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (COM) is reported to cause elevation of bone-conduction thresholds either by damage to cochlear sensorineural structures or by alteration in the mechanics of sound transmission in the ear. A retrospective study was made of the medical records of 87 patients with unilateral uncomplicated COM to document that abnormality in bone conduction does exist. In a separate study the cochlear pathology in 12 pairs of temporal bones with unilateral COM was studied by light microscopy. Infected ears showed higher than normal mean bone-conduction thresholds by amounts ranging from 1 dB at 500 Hz to 9.5 dB at 4,000 Hz. The temporal bones showed no greater loss of specialized sensorineural structures in infected ears than in normal control ears. Because there is no evidence that COM caused destruction of hair cells or cochlear neurons, alteration in the mechanics of sound transmission becomes a more plausible explanation for the hearing losses.

  1. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  2. The long-term concerns post cochlear implantation as experienced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cochlear implantation aims to provide an effective means of spoken communication for prelingually deaf children. However, studies in this field are mostly clinically orientated, with little focus on the experiences and long-term concerns of families post cochlear implantation (CI). Objective. To describe the ...

  3. Emotion Understanding in Deaf Children with a Cochlear Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiefferink, Carin H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion…

  4. Remote programming of cochlear implants: a telecommunications model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElveen, John T; Blackburn, Erin L; Green, J Douglas; McLear, Patrick W; Thimsen, Donald J; Wilson, Blake S

    2010-09-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of remote programming for cochlear implants. Retrospective review of the cochlear implant performance for patients who had undergone mapping and programming of their cochlear implant via remote connection through the Internet. Postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for 7 patients who had undergone remote mapping and programming of their cochlear implant were compared with the mean scores of 7 patients who had been programmed by the same audiologist over a 12-month period. Times required for remote and direct programming were also compared. The quality of the Internet connection was assessed using standardized measures. Remote programming was performed via a virtual private network with a separate software program used for video and audio linkage. All 7 patients were programmed successfully via remote connectivity. No untoward patient experiences were encountered. No statistically significant differences could be found in comparing postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for patients who had undergone remote programming versus a similar group of patients who had their cochlear implant programmed directly. Remote programming did not require a significantly longer programming time for the audiologist with these 7 patients. Remote programming of a cochlear implant can be performed safely without any deterioration in the quality of the programming. This ability to remotely program cochlear implant patients gives the potential to extend cochlear implantation to underserved areas in the United States and elsewhere.

  5. A case report: the first successful cochlear implant in Uganda.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report: the first successful cochlear implant in Uganda. Richard Byaruhanga1, J. ... The patient was a 23 year old male whose presenting com- plaint was inability to .... Custom Sound by Cochlear (the company that manu- factures the ...

  6. Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Low, Keri E.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Verbal working memory in children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing was examined. Participants: Ninety-three fourth graders (47 with normal hearing, 46 with cochlear implants) participated, all of whom were in a longitudinal study and had working memory assessed 2 years earlier. Method: A dual-component model of…

  7. Are parents of children with cochlear implants coping?: research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many variables must be considered during the evaluation and rehabilitation of children for cochlear implantation, one of which is parental influence (for the duration of this report the parents, caregivers and guardians of children with cochlear implants and / or hearing impairments will be referred to as 'parents'). The aim of ...

  8. Congenitally Deafblind Children and Cochlear Implants: Effects on Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    There has been much research conducted demonstrating the positive benefits of cochlear implantation (CI) in children who are deaf. Research on CI in children who are both deaf and blind, however, is lacking. The purpose of this article is to present a study of five congenitally deafblind children who received cochlear implants between 2.2 and 4.2…

  9. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensory evaluation techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meilgaard, Morten; Civille, Gail Vance; Carr, B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    ..., #2 as a textbook for courses at the academic level, it aims to provide just enough theoretical background to enable the student to understand which sensory methods are best suited to particular...

  11. Audio-Tactile Integration in Congenitally and Late Deaf Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Elena; Bottari, Davide; Villwock, Agnes; Fengler, Ineke; Büchner, Andreas; Lenarz, Thomas; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Several studies conducted in mammals and humans have shown that multisensory processing may be impaired following congenital sensory loss and in particular if no experience is achieved within specific early developmental time windows known as sensitive periods. In this study we investigated whether basic multisensory abilities are impaired in hearing-restored individuals with deafness acquired at different stages of development. To this aim, we tested congenitally and late deaf cochlear implant (CI) recipients, age-matched with two groups of hearing controls, on an audio-tactile redundancy paradigm, in which reaction times to unimodal and crossmodal redundant signals were measured. Our results showed that both congenitally and late deaf CI recipients were able to integrate audio-tactile stimuli, suggesting that congenital and acquired deafness does not prevent the development and recovery of basic multisensory processing. However, we found that congenitally deaf CI recipients had a lower multisensory gain compared to their matched controls, which may be explained by their faster responses to tactile stimuli. We discuss this finding in the context of reorganisation of the sensory systems following sensory loss and the possibility that these changes cannot be “rewired” through auditory reafferentation. PMID:24918766

  12. Audio-tactile integration in congenitally and late deaf cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nava

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted in mammals and humans have shown that multisensory processing may be impaired following congenital sensory loss and in particular if no experience is achieved within specific early developmental time windows known as sensitive periods. In this study we investigated whether basic multisensory abilities are impaired in hearing-restored individuals with deafness acquired at different stages of development. To this aim, we tested congenitally and late deaf cochlear implant (CI recipients, age-matched with two groups of hearing controls, on an audio-tactile redundancy paradigm, in which reaction times to unimodal and crossmodal redundant signals were measured. Our results showed that both congenitally and late deaf CI recipients were able to integrate audio-tactile stimuli, suggesting that congenital and acquired deafness does not prevent the development and recovery of basic multisensory processing. However, we found that congenitally deaf CI recipients had a lower multisensory gain compared to their matched controls, which may be explained by their faster responses to tactile stimuli. We discuss this finding in the context of reorganisation of the sensory systems following sensory loss and the possibility that these changes cannot be "rewired" through auditory reafferentation.

  13. “REPRESENTATION, PROJECTION AND COCHLEAR IMPLANT: A SINGLE CASE STUDY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From the psychological point of view hearing is an essential sensory modality for the human species, because it contributes to the formation of the first relational connections and emotions. It is important to make a diagnosis early to intervene and limit negative effects.  Deafness is a particular phenomenon (onset, types,  in this paper we undertake a thorough descriptive analysis on all aspects of deafness, in particular the use of a prosthetic device known as cochlear implant.  We have deepened personality variables in a single case with the use of Rorschach Test and Draw-a-person-Test.  We aimed to study, with the clinical interpretation of instruments, which personality variables could be involved in hearing loss condition and Cochlear Implant (CI.  This observational study highlights the psychological dynamics that should be taken into account by operators team, in order to improve the quality of life of these patients and increase their long-term therapeutic outcome.

  14. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

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    Oghalai, John S.; Raphael, Patrick D. [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Gao, Simon [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Hee Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Groves, Andrew K. [Department of Neuroscience, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, and Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Zuo, Jian [Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Applegate, Brian E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering.

  15. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Hajime; Kashio, Akinori; Sakata, Aki; Tsutsumiuchi, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. Five children with Waardenburg syndrome underwent cochlear implantation. The average age at implantation was 2 years 11 months (ranging from 1 year 9 months to 6 years 3 months). Four patients had congenital profound hearing loss and one patient had progressive hearing loss. Two patients had an inner ear malformation of cochlear incomplete partition type 2. No surgical complication or difficulty was seen in any patient. All patients showed good hearing outcome postoperatively. Conclusion. Cochlear implantation could be a good treatment option for Waardenburg syndrome.

  16. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Koyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. Five children with Waardenburg syndrome underwent cochlear implantation. The average age at implantation was 2 years 11 months (ranging from 1 year 9 months to 6 years 3 months. Four patients had congenital profound hearing loss and one patient had progressive hearing loss. Two patients had an inner ear malformation of cochlear incomplete partition type 2. No surgical complication or difficulty was seen in any patient. All patients showed good hearing outcome postoperatively. Conclusion. Cochlear implantation could be a good treatment option for Waardenburg syndrome.

  17. Scala vestibuli cochlear implantation in patients with partially ossified cochleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, Stefano; Forli, Francesca; Neri, Emanuele; Segnini, Giovanni; Franceschini, Stefano Sellari

    2002-11-01

    Partial cochlear obstruction is a relatively common finding in candidates for cochlear implants and frequently involves the inferior segment of the scala tympani in the basal turn of the cochlea. In such patients, the scala vestibuli is often patent and offers an alternative site for implantation. The current report describes two patients with such partial obstruction of the inferior segment of the basal cochlear turn, caused in one case by systemic vasculitis (Takayasu's disease) and in the other by obliterative otosclerosis. A scala vestibuli implantation allowed for complete insertion of the electrode array. No problems were encountered during the surgical procedures and the good post-operative hearing and communicative outcomes achieved were similar to those reported in patients without cochlear ossification. The importance of accurate pre-operative radiological study of the inner ear is underscored, to disclose the presence and define the features of the cochlear ossification and ultimately to properly plan the surgical approach.

  18. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghalai, John S.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Gao, Simon; Lee, Hee Yoon; Groves, Andrew K.; Zuo, Jian; Applegate, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering

  19. Ontogenic changes in cochlear characteristic frequency at a basal turn location as reflected in the summating potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, C; Dallos, P

    1985-05-01

    In these experiments the development of summating potential (SP) responses in gerbils from neonates to adults was followed. Special recording techniques were used to eliminate maturational effects associated with the middle ear so that developmental changes in cochlear physiology were isolated for study. Results indicate that as development proceeds the frequency that maximally excites the basilar membrane (BM) of the gerbil at a specific mid-basal turn electrode location progresses from low to high, demonstrating a 1.5 octave shift from the onset of the generation of electrical activity until adult-like response are obtained. These findings support the theory proposed by E.W. Rubel (in: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. IX: Development of Sensory Systems, pp. 135-237. Editor: M. Jacobsen. Springer-Verlag, New York) which explains the observed development of physiological responses measured in the cochlea and higher centers in terms of changing micromechanical transduction properties of the BM.

  20. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stuart L.; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M.; Roberts, Terri P.; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J.; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion cells and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials are intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs exhibit bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter ACh, by fine-tuning the IHC’s resting membrane potential (Vm), is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the Vm of apical and basal IHCs by activating SK2 channels. We hypothesize that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway. PMID:21572434

  1. Facial nerve stimulation outcomes after cochlear implantation with cochlear-facial dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina H. Fang, MD

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Cochlear-facial dehiscence can predispose patients to post-implant FNS. Prior temporal bone irradiation may carry a higher risk of FNS. We recommend scrutiny for CFD in CTs of CI candidates and appropriate risk counseling for FNS if CFD is discovered and more frequent monitoring for FNS by audiology.

  2. Cytokeratin expression in mouse lacrimal gland germ epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Liu, Ying; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). The functional restoration of the lacrimal gland by engraftment of a bioengineered lacrimal gland using lacrimal gland germ epithelial cells has been proposed to cure DED in mice. Here, we investigate the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium to clarify their unique characteristics. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to clarify the expression profile of cytokeratin in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. The mRNA expression of keratin (KRT) 5, KRT8, KRT14, KRT15, and KRT18 in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was increased compared with that in mouse embryonic stem cells and the lacrimal gland germ mesenchyme, as analyzed by Q-PCR. The expression level of KRT15 increased in the transition from stem cells to lacrimal gland germ epithelium, then decreased as the lacrimal gland matured. IHC revealed that the expression set of these cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was different from that in the adult lacrimal gland. The expression of KRT15 was observed in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium, and it segmentalized into some of the basal cells in the intercanulated duct in mature gland. We determined the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland epithelium, and identified KRT15 as a candidate unique cellular marker for the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  4. Spatial channel interactions in cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal

  5. Racemic alkaloids from the fungus Ganoderma cochlear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Long; Dou, Man; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yong-Ming; Li, Rong-Tao; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Seven pairs of new alkaloid enantiomers, ganocochlearines C-I (1, 3-8), and three pairs of known alkaloids were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma cochlear. The chemical structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 3-10 were assigned by ECD calculations. Biological activities of these isolates against renal fibrosis were accessed in rat normal or diseased renal interstitial fibroblast cells. Importantly, the plausible biosynthetic pathway for this class of alkaloids was originally proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioinformatic Integration of Molecular Networks and Major Pathways Involved in Mice Cochlear and Vestibular Supporting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Teresa; Gallego-Martinez, Alvaro; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2018-01-01

    Background : Cochlear and vestibular epithelial non-hair cells (ENHCs) are the supporting elements of the cellular architecture in the organ of Corti and the vestibular neuroepithelium in the inner ear. Intercellular and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are essential to prevent an abnormal ion redistribution leading to hearing and vestibular loss. The aim of this study is to define the main pathways and molecular networks in the mouse ENHCs. Methods : We retrieved microarray and RNA-seq datasets from mouse epithelial sensory and non-sensory cells from gEAR portal (http://umgear.org/index.html) and obtained gene expression fold-change between ENHCs and non-epithelial cells (NECs) against HCs for each gene. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) with a log2 fold change between 1 and -1 were discarded. The remaining genes were selected to search for interactions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and STRING platform. Specific molecular networks for ENHCs in the cochlea and the vestibular organs were generated and significant pathways were identified. Results : Between 1723 and 1559 DEG were found in the mouse cochlear and vestibular tissues, respectively. Six main pathways showed enrichment in the supporting cells in both tissues: (1) "Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteases"; (2) "Calcium Transport I"; (3) "Calcium Signaling"; (4) "Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling"; (5) "Signaling by Rho Family GTPases"; and (6) "Axonal Guidance Si". In the mouse cochlea, ENHCs showed a significant enrichment in 18 pathways highlighting "axonal guidance signaling (AGS)" ( p = 4.37 × 10 -8 ) and "RhoGDI Signaling" ( p = 3.31 × 10 -8 ). In the vestibular dataset, there were 20 enriched pathways in ENHCs, the most significant being "Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling" ( p = 8.71 × 10 -6 ), "Signaling by Rho Family GTPases" ( p = 1.20 × 10 -5 ) and "Calcium Signaling" ( p = 1.20 × 10 -5 ). Among the top ranked networks, the most biologically significant network contained the

  7. Chronic Conductive Hearing Loss Leads to Cochlear Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, M Charles; Liberman, Leslie D; Maison, Stéphane F

    2015-01-01

    Synapses between cochlear nerve terminals and hair cells are the most vulnerable elements in the inner ear in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss, and this neuropathy is exacerbated in the absence of efferent feedback from the olivocochlear bundle. If age-related loss is dominated by a lifetime of exposure to environmental sounds, reduction of acoustic drive to the inner ear might improve cochlear preservation throughout life. To test this, we removed the tympanic membrane unilaterally in one group of young adult mice, removed the olivocochlear bundle in another group and compared their cochlear function and innervation to age-matched controls one year later. Results showed that tympanic membrane removal, and the associated threshold elevation, was counterproductive: cochlear efferent innervation was dramatically reduced, especially the lateral olivocochlear terminals to the inner hair cell area, and there was a corresponding reduction in the number of cochlear nerve synapses. This loss led to a decrease in the amplitude of the suprathreshold cochlear neural responses. Similar results were seen in two cases with conductive hearing loss due to chronic otitis media. Outer hair cell death was increased only in ears lacking medial olivocochlear innervation following olivocochlear bundle cuts. Results suggest the novel ideas that 1) the olivocochlear efferent pathway has a dramatic use-dependent plasticity even in the adult ear and 2) a component of the lingering auditory processing disorder seen in humans after persistent middle-ear infections is cochlear in origin.

  8. Cochlear implants in children implanted in Jordan: A parental overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A

    2015-07-01

    Exploring the perspective of parents on the cochlear implant process in Jordan. Sixty parents of deaf children were surveyed on the information gathering process prior to cochlear implant surgery, and their implant outcome expectations post-surgery. Whether child or parent characteristics may impact parents' post-surgical expectations was explored. Although parents used a variety of information sources when considering a cochlear implant, the ear, nose and throat doctor comprised their major source of information (60%). Parents received a range of information prior to cochlear implant but agreed (93.3%) on the need for a multidisciplinary team approach. Post-surgically, parents' expected major developments in the areas of spoken language (97%), and auditory skills (100%). Receiving education in mainstream schools (92%) was expected too. Parents perceived the cochlear implant decision as the best decision they can make for their child (98.3%). A significant correlation was found between parents contentment with the cochlear implant decision and expecting developments in the area of reading and writing (r=0.7). Child's age at implantation and age at hearing loss diagnosis significantly affected parents' post-implant outcome expectations (pparents agree on the need for a comprehensive multidisciplinary team approach during the different stages of the cochlear implant process. Parents' education about cochlear implants prior to the surgery can affect their post-surgical outcome expectations. The parental perspective presented in this study can help professionals develop better understanding of parents' needs and expectations and henceforth improve their services and support during the different stages of the cochlear implant process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Challenges and opportunities for tissue-engineering polarized epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Ana C; Soleas, John; Poon, James C H; Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-02-01

    The epithelium is one of the most important tissue types in the body and the specific organization of the epithelial cells in these tissues is important for achieving appropriate function. Since many tissues contain an epithelial component, engineering functional epithelium and understanding the factors that control epithelial maturation and organization are important for generating whole artificial organ replacements. Furthermore, disruption of the cellular organization leads to tissue malfunction and disease; therefore, engineered epithelium could provide a valuable in vitro model to study disease phenotypes. Despite the importance of epithelial tissues, a surprisingly limited amount of effort has been focused on organizing epithelial cells into artificial polarized epithelium with an appropriate structure that resembles that seen in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of epithelial tissue organization and highlight the importance of cell polarization to achieve appropriate epithelium function. We next describe the in vitro models that exist to create polarized epithelium and summarize attempts to engineer artificial epithelium for clinical use. Finally, we highlight the opportunities that exist to translate strategies from tissue engineering other tissues to generate polarized epithelium with a functional structure.

  10. Terminal-Nerve-Derived Neuropeptide Y Modulates Physiological Responses in the Olfactory Epithelium of Hungry Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Polese, Gianluca; Marks, Nikki J.; Eisthen, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    The vertebrate brain actively regulates incoming sensory information, effectively filtering input and focusing attention toward environmental stimuli that are most relevant to the animal's behavioral context or physiological state. Such centrifugal modulation has been shown to play an important role in processing in the retina and cochlea, but has received relatively little attention in olfaction. The terminal nerve, a cranial nerve that extends underneath the lamina propria surrounding the olfactory epithelium, displays anatomical and neurochemical characteristics that suggest that it modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundantly present in the terminal nerve in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), an aquatic salamander. Because NPY plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in many vertebrates, we investigated the possibility that NPY modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium in relation to the animal's hunger level. We therefore characterized the full length NPY gene from axolotls to enable synthesis of authentic axolotl NPY for use in electrophysiological experiments. We find that axolotl NPY modulates olfactory epithelial responses evoked by L-glutamic acid, a food-related odorant, but only in hungry animals. Similarly, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that bath application of axolotl NPY enhances the magnitude of a tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward current, but only in hungry animals. These results suggest that expression or activity of NPY receptors in the olfactory epithelium may change with hunger level, and that terminal nerve-derived peptides modulate activity in the olfactory epithelium in response to an animal's changing behavioral and physiological circumstances. PMID:16855098

  11. Terminal nerve-derived neuropeptide y modulates physiological responses in the olfactory epithelium of hungry axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Polese, Gianluca; Marks, Nikki J; Eisthen, Heather L

    2006-07-19

    The vertebrate brain actively regulates incoming sensory information, effectively filtering input and focusing attention toward environmental stimuli that are most relevant to the animal's behavioral context or physiological state. Such centrifugal modulation has been shown to play an important role in processing in the retina and cochlea, but has received relatively little attention in olfaction. The terminal nerve, a cranial nerve that extends underneath the lamina propria surrounding the olfactory epithelium, displays anatomical and neurochemical characteristics that suggest that it modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundantly present in the terminal nerve in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), an aquatic salamander. Because NPY plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in many vertebrates, we investigated the possibility that NPY modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium in relation to the animal's hunger level. We therefore characterized the full-length NPY gene from axolotls to enable synthesis of authentic axolotl NPY for use in electrophysiological experiments. We find that axolotl NPY modulates olfactory epithelial responses evoked by l-glutamic acid, a food-related odorant, but only in hungry animals. Similarly, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that bath application of axolotl NPY enhances the magnitude of a tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward current, but only in hungry animals. These results suggest that expression or activity of NPY receptors in the olfactory epithelium may change with hunger level, and that terminal nerve-derived peptides modulate activity in the olfactory epithelium in response to an animal's changing behavioral and physiological circumstances.

  12. Trends in Intraoperative Testing During Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Joshua Cody; Cox, Matthew D; Hollowoa, Blake; Bonilla-Velez, Juliana; Trinidade, Aaron; Dornhoffer, John L

    2018-03-01

    No consensus guidelines exist regarding intraoperative testing during cochlear implantation and wide variation in practice habits exists. The objective of this observational study was to survey otologists/neurotologists to understand practice habits and overall opinion of usefulness of intraoperative testing. Cross-sectional survey. A web-based survey was sent to 194 practicing Otologists/Neurotologists. Questions included practice setting and experience, habits with respect to electrodes used, intraoperative testing modalities used, overall opinion of intraoperative testing, and practice habits in various scenarios. Thirty-nine of 194 (20%) completed the survey. For routine patients, ECAPs and EIs were most commonly used together (38%) while 33% do not perform testing at all. Eighty-nine percent note that testing "rarely" or "never" changes management. Fifty-one percent marked the most important reason for testing is the reassurance provided to the family and/or the surgeon. Intraoperative testing habits and opinions regarding testing during cochlear implantation vary widely among otologic surgeons. The majority of surgeons use testing but many think there is minimal benefit and that surgical decision-making is rarely impacted. The importance of testing may change as electrodes continue to evolve.

  13. Hearing Preservation after Cochlear Implantation: UNICAMP Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS is an excellent choice for people with residual hearing in low frequencies but not high frequencies and who derive insufficient benefit from hearing aids. For EAS to be effective, subjects' residual hearing must be preserved during cochlear implant (CI surgery. Methods. We implanted 6 subjects with a CI. We used a special surgical technique and an electrode designed to be atraumatic. Subjects' rates of residual hearing preservation were measured 3 times postoperatively, lastly after at least a year of implant experience. Subjects' aided speech perception was tested pre- and postoperatively with a sentence test in quiet. Subjects' subjective responses assessed after a year of EAS or CI experience. Results. 4 subjects had total or partial residual hearing preservation; 2 subjects had total residual hearing loss. All subjects' hearing and speech perception benefited from cochlear implantation. CI diminished or eliminated tinnitus in all 4 subjects who had it preoperatively. 5 subjects reported great satisfaction with their new device. Conclusions. When we have more experience with our surgical technique we are confident we will be able to report increased rates of residual hearing preservation. Hopefully, our study will raise the profile of EAS in Brazil and Latin/South America.

  14. Consequences of Stimulus Type on Higher-Order Processing in Single-Sided Deaf Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Bönitz, Hanna; Kral, Andrej; Büchner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Single-sided deaf subjects with a cochlear implant (CI) provide the unique opportunity to compare central auditory processing of the electrical input (CI ear) and the acoustic input (normal-hearing, NH, ear) within the same individual. In these individuals, sensory processing differs between their two ears, while cognitive abilities are the same irrespectively of the sensory input. To better understand perceptual-cognitive factors modulating speech intelligibility with a CI, this electroencephalography study examined the central-auditory processing of words, the cognitive abilities, and the speech intelligibility in 10 postlingually single-sided deaf CI users. We found lower hit rates and prolonged response times for word classification during an oddball task for the CI ear when compared with the NH ear. Also, event-related potentials reflecting sensory (N1) and higher-order processing (N2/N4) were prolonged for word classification (targets versus nontargets) with the CI ear compared with the NH ear. Our results suggest that speech processing via the CI ear and the NH ear differs both at sensory (N1) and cognitive (N2/N4) processing stages, thereby affecting the behavioral performance for speech discrimination. These results provide objective evidence for cognition to be a key factor for speech perception under adverse listening conditions, such as the degraded speech signal provided from the CI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Studying Sensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  16. Transcendence and Sensoriness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protestant theology and culture are known for a reserved, at times skeptical, attitude to the use of art and aesthetic forms of expression in a religious context. In Transcendence and Sensoriness, this attitude is analysed and discussed both theoretically and through case studies considered...

  17. Sensory matched filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2016-10-24

    As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm. Take ourselves for example: we are completely insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field, a sensory cue of vital importance as a compass for steering the long distance migration of animals as varied as birds, lobsters and sea turtles. We are also totally oblivious to the rich palette of ultraviolet colours that exist all around us, colours seen by insects, crustaceans, birds, fish and lizards (in fact perhaps by most animals). Nor can we hear the ultrasonic sonar pulses emitted by bats in hot pursuit of flying insect prey. The simple reason for these apparent deficiencies is that we either lack the sensory capacity entirely (as in the case of magnetoreception) or that our existing senses are incapable of detecting specific ranges of the stimulus (such as the ultraviolet wavelength range of light). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  1. Ontogeny and innervation of taste buds in mouse palatal gustatory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Ahmed; Konishi, Hiroyuki; El-Sharaby, Ashraf; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mouse taste bud development and innervation of the soft palate. We employed scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 and peripherin to detect sensory nerves, and cytokeratin 8 and α-gustducin to stain palatal taste buds. At E14, nerve fibers were observed along the medial border of the palatal shelves that tracked toward the epithelium. At E15.5, primordial stages of taste buds in the basal lamina of the soft palate first appeared. At E16, the taste buds became large spherical masses of columnar cells scattered in the soft palate basal lamina. At E17, the morphology and also the location of taste buds changed. At E18-19, some taste buds acquired a more elongated shape with a short neck, extending a variable distance from the soft palate basal lamina toward the surface epithelium. At E18, mature taste buds with taste pores and perigemmal nerve fibers were observed on the surface epithelium of the soft palate. The expression of α-gustducin was demonstrated at postnatal day 1 and the number of pored taste buds increased with age and they became pear-shaped at 8 weeks. The percent of pored fungiform-like papillae at birth was 58.3% of the whole palate; this increased to 83.8% at postnatal day 8 and reached a maximum of 95.7% at 12 weeks. The innervation of the soft palate was classified into three types of plexuses in relation to taste buds: basal nerve plexus, intragemmal and perigemmal nerve fibers. This study reveals that the nerve fibers preceded the development of taste buds in the palate of mice, and therefore the nerve fibers have roles in the initial induction of taste buds in the soft palate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduction in spread of excitation from current focusing at multiple cochlear locations in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Monica; Landsberger, David M

    2016-03-01

    Channel interaction from a broad spread of excitation is likely to be a limiting factor in performance by cochlear implant users. Although partial tripolar stimulation has been shown to reduce spread of excitation, the magnitude of the reduction is highly variable across subjects. Because the reduction in spread of excitation is typically only measured at one electrode for a given subject, the degree of variability across cochlear locations is unknown. The first goal of the present study was to determine if the reduction in spread of excitation observed from partial tripolar current focusing systematically varies across the cochlea. The second goal was to measure the variability in reduction of spread of excitation relative to monopolar stimulation across the cochlea. The third goal was to expand upon previous results that suggest that scaling of verbal descriptors can be used to predict the reduction in spread of excitation, by increasing the limited number of sites previously evaluated and verify the relationships remain with the larger dataset. The spread of excitation for monopolar and partial tripolar stimulation was measured at 5 cochlear locations using a psychophysical forward masking task. Results of the present study suggest that although partial tripolar stimulation typically reduces spread of excitation, the degree of reduction in spread of excitation was found to be highly variable and no effect of cochlear location was found. Additionally, subjective scaling of certain verbal descriptors (Clean/Dirty, Pure/Noisy) correlated with the reduction in spread of excitation suggesting sound quality scaling might be used as a quick clinical estimate of channels providing a reduction in spread of excitation. This quick scaling technique might help clinicians determine which patients would be most likely to benefit from a focused strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression Patterns of Odorant Receptors and Response Properties of Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Anderson C.; Tian, Huikai; Grosmaitre, Xavier; Ma, Minghong

    2009-01-01

    The sense of smell deteriorates in normal aging, but the underling mechanisms are still elusive. Here we investigated age-related alterations in expression patterns of odorant receptor (OR) genes and functional properties of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)—2 critical factors that define the odor detection threshold in the olfactory epithelium. Using in situ hybridization for 9 representative OR genes, we compared the cell densities of each OR in coronal nose sections at different ages (3–27 ...

  4. The long-term concerns post cochlear implantation as experienced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality of life of families with children who have a hearing loss or who are fitted with cochlear implants. .... term going into the work force with a severe disability will he be .... balance between professional caution and urgency of treatment.

  5. Cochlear Implants Keep Twin Sisters Learning, Discovering Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Cochlear Implants Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... in noisy environments—a critical ability in a classroom. Before the second implant, Mia was pulling back ...

  6. Auditory Mechanics of the Tectorial Membrane and the Cochlear Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, Núria; Manoussaki, Daphne; Chadwick, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review This review is timely and relevant since new experimental and theoretical findings suggest that cochlear mechanics from the nanoscale to the macroscale are affected by mechanical properties of the tectorial membrane and the spiral shape. Recent findings Main tectorial membrane themes covered are i) composition and morphology, ii) nanoscale mechanical interactions with the outer hair cell bundle, iii) macroscale longitudinal coupling, iv) fluid interaction with inner hair cell bundles, v) macroscale dynamics and waves. Main cochlear spiral themes are macroscale low-frequency energy focusing and microscale organ of Corti shear gain. Implications Findings from new experimental and theoretical models reveal exquisite sensitivity of cochlear mechanical performance to tectorial membrane structural organization, mechanics, and its positioning with respect to hair bundles. The cochlear spiral geometry is a major determinant of low frequency hearing. Suggestions are made for future research directions. PMID:21785353

  7. COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN A PATIENT WITH USHER'S SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Derinsu, Ufuk; Ciprut, Ayca

    2016-01-01

    Usher's Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Usher’s Syndrome patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss can be considered as candidates for cochlear implantation.This case study reports a deaf-blind with Usher's Syndrome who received a cochlear implant, the audiological evaluation is presented and the therapy sessions are discussed. The patient demonstrated good performance overtime after the...

  8. Language understanding and vocabulary of early cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L; Busch, GW; Sandahl, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level.......The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....

  9. Computational tool for postoperative evaluation of cochlear implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, Guilherme; Pavan, Ana Luiza M.; Pina, Diana R. de; Altemani, Joao M.C.; Castilho, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a tool to calculate the insertion depth angle of cochlear implants, from computed tomography exams. The tool uses different image processing techniques, such as thresholding and active contour. Then, we compared the average insertion depth angle of three different implant manufacturers. The developed tool can be used, in the future, to compare the insertion depth angle of the cochlear implant with postoperative response of patient's hearing. (author)

  10. Cochlear implantation in the Mondini inner ear malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, R T; Robbins, A J; Myres, W A; Pope, M L

    1986-07-01

    We report the case of a profoundly deaf 4-year-old boy with congenital deafness as a result of Mondini's dysplasia. The Mondini inner ear malformation is the result of arrested labyrinthine development during embryogenesis and is characterized by both bony and membranous anomalies of the inner ear. The dysplastic cochlear anatomy does not preclude successful cochlear implantation, and electrical threshold measurements are similar to those recorded in pediatric subjects deafened as a result of other causes.

  11. Psycholinguistic abilities in cochlear implant and hearing impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Hatem Ezzeldin; Eldin, Sally Taher Kheir; Al Kasaby, Rasha Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many congenitally sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) children and cochlear implant (CI) recipients develop near-normal language skills. However, there is a wide variation in individual outcomes following cochlear implantation, or using hearing aids. Some CI recipients or Hearing aids users never develop useable speech and oral language skills. The causes of this enormous variation in outcomes are only partly understood at the present time. So, the aim of this study was to assess th...

  12. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Hajime; Kashio, Akinori; Sakata, Aki; Tsutsumiuchi, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. F...

  13. EP3 receptors inhibit antidiuretic-hormone-dependent sodium transport across frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Nielsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+......Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+...

  14. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. PMID:27413159

  15. Static length changes of cochlear outer hair cells can tune low-frequency hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Ciganović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea not only transduces sound-induced vibration into neural spikes, it also amplifies weak sound to boost its detection. Actuators of this active process are sensory outer hair cells in the organ of Corti, whereas the inner hair cells transduce the resulting motion into electric signals that propagate via the auditory nerve to the brain. However, how the outer hair cells modulate the stimulus to the inner hair cells remains unclear. Here, we combine theoretical modeling and experimental measurements near the cochlear apex to study the way in which length changes of the outer hair cells deform the organ of Corti. We develop a geometry-based kinematic model of the apical organ of Corti that reproduces salient, yet counter-intuitive features of the organ's motion. Our analysis further uncovers a mechanism by which a static length change of the outer hair cells can sensitively tune the signal transmitted to the sensory inner hair cells. When the outer hair cells are in an elongated state, stimulation of inner hair cells is largely inhibited, whereas outer hair cell contraction leads to a substantial enhancement of sound-evoked motion near the hair bundles. This novel mechanism for regulating the sensitivity of the hearing organ applies to the low frequencies that are most important for the perception of speech and music. We suggest that the proposed mechanism might underlie frequency discrimination at low auditory frequencies, as well as our ability to selectively attend auditory signals in noisy surroundings.

  16. Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 5.000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm/sup -2/ to 10.000 Jm/sup -2/ and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hsub(c) was 200 Jm/sup -2/ and lens threshold (Hsub(L)) was 7.500 Jm/sup -2/. The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared.

  17. Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 5.000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm -2 to 10.000 Jm -2 and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hsub(c) was 200 Jm -2 and lens threshold (Hsub(L)) was 7.500 Jm -2 . The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared. (orig.) [de

  18. Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Maximizing Expected Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Kate E; Blum, Nathan J; Waryasz, Stephanie A; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Sonia is a 4 years 1 month-year-old girl with Waardenburg syndrome and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who had bilateral cochlear implants at 2 years 7 months years of age. She is referred to Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics by her speech/language pathologist because of concerns that her language skills are not progressing as expected after the cochlear implant. At the time of the implant, she communicated using approximately 20 signs and 1 spoken word (mama). At the time of the evaluation (18 months after the implant) she had approximately 70 spoken words (English and Spanish) and innumerable signs that she used to communicate. She could follow 1-step directions in English but had more difficulty after 2-step directions.Sonia was born in Puerto Rico at 40 weeks gestation after an uncomplicated pregnancy. She failed her newborn hearing test and was given hearing aids that did not seem to help.At age 2 years, Sonia, her mother, and younger sister moved to the United States where she was diagnosed with bilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss. Genetic testing led to a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (group of genetic conditions that can cause hearing loss and changes in coloring [pigmentation] of the hair, skin, and eyes). She received bilateral cochlear implants 6 months later.Sonia's mother is primarily Spanish-speaking and mostly communicates with her in Spanish or with gestures but has recently begun to learn American Sign Language (ASL). In a preschool program at a specialized school for the deaf, Sonia is learning both English and ASL. Sonia seems to prefer to use ASL to communicate.Sonia receives speech and language therapy (SLT) 3 times per week (90 minutes total) individually in school and once per week within a group. She is also receiving outpatient SLT once per week. Therapy sessions are completed in English, with the aid of an ASL interpreter. Sonia's language scores remain low, with her receptive skills in the first percentile, and her

  19. [Cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome type II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liangcai; Guo, Menghe; Chen, Shuaijun; Liu, Shuangriu; Chen, Hao; Gong, Jian

    2010-05-01

    To describe the multi-channel cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome including surgeries, pre and postoperative hearing assessments as well as outcomes of speech recognition. Multi-channel cochlear implantation surgeries have been performed in 12 cases with Waardenburg syndrome type II in our department from 2000 to 2008. All the patients received multi-channel cochlear implantation through transmastoid facial recess approach. The postoperative outcomes of 12 cases were compared with 12 cases with no inner ear malformation as a control group. The electrodes were totally inserted into the cochlear successfully, there was no facial paralysis and cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred after operation. The hearing threshold in this series were similar to that of the normal cochlear implantation. After more than half a year of speech rehabilitation, the abilities of speech discrimination and spoken language of all the patients were improved compared with that of preoperation. Multi-channel cochlear implantation could be performed in the cases with Waardenburg syndrome, preoperative hearing and images assessments should be done.

  20. Production of verb tenses in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovac Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of verb tenses leads to better language development of children with cochlear implants. The aim of this study was to assess the acquisition of verb tenses in children with cochlear implants. The sample included 60 children, aged from 9 to 15, with average intellectual abilities. The study group consisted of 30 patients with cochlear implants, with no additional disabilities. The control group consisted of 30 subjects with typical speech - language development and preserved hearing. The acquisition of basic tenses was assessed by 'Corpus for the Assessment of the Use of Tenses' (Dimić, 2003. Significant statistical differences were found in the use of the present tense in children with cochlear implants and hearing children (t=-4.385; p<0.001 as well as in the use of the past tense (t=-4.650; p<0.001, and the future tense (t=-4.269; p<0.001. There was also a significant difference in the use of irregular verb 'go' (t=-3.958; p<0.001, as well as in the combination of the present and the past tense (t=-5.806; p<0.001. The present tense was used correctly by most children with cochlear implants (70%, followed by the past tense (53%, and finally the future tense (23%. Children with cochlear implants, even after several years of re/habilitation, do not reach the grammatical development of children with normal hearing.

  1. Evaluating cochlear implant trauma to the scala vestibuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunka, O; Kiefer, J; Unkelbach, M H; Radeloff, A; Gstoettner, W

    2005-04-01

    Placement of cochlear implant electrodes into the scala vestibuli may be intentional, e.g. in case of blocked scala tympani or unintentional as a result of trauma to the basilar membrane or erroneous location of the cochieostomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological consequences and cochlear trauma after implantation of different cochlear implant electrode arrays in the scala vestibuli. Human temporal bone study with histological and radiological evaluation. Twelve human cadaver temporal bones were implanted with different cochlear implant electrodes. Implanted bones were processed using a special method to section undecalcified bone. Cochlear trauma and intracochlear positions. All implanted electrodes were implanted into the scala vestibuli using a special approach that allows direct scala vestibuli insertions. Fractures of the osseous spiral lamina were evaluated in some bones in the basal cochlear regions. In most electrodes, delicate structures of the organ of Corti were left intact, however, Reissner's membrane was destroyed in all specimens and the electrode lay upon the tectorial membrane. In some bones the organ of Corti was destroyed. Scala vestibuli insertions did not cause severe trauma to osseous or neural structures, thus preserving the basis for electrostimulation of the cochlea. However, destruction of Reissner's membrane and impact on the Organ of Corti can be assumed to destroy residual hearing.

  2. United Kingdom national paediatric bilateral cochlear implant audit: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen; Bele, Devyanee; Brinton, Julie; Lutman, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Prior to 2009, United Kingdom (UK) public funding was mainly only available for children to receive unilateral cochlear implants. In 2009, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence published guidance for cochlear implantation following their review. According to these guidelines, all suitable children are eligible to have simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants or a sequential bilateral cochlear implant if they had received the first before the guidelines were published. Fifteen UK cochlear implant centres formed a consortium to carry out a multi-centre audit. The audit involves collecting data from simultaneously and sequentially implanted children at four intervals: before bilateral cochlear implants or before the sequential implant, 1, 2, and 3 years after bilateral implants. The measures include localization, speech recognition in quiet and background noise, speech production, listening, vocabulary, parental perception, quality of life, and surgical data including complications. The audit has now passed the 2-year point, and data have been received on 850 children. This article provides a first view of some data received up until March 2012.

  3. Cochlear implantation for single-sided deafness and tinnitus suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jourdan T; O'Connell, Brendan; Hedley-Williams, Andrea; Wanna, George

    To quantify the potential effectiveness of cochlear implantation for tinnitus suppression in patients with single-sided deafness using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. The study included 12 patients with unilateral tinnitus who were undergoing cochlear implantation for single-sided deafness. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory was administered at the patient's cochlear implant candidacy evaluation appointment prior to implantation and every cochlear implant follow-up appointment, except activation, following implantation. Patient demographics and speech recognition scores were also retrospectively recorded using the electronic medical record. A significant reduction was found when comparing Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score preoperatively (61.2±27.5) to the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score after three months of cochlear implant use (24.6±28.2, p=0.004) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score beyond 6months of CI use (13.3±18.9, p=0.008). Further, 45% of patients reported total tinnitus suppression. Mean CNC word recognition score improved from 2.9% (SD 9.4) pre-operatively to 40.8% (SD 31.7) by 6months post-activation, which was significantly improved from pre-operative scores (p=0.008). The present data is in agreement with previously published studies that have shown an improvement in tinnitus following cochlear implantation for the large majority of patients with single-sided deafness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... aim of this thesis is to compare and evaluate selected rapid evaluation techniques for sensory profiling. Method variations have been suggested for evaluations in product development and quality control, and method insight is provided. The thesis includes three original studies, designed...... as a consequence of the current practices and needs faced in the industry. Study I compared applicability and validity of rapid methods across several panels of trained assessors. Two rapid approaches were introduced for the evaluation of foods. The first method, ‘Free Multiple Sorting’, allows subjects to perform...

  5. Binaural enhancement for bilateral cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (BCI) users receive limited binaural cues and, thus, show little improvement to speech intelligibility from spatial cues. The feasibility of a method for enhancing the binaural cues available to BCI users is investigated. This involved extending interaural differences of levels, which typically are restricted to high frequencies, into the low-frequency region. Speech intelligibility was measured in BCI users listening over headphones and with direct stimulation, with a target talker presented to one side of the head in the presence of a masker talker on the other side. Spatial separation was achieved by applying either naturally occurring binaural cues or enhanced cues. In this listening configuration, BCI patients showed greater speech intelligibility with the enhanced binaural cues than with naturally occurring binaural cues. In some situations, it is possible for BCI users to achieve greater speech intelligibility when binaural cues are enhanced by applying interaural differences of levels in the low-frequency region.

  6. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lu

    Full Text Available Modern cochlear implant (CI users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  7. Ultra-Wideband Transceivers for Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisenzahn Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB radio offers low power consumption, low power spectral density, high immunity against interference, and other benefits, not only for consumer electronics, but also for medical devices. A cochlear implant (CI is an electronic hearing apparatus, requiring a wireless link through human tissue. In this paper we propose an UWB link for a data rate of Mbps and a propagation distance up to 500 mm. Transmitters with step recovery diode and transistor pulse generators are proposed. Two types of antennas and their filter characteristics in the UWB spectrum will be discussed. An ultra-low-power back tunnel diode receiver prototype is described and compared with conventional detector receivers.

  8. Cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chinghsiung; Lin Shinnkuang E-mail: sk1943@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Chang Yeujhy

    2001-11-01

    The authors describe a patient with isolated involvement of vestibulocochlear nerve by a huge vascular loop from vertebral dolichoectasia. No other neurological deficit was found except for unilateral hearing loss. Abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potential study indicated a retrocochlear lesion. The brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally enhanced vascular lesion impinged on the left porus acusticus with a displacement of the brainstem to the right. There was no infarction in the brainstem. A cerebral angiography demonstrated a megadolichoectatic horizontal loop at the intracranial portion of the left vertebral artery. There was no thrombus or atherosclerosis in the vertebrobasilar system. A mechanical compression by a vascular loop is the only possible pathogenesis for hearing loss. The authors diagnose this condition as cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome.

  9. The cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal in children with normal cochlea but cochlear nerve deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Fei; Li, Jianhong; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Zhenchang [Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)], e-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com; Mo, Lingyan [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: There is an increasing frequency of requests for cochlear implantation (CI) in deaf children and more detailed image information is necessary for selecting appropriate candidates. Cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) is a contraindication to CI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to evaluate the integrity of the cochlear nerve. The abnormalities of the cochlear nerve canal (CNC) and internal auditory canal (IAC) have been reported to be associated with CND. Purpose: To correlate CNC manifestation, size, and IAC diameter on high-resolution CT (HRCT) with CND diagnosed by MRI in children. Material and Methods: HRCT images from 35 sensorineurally deaf children who had normal cochlea but bilateral or unilateral CND diagnosed by MRI were studied retrospectively. The CNC and IAC manifestation and size were assessed and correlated with CND. Results: CND was diagnosed by MRI in 54/70 ears (77.1%). Thirty-two ears had an absent cochlear nerve (59.3%), while 22 ears had a small cochlear nerve (40.7%). The CNC diameter was <1.5 mm in 36 ears (66.7%). The CNC diameter ranged between 1.5 and 2.0 mm in seven ears (13.0%) and was >2.0 mm in 11 ears (20.4%). The IAC diameter was <3.0 mm in 25 ears (46.3%) and >3.0 mm in 29 ears (53.7%). Conclusion: The hypoplastic CNC might be more highly indicative of CND than that of a narrow IAC.

  10. The cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal in children with normal cochlea but cochlear nerve deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Fei; Li, Jianhong; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Zhenchang; Mo, Lingyan

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing frequency of requests for cochlear implantation (CI) in deaf children and more detailed image information is necessary for selecting appropriate candidates. Cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) is a contraindication to CI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to evaluate the integrity of the cochlear nerve. The abnormalities of the cochlear nerve canal (CNC) and internal auditory canal (IAC) have been reported to be associated with CND. Purpose: To correlate CNC manifestation, size, and IAC diameter on high-resolution CT (HRCT) with CND diagnosed by MRI in children. Material and Methods: HRCT images from 35 sensorineurally deaf children who had normal cochlea but bilateral or unilateral CND diagnosed by MRI were studied retrospectively. The CNC and IAC manifestation and size were assessed and correlated with CND. Results: CND was diagnosed by MRI in 54/70 ears (77.1%). Thirty-two ears had an absent cochlear nerve (59.3%), while 22 ears had a small cochlear nerve (40.7%). The CNC diameter was 2.0 mm in 11 ears (20.4%). The IAC diameter was 3.0 mm in 29 ears (53.7%). Conclusion: The hypoplastic CNC might be more highly indicative of CND than that of a narrow IAC

  11. [Cochlear implants in the social courts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottner, A; Iro, H; Schützenberger, A; Hoppe, U

    2018-02-01

    Since the indication for receiving a cochlear implant (CI) has widened (single-sided deafness [SSD], electric acoustic stimulation [EAS], bilateral CI, CI for long-term deafness), more and more patients come into consideration for such a treatment. Hence, disputes increasingly arise between patients and their insurance companies concerning the question of whether surgery and follow-up treatment have to be paid for by statutory health insurance. This work provides an overview of judgments rendered by the German social courts. We investigated whether and in which cases it is advisable for a patient to go to court, and how long the proceedings may take. We looked for judgments in the two biggest commercial legal databases and in the database of the German social courts, using combinations of the search parameters "Cochlear," "Cochlea," "Implant," and "Implantat." Three verdicts were attained by directly contacting the court; another one was mentioned in an article. The reviewed judgements were issued between 2003 and 2017. A total of 12 judgments were found. The patients won in all but one of the main proceedings. The case that was lost concerned exceptional circumstances. One patient didn't get the desired interim measure, but won in the main proceedings. The proceedings took between 1 year and 8 months, and 9 years and 5 months. Despite the amount of time the patient has to invest, taking legal action is worthwhile. The proceedings at the social courts are generally exempt from charges. In most cases, the statutory health insurance is ordered to pay for a CI.

  12. Parental perspectives of children using cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Marcela Roselin; Morettin, Marina; Zabeu, Julia Speranza; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Moret, Adriane Lima Mortari

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the parents' perspective with regard to evolution of their child with cochlear implant (CI). This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted at the Centro de Pesquisas Audiológicas of Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais of Universidade de São Paulo. The selection of the sample was performed from the spontaneous demand, among the months from July to December 2011. The final sample comprised 50 parents or guardians of children using CI, with minimum 1 year and maximum of 3 years of device use. The translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese version of the questionnaire "Perspectives of parents of children with cochlear implants" was applied. This instrument consists of 74 questions and allows quantification of the parents' perspective on subscales that illustrate the situation of the child and family. Each question has five options scored from one to five responses. The Spearman test for comparison of results between the subscales was applied. The social relationships, self-sufficiency, and communication subscales showed the highest mean score, whereas the worst score was for child support subscale, reflecting the independence and autonomy of the patients. The correlation between the child subscales was realized, and the results showed themselves significant and positive for communication subscale of communication with all others subscales. The family subscales also had a positive correlation with the communication, education, and self-sufficiency. These results demonstrate that parents have good expectations regarding communication, independence, and social participation of children after CI surgery, and this questionnaire is a useful tool for use in clinical practice.

  13. Effect of unilateral and simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on tinnitus : A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Alice; Smulders, Yvette E.; Ramakers, Geerte G. J.; Stegeman, Inge; Smit, Adriana L.; Van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Stokroos, Robert J.; Hendrice, Nadia; Free, Rolien H.; Maat, Bert; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Huinck, Wendy J.; Topsakal, Vedat; Tange, Rinze A.; Grolman, Wilko

    Objectives/HypothesisTo determine the effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus perception in patients with severe bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss and to demonstrate possible differences between unilateral and bilateral cochlear implantation. Study DesignProspective study.

  14. The Notch ligand JAG1 is required for sensory progenitor development in the mammalian inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Kiernan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, six separate sensory regions in the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance function. Each sensory region is made up of hair cells, which are the sensory cells, and their associated supporting cells, both arising from a common progenitor. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of these sensory organs. Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of hair cells and supporting cells by mediating lateral inhibition via the ligands Delta-like 1 and Jagged (JAG 2. However, another Notch ligand, JAG1, is expressed early in the sensory patches prior to cell differentiation, indicating that there may be an earlier role for Notch signaling in sensory development in the ear. Here, using conditional gene targeting, we show that the Jag1 gene is required for the normal development of all six sensory organs within the inner ear. Cristae are completely lacking in Jag1-conditional knockout (cko mutant inner ears, whereas the cochlea and utricle show partial sensory development. The saccular macula is present but malformed. Using SOX2 and p27kip1 as molecular markers of the prosensory domain, we show that JAG1 is initially expressed in all the prosensory regions of the ear, but becomes down-regulated in the nascent organ of Corti by embryonic day 14.5, when the cells exit the cell cycle and differentiate. We also show that both SOX2 and p27kip1 are down-regulated in Jag1-cko inner ears. Taken together, these data demonstrate that JAG1 is expressed early in the prosensory domains of both the cochlear and vestibular regions, and is required to maintain the normal expression levels of both SOX2 and p27kip1. These data demonstrate that JAG1-mediated Notch signaling is essential during early development for establishing the prosensory regions of the inner ear.

  15. Is TrpM5 a reliable marker for chemosensory cells? Multiple types of microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finger Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, ciliated receptor neurons, basal cells, and supporting cells were considered the principal components of the main olfactory epithelium. Several studies reported the presence of microvillous cells but their function is unknown. A recent report showed cells in the main olfactory epithelium that express the transient receptor potential channel TrpM5 claiming that these cells are chemosensory and that TrpM5 is an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs. We asked whether the TrpM5-positive cells in the olfactory epithelium are microvillous and whether they belong to a chemosensory system, i.e. are olfactory neurons or trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells. Results We investigated the main olfactory epithelium of mice at the light and electron microscopic level and describe several subpopulations of microvillous cells. The ultrastructure of the microvillous cells reveals at least three morphologically different types two of which express the TrpM5 channel. None of these cells have an axon that projects to the olfactory bulb. Tests with a large panel of cell markers indicate that the TrpM5-positive cells are not sensory since they express neither neuronal markers nor are contacted by trigeminal nerve fibers. Conclusion We conclude that TrpM5 is not a reliable marker for chemosensory cells. The TrpM5-positive cells of the olfactory epithelium are microvillous and may be chemoresponsive albeit not part of the sensory apparatus. Activity of these microvillous cells may however influence functionality of local elements of the olfactory system.

  16. Expression pattern of adhesion molecules in junctional epithelium differs from that in other gingival epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, S; Yaegashi, T; Oikawa, Y; Fujiwara, H; Mikami, T; Takeda, Y; Satoh, M

    2006-08-01

    The gingival epithelium is the physiologically important interface between the bacterially colonized gingival sulcus and periodontal soft and mineralized connective tissues, requiring protection from exposure to bacteria and their products. However, of the three epithelia comprising the gingival epithelium, the junctional epithelium has much wider intercellular spaces than the sulcular epithelium and oral gingival epithelium. Hence, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cell adhesion structure in the junctional epithelium compared with the other two epithelia. Gingival epithelia excised at therapeutic flap surgery from patients with periodontitis were examined for expression of adhesion molecules by immunofluorescence. In the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but not in the junctional epithelium, desmoglein 1 and 2 in cell-cell contact sites were more abundant in the upper than the suprabasal layers. E-cadherin, the main transmembranous molecule of adherens junctions, was present in spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but was scarce in the junctional epithelium. In contrast, desmoglein 3 and P-cadherin were present in all layers of the junctional epithelium as well as the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium. Connexin 43 was clearly localized to spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium, sulcular epithelium and parts of the junctional epithelium. Claudin-1 and occludin were expressed in the cell membranes of a few superficial layers of the oral gingival epithelium. These findings indicated that the junctional epithelium contains only a few desmosomes, composed of only desmoglein 3; adherens junctions are probably absent because of defective E-cadherin. Thus, the anchoring junctions connecting junctional epithelium cells are lax, causing widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, the oral gingival epithelium, which has a few tight junctions, functions as a barrier.

  17. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  18. Persistent Thalamic Sound Processing Despite Profound Cochlear Denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Chambers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons at higher stages of sensory processing can partially compensate for a sudden drop in input from the periphery through a homeostatic plasticity process that increases the gain on weak afferent inputs. Even after a profound unilateral auditory neuropathy where > 95% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers and inner hair cells have been eliminated with ouabain, central gain can restore the cortical processing and perceptual detection of basic sounds delivered to the denervated ear. In this model of profound auditory neuropathy, cortical processing and perception recover despite the absence of an auditory brainstem response (ABR or brainstem acoustic reflexes, and only a partial recovery of sound processing at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC, an auditory midbrain nucleus. In this study, we induced a profound cochlear neuropathy with ouabain and asked whether central gain enabled a compensatory plasticity in the auditory thalamus comparable to the full recovery of function previously observed in the auditory cortex (ACtx, the partial recovery observed in the IC, or something different entirely. Unilateral ouabain treatment in adult mice effectively eliminated the ABR, yet robust sound-evoked activity persisted in a minority of units recorded from the contralateral medial geniculate body (MGB of awake mice. Sound-driven MGB units could decode moderate and high-intensity sounds with accuracies comparable to sham-treated control mice, but low-intensity classification was near chance. Pure tone receptive fields and synchronization to broadband pulse trains also persisted, albeit with significantly reduced quality and precision, respectively. MGB decoding of temporally modulated pulse trains and speech tokens were both greatly impaired in ouabain-treated mice. Taken together, the absence of an ABR belied a persistent auditory processing at the level of the MGB that was likely enabled through increased central gain. Compensatory

  19. Cyclosporine a inhibits apoptosis of rat gingival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Su; Liu, Peihong; Li, Yanwu; Hou, Lin; Chen, Li; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in a site-specific response manner, but the molecular mechanism via which the lesion occurs is unclear. The present research aims to investigate the site-specific effect of CsA on the apoptosis of gingival epithelium associated with gingival hyperplasia. Forty Wistar rats were divided into CsA-treated and non-treated groups. Paraffin-embedded sections of mandibular first molars were selected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analyses of bcl-2 and caspase-3, and the staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The area of the whole gingival epithelium and the length of rete pegs were measured, and the number of bcl-2- and caspase-3-positive cells in the longest rete peg were counted. The analysis of variance for factorial designs and Fisher least significant difference test for post hoc analysis were used to determine the significance levels. In CsA-treated rats, bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas caspase-3 expression was downregulated, along with a reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. The site-specific distribution of bcl-2 was consistent with the site-specific hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in CsA-treated rats. CsA inhibited gingival epithelial apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and common pathway. The antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the site-specific hyperplasia of gingival epithelium induced by CsA. There were mechanistic differences in the regulation of apoptosis for cells in the attached gingival epithelium, free gingival epithelium, and junctional epithelium.

  20. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Re-Emergent Inhibition of Cochlear Inner Hair Cells in a Mouse Model of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Stephen Paul; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss among the elderly correlates with diminished social, mental, and physical health. Age-related cochlear cell death does occur, but growing anatomical evidence suggests that synaptic rearrangements on sensory hair cells also contribute to auditory functional decline. Here we present voltage-clamp recordings from inner hair cells of the C57BL/6J mouse model of age-related hearing loss, which reveal that cholinergic synaptic inputs re-emerge during aging. These efferents are functionally inhibitory, using the same ionic mechanisms as do efferent contacts present transiently before the developmental onset of hearing. The strength of efferent inhibition of inner hair cells increases with hearing threshold elevation. These data indicate that the aged cochlea regains features of the developing cochlea and that efferent inhibition of the primary receptors of the auditory system re-emerges with hearing impairment. Synaptic changes in the auditory periphery are increasingly recognized as important factors in hearing loss. To date, anatomical work has described the loss of afferent contacts from cochlear hair cells. However, relatively little is known about the efferent innervation of the cochlea during hearing loss. We performed intracellular recordings from mouse inner hair cells across the lifespan and show that efferent innervation of inner hair cells arises in parallel with the loss of afferent contacts and elevated hearing threshold during aging. These efferent neurons inhibit inner hair cells, raising the possibility that they play a role in the progression of age-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359701-06$15.00/0.

  2. Cochlear implantation in autistic children with profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2016-11-19

    Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Costs involved in using a cochlear implant in South Africa

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    Gillian Robyn Kerr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation is an expensive but effective lifelong intervention for individuals with a severe-to-profound hearing loss. The primary aim of this study was to survey the short- and long-term costs of cochlear implantation. Individuals (N=154 using cochlear implants obtained from the University of Stellenbosch-Tygerberg Hospital Cochlear Implant Unit in Cape Town, South Africa were surveyed using a questionnaire and patient record review. The questionnaire used a combination of closed and open-ended questions to gather both quantitative and qualitative information. Costs were categorised as short- and long-term costs. All costs were converted to constant rands (June 2010 using the Consumer Price Index to allow for comparison in real terms over time. In the first 10 years of implantation the average estimated costs incurred by adults totalled R379 626, and by children R455 225. The initial purchase of the implant system was the most substantial cost, followed by upgrading of the processor. Travel and accommodation costs peaked in the first 2 years. On average the participants spent R2 550 per year on batteries and spares. Rehabilitation for children cost an average of R7 200. Insurance costs averaged R4 040 per year, and processor repairs R3 000 each. In addition to the upfront expense of obtaining the cochlear implant system, individuals using a cochlear implant in South Africa should be prepared for the long-term costs of maintenance, accessing the unit, support services and additional costs associated with use. Knowledge of these costs is important to ensure that individuals are successful users of their cochlear implants in the long term.

  4. Image Registration of Cochlear µCT Data Using Heat Distribution Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin; Vera, Sergio; Fagertun, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of the anatomical variability of the human cochlear is important for the design and function of Cochlear Implants. Good non-rigid alignment of high-resolution cochlear μCT data is a challenging task. In this paper we study the use of heat distribution similarity between sampl...

  5. New Criteria of Indication and Selection of Patients to Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. L. Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous changes continue to occur in cochlear implant candidacy. In general, these have been accompanied by concomitant and satisfactory changes in surgical techniques. Together, this has advanced the utility and safety of cochlear implantation. Most devices are now approved for use in patients with severe to profound unilateral hearing loss rather then the prior requirement of a bilateral profound loss. Furthermore, studies have begun utilizing short electrode arrays for shallow insertion in patients with considerable low-frequency residual hearing. This technique will allow the recipient to continue to use acoustically amplified hearing for the low frequencies simultaneously with a cochlear implant for the high frequencies. The advances in design of, and indications for, cochlear implants have been matched by improvements in surgical techniques and decrease in complications. The resulting improvements in safety and efficacy have further encouraged the use of these devices. This paper will review the new concepts in the candidacy of cochlear implant. Medline data base was used to search articles dealing with the following topics: cochlear implant in younger children, cochlear implant and hearing preservation, cochlear implant for unilateral deafness and tinnitus, genetic hearing loss and cochlear implant, bilateral cochlear implant, neuropathy and cochlear implant and neural plasticity, and the selection of patients for cochlear implant.

  6. Stronger efferent suppression of cochlear neural potentials by contralateral acoustic stimulation in awake than in anesthetized chinchilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eAedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of sensory cells in the mammalian cochlea, inner hair cells, which make synaptic contact with auditory-nerve afferent fibers, and outer hair cells that are innervated by crossed and uncrossed medial olivocochlear (MOC efferent fibers. Contralateral acoustic stimulation activates the uncrossed efferent MOC fibers reducing cochlear neural responses, thus modifying the input to the central auditory system. The chinchilla, among all studied mammals, displays the lowest percentage of uncrossed MOC fibers raising questions about the strength and frequency distribution of the contralateral-sound effect in this species. On the other hand, MOC effects on cochlear sensitivity have been mainly studied in anesthetized animals and since the MOC-neuron activity depends on the level of anesthesia, it is important to assess the influence of anesthesia in the strength of efferent effects. Seven adult chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger were chronically implanted with round-window electrodes in both cochleae. We compared the effect of contralateral sound in awake and anesthetized condition. Compound action potentials (CAP and cochlear microphonics (CM were measured in the ipsilateral cochlea in response to tones in absence and presence of contralateral sound. Control measurements performed after middle-ear muscles section in one animal discarded any possible middle-ear reflex activation. Contralateral sound produced CAP amplitude reductions in all chinchillas, with suppression effects greater by about 1-3 dB in awake than in anesthetized animals. In contrast, CM amplitude increases of up to 1.9 dB were found in only three awake chinchillas. In both conditions the strongest efferent effects were produced by contralateral tones at frequencies equal or close to those of ipsilateral tones. Contralateral CAP suppressions for 1-6 kHz ipsilateral tones corresponded to a span of uncrossed MOC fiber innervation reaching at least the central third of the

  7. Stronger efferent suppression of cochlear neural potentials by contralateral acoustic stimulation in awake than in anesthetized chinchilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo, Cristian; Tapia, Eduardo; Pavez, Elizabeth; Elgueda, Diego; Delano, Paul H; Robles, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There are two types of sensory cells in the mammalian cochlea, inner hair cells, which make synaptic contact with auditory-nerve afferent fibers, and outer hair cells that are innervated by crossed and uncrossed medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent fibers. Contralateral acoustic stimulation activates the uncrossed efferent MOC fibers reducing cochlear neural responses, thus modifying the input to the central auditory system. The chinchilla, among all studied mammals, displays the lowest percentage of uncrossed MOC fibers raising questions about the strength and frequency distribution of the contralateral-sound effect in this species. On the other hand, MOC effects on cochlear sensitivity have been mainly studied in anesthetized animals and since the MOC-neuron activity depends on the level of anesthesia, it is important to assess the influence of anesthesia in the strength of efferent effects. Seven adult chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) were chronically implanted with round-window electrodes in both cochleae. We compared the effect of contralateral sound in awake and anesthetized condition. Compound action potentials (CAP) and cochlear microphonics (CM) were measured in the ipsilateral cochlea in response to tones in absence and presence of contralateral sound. Control measurements performed after middle-ear muscles section in one animal discarded any possible middle-ear reflex activation. Contralateral sound produced CAP amplitude reductions in all chinchillas, with suppression effects greater by about 1-3 dB in awake than in anesthetized animals. In contrast, CM amplitude increases of up to 1.9 dB were found in only three awake chinchillas. In both conditions the strongest efferent effects were produced by contralateral tones at frequencies equal or close to those of ipsilateral tones. Contralateral CAP suppressions for 1-6 kHz ipsilateral tones corresponded to a span of uncrossed MOC fiber innervation reaching at least the central third of the chinchilla cochlea.

  8. Gross and fine dissection of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-05-08

    Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is able to regenerate HCs, an ability that mammals lose shortly after birth. We use the inner ear of adult zebrafish as a model system to study the mechanisms of inner ear HC regeneration in adult vertebrates that could be helpful for clinical therapy of hearing/balance deficits in human as a result of HC loss. Here we demonstrate how to do gross and fine dissections of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish. The gross dissection removes the tissues surrounding the inner ear and is helpful for preparing tissue sections, which allows us to examine the detailed structure of the sensory epithelia. The fine dissection cleans up the non-sensory-epithelial tissues of each individual epithelium and enables us to examine the heterogeneity of the whole epithelium easily in whole-mount epithelial samples.

  9. Gene expression underlying enhanced, steroid-dependent auditory sensitivity of hair cell epithelium in a vocal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Daniel J; Feng, Ni Y; Bass, Andrew H

    2015-10-14

    Successful animal communication depends on a receiver's ability to detect a sender's signal. Exemplars of adaptive sender-receiver coupling include acoustic communication, often important in the context of seasonal reproduction. During the reproductive summer season, both male and female midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit similar increases in the steroid-dependent frequency sensitivity of the saccule, the main auditory division of the inner ear. This form of auditory plasticity enhances detection of the higher frequency components of the multi-harmonic, long-duration advertisement calls produced repetitively by males during summer nights of peak vocal and spawning activity. The molecular basis of this seasonal auditory plasticity has not been fully resolved. Here, we utilize an unbiased transcriptomic RNA sequencing approach to identify differentially expressed transcripts within the saccule's hair cell epithelium of reproductive summer and non-reproductive winter fish. We assembled 74,027 unique transcripts from our saccular epithelial sequence reads. Of these, 6.4 % and 3.0 % were upregulated in the reproductive and non-reproductive saccular epithelium, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed transcripts showed that the reproductive saccular epithelium was transcriptionally, translationally, and metabolically more active than the non-reproductive epithelium. Furthermore, the expression of a specific suite of candidate genes, including ion channels and components of steroid-signaling pathways, was upregulated in the reproductive compared to the non-reproductive saccular epithelium. We found reported auditory functions for 14 candidate genes upregulated in the reproductive midshipman saccular epithelium, 8 of which are enriched in mouse hair cells, validating their hair cell-specific functions across vertebrates. We identified a suite of differentially expressed genes belonging to neurotransmission and

  10. Sensory Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    little note of the body-mind interactions we have with the material world. Utilizing examples from primary schools, it is argued that a sensory pedagogy in science requires a deliberate sensitization and validation of the senses’ presence and that a sensor pedagogy approach may reveal the unique ways...... in how we all experience the world. Troubling science education pedagogy is therefore also a reconceptualization of who we are and how we make sense of the world and the acceptance that the body-mind is present, imbalanced and complex....

  11. The changing sensory room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    In 2017 the kindergarten The Milky Way in the city Vejle in Denmark made a sensory room that has the special ability change whenever wanted by the children and social educators. Kjetil Sandvik (to the right) from Copenhagen University and Klaus Thestrup from Aarhus University reflects upon what...... they saw, took part in and talked with the social educators about. Jacob Knudsen from VIFIN filmed the two gentlemen and organised the project. it is a room composed around common experiments, many self-made objects, open narrative structures. and a combination of digital and analogue elements....

  12. Transcanal labyrinthectomy for intractable vertigo after unilateral cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Basura, Gregory J; Zwolan, Teresa A; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Telian, Steven A

    2011-10-01

    Document the use of transcanal labyrinthectomy to treat disabling attacks of vertigo after unilateral cochlear implantation. A 46-year-old woman with severe-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss secondary to enlarged vestibular aqueducts underwent cochlear implantation for her right ear with a Nucleus Freedom device. The surgery was uneventful, and postoperative imaging confirmed that the electrode was positioned properly. She developed episodic vertigo 10 to 14 days after the implant surgery, which failed to improve with aggressive vestibular rehabilitation therapy. Plugging of the round window for possible perilymphatic fistula did not relieve her symptoms. Right transcanal labyrinthectomy supplemented by filling the vestibule with gentamicin-soaked Gelfoam and then a customized vestibular rehabilitation program. Comparison of vestibular symptoms and cochlear implant performance before and after transcanal labyrinthectomy. The patient had immediate relief of symptoms, and the function of the cochlear implant was not adversely affected. Transcanal labyrinthectomy may be an effective method to ablate the vestibular end organ after unilateral cochlear implantation. It can offer relief of disabling vertigo without adversely affecting the performance of the implant.

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen upregulates cochlear constitutive nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Ming-Ching

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is a known adjuvant for treating ischemia-related inner ear diseases. Controversies still exist in the role of HBOT in cochlear diseases. Few studies to date have investigated the cellular changes that occur in inner ears after HBOT. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS, is an important signaling molecule in cochlear physiology and pathology. Here we investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on eardrum morphology, cochlear function and expression of NOS isoforms in cochlear substructures after repetitive HBOT in guinea pigs. Results Minor changes in the eardrum were observed after repetitive HBOT, which did not result in a significant hearing threshold shift by tone burst auditory brainstem responses. A differential effect of HBOT on the expression of NOS isoforms was identified. Upregulation of constitutive NOS (nNOS and eNOS was found in the substructures of the cochlea after HBOT, but inducible NOS was not found in normal or HBOT animals, as shown by immunohistochemistry. There was no obvious DNA fragmentation present in this HBOT animal model. Conclusions The present evidence indicates that the customary HBOT protocol may increase constitutive NOS expression but such upregulation did not cause cell death in the treated cochlea. The cochlear morphology and auditory function are consequently not changed through the protocol.

  14. Verbal Working Memory in Children With Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Low, Keri E.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Verbal working memory in children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing was examined. Participants Ninety-three fourth graders (47 with normal hearing, 46 with cochlear implants) participated, all of whom were in a longitudinal study and had working memory assessed 2 years earlier. Method A dual-component model of working memory was adopted, and a serial recall task measured storage and processing. Potential predictor variables were phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, nonverbal IQ, and several treatment variables. Potential dependent functions were literacy, expressive language, and speech-in-noise recognition. Results Children with cochlear implants showed deficits in storage and processing, similar in size to those at second grade. Predictors of verbal working memory differed across groups: Phonological awareness explained the most variance in children with normal hearing; vocabulary explained the most variance in children with cochlear implants. Treatment variables explained little of the variance. Where potentially dependent functions were concerned, verbal working memory accounted for little variance once the variance explained by other predictors was removed. Conclusions The verbal working memory deficits of children with cochlear implants arise due to signal degradation, which limits their abilities to acquire phonological awareness. That hinders their abilities to store items using a phonological code. PMID:29075747

  15. Exploring the experiences of teenagers with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Victoria; Verschuur, Carl; Lathlean, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Teenage cochlear implant users' perceptions of deafness, surgery, fitting of the device and life as a cochlear implant wearer were explored in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of teenagers' experiences of living with the device. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were undertaken and analysed using thematic analysis. Ten teenagers aged 14-16 years with at least one cochlear implant were interviewed. Seven teenagers experienced great pre-operative anxiety and two reported significant post-operative pain. Four of the teenagers described a mismatch between their expectations and the disappointing reality of adjusting to the device. However, all the teenagers reported an enhanced sense of well-being as a result of being able to interact more easily with their world around them. The teenagers differed in the extent to which they identified with the hearing and deaf world. Despite the early challenges, over time the teenagers experienced many functional and psychosocial benefits. Most felt their lives were now easier as a result of the cochlear implant(s). They described complex, flexible identities. By giving prominence to the teenagers' voices this study has added new knowledge concerning their experience of surgery. The findings also more fully revealed the challenges of adjusting to the device and the impact of having a cochlear implant on the teenagers' identities. Clinical recommendations are made to address the gaps in service highlighted by these findings.

  16. Prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafeeri, Ahmad M; Alsanosi, Abdulrahman A

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of inner ear anomalies and the frequency of different anomaly types among cochlear implant recipients. This study included a retrospective chart review of all patients who received cochlear implants between January 2009 and January 2013 in King Abdulaziz University Hospital cochlear implant program in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All subjects underwent thin-cut CT of the temporal bone and MRI. The collected data included age, gender, and CT and MRI findings regarding temporal bone anomalies. Patients with any identified congenital inner ear anomalies were included in the study.  In total, 316 patients' cases were reviewed. Inner ear malformations were identified in 24 patients, which represented a prevalence of 7.5%. Among these 24 patients, 8 (33.3%) presented with a large vestibular aqueduct (LVA), 8 (33.3%) semicircular canal (SCC) dysplasia, 7 (29.1%) classical Mondini deformity, and one (4.1%) cochlear hypoplasia. The prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant recipients was 7.5%. This result is consistent with findings worldwide. The most common anomalies were LVA and SCC hypoplasia; by contrast, in other regions, the most common anomaly is either the Mondini deformity, or LVA.

  17. Fourteen-years experience with cochlear implantation in Ramathibodi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsuwan, Lalida; Cheewaruangroj, Wichit; Tungkeeratichai, Jumroon; Bhongmakapat, Thongchai; Thawin, Cheamchit; Lertsukprasert, Krisna; Tiravanitchakul, Rattinan; Dara, Rada; Laothamatas, Jiraporn

    2010-12-01

    To review the cochlear implant program in Ramathibodi Hospital and share experience of cochlear implantation emphasized on clinical and surgical outcomes. Retrospective review of 143 ears (140 patients) operated with cochlear implant between 1995 and 2009. The demographic data including etiology of deafness and findings from temporal bone CTscans were reviewed. The authors' experience with cochlear implant surgery in terms of patient selection, patient advisory clinic, necessary equipment, pre- and postoperative evaluations, surgical techniques and complications were discussed. Most congenital origin was unknown etiology and congenital rubella was the most common known cause. From the CT scans of congenital deafness, vestibular aqueduct dilatation was the most common and found in 29.31% while Mondini malformation was shown to be 16.37%. The authors' surgical technique of using the pocket method and designed bony ridge at cortical mastoid rim had helped stabilizing the implant and electrode fancoil. During the last two years, no complication or revision surgery was detected. Cochlear implant surgery in both children and adults can result in good surgical outcome and fewer complications under experienced surgeons and a good team.

  18. Cochlear Implants and Psychiatric Assessments: a Norrie Disease Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Denis; Dubois, Thomas; Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Gilain, Chantal; Garin, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    It is important to perform psychiatric assessments of adult patients who are candidates for cochlear implants both to screen them for psychiatric disorders and to assess their understanding and compliance with the procedure. Deafness is a factor of difficulty for conducting in-depth psychiatric interviews, but concomitant blindness may make it impossible. After a description of Norrie disease, a rare disease in which blindness and deafness may occur together, we propose a case report of a patient suffering from the disease and who consulted in view of a cochlear implant. Early information on cochlear implants appears to be necessary before total deafness occurs in patients suffering from Norrie disease. An inventory of digital communication tools that can be used by the patient is also highly valuable. Research should be supported for a more systematic use of psychiatric assessments prior to cochlear implants. In the special case of Norrie disease, we recommend early screening for mental retardation and related psychotic disorders and, depending on the patient's level of understanding, preventive information on the benefits and limits of cochlear implants before total deafness occurs.

  19. Influence of cochlear implantation on peripheral vestibular receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Eike; Louza, Julia P R; Wechtenbruch, Juliane; Gürkov, Robert

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to assess the influence of a cochlear implantation on peripheral vestibular receptor function in the inner ear in the implant and in the nonimplant side, and 2) to analyze a possible correlation with resulting vertigo symptoms. Prospective clinical study. Cochlear implant center at tertiary referral hospital. A total of 32 patients, aged 15 to 83 years, undergoing cochlear implantation were assessed pre- and postoperatively for caloric horizontal semicircular canal response and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials of the sacculus, and postoperatively for subjective vertigo symptoms. Patients with vertigo were compared with patients without symptoms with regard to the findings of the vestibular function tests. Cochlear implantation represents a significant risk factor for horizontal semicircular canal impairment (P 0.05). Cochlear implantation is a relevant risk factor for damage of peripheral vestibular receptor function. Therefore, preservation not only of residual hearing function but also of vestibular function should be aimed for, by using minimally invasive surgical techniques. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes and special considerations of cochlear implantation in waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Lenarz, Thomas; Giourgas, Alexandros; Durisin, Martin; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was a state-of-the-art analysis of cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Twenty-five patients with WS treated with cochlear implants in our department from 1990 to 2010. The 25 patients with WS underwent 35 cochlear implantations. Hearing outcome was evaluated using HSM sentence test in 65 dB in quiet, Freiburg Monosyllabic Test, and categories of auditory performance for children and compared with that of a control group. Anatomic abnormalities of the inner ear were examined using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the temporal bones. The mean follow-up time was 8.3 years (range, 0.3-18.3 yr). The majority achieved favorable postimplantation performance with mean HSM scores of 75.3% (range, 22.6%-99%) and Freiburg Monosyllabic Test scores of 67.8% (range, 14%-95%). However, in 4 cases, the results were less satisfactory. The comparison with the control group did not reveal any statistical significance (p = 0.56). In 6 patients (24%), behavioral disorders caused temporary difficulties during the rehabilitation procedure. Except of isolated large vestibule in 1 patient, the radiological assessment of the 50 temporal bones did not reveal any temporal bone abnormalities. Most patients with WS performed well with cochlear implants. However, WS is related to behavioral disorders that may cause temporary rehabilitation difficulties. Finally, temporal bone malformations that could affect cochlear implantation are notcharacteristic of WS.

  1. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  2. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of transepithelial corneal crosslinking with epithelium-off crosslinking (epithelium-off CXL in adult Pakistani population with progressive keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Akbar

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Transepithelial CXL is not recommended to be replaced completely by standard epithelium-off CXL due to continued ectatic progression in 25% of cases. However, thin corneas, unfit for standard epithelium-off CXL, can benefit from transepithelial CXL.

  4. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  5. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  6. Variable sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-03-01

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-Kumar; B, Nataraju; Bs, Nagaraja

    2014-07-01

    In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ≥ 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts ( 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy.

  8. Effects of chronic furosemide on central neural hyperactivity and cochlear thresholds after cochlear trauma in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina eMulders

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased neuronal spontaneous firing rates have been observed throughout the central auditory system after trauma to the cochlea and this hyperactivity is believed to be associated with the phantom perception of tinnitus. Previously we have shown in an animal model of hearing loss, that an acute injection with furosemide can significantly decrease hyperactivity after cochlear trauma and eliminate behavioural evidence of tinnitus of early onset. However, furosemide also has the potential to affect cochlear thresholds. In this paper we measured the effects of a chronic (daily injections for 7 days furosemide treatment on the spontaneous firing rate of inferior colliculus neurons and on cochlear thresholds in order to establish whether a beneficial effect on hyperactivity can be obtained without causing additional hearing loss. Guinea pigs were exposed to a 10 kHz, 124dB, 2 hour acoustic trauma, and after 5 days of recovery, were given daily i.p. injections of 80mg/kg furosemide or an equivalent amount of saline. The activity of single IC neurons was recorded 24 hours following the last injection. The furosemide treatment had no effect on cochlear thresholds compared to saline injections but did result in significant reductions in spontaneous firing rates recorded in inferior colliculus. These results that suggest a long term beneficial effect of furosemide on hyperactivity after cochlear trauma may be achievable without detrimental effects on hearing, which is important when considering therapeutic potential.

  9. The scala vestibuli for cochlear implantation. An anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, A J; Steenerson, R L

    1996-02-01

    Traditionally, cochlear implantation has used the scala tympani (ST) for electrode insertion. When faced with ST ossification, the surgeon may elect to drill out the cochlea to accomplish partial electrode insertion. Theoretically, another option in this situation is to insert the electrode into the scala vestibuli (SV). To determine whether or not the dimensions of the SV are sufficient to accommodate an electrode array so as to assess the feasibility of SV cochlear implantation. The study of 20 normal human temporal bones, comparing the maximum diameter and surface area of the ST with those of the combined SV and scala media. The dimensions of the SV and scala media were comparable to those of the ST and appeared sufficient to accommodate a cochlear implant electrode array. It appears that the combination of SV and scala media is a viable alternative route for electrode insertion, at least on the basis of anatomic dimensions, in those cases in which the ST is obliterated.

  10. Pre-, intra- and post-operative imaging of cochlear implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Naguib, N.N.N.; Burck, I. [University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Tawfik, A. [Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Emam, A. [University Hospital Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Nour-Eldin, A. [University Hospital Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Radiology; Stoever, T. [University Hospital of Frankfurt (Germany). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this review is to present essential imaging aspects in patients who are candidates for a possible cochlear implant as well as in postsurgical follow-up. Imaging plays a major role in providing information on preinterventional topography, variations and possible infections. Preoperative imaging using DVT, CT, MRI or CT and MRI together is essential for candidate selection, planning of surgical approach and exclusion of contraindications like the complete absence of the cochlea or cochlear nerve, or infection. Relative contraindications are variations of the cochlea and vestibulum. Intraoperative imaging can be performed by fluoroscopy, mobile radiography or DVT. Postoperative imaging is regularly performed by conventional X-ray, DVT, or CT. In summary, radiological imaging has its essential role in the pre- and post-interventional period for patients who are candidates for cochlear implants.

  11. Increase of corneal epithelium cell radioresistance during regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiosensitivity of the normal and regenerating cornea epithelium of C 57 Bl mice was performed on the cellular level, the duration of the cell cycle being taken into account. Criteria of radiation injuries were the number of chromosome aberrations, mitotic index and duration of mitotic block. The anterior part of the head was irradiated singly with 1.75, 3.5 or 7.0 Gy and also repeatedly 3.5 + 3.5 at a 24-hours interval. The corneas were fixed 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after irradiation. In all cases of irradiated mice the regenerating epithelium showed a shorter mitotic block and significantly lower cytogenetic injury as compared with the controls. Effects of fractionated irradiation were only shown in the regenerating epithelium. The results obtained indicate that regenerating epithelium cells of the cornea are significantly more radioresistant than normal epithelium due to activation of post-radiation recovery, and also, possibly, due to an increase in the content of endogenous radioprotectors. (author)

  12. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  13. Respiratory Epithelium Lined Cyst of the Maxilla: Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Martinelli-Kläy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary cysts, including the cysts lined by respiratory epithelium, can present a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of a maxillary cyst on an endodontically treated tooth #16, in which the cavity was totally lined by a respiratory epithelium. The patient, a 35-year-old male, presented with a generalized chronic periodontitis and complained of a pain in the tooth #16 region. A periodontal pocket extending to the root apices with pus coming out from the gingival was found. A combined endodontic periodontal was observed on a panoramic radiography. CBCT-scan revealed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion at the apices of the distobuccal root of the 16. A communication with the right maxillary sinus cavity and a maxillary and ethmoidal sinusitis were also observed. The lesion was removed and histological examination revealed a cyst lined exclusively by respiratory epithelium. Ciliated and rare mucous cells were also observed. The diagnosis could evoke a surgical ciliated cyst mimicking the radicular cyst but the patient has no previous history of trauma or surgery in the maxillofacial region. It could also be an unusual radicular cyst in which the stratified squamous epithelium was destroyed by inflammation and replaced by a respiratory epithelium of the maxillary sinus.

  14. Cochlear changes in presbycusis with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Kyoichi; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Schachern, Patricia A; Morita, Norimasa; Nomiya, Shigenobu; Deroee, Armin F; Doi, Katsumi; Mori, Kazunori; Murata, Kiyotaka; Paparella, Michael M

    2011-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is obscure and its treatment is therefore elusive. Significant progress in this field can only be achieved by determining the mechanisms of tinnitus generation, and thus, histopathologic findings of the cochlea in presbycusis with tinnitus become crucial. We revealed the histopathologic findings of the cochlea in subjects with presbycusis and tinnitus. The subjects were divided into 2 groups, presbycusis with tinnitus (tinnitus) group and presbycusis without tinnitus (control) group, with each group comprising 8 temporal bones from 8 subjects. We quantitatively analyzed the number of spiral ganglion cells, loss of cochlear inner and outer hair cells, and areas of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament. There was a significantly greater loss of outer hair cells in the tinnitus group compared with the control group in the basal and upper middle turns. The stria vascularis was more atrophic in the tinnitus group compared with the control group in the basal turn. Tinnitus is more common in patients with presbycusis who have more severe degeneration of outer hair cells and stria vascularis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Migration of cochlear lateral wall cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, George; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Armour, Gary; Whitworth, Craig; Rybak, Leonard

    2003-03-01

    The role of apoptosis and proliferation in maintenance of cochlear lateral wall cells was examined. The methods employed for detection of apoptosis were the Hoechst fluorescence stain and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labeling) assay, and proliferations were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and presence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The incidence of apoptosis in the strial marginal cell was 50% greater (32.9+/-3.7%) than strial intermediate and basal cells but similar to spiral ligament cells. Although division of marginal strial cells was rarely detected, a significant number of proliferating cells in the remaining stria vascularis and spiral ligament were observed. These data implied that replacement of marginal cells arose elsewhere and could be followed by a BrdU-deoxythymidine pulse-chase study. At 2 h post injection, nuclear BrdU in marginal cells was not detected; however, by 24 h post injection, 20-25% of marginal cell nuclei were BrdU-positive. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that marginal cells were replaced by underlying cells. Cell migration appears to be an important mechanism for preserving the function and structure of the stria vascularis.

  16. Cochlear implant users' spectral ripple resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Turner, Christopher W; Karsten, Sue A; Henry, Belinda A; Gantz, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    This study revisits the issue of the spectral ripple resolution abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The spectral ripple resolution of recently implanted CI recipients (implanted during the last 10 years) were compared to those of CI recipients implanted 15 to 20 years ago, as well as those of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners from previously published data from Henry, Turner, and Behrens [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1111-1121 (2005)]. More recently, implanted CI recipients showed significantly better spectral ripple resolution. There is no significant difference in spectral ripple resolution for these recently implanted subjects compared to hearing-impaired (acoustic) listeners. The more recently implanted CI users had significantly better pre-operative speech perception than previously reported CI users. These better pre-operative speech perception scores in CI users from the current study may be related to better performance on the spectral ripple discrimination task; however, other possible factors such as improvements in internal and external devices cannot be excluded.

  17. [Applied anatomy of scala tympani inlet related to cochlear implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tuanming; Guo, Menghe; Zhang, Hongzheng; Shu, Fan; Xie, Nanping

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the related parameters of the temporal bone structure for determining the position of implanting electrode into the scala tympani in cochlear implantation surgery through the facial recess and epitympanum approach. In a surgical simulation experiment, 20 human temporal bones were studied and measured to determine the related parameters of the temporal bone structure. The distance 5.91∓0.29 mm between the short process of the incus and the round window niche, 2.11∓0.18 mm between the stapes and the round window niche, 6.70∓0.19 mm between the facial nerve in the perpendicular paragraph and the round window niche, 2.22∓0.21 mm from the pyramidal eminence to the round window, and 2.16∓0.14 mm between the stapes and the round window. The minimal distance between the implanting electrode and the vestibular window was 2.12∓0.19 mm. The distance between the cochleariform process and the round window niche was 3.79∓0.17 mm. The position of the cochlear electrode array insertion into the second cochlear turn was 2.25∓0.13 mm under the stapes. The location of the cochlear electrode array insertion into the second cochlear turn was 2.28∓0.20 mm inferior to the pyramidal eminence. These parameters provide a reference value to determine the different positions of cochlear electrode array insertion into the scale tympani in different patients.

  18. Cochlear nucleus neuron analysis in individuals with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Raul; Nelson, Erik G

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cochlear nucleus neuron population in individuals with normal hearing and presbycusis. Retrospective study of archival human temporal bone and brain stem tissues. Using strict inclusion criteria, the temporal bones and cochlear nuclei from six normal hearing individuals and four individuals with presbycusis were selected for analysis. The spiral ganglion cell population, the cochlear nucleus neuron population, and the cell body size of the neurons were quantified in these cases. A relationship was not observed between age and the spiral ganglion cell population in the normal hearing group. Presbycusis subjects exhibited a reduced spiral ganglion cell population. The mean cochlear nucleus neuron population was observed to be significantly higher in the presbycusis group (mean ± standard deviation: 114,170 ± 10,570) compared to the normal hearing group (91,470 ± 9,510) (P = .019). This difference was predominantly the result of greater multipolar and granule cell neuron populations. Only the fusiform neuron type exhibited a significantly different mean cell body cross-sectional area between the normal hearing group (242 ± 27) and the presbycusis group (300 ± 37) (P = .033). This investigation is the first time, to our knowledge, that the populations of the eight neuron types in the cochlear nucleus have been quantified in both normal hearing individuals and individuals with presbycusis. The data support the concept that presbycusis is not an effect of aging alone but instead may be a condition that predisposes one to hearing loss with advancing age and is characterized by a congenitally elevated cochlear nucleus neuron population. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Tinnitus after Simultaneous and Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakers, Geerte G J; Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Smulders, Yvette E; van Zon, Alice; Stegeman, Inge; Stokroos, Robert J; Free, Rolien H; Frijns, Johan H M; Huinck, Wendy J; Van Zanten, Gijsbert A; Grolman, Wilko

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing global discussion on whether or not bilateral cochlear implantation should be standard care for bilateral deafness. Contrary to unilateral cochlear implantation, however, little is known about the effect of bilateral cochlear implantation on tinnitus. To investigate tinnitus outcomes 1 year after bilateral cochlear implantation. Secondarily, to compare tinnitus outcomes between simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implantation and to investigate long-term follow-up (3 years). This study is a secondary analysis as part of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Thirty-eight postlingually deafened adults were included in the original trial, in which the presence of tinnitus was not an inclusion criterion. All participants received cochlear implants (CIs) because of profound hearing loss. Nineteen participants received bilateral CIs simultaneously and 19 participants received bilateral CIs sequentially with an inter-implant interval of 2 years. The prevalence and severity of tinnitus before and after simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implantation were measured preoperatively and each year after implantation with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ). The prevalence of preoperative tinnitus was 42% (16/38). One year after bilateral implantation, there was a median difference of -8 (inter-quartile range (IQR): -28 to 4) in THI score and -9 (IQR: -17 to -9) in TQ score in the participants with preoperative tinnitus. Induction of tinnitus occurred in five participants, all in the simultaneous group, in the year after bilateral implantation. Although the preoperative and also the postoperative median THI and TQ scores were higher in the simultaneous group, the median difference scores were equal in both groups. In the simultaneous group, tinnitus scores fluctuated in the 3 years after implantation. In the sequential group, four patients had an additional benefit of the second CI: a total

  20. Tinnitus after Simultaneous and Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geerte G. J. Ramakers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ImportanceThere is an ongoing global discussion on whether or not bilateral cochlear implantation should be standard care for bilateral deafness. Contrary to unilateral cochlear implantation, however, little is known about the effect of bilateral cochlear implantation on tinnitus.ObjectiveTo investigate tinnitus outcomes 1 year after bilateral cochlear implantation. Secondarily, to compare tinnitus outcomes between simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implantation and to investigate long-term follow-up (3 years.Study designThis study is a secondary analysis as part of a multicenter randomized controlled trial.MethodsThirty-eight postlingually deafened adults were included in the original trial, in which the presence of tinnitus was not an inclusion criterion. All participants received cochlear implants (CIs because of profound hearing loss. Nineteen participants received bilateral CIs simultaneously and 19 participants received bilateral CIs sequentially with an inter-implant interval of 2 years. The prevalence and severity of tinnitus before and after simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implantation were measured preoperatively and each year after implantation with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI and Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ.ResultsThe prevalence of preoperative tinnitus was 42% (16/38. One year after bilateral implantation, there was a median difference of −8 (inter-quartile range (IQR: −28 to 4 in THI score and −9 (IQR: −17 to −9 in TQ score in the participants with preoperative tinnitus. Induction of tinnitus occurred in five participants, all in the simultaneous group, in the year after bilateral implantation. Although the preoperative and also the postoperative median THI and TQ scores were higher in the simultaneous group, the median difference scores were equal in both groups. In the simultaneous group, tinnitus scores fluctuated in the 3 years after implantation. In the sequential group

  1. Staphylococcus lugdunensis: novel organism causing cochlear implant infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Bhumbra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A majority of cochlear implant infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Reported here is a pediatric patient with a cochlear implant infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus that has only recently been determined to be clinically relevant (1988. Unlike other coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, it is more aggressive, carrying a greater potential for tissue destruction. In pediatrics, the organism is uncommon, poorly described, and generally pan-susceptible. Described herein is the presentation and management of this unusual organism in a pediatric setting.

  2. Dislocation of cochlear implant magnet as a complication following MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtojärvi, Sarita; Salonen, Jaakko

    According to current best knowledge, an MRI scan can be performed for patients with cochlear implants. The warnings and recommendations of the implant manufacturers must be followed strictly to prevent complications, such as overheating, migration or demagnetization of the magnet in the implant. We report on a case of cochlear implant magnet dislocation as a complication for an MRI scan. The patient had a tight bandage around the head to hold the magnet in place as recommended by the manufacturer, but apparently the bandage was not in the correct place.

  3. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  4. Sensory characteristics of camphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B G

    1990-05-01

    The perceptual effects of camphor on hairy skin were measured in a psychophysical experiment. Subjects rated the intensity and quality of sensations produced when a solution of 20% camphor (in a vehicle of ethanol and deionized H2O) was applied topically to the volar forearm. Under conditions in which skin temperature was varied either from 33-43 degrees C or from 33-18 degrees C, it was found that camphor increased the perceived intensity of the cutaneous sensations produced during heating and cooling. Although camphor's effect appeared to be greater during warming, neither effect was large. Camphor also produced a significant increase in the frequency of reports of "burning." It is concluded that camphor is a relatively weak sensory irritant that may have a modest excitatory effect on thermosensitive (and perhaps nociceptive) cutaneous fibers.

  5. Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF)-type relaxation in rat bronchioles. Immunohistochemistry was performed, and rat bronchioles and pulmonary arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for functional studies. An opener of small...... (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK(Ca))-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime) was used to induce EpDHF-type relaxation. IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 positive immunoreactions were observed mainly in the epithelium and endothelium of bronchioles and arteries......, respectively. In 5-hydroxytryptamine (1 microM)-contracted bronchioles (828 +/- 20 microm, n = 84) and U46619 (0.03 microM)-contracted arteries (720 +/- 24 microm, n = 68), NS309 (0.001-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent relaxations that were reduced by epithelium/endothelium removal and by blocking IK...

  6. Identification and molecular regulation of neural stem cells in the olfactory epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beites, Crestina L.; Kawauchi, Shimako; Crocker, Candice E.; Calof, Anne L.

    2005-01-01

    The sensory neurons that subserve olfaction, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), are regenerated throughout life, making the neuroepithelium in which they reside [the olfactory epithelium (OE)] an excellent model for studying how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate stem cell dynamics and neurogenesis during development and regeneration. Numerous studies indicate that transcription factors and signaling molecules together regulate generation of ORNs from stem and progenitor cells during development, and work on regenerative neurogenesis indicates that these same factors may operate at postnatal ages as well. This review describes our current knowledge of the identity of the OE neural stem cell; the different cell types that are thought to be the progeny (directly or indirectly) of this stem cell; and the factors that influence cell differentiation in the OE neuronal lineage. We review data suggesting that (1) the ORN lineage contains three distinct proliferating cell types-a stem cell and two populations of transit amplifying cells; (2) in established OE, these three cell types are present within the basal cell compartment of the epithelium; and (3) the stem cell that gives rise ultimately to ORNs may also generate two glial cell types of the primary olfactory pathway: sustentacular cells (SUS), which lie within OE proper; and olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), which envelope the olfactory nerve. In addition, we describe factors that are both made by and found within the microenvironment of OE stem and progenitor cells, and which exert crucial growth regulatory effects on these cells. Thus, as with other regenerating tissues, the basis of regeneration in the OE appears be a population of stem cells, which resides within a microenvironment (niche) consisting of factors crucial for maintenance of its capacity for proliferation and differentiation

  7. Tic Modulation Using Sensory Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca W. Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks.Case Report:: A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks.Discussion: It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics.

  8. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Intraoperative cochlear nerve mapping with the mobile cochlear nerve compound action potential tracer in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Takuya; Fujitsu, Kazuhiko; Kaku, Shogo; Ichikawa, Teruo; Miyahara, Kosuke; Okada, Tomu; Tanino, Shin; Uriu, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Yuichi

    2018-05-18

    OBJECTIVE The authors describe the usefulness and limitations of the cochlear nerve compound action potential (CNAP) mobile tracer (MCT) that they developed to aid in cochlear nerve mapping during vestibular schwannoma surgery (VSS) for hearing preservation. METHODS This MCT device requires no more than 2 seconds for stable placement on the nerve to obtain the CNAP and thus is able to trace the cochlear nerve instantaneously. Simultaneous bipolar and monopolar recording is possible. The authors present the outcomes of 18 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative useful hearing (defined as class I or II of the Gardner-Robertson classification system) and underwent hearing-preservation VSS with the use of the MCT. Mapping was considered successful when it was possible to detect and trace the cochlear nerve. RESULTS Mapping of the cochlear nerve was successful in 13 of 18 patients (72.2%), and useful hearing was preserved in 11 patients (61.1%). Among 8 patients with large tumors (Koos grade 3 or 4), the rate of successful mapping was 62.5% (5 patients). The rate of hearing preservation in patients with large tumors was 50% (4 patients). CONCLUSIONS In addition to microsurgical presumption of the arrangement of each nerve, frequent probing on and around an unidentified nerve and comparison of each waveform are advisable with the use of both more sensitive monopolar and more location-specific bipolar MCT. MCT proved to be useful in cochlear nerve mapping and may consequently be helpful in hearing preservation. The authors discuss some limitations and problems with this device.

  10. The distribution of free calcium ions in the cholesteatoma epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Rasmussen, Gurli; Ottosen, Peter D

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of free calcium ions in normal skin and cholesteatoma epithelium was investigated using the oxalate precipitation method. In agreement with previous observations, we could demonstrate a calcium ion gradient in normal epidermis where the cells in stratum basale and spinosum reside...... appeared where oblong accumulations of free calcium ions were found basally in the stratum. These findings provide evidence that fluctuations in epidermal calcium in cholesteatoma epithelium may underlie the abnormal desquamation, may contribute to the formation of an abnormal permeability barrier and may...

  11. Multisensory Integration in Cochlear Implant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Sheffield, Sterling W; Butera, Iliza M; Gifford, René H; Wallace, Mark T

    Speech perception is inherently a multisensory process involving integration of auditory and visual cues. Multisensory integration in cochlear implant (CI) recipients is a unique circumstance in that the integration occurs after auditory deprivation and the provision of hearing via the CI. Despite the clear importance of multisensory cues for perception, in general, and for speech intelligibility, specifically, the topic of multisensory perceptual benefits in CI users has only recently begun to emerge as an area of inquiry. We review the research that has been conducted on multisensory integration in CI users to date and suggest a number of areas needing further research. The overall pattern of results indicates that many CI recipients show at least some perceptual gain that can be attributable to multisensory integration. The extent of this gain, however, varies based on a number of factors, including age of implantation and specific task being assessed (e.g., stimulus detection, phoneme perception, word recognition). Although both children and adults with CIs obtain audiovisual benefits for phoneme, word, and sentence stimuli, neither group shows demonstrable gain for suprasegmental feature perception. Additionally, only early-implanted children and the highest performing adults obtain audiovisual integration benefits similar to individuals with normal hearing. Increasing age of implantation in children is associated with poorer gains resultant from audiovisual integration, suggesting a sensitive period in development for the brain networks that subserve these integrative functions, as well as length of auditory experience. This finding highlights the need for early detection of and intervention for hearing loss, not only in terms of auditory perception, but also in terms of the behavioral and perceptual benefits of audiovisual processing. Importantly, patterns of auditory, visual, and audiovisual responses suggest that underlying integrative processes may be

  12. The Phonemic Awareness Skills of Cochlear Implant Children and Children with Normal Hearing in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dashtelei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Phonemic awareness skills have a significant impact on children speech and language. The purpose of this study was investigating the phonemic awareness skills of children with cochlear implant and normal hearing peers in primary school. Methods: phonemic awareness subscales of phonological awareness test were administered to 30 children with cochlear implantation at the first to sixth grades of primary school and 30 children with normal hearing who were matched in age with cochlear implant group. All of children were between 6 to 11 years old. Children with cochlear implant had at least 1 to 2 years of implant experience and they were over 5 years when they receive implantation. Children with cochlear implant were selected from Special education centers in Tehran and children with normal hearing were recruited from primary schools in Tehran. The phonemic awareness skills were assessed in both groups. Results: The results showed that the Mean scores of phonemic awareness skills in cochlear implant children were significantly lower than children with normal hearing (P<.0001. Discussion: children with cochlear implant, despite Cochlear implantation prosthesis, had lower performance in phonemic awareness when compared with normal hearing children. Therefore, due to importance of phonemic awareness skills in learning of literacy skills, and defects of these skills in children with cochlear implant, these skills should be assessed carefully in children with cochlear implant and rehabilitative interventions should be considered.

  13. Auditory cross-modal reorganization in cochlear implant users indicates audio-visual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stropahl, Maren; Debener, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    There is clear evidence for cross-modal cortical reorganization in the auditory system of post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) users. A recent report suggests that moderate sensori-neural hearing loss is already sufficient to initiate corresponding cortical changes. To what extend these changes are deprivation-induced or related to sensory recovery is still debated. Moreover, the influence of cross-modal reorganization on CI benefit is also still unclear. While reorganization during deafness may impede speech recovery, reorganization also has beneficial influences on face recognition and lip-reading. As CI users were observed to show differences in multisensory integration, the question arises if cross-modal reorganization is related to audio-visual integration skills. The current electroencephalography study investigated cortical reorganization in experienced post-lingually deafened CI users ( n  = 18), untreated mild to moderately hearing impaired individuals (n = 18) and normal hearing controls ( n  = 17). Cross-modal activation of the auditory cortex by means of EEG source localization in response to human faces and audio-visual integration, quantified with the McGurk illusion, were measured. CI users revealed stronger cross-modal activations compared to age-matched normal hearing individuals. Furthermore, CI users showed a relationship between cross-modal activation and audio-visual integration strength. This may further support a beneficial relationship between cross-modal activation and daily-life communication skills that may not be fully captured by laboratory-based speech perception tests. Interestingly, hearing impaired individuals showed behavioral and neurophysiological results that were numerically between the other two groups, and they showed a moderate relationship between cross-modal activation and the degree of hearing loss. This further supports the notion that auditory deprivation evokes a reorganization of the auditory system

  14. Auditory cross-modal reorganization in cochlear implant users indicates audio-visual integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Stropahl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is clear evidence for cross-modal cortical reorganization in the auditory system of post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI users. A recent report suggests that moderate sensori-neural hearing loss is already sufficient to initiate corresponding cortical changes. To what extend these changes are deprivation-induced or related to sensory recovery is still debated. Moreover, the influence of cross-modal reorganization on CI benefit is also still unclear. While reorganization during deafness may impede speech recovery, reorganization also has beneficial influences on face recognition and lip-reading. As CI users were observed to show differences in multisensory integration, the question arises if cross-modal reorganization is related to audio-visual integration skills. The current electroencephalography study investigated cortical reorganization in experienced post-lingually deafened CI users (n = 18, untreated mild to moderately hearing impaired individuals (n = 18 and normal hearing controls (n = 17. Cross-modal activation of the auditory cortex by means of EEG source localization in response to human faces and audio-visual integration, quantified with the McGurk illusion, were measured. CI users revealed stronger cross-modal activations compared to age-matched normal hearing individuals. Furthermore, CI users showed a relationship between cross-modal activation and audio-visual integration strength. This may further support a beneficial relationship between cross-modal activation and daily-life communication skills that may not be fully captured by laboratory-based speech perception tests. Interestingly, hearing impaired individuals showed behavioral and neurophysiological results that were numerically between the other two groups, and they showed a moderate relationship between cross-modal activation and the degree of hearing loss. This further supports the notion that auditory deprivation evokes a reorganization of the

  15. Strategies for Working with Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn; Prause-Weber, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 23,000 individuals in the United States, including 10,000 children, have a cochlear implant. This biomedical electronic device has been a breakthrough in the auditory rehabilitation of individuals diagnosed with severe or profound sensorineural hearing losses who…

  16. Cochlear implantation and change in quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Christian; Grøntved, Ågot Møller

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the benefits of cochlear implantation (CI) in adults and to evaluate the average implant usage per day. Ten profoundly deaf adults were implanted during the period April 1994 to September 1997. The patients answered questionnaires 1 year or more after receiving...

  17. The influence of cochlear implant electrode position on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K.S. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Verbist, B.M.; Muurling, T.J.; Frijns, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    To study the relation between variables related to cochlear implant electrode position and speech perception performance scores in a large patient population.The study sample consisted of 203 patients implanted with a CII or HiRes90K implant with a HiFocus 1 or 1J electrode of Advanced Bionics.

  18. Pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation: preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Both clinical data and laboratory studies demonstrated the risk of pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation. This review examines strategies to prevent post-implant meningitis. Medline/PubMed database; English articles after 1980. Search terms: cochlear implants, pneumococcus meningitis, streptococcus pneumonia, immunization, prevention. Narrative review. All articles relating to post-implant meningitis without any restriction in study designs were assessed and information extracted. The presence of inner ear trauma as a result of surgical technique or cochlear implant electrode array design was associated with a higher risk of post-implant meningitis. Laboratory data demonstrated the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis induced via the hematogenous route of infection. Fibrous sealing around the electrode array at the cochleostomy site, and the use of antibiotic-coated electrode array reduced the risk of meningitis induced via an otogenic route. The recent scientific data support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendation of pneumococcal vaccination for the prevention of meningitis in implant recipients. Nontraumatic cochlear implant design, surgical technique, and an adequate fibrous seal around the cochleostomy site further reduce the risk of meningitis. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and Multiplicity of Double Vowels in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bomjun J.; Perry, Trevor T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined cochlear implant (CI) users' perception of vowels presented concurrently (i.e., "double vowels") to further our understanding of auditory grouping in electric hearing. Method: Identification of double vowels and single vowels was measured with 10 CI subjects. Fundamental frequencies (F0s) of…

  20. Automatic Model Generation Framework for Computational Simulation of Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangado, Nerea; Ceresa, Mario; Duchateau, Nicolas; Kjer, Hans Martin; Vera, Sergio; Dejea Velardo, Hector; Mistrik, Pavel; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Fagertun, Jens; Noailly, Jérôme; Piella, Gemma; González Ballester, Miguel Ángel

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments in computational modeling of cochlear implantation are promising to study in silico the performance of the implant before surgery. However, creating a complete computational model of the patient's anatomy while including an external device geometry remains challenging. To address such a challenge, we propose an automatic framework for the generation of patient-specific meshes for finite element modeling of the implanted cochlea. First, a statistical shape model is constructed from high-resolution anatomical μCT images. Then, by fitting the statistical model to a patient's CT image, an accurate model of the patient-specific cochlea anatomy is obtained. An algorithm based on the parallel transport frame is employed to perform the virtual insertion of the cochlear implant. Our automatic framework also incorporates the surrounding bone and nerve fibers and assigns constitutive parameters to all components of the finite element model. This model can then be used to study in silico the effects of the electrical stimulation of the cochlear implant. Results are shown on a total of 25 models of patients. In all cases, a final mesh suitable for finite element simulations was obtained, in an average time of 94 s. The framework has proven to be fast and robust, and is promising for a detailed prognosis of the cochlear implantation surgery.

  1. Speech Recognition and Cognitive Skills in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Håkan; Johansson, Björn; Magnusson, Lennart; Lyxell, Björn; Ellis, Rachel J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relation between speech recognition and cognitive skills in bimodal cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid users. Method: Seventeen bimodal CI users (28-74 years) were recruited to the study. Speech recognition tests were carried out in quiet and in noise. The cognitive tests employed included the Reading Span Test and the…

  2. Libyan cochlear implant programme: achievements, difficulties, and future goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samya El-Ogbi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation has become established worldwide as a safe and effective method of auditory rehabilitation of selected severely and profound deaf children and adults. Over 100,000 patients have received cochlear implants worldwide with the paediatric population proving to be the main beneficiaries. The Libyan cochlear implant programme was set up in 2004. Data relating to the patients who received cochlear implantation at Tripoli Medical Centre between October 2007 and February 2010 were analysed. Implant operations were performed on 37 patients. All patients received Med-El SONATATI 100 devices. Thirty-four (91.9% of these patients were children, whilst three (8.1% were adults. Combined, congenital hearing loss (56.8% and perinatal/neonatal (29.7% were the two main aetiological factors in children. Seventeen patients (45.9% had a positive family history of deafness. Sixteen patients (43.2% were born to blood-related parents. The overall rate of minor and major complications was 16.2%, which is comparable to previous studies.

  3. Libyan cochlear implant programme: achievements, difficulties, and future goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Ali; Esriti, Anwer; Ehtuish, Asia; El-Ogbi, Samya

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implantation has become established worldwide as a safe and effective method of auditory rehabilitation of selected severely and profound deaf children and adults. Over 100,000 patients have received cochlear implants worldwide with the paediatric population proving to be the main beneficiaries. The Libyan cochlear implant programme was set up in 2004. Data relating to the patients who received cochlear implantation at Tripoli Medical Centre between October 2007 and February 2010 were analysed. Implant operations were performed on 37 patients. All patients received Med-El SONATA(TI) (100) devices. Thirty-four (91.9%) of these patients were children, whilst three (8.1%) were adults. Combined, congenital hearing loss (56.8%) and perinatal/neonatal (29.7%) were the two main aetiological factors in children. Seventeen patients (45.9%) had a positive family history of deafness. Sixteen patients (43.2%) were born to blood-related parents. The overall rate of minor and major complications was 16.2%, which is comparable to previous studies.

  4. Modulation of cochlear tuning by low-frequency sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, J.F.L.; Prijs, V.F.; Latour, J.B.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    An intense, low-frequency tone (about 30 Hz) modulates the sensitivity of the inner ear to high-frequency stimulation. This modulation is correlated with the displacement of the basilar membrane. The findings suggest that the modulation may also affect cochlear tuning. We have investigated

  5. The Acceptance of Background Noise in Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyler, Patrick N.; Bahng, Junghwa; von Hapsburg, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) if acceptable noise levels (ANLs) are different in cochlear implant (CI) users than in listeners with normal hearing, (b) if ANLs are related to sentence reception thresholds in noise in CI users, and (c) if ANLs and subjective outcome measures are related in CI users. Method: ANLs and the…

  6. A software tool for analyzing multichannel cochlear implant signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wai Kong; Bögli, Hans; Dillier, Norbert

    2003-10-01

    A useful and convenient means to analyze the radio frequency (RF) signals being sent by a speech processor to a cochlear implant would be to actually capture and display them with appropriate software. This is particularly useful for development or diagnostic purposes. sCILab (Swiss Cochlear Implant Laboratory) is such a PC-based software tool intended for the Nucleus family of Multichannel Cochlear Implants. Its graphical user interface provides a convenient and intuitive means for visualizing and analyzing the signals encoding speech information. Both numerical and graphic displays are available for detailed examination of the captured CI signals, as well as an acoustic simulation of these CI signals. sCILab has been used in the design and verification of new speech coding strategies, and has also been applied as an analytical tool in studies of how different parameter settings of existing speech coding strategies affect speech perception. As a diagnostic tool, it is also useful for troubleshooting problems with the external equipment of the cochlear implant systems.

  7. The acquisition of personal pronouns in cochlear-implanted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbist, Annemie Josee Jozef

    2010-01-01

    Today, many deaf children can be given access to oral language thanks to a cochlear implant, a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound thanks to electric stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this study, the acquisition of personal pronouns is considered to be a measure

  8. Predictors of Spoken Language Development Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Frijns; prof. Dr. Louis Peeraer; van Wieringen; Ingeborg Dhooge; Vermeulen; Jan Brokx; Tinne Boons; Wouters

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Although deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are able to develop good language skills, the large variability in outcomes remains a significant concern. The first aim of this study was to evaluate language skills in children with CIs to establish benchmarks. The second aim was to

  9. Challenges in Improving Cochlear Implant Performance and Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2017-08-01

    Here I identify two gaps in cochlear implants that have been limiting their performance and acceptance. First, cochlear implant performance has remained largely unchanged, despite the number of publications tripling per decade in the last 30 years. Little has been done so far to address a fundamental limitation in the electrode-to-neuron interface, with the electrode size being a thousand times larger than the neuron diameter while the number of electrodes being a thousand times less. Both the small number and the large size of electrodes produce broad spatial activation and poor frequency resolution that limit current cochlear implant performance. Second, a similarly rapid growth in cochlear implant volume has not produced an expected decrease in unit price in the same period. The high cost contributes to low market penetration rate, which is about 20% in developed countries and less than 1% in developing countries. I will discuss changes needed in both research strategy and business practice to close the gap between prosthetic and normal hearing as well as that between haves and have-nots.

  10. Theory of Mind and Language in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmel, Ethan; Peters, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Thirty children with cochlear implants (CI children), age range 3-12 years, and 30 children with normal hearing (NH children), age range 4-6 years, were tested on theory of mind and language measures. The CI children showed little to no delay on either theory of mind, relative to the NH children, or spoken language, relative to hearing norms. The…

  11. Reading comprehension of deaf children with cochlear implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, A.M.; Bon, W.H.J. van; Schreuder, R.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    The reading comprehension and visual word recognition in 50 deaf children and adolescents with at least 3 years of cochlear implant (0) use were evaluated. Their skills were contrasted with reference data of 500 deaf children without CIs. The reading comprehension level in children with CIs was

  12. The Relationship Between Cochlear Implants and Deaf Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    from a Danish national survey of deaf adults, the authors examined the significance of having (or not having) a CI in regard to identity (categorized as deaf, hearing, bicultural, and marginal) and various related factors concerning social participation and experiences of being deaf. Cochlear...

  13. Motor Development of Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheysen, Freja; Loots, Gerrit; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cochlear implant (CI) on the motor development of deaf children. The study involved 36 mainstreamed deaf children (15 boys, 21 girls; 4- to 12-years old) without any developmental problems. Of these children, 20 had been implanted. Forty-three hearing children constituted a comparison…

  14. [Cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of inner ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-yi; Wu, Wen-ming; Xi, Xin; Huang, De-liang; Yang, Wei-yan

    2004-02-01

    To study surgical difficulty and key of the cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of inner ear. The cochlear implantations were performed in our department from Jan. 2001 to Apr. 2003 for 18 patients with the malformation of inner ear. In this series, there were 11 cases of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS), 3 cases of Waardenberg syndrome, 3 cases of Mondini malformation, and 1 case of Usher syndrome. All 18 patients accepted the Nucleus 24-channel cochlear implantations, including Nucleus straight electrode in 13 cases but Contour implantation in 5 cases of LVAS. During operations, leakage of perilymph but not cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the open of scala tympani occurred in 11 cases of LVAS, however, the electrode was inserted successfully. The abnormalities of round window occurred in one of 3 cases of Waardenberg syndrome and 3 cases of Mondini malformation, respectively. The cochlear implant could be conducted successfully for the LVAS, and the postoperative effect was same as the ones for the deafness persons with normal development of inner ear. However, for the patients with Mondini syndrome and common cavity, it is important to accurately assess the extent of abnormalities in the inner ear and accompanied malformation before operation, and to evaluate the full extent of difficulties of the operation in order to minimize the risk of CSF leakage and meningitis.

  15. Mismatch Negativity Based Neurofeedback for Cochlear Implant Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, Annika; Başkent, Deniz; Jolij, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users experience great difficulty when it comes to pitch discrimination. This leads to problems during daily interactions, due to poor speech perception, but also a very low pleasure ratings for music. Improving pitch perception and discrimination in CI users would improve

  16. Cochlear Damage Affects Neurotransmitter Chemistry in the Central Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Albert Godfrey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the perception of a monotonous sound not actually present in the environment, affects nearly 20% of the population of the United States. Although there has been great progress in tinnitus research over the past 25 years, the neurochemical basis of tinnitus is still poorly understood. We review current research about the effects of various types of cochlear damage on the neurotransmitter chemistry in the central auditory system and document evidence that different changes in this chemistry can underlie similar behaviorally measured tinnitus symptoms. Most available data have been obtained from rodents following cochlear damage produced by cochlear ablation, loud sound, or ototoxic drugs. Effects on neurotransmitter systems have been measured as changes in neurotransmitter level, synthesis, release, uptake, and receptors. In this review, magnitudes of changes are presented for neurotransmitter-related amino acids, acetylcholine, and serotonin. A variety of effects have been found in these studies that may be related to animal model, survival time, type of cochlear damage, or methodology. The overall impression from the evidence presented is that any imbalance of neurotransmitter-related chemistry could disrupt auditory processing in such a way as to produce tinnitus.

  17. Age at implantation and auditory memory in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, B; Miric, D; Nikolic-Mikic, M; Ostojic, S; Asanovic, M

    2014-05-01

    Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, provides the best outcome regarding listening, speech, cognition an memory due to maximal central nervous system plasticity. Intensive postoperative training improves not only auditory performance and language, but affects auditory memory as well. The aim of this study was to discover if the age at implantation affects auditory memory function in cochlear implanted children. A total of 50 cochlear implanted children aged 4 to 8 years were enrolled in this study: early implanted (1-3y) n = 27 and late implanted (4-6y) n = 23. Two types of memory tests were used: Immediate Verbal Memory Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span Test. Early implanted children performed better on both verbal and numeric tasks of auditory memory. The difference was statistically significant, especially on the complex tasks. Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, significantly improve auditory memory and contribute to better cognitive and education outcomes.

  18. Classroom performance of children with cochlear implants in mainstream education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, G.W.J.A.; Oever-Goltstein, M.H. van den; Langereis, M.C.; Chute, P.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We compared classroom performance of children with a cochlear implant (CI) with that of their normal-hearing peers in mainstream education. METHODS: Thirty-two CI children in mainstream education, congenitally or prelingually deaf, participated in this study, as did 37 hearing

  19. Interaction of tinnitus suppression and hearing ability after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Jia-Nan; Lei, Guan-Xiong; Chen, Dai-Shi; Wang, Wei-Ze; Chen, Ai-Ting; Mong, Meng-Di; Li, Sun; Jiao, Qing-Shan; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2017-10-01

    To study the postoperative impact of cochlear implants (CIs) on tinnitus, as well as the impact of tinnitus on speech recognition with CI switched on. Fifty-two postlingual deafened CI recipients (21 males and 31 females) were assessed using an established Tinnitus Characteristics Questionnaire and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) before and after cochlear implantation. The tinnitus loudness was investigated when CI was switched on and off in CI recipients with persistent tinnitus. The relation between tinnitus loudness and recipients' satisfaction of cochlear implantation was analyzed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. With CI 'OFF', 42 CI recipients experienced tinnitus postimplant ipsilaterally and 44 contralaterally. Tinnitus was totally suppressed ipsilateral to the CI with CI 'ON' in 42.9%, partially suppressed in 42.9%, unchanged in 11.9% and aggravated in 2.4%. Tinnitus was totally suppressed contralaterally with CI 'ON' in 31.8% of CI recipients, partially suppressed in 47.7%, unchanged in 20.5%. Pearson correlation analysis showed that tinnitus loudness and the results of cochlear implant patients satisfaction was negatively correlated (r = .674, p tinnitus. The tinnitus loudness may affect patients' satisfaction with the use of CI.

  20. Simultaneous Communication and Cochlear Implants in the Classroom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.C.; Marschark, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential of simultaneous communication (sign and speech together) to support classroom learning by college students who use cochlear implants (CIs). Metacognitive awareness of learning also was evaluated. A within-subjects design involving 40 implant users

  1. Simultaneous communication supports learning in noise by cochlear implant users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.C.; Marschark, M.; Machmer, E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the potential of using spoken language and signing together (simultaneous communication, SimCom, sign-supported speech) as a means of improving speech recognition, comprehension, and learning by cochlear implant (CI) users in noisy contexts.Methods: Forty

  2. Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tones by Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Colleen M.; Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Dowell, Richard C.; Vogel, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess Cantonese word recognition and the discrimination of Cantonese tones with manipulated contours by child and adolescent cochlear implant (CI) users and a group of peers with normal hearing (NH). It was hypothesized that the CI users would perform more poorly than their counterparts with NH in both…

  3. Cochlear implantation in Waardenburg syndrome: The Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Ramesh Chandra; Sikka, Kapil; Chaturvedy, Gaurav; Singh, Chirom Amit; Venkat Karthikeyan, C; Kumar, Rakesh; Agarwal, Shivani

    2010-10-01

    Children with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) exhibiting normal inner ear anatomy, like those included in our cohort, derive significant benefit from cochlear implantation and results are comparable to those reported for the general population of implanted children. The patient population of WS accounts for approximately 2% of congenitally deaf children. The purpose of this retrospective case review was to describe the outcomes for those children with WS who have undergone cochlear implantation. On retrospective chart review, there were four cases with WS who underwent cochlear implantation. These cases were assessed for age at implantation, clinical and radiological features, operative and perioperative course, and performance outcomes. Auditory perception and speech production ability were evaluated using categories of auditory performance (CAP), meaningful auditory integration scales (MAIS), and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) during the follow-up period. In this group of children with WS, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, the CAP score ranged from 3 to 5, MAIS from 25 to 30, and SIR was 3. These scores are comparable with those of other cochlear implantees.

  4. Sound Descriptions of Haptic Experiences of Art Work by Deafblind Cochlear Implant Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Lahtinen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Deafblind persons’ perception and experiences are based on their residual auditive and visual senses, and touch. Their haptic exploration, through movements and orientation towards objects give blind persons direct, independent experience. Few studies explore the aesthetic experiences and appreciation of artefacts of deafblind people using cochlear implant (CI technology, and how they interpret and express their perceived aesthetic experience through another sensory modality. While speech recognition is studied extensively in this area, the aspect of auditive descriptions made by CI users are a less-studied domain. This present research intervention describes and analyses five different deafblind people sharing their interpretation of five statues vocally, using sounds and written descriptions based on their haptic explorations. The participants found new and multimodal ways of expressing their experiences, as well as re-experiencing them through technological aids. We also found that the CI users modify technology to better suit their personal needs. We conclude that CI technology in combination with self-made sound descriptions enhance memorization of haptic art experiences that can be re-called by the recording of the sound descriptions. This research expands the idea of auditive descriptions, and encourages user-produced descriptions as artistic supports to traditional linguistic, audio descriptions. These can be used to create personal auditive–haptic memory collections similar to how sighted create photo albums.

  5. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stuart L; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M; Roberts, Terri P; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-06-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials were intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs showed bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine fine-tunes the IHC's resting membrane potential (V(m)), and as such is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the V(m) of apical and basal IHCs by triggering small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK2) channels. We propose that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway.

  6. Expression of immediate-early genes in the dorsal cochlear nucleus in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shou-Sen; Mei, Ling; Chen, Jian-Yong; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Wu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Spontaneous neuronal activity in dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) may be involved in the physiological processes underlying salicylate-induced tinnitus. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression, especially activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc/Arg3.1) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appears to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. However, their relationships with tinnitus induced by salicylate have rarely been reported in the DCN. In this study, we assessed the effect of acute and chronic salicylate treatment on the expression of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), Arg3.1, and Egr-1. We also observed ultrastructural alterations in the DCN synapses in an animal model of tinnitus. Levels of mRNA and protein expression of NR2B and Arg3.1 were increased in rats that were chronically administered salicylate (200 mg/kg, twice daily for 3, 7, or 14 days). These levels returned to baseline 14 days after cessation of treatment. However, no significant changes were observed in Egr-1 gene expression in any groups. Furthermore, rats subjected to long-term salicylate administration showed more presynaptic vesicles, thicker and longer postsynaptic densities, and increased synaptic interface curvature. Alterations of Arg3.1 and NR2B may be responsible for the changes in the synaptic ultrastructure. These changes confirm that salicylate can cause neural plasticity changes at the DCN level.

  7. Hedgehog Signaling and Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Intestinal Epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, Nikè V. J. A.; Rosekrans, Sanne L.; Westerlund, Jessica; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis of the rapidly renewing intestinal epithelium depends on a balance between cell proliferation and loss. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) acts as a negative feedback signal in this dynamic equilibrium. We discuss recent evidence that Ihh may be one of the key epithelial signals that indicates

  8. DIFFERENTIAL HISTOMORPHOMETRIC CHANGES IN NORMAL AND INFLAMED GINGIVAL EPITHELIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaskovic Stankovic Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: In recent decades, many factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet as well as high alcohol intake were marked as risk factors that can lead to increased incidence of malignant alterations, gingivitis, periodontal disease and other oral epithelium pathological changes. Having in mind that in the group of non-malignant and non-dental oral pathology gingivitis and periodontal disease are the most common oral mucosa alterations aim of our research was to investigate histomorphometric characteristics of healthy and altered oral and gingival epithelium. Material and methods: Tissue samples of 24 oral and gingival mucosa specimens were collected. Samples were fixed in 10% buffered paraformaldehyde, routinely processed and embedded in paraffin blocks. From each block sections 5 micrometer thin were made and standard H/E staining as well as immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67 proliferation marker and CD79a lymphocyte marker were performed. Measurements and image analysis was performed with Image Pro Plus software (Media Cybernetics, USA and Axiovision (Ziess, USA. Results: We showed that inflamed gingival epithelium is increasing its thickness in proportion to the severity of adjacent inflammation. Furthermore, mitotic index is rising (up to 132% in the same manner as well as basal lamina length (up to 70% when normal and inflamed gingiva is compared. Architecture of epithelial ridges is changed from straightforward to mesh-like. Conclusion: Assessment of the free gingival epithelium thickness is directly related to the severity of the inflammation process i

  9. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  10. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relative permeability of the endothelium and epithelium of rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effros, R.M.; Mason, G.R.; Silverman, P.; Hukkanen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Electron micrographic studies of lungs suggest that the epithelial cells are more tightly joined than the underlying endothelium, and macromolecules penetrate the endothelium more readily than the epithelium. Comparisons of epithelial and endothelial permeability to small molecules have been based upon the relative rates at which solutes traverse the alveolar-capillary barrier in fluid filled lungs and those at which they equilibrate across the capillaries in air-filled lungs. Because the former process is much slower than the latter, it has been concluded that the epithelium is less permeable to small solutes than the endothelium. However this difference may be related to inadequate access of solutes to airway surfaces. In this study, solute losses from the vascular space were compared to those from the airspace in perfused, fluid-filled rabbit lungs. 36 Cl - and 125 I - were lost from air-spaces almost twice as rapidly as 22 Na + . In contrast, the endothelium is equally permeable to 22 Na + and these anions. Loss of 3 H-mannitol from the perfusate resembled that of 22 Na + for about 30 minutes, after which diffusion of 3 H-mannitol into the tissue nearly ceased. These observations suggest that the epithelium is more permselective than the endothelium. By resisting solute and water transport, the epithelium tends to prevent alveolar flooding and confines edema to the interstitium, where it is less likely to interfere with gas exchange

  12. Wnt signaling in the intestinal epithelium: from endoderm to cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorieff, A.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Wnt pathway controls cell fate during embryonic development. It also persists as a key regulator of homeostasis in adult self-renewing tissues. In these tissues, mutational deregulation of the Wnt cascade is closely associated with malignant transformation. The intestinal epithelium represents

  13. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  14. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis serotypes to pocket epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierickx, K; Pauwels, M; Laine, ML; Van Eldere, J; Cassiman, JJ; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key pathogen in periodontitis, is able to adhere to and invade the pocket epithelium. Different capsular antigens of P gingivalis have been identified (K-serotyping). These P gingivalis capsular types show differences in adhesion capacity to human cell lines

  15. Radioautographic DNA synthesis study on mice Mus musculus gingival epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1984-01-01

    The DNA-synthetizing cells frequency in the gingival epithelium basal layer of the first lower molar region in young and adult mice were studied. The 3H-thymidine and radioautography were used. The labeled cells frequency was determined by calculating their proportions. The data were statiscally analysed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. The ultrastructure of the midgut epithelium in millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosinka, A.; Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M.; Chajec, Ł.; Sonakowska, L.; Kamińska, K.; Hyra, M.; Poprawa, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2014), s. 477-492 ISSN 1467-8039 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : digestive cells * midgut epithelium * millipedes * regenerative cells * secretory cells * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014

  17. Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Polese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ. Here, we describe the detailed morphology of young male and female Octopus vulgaris olfactory epithelium, and using a combination of classical morphology and 3D reconstruction techniques, we propose a new classification for O. vulgaris olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, using specific markers such as olfactory marker protein (OMP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA we have been able to identify and differentially localize both mature olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory sensory neurons involved in epithelium turnover. Taken together, our data suggest that the O. vulgaris olfactory organ is extremely plastic, capable of changing its shape and also proliferating its cells in older specimens.

  18. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism.

  19. Audiological outcomes of cochlear implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most relevant clinical symptom in Waardenburg syndrome is profound bilateral sensorioneural hearing loss. Aim: To characterize and describe hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome to improve preoperative expectations. Method: This was an observational and retrospective study of a series of cases. Children who were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome and who received a multichannel cochlear implant between March 1999 and July 2012 were included in the study. Intraoperative neural response telemetry, hearing evaluation, speech perception, and speech production data before and after surgery were assessed. Results: During this period, 806 patients received a cochlear implant and 10 of these (1.2% were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome. Eight of the children received a Nucleus 24® implant and 1 child and 1 adult received a DigiSonic SP implant. The mean age at implantation was 44 months among the children. The average duration of use of a cochlear implant at the time of the study was 43 months. Intraoperative neural responses were present in all cases. Patients who could use the speech processor effectively had a pure tone average of 31 dB in free-field conditions. In addition, the MUSS and MAIS questionnaires revealed improvements in speech perception and production. Four patients did not have a good outcome, which might have been associated with ineffective use of the speech processor. Conclusion: Despite the heterogeneity of the group, patients with Waardenburg syndrome who received cochlear implants were found to have hearing thresholds that allowed access to speech sounds. However, patients who received early intervention and rehabilitation showed better evolution of auditory perception.

  20. Audiological outcomes of cochlear implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Samuel, Paola Angélica; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valeria Schimdt; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-07-01

     The most relevant clinical symptom in Waardenburg syndrome is profound bilateral sensorioneural hearing loss.  To characterize and describe hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome to improve preoperative expectations.  This was an observational and retrospective study of a series of cases. Children who were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome and who received a multichannel cochlear implant between March 1999 and July 2012 were included in the study. Intraoperative neural response telemetry, hearing evaluation, speech perception, and speech production data before and after surgery were assessed.  During this period, 806 patients received a cochlear implant and 10 of these (1.2%) were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome. Eight of the children received a Nucleus 24(®) implant and 1 child and 1 adult received a DigiSonic SP implant. The mean age at implantation was 44 months among the children. The average duration of use of a cochlear implant at the time of the study was 43 months. Intraoperative neural responses were present in all cases. Patients who could use the speech processor effectively had a pure tone average of 31 dB in free-field conditions. In addition, the MUSS and MAIS questionnaires revealed improvements in speech perception and production. Four patients did not have a good outcome, which might have been associated with ineffective use of the speech processor.  Despite the heterogeneity of the group, patients with Waardenburg syndrome who received cochlear implants were found to have hearing thresholds that allowed access to speech sounds. However, patients who received early intervention and rehabilitation showed better evolution of auditory perception.

  1. Electroacoustic verification of frequency modulation systems in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidêncio, Vanessa Luisa Destro; Jacob, Regina Tangerino de Souza; Tanamati, Liége Franzini; Bucuvic, Érika Cristina; Moret, Adriane Lima Mortari

    2017-12-26

    The frequency modulation system is a device that helps to improve speech perception in noise and is considered the most beneficial approach to improve speech recognition in noise in cochlear implant users. According to guidelines, there is a need to perform a check before fitting the frequency modulation system. Although there are recommendations regarding the behavioral tests that should be performed at the fitting of the frequency modulation system to cochlear implant users, there are no published recommendations regarding the electroacoustic test that should be performed. Perform and determine the validity of an electroacoustic verification test for frequency modulation systems coupled to different cochlear implant speech processors. The sample included 40 participants between 5 and 18 year's users of four different models of speech processors. For the electroacoustic evaluation, we used the Audioscan Verifit device with the HA-1 coupler and the listening check devices corresponding to each speech processor model. In cases where the transparency was not achieved, a modification was made in the frequency modulation gain adjustment and we used the Brazilian version of the "Phrases in Noise Test" to evaluate the speech perception in competitive noise. It was observed that there was transparency between the frequency modulation system and the cochlear implant in 85% of the participants evaluated. After adjusting the gain of the frequency modulation receiver in the other participants, the devices showed transparency when the electroacoustic verification test was repeated. It was also observed that patients demonstrated better performance in speech perception in noise after a new adjustment, that is, in these cases; the electroacoustic transparency caused behavioral transparency. The electroacoustic evaluation protocol suggested was effective in evaluation of transparency between the frequency modulation system and the cochlear implant. Performing the adjustment of

  2. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication

  3. Barriers to pediatric cochlear implantation: A parental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles Q; Reilly, Brian K; Preciado, Diego A

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to (1) determine barriers in the pediatric cochlear implantation process specific to publicly insured patients, wherein delayed implantation has been reported, and (2) compare the perceived barriers between publicly and privately insured patients. Tertiary care cochlear implantation center at academic pediatric hospital. Cross-sectional survey, retrospective chart review. The validated, 39 item Barriers to Care Questionnaire was administered to the parents of 80 recipients of cochlear implantation by two surgeons between 2013 and 2016. Survey results and diagnosis to implant interval were compared based on public or private insurance status. Two-tailed Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Of 110 cochlear implants, 27 of 80 (34%) English-speaking parents completed the survey. 15 were privately insured and 12 were publicly insured. 23 of 27 respondents received cochlear implantation for pre-lingual sensorineural hearing loss. Publicly insured patients had significantly longer median time from diagnosis to implant than privately insured (19 vs. 8 mo, p = 0.01). The three worst scoring barrier categories for privately insured families in order were Pragmatics, Expectations, and Marginalization, whereas for publicly insured families it was Pragmatics, Skills, and Expectations. The worst scoring question for privately insured patients was "Having to take time off work". For the publicly insured, it was "Lack of communication." Privately insured patients reported more barriers on the Barriers to Care Questionnaire than publicly insured patients did. Although pragmatics was the worst-scoring barrier category for both groups, difficulties found on the survey ranked differently for each group. This information can help providers address disparities and access barriers for vulnerable patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Histomorphology of the corneal epithelium of anastrozole treated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; Qamar, K.; Butt, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of prolonged use of anastrozole as an endocrine treatment of breast cancer on the corneal epithelium in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, six months from Jun 2012 to Nov 2012. Material and Methods: Twenty adult female NewZealand white rabbits were taken. Ten rabbits were placed in control group taking normal diet and 10 were given anastrozole orally in the normal dose of 1 mg/day (0.02 mg/kg/day). After the completion of the study, corneas were removed and grossly examined. The specimen were fixed and slides prepared for histomorphological examination. The epithelium in each slide was examined for any deposits, edema or increase in stratification and the height of the epithelium was measured for each eye. The results were compared between the groups for statistical significance. Results: The epithelium had normal shape with no areas of any deposits, edema or ulceration. The mean epithelial height in the control group was 21.25 +- 4.29 mu m and 21.00 +- 4.28 mu m in the right corneas and left corneas, respectively. The mean epithelial height taken from the experimental group was 20.50 +- 4.97 mu m and 21.00 +- 4.28 mu m in right sided and left sided corneas, respectively. The p value was calculated to be 0.722 and 1.00 for the right and left corneas, respectively and no statistical significance was found in between the two groups. Conclusion: Long term administration of anastrozole has no effect on the histological morphology of the corneal epithelium. (author)

  5. Kinetics of corneal epithelium turnover in vivo. Studies of lovastatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors developed a direct chemical approach for estimating the rate of turnover of the corneal epithelium in vivo. The method was used to examine the effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, on proliferation and turnover of the epithelium. Corneal DNA was labeled by pulse injection (IP) of the rat with 3H-thymidine, and 3H-labeled DNA was recovered from peripheral and central corneas over the next 15 days. Only the epithelium became labeled, and the loss of label by cell desquamation began 3 days after injection. The loss of 3H-DNA from the cornea (peripheral plus central region) followed first-order kinetics. The half-life of the disappearance was about 3 days. The peripheral cornea became more highly labeled than the central cornea and began to lose 3H-DNA before the central cornea. These observations support the possibility of a higher mitotic rate in the peripheral region and the centripetal movement of a population of peripheral epithelial cells in the normal cornea. The half-lives of the disappearance of 3H-DNA from peripheral and central corneas measured between days 5 and 15 postinjection were identical, both at 3 days. Complete turnover of the corneal epithelium would, therefore, require about 2 weeks (4-5 half-lives). Treatment of the rat with lovastatin had no obvious effects upon the proliferation or turnover of the corneal epithelium. Although lovastatin inhibited corneal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key regulatory enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, the cornea compensated by induction of this enzyme so that there was no net inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the cornea

  6. A prospective study evaluating cochlear implant management skills: development and validation of the Cochlear Implant Management Skills survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R J; Jayakody, D M P; Eikelboom, R H; Taljaard, D S; Atlas, M D

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the ability of cochlear implant (CI) recipients to physically handle and care for their hearing implant device(s) and to identify factors that may influence skills. To assess device management skills, a clinical survey was developed and validated on a clinical cohort of CI recipients. Survey development and validation. A prospective convenience cohort design study. Specialist hearing implant clinic. Forty-nine post-lingually deafened, adult CI recipients, at least 12 months postoperative. Survey test-retest reliability, interobserver reliability and responsiveness. Correlations between management skills and participant demographic, audiometric, clinical outcomes and device factors. The Cochlear Implant Management Skills survey was developed, demonstrating high test-retest reliability (0.878), interobserver reliability (0.972) and responsiveness to intervention (skills training) [t(20) = -3.913, P = 0.001]. Cochlear Implant Management Skills survey scores range from 54.69% to 100% (mean: 83.45%, sd: 12.47). No associations were found between handling skills and participant factors. This is the first study to demonstrate a range in cochlear implant device handling skills in CI recipients and offers clinicians and researchers a tool to systematically and objectively identify shortcomings in CI recipients' device handling skills. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE F344 RAT NASAL TRANSITIONAL/RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in rodents. Gene expression profiles were determined in order to provide normal baseline data for nasal transitional/respiratory epithelium from healthy rats. Ce...

  8. Comparison of outcomes in a case of bilateral cochlear implantation using devices manufactured by two different implant companies (Cochlear Corporation and Med-El).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, S J; Gibson, W P; Greenberg, S L; Bray, M

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports a case of a patient who has had bilateral cochlear implants that have been manufactured by different cochlear implant companies (Cochlear Corporation and Med-El). Comparison of speech perception tests following single implant insertion and bilateral insertion (3 and 12 months). The patient was also interviewed to obtain a subjective opinion on their quality of hearing. The patient reported that their Med-El implant had better sound quality than their Cochlear Corporation implant. The speech perception tests however failed to show any difference. Despite no difference found with the objective tests hearing is very subjective and therefore the patient's opinion on the quality of sound is important. It is only a matter of time before other patients are fitted with bilateral cochlear implants from different companies and this information should be collated to allow comparison between manufacturers.

  9. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  10. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use of ...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  11. Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikar, Jennifer A; Batts, Shelley A; Pfingst, Bryan E; Raphael, Yehoash

    2009-05-15

    Current cochlear histology methods do not allow in situ processing of cochlear implants. The metal components of the implant preclude standard embedding and mid-modiolar sectioning, and whole mounts do not have the spatial resolution needed to view the implant within the scala tympani. One focus of recent auditory research is the regeneration of structures within the cochlea, particularly the ganglion cells and their processes, and there are multiple potential benefits to cochlear implant users from this work. To facilitate experimental investigations of auditory nerve regeneration performed in conjunction with cochlear implantation, it is critical to visualize the cochlear tissue and the implant together to determine if the nerve has made contact with the implant. This paper presents a novel histological technique that enables simultaneous visualization of the in situ cochlear implant and neurofilament-labeled nerve processes within the scala tympani, and the spatial relationship between them.

  12. Anterograde axonal transport and intercellular transfer of WGA-HRP in trigeminal-innervated sensory receptors of rat incisive papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K Y; Byers, M R

    1985-04-08

    The ultrastructure and identification of WGA-HRP-labeled sensory receptors in the rat incisive papilla (the most anterior part of hard palate) were studied using semiserial thin sections. Various sensory receptors were organized according to three locations: dome region (ventral), chemosensory corpuscle region (medial to orifice of incisive canal), and lateral labium (apposing the incisive canal). In the dome region, the sensory receptors were localized in three sensory zones that were associated with surface ridges (one medial and two lateral). In each of these zones, intraepithelial receptor axons and Merkel receptors occurred in the epithelium, while simple unencapsulated corpuscles, glomerular-Meissner corpuscles, and incisive (encapsulated) corpuscles occurred in the lamina propria. In the chemosensory corpuscle region, chemosensory corpuscles and intraepithelial receptor axons were located in the epithelium, and incisive corpuscles were present in the lamina propria. In the lateral labium, only intraepithelial receptor axons were prominent. In all these sensory receptors, the preterminal axons and axon terminals were labeled with the tracer protein. In addition, some nonneuronal cells closely associated with the axon terminals were selectively labeled, e.g., terminal Schwann cells, lamellar Schwann cells, Merkel cells, corpuscular basal cells and chemosensory cells. Other adjacent cells were not labeled, e.g., unspecialized epithelial cells, capsular cells, corpuscular sustentacular cells, and fibroblasts. In both labeled axons and cells, WGA-HRP was incorporated into vesicles, tubules, and vacuolar organelles. The specific intercellular transfer of tracer protein may indicate trophic interactions between axon terminals and support cells in sensory receptors. The specific organization of multiple sensory receptors in the rat incisive papilla may provide a useful alternative system for studying somatosensory physiology.

  13. Defining the cellular environment in the organ of Corti following extensive hair cell loss: a basis for future sensory cell replacement in the Cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth R Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the loss of hair cells from the mammalian cochlea, the sensory epithelium repairs to close the lesions but no new hair cells arise and hearing impairment ensues. For any cell replacement strategy to be successful, the cellular environment of the injured tissue has to be able to nurture new hair cells. This study defines characteristics of the auditory sensory epithelium after hair cell loss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies were conducted in C57BL/6 and CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with an aminoglycoside-diuretic combination produced loss of all outer hair cells within 48 hours in both strains. The subsequent progressive tissue re-organisation was examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. There was no evidence of significant de-differentiation of the specialised columnar supporting cells. Kir4.1 was down regulated but KCC4, GLAST, microtubule bundles, connexin expression patterns and pathways of intercellular communication were retained. The columnar supporting cells became covered with non-specialised cells migrating from the outermost region of the organ of Corti. Eventually non-specialised, flat cells replaced the columnar epithelium. Flat epithelium developed in distributed patches interrupting regions of columnar epithelium formed of differentiated supporting cells. Formation of the flat epithelium was initiated within a few weeks post-treatment in C57BL/6 mice but not for several months in CBA/Ca's, suggesting genetic background influences the rate of re-organisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of dedifferentiation amongst supporting cells and their replacement by cells from the outer side of the organ of Corti are factors that may need to be considered in any attempt to promote endogenous hair cell regeneration. The variability of the cellular environment along an individual cochlea arising from patch-like generation of flat epithelium, and the possible variability between individuals

  14. The Significance of Memory in Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2017-05-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The significance of memory in sensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S.

    2017-01-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing.

  16. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COCHLEAR NUCLEI OF MONKEY (MACACA FASCICULARIS AFTER DEAFFERENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Insausti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear nuclei (CN in the brainstem receive the input signals from the inner ear through the cochlear nerve, and transmit these signals to higher auditory centres. A variety of lesions of the cochlear nerve cause deafness. As reported in the literature, artificial removal of auditive input, or 'deafferentation', induces structural alterations in the CN. The purpose of this study was to estimate a number of relevant stereological parameters of the CN in control and deafferented Macaca fascicularis monkeys.

  17. [Inspecting the cochlear scala tympanic with flexible and semi-flexible micro-endoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoxcing; Zhang, Yankun

    2006-02-01

    Flexible and semi-flexible micro-endoscopes were used in cochlear scala tympani inspection , to explore their application in inner ear examination. Fifteen profound hearing loss patients preparing for cochlear implant were included in this study. During the operation, micro-endoscopy was performed after opening the cochlear scala tympani. And 1 mm diameter semi-flexible micro-endoscope could go as deep as 9 mm into the cochlear scala tympani, while 0. 5 mm diameter flexible micro-endoscope could go as deep as 25 mm. The inspecting results were compared with video recording. Using 0.5 mm flexible micro-endoscope, we canould check cochlear scala tympani with depth range of 15-25 mm, but the video imaging was not clear enough to examine the microstructure in the cochlear. With 1 mm diameter semi-flexible micro-endoscope, we could reach 9 mm deep into the cochlear. During the examination, we found 3 cases with calcification deposit in osseous spiral lamina, l case with granulation tissue in the lateral wall of scala tympani, no abnormal findings in the other 11 cases. Inspecting the cochlear scala tympani with 0.5 mm flexible micro-endoscope, even though we can reach the second circuit of the cochlear, it is difficult to find the pathology in the cochlear because of the poor video imaging. With 1 mm semi-flexible micro-endoscope, we can identify the microstructure of the cochlear clearly and find the pathologic changes, but the inserting depth was limited to 9 mm with limitation to examine the whole cochlear.

  18. miR-96 regulates the progression of differentiation in mammalian cochlear inner and outer hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stephanie; Johnson, Stuart L; Furness, David N; Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Hilton, Jennifer M; Steffes, Georg; Lewis, Morag A; Zampini, Valeria; Hackney, Carole M; Masetto, Sergio; Holley, Matthew C; Steel, Karen P; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-02-08

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs able to regulate a broad range of protein-coding genes involved in many biological processes. miR-96 is a sensory organ-specific miRNA expressed in the mammalian cochlea during development. Mutations in miR-96 cause nonsyndromic progressive hearing loss in humans and mice. The mouse mutant diminuendo has a single base change in the seed region of the Mir96 gene leading to widespread changes in the expression of many genes. We have used this mutant to explore the role of miR-96 in the maturation of the auditory organ. We found that the physiological development of mutant sensory hair cells is arrested at around the day of birth, before their biophysical differentiation into inner and outer hair cells. Moreover, maturation of the hair cell stereocilia bundle and remodelling of auditory nerve connections within the cochlea fail to occur in miR-96 mutants. We conclude that miR-96 regulates the progression of the physiological and morphological differentiation of cochlear hair cells and, as such, coordinates one of the most distinctive functional refinements of the mammalian auditory system.

  19. File list: InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. Dynamics of Bovine Sperm Interaction with Epithelium Differ Between Oviductal Isthmus and Ampulla1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardon, Florencia; Markello, Ross D.; Hu, Lian; Deutsch, Zarah I.; Tung, Chih-Kuan; Wu, Mingming; Suarez, Susan S.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, many sperm that reach the oviduct are held in a reservoir by binding to epithelium. To leave the reservoir, sperm detach from the epithelium; however, they may bind and detach again as they ascend into the ampulla toward oocytes. In order to elucidate the nature of binding interactions along the oviduct, we compared the effects of bursts of strong fluid flow (as would be caused by oviductal contractions), heparin, and hyperactivation on detachment of bovine sperm bound in vitro to epithelium on intact folds of isthmic and ampullar mucosa. Intact folds of oviductal mucosa were used to represent the strong attachments of epithelial cells to each other and to underlying connective tissue that exist in vivo. Effects of heparin on binding were tested because heparin binds to the Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins that attach sperm to oviductal epithelium. Sperm bound by their heads to beating cilia on both isthmic and ampullar epithelia and could not be detached by strong bursts of fluid flow. Addition of heparin immediately detached sperm from isthmic epithelium but not ampullar epithelium. Addition of 4-aminopyridine immediately stimulated hyperactivation of sperm but did not detach them from isthmic or ampullar epithelium unless added with heparin. These observations indicate that the nature of binding of sperm to ampullar epithelium differs from that of binding to isthmic epithelium; specifically, sperm bound to isthmic epithelium can be detached by heparin alone, while sperm bound to ampullar epithelium requires both heparin and hyperactivation to detach from the epithelium. PMID:27605344

  10. File list: NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: His.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: His.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren; Sha, Su-Hua

    2016-07-13

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/367497-14$15.00/0.

  7. Bilateral cochlear implantation in a patient with bilateral temporal bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Shin, Myung Chul; Min, Hyun Jung; Park, Chul Won; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2011-01-01

    With the emphasis on bilateral hearing nowadays, bilateral cochlear implantation has been tried out for bilateral aural rehabilitation. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss caused by head trauma can get help from cochlear implantation. We present the case of a 44-year-old man with bilateral otic capsule violating temporal bone fractures due to head trauma. The patient demonstrated much improved audiometric and psychoacoustic performance after bilateral cochlear implantation. We believe bilateral cochlear implantation in such patient can be a very effective tool for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Outcomes of cochlear implantation in deaf children of deaf parents: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, S

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study compared the cochlear implantation outcomes of first- and second-generation deaf children. The study group consisted of seven deaf, cochlear-implanted children with deaf parents. An equal number of deaf children with normal-hearing parents were selected by matched sampling as a reference group. Participants were matched based on onset and severity of deafness, duration of deafness, age at cochlear implantation, duration of cochlear implantation, gender, and cochlear implant model. We used the Persian Auditory Perception Test for the Hearing Impaired, the Speech Intelligibility Rating scale, and the Sentence Imitation Test, in order to measure participants' speech perception, speech production and language development, respectively. Both groups of children showed auditory and speech development. However, the second-generation deaf children (i.e. deaf children of deaf parents) exceeded the cochlear implantation performance of the deaf children with hearing parents. This study confirms that second-generation deaf children exceed deaf children of hearing parents in terms of cochlear implantation performance. Encouraging deaf children to communicate in sign language from a very early age, before cochlear implantation, appears to improve their ability to learn spoken language after cochlear implantation.

  9. Patient-specific estimation of detailed cochlear shape from clinical CT images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, H Martin; Fagertun, Jens; Wimmer, Wilhelm

    2018-01-01

    of the detailed patient-specific cochlear shape from CT images. From a collection of temporal bone [Formula: see text]CT images, we build a cochlear statistical deformation model (SDM), which is a description of how a human cochlea deforms to represent the observed anatomical variability. The model is used...... for regularization of a non-rigid image registration procedure between a patient CT scan and a [Formula: see text]CT image, allowing us to estimate the detailed patient-specific cochlear shape. We test the accuracy and precision of the predicted cochlear shape using both [Formula: see text]CT and CT images...

  10. Music perception and appraisal: cochlear implant users and simulated cochlear implant listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rose; Uchanski, Rosalie M

    2012-05-01

    The inability to hear music well may contribute to decreased quality of life for cochlear implant (CI) users. Researchers have reported recently on the generally poor ability of CI users to perceive music, and a few researchers have reported on the enjoyment of music by CI users. However, the relation between music perception skills and music enjoyment is much less explored. Only one study has attempted to predict CI users' enjoyment and perception of music from the users' demographic variables and other perceptual skills (Gfeller et al, 2008). Gfeller's results yielded different predictive relationships for music perception and music enjoyment, and the relationships were weak, at best. The first goal of this study is to clarify the nature and relationship between music perception skills and musical enjoyment for CI users, by employing a battery of music tests. The second goal is to determine whether normal hearing (NH) subjects, listening with a CI simulation, can be used as a model to represent actual CI users for either music enjoyment ratings or music perception tasks. A prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Original music stimuli (unprocessed) were presented to CI users, and music stimuli processed with CI-simulation software were presented to 20 NH listeners (CIsim). As a control, original music stimuli were also presented to five other NH listeners. All listeners appraised 24 musical excerpts, performed music perception tests, and filled out a musical background questionnaire. Music perception tests were the Appreciation of Music in Cochlear Implantees (AMICI), Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), Melodic Contour Identification (MCI), and University of Washington Clinical Assessment of Music Perception (UW-CAMP). Twenty-five NH adults (22-56 yr old), recruited from the local and research communities, participated in the study. Ten adult CI users (46-80 yr old), recruited from the patient population of the local adult cochlear implant

  11. The perception of stress pattern in young cochlear implanted children: an EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Katerina Vavatzanidis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with sensorineural hearing loss may (regain hearing with a cochlear implant – a device that transforms sounds into electric pulses and bypasses the dysfunctioning inner ear by stimulating the auditory nerve directly with an electrode array. Many implanted children master the acquisition of spoken language successfully, yet we still have little knowledge of the actual input they receive with the implant and specifically which language sensitive cues they hear. This would be important however, both for understanding the flexibility of the auditory system when presented with stimuli after a (life-long phase of deprivation and for planning therapeutic intervention. In rhythmic languages the general stress pattern conveys important information about word boundaries. Infant language acquisition relies on such cues and can be severely hampered when this information is missing, as seen for dyslexic children and children with specific language impairment. Here we ask whether children with a cochlear implant perceive differences in stress patterns during their language acquisition phase and if they do, whether it is present directly following implant stimulation or if and how much time is needed for the auditory system to adapt to the new sensory modality. We performed a longitudinal ERP study, testing in bimonthly intervals the stress pattern perception of 17 young hearing impaired children (age range: 9-50 months; mean: 22 months during their first 6 months of implant use. An additional session before the implantation served as control baseline. During a session they passively listened to an oddball paradigm featuring the disyllable baba, which was stressed either on the first or second syllable (trochaic vs. iambic stress pattern. A group of age-matched normal hearing children participated as controls.Our results show, that within the first 6 months of implant use the implanted children develop a negative mismatch response for iambic but not

  12. CLRN1 is nonessential in the mouse retina but is required for cochlear hair cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Geller

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the CLRN1 gene cause Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3, a human disease characterized by progressive blindness and deafness. Clarin 1, the protein product of CLRN1, is a four-transmembrane protein predicted to be associated with ribbon synapses of photoreceptors and cochlear hair cells, and recently demonstrated to be associated with the cytoskeleton. To study Clrn1, we created a Clrn1 knockout (KO mouse and characterized the histological and functional consequences of Clrn1 deletion in the retina and cochlea. Clrn1 KO mice do not develop a retinal degeneration phenotype, but exhibit progressive loss of sensory hair cells in the cochlea and deterioration of the organ of Corti by 4 months. Hair cell stereocilia in KO animals were longer and disorganized by 4 months, and some Clrn1 KO mice exhibited circling behavior by 5-6 months of age. Clrn1 mRNA expression was localized in the retina using in situ hybridization (ISH, laser capture microdissection (LCM, and RT-PCR. Retinal Clrn1 transcripts were found throughout development and adulthood by RT-PCR, although expression peaked at P7 and declined to undetectable levels in adult retina by ISH. LCM localized Clrn1 transcripts to the retinas inner nuclear layer, and WT levels of retinal Clrn1 expression were observed in photoreceptor-less retinas. Examination of Clrn1 KO mice suggests that CLRN1 is unnecessary in the murine retina but essential for normal cochlear development and function. This may reflect a redundancy in the mouse retina not present in human retina. In contrast to mouse KO models of USH1 and USH2, our data indicate that Clrn1 expression in the retina is restricted to the Müller glia. This is a novel finding, as most retinal degeneration associated proteins are expressed in photoreceptors, not in glia. If CLRN1 expression in humans is comparable to the expression pattern observed in mice, this is the first report of an inner retinal protein that, when mutated, causes retinal

  13. Chronic tinnitus and unipolar brush cell alterations in the cerebellum and dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas; Brozoski, Daniel; Wisner, Kurt; Bauer, Carol

    2017-07-01

    -Tinnitus). Neuron degeneration was also documented in the cochlear nucleus and PFL of exposed animals, both with and without tinnitus. Degeneration was not found in unexposed animals. Implications for tinnitus neuropathy are discussed in the context of synaptic remodeling and cerebellar sensory modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Perception of Stress Pattern in Young Cochlear Implanted Children: An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavatzanidis, Niki K; Mürbe, Dirk; Friederici, Angela D; Hahne, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children with sensorineural hearing loss may (re)gain hearing with a cochlear implant-a device that transforms sounds into electric pulses and bypasses the dysfunctioning inner ear by stimulating the auditory nerve directly with an electrode array. Many implanted children master the acquisition of spoken language successfully, yet we still have little knowledge of the actual input they receive with the implant and specifically which language sensitive cues they hear. This would be important however, both for understanding the flexibility of the auditory system when presented with stimuli after a (life-) long phase of deprivation and for planning therapeutic intervention. In rhythmic languages the general stress pattern conveys important information about word boundaries. Infant language acquisition relies on such cues and can be severely hampered when this information is missing, as seen for dyslexic children and children with specific language impairment. Here we ask whether children with a cochlear implant perceive differences in stress patterns during their language acquisition phase and if they do, whether it is present directly following implant stimulation or if and how much time is needed for the auditory system to adapt to the new sensory modality. We performed a longitudinal ERP study, testing in bimonthly intervals the stress pattern perception of 17 young hearing impaired children (age range: 9-50 months; mean: 22 months) during their first 6 months of implant use. An additional session before the implantation served as control baseline. During a session they passively listened to an oddball paradigm featuring the disyllable "baba," which was stressed either on the first or second syllable (trochaic vs. iambic stress pattern). A group of age-matched normal hearing children participated as controls. Our results show, that within the first 6 months of implant use the implanted children develop a negative mismatch response for iambic but not for trochaic

  15. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  16. Measurement of the thickness of the bronchial epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, D.H.; Baldwin, F.

    1989-02-01

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of gaseous radon daughters which become attached to molecules of water vapour or to dust particles. Since, the depth of tissue penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium that lines the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to measure the thickness of human bronchial epithelium; 2) to determine the distribution and depth of the nuclei of basal cells in the bronchial epithelium; and 3) to compare these parameters in groups of smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens of the lung were examined (26 smokers, 3 non-smokers). The specimens were fixed and prepared for examination by light and electron microscopy. Blocks of tissue were oriented so that the maximum number of bronchi were cut in cross-section; measurements included bronchi of all sizes from bronchial generations (1≥ 9.01 mm) diameter to the smallest bronchioles, generations 7 - 16 (0.26 - 2.0 mm). Comparison of measurements in smokers and non-smokers show no significant differences, so that the 29 cases are considered to represent a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness. Of more importance are the figures relating to the distance from the cell surface to the underlying nucleus. Here too, with the exception of goblet cells, the measurements are significantly smaller in generations 7 - 16 than in generation 1

  17. Frequency of Congenital Heart Diseases in Prelingual Sensory-Neural Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing impairment is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns and has increased to 2–4 cases per 1,000 live births. Sensory-neural hearing loss (SNHL accounts for more than 90% of all hearing loss. This disorder is associated with other congenital disorders such as renal, skeletal, ocular, and cardiac disorders. Given that congenital heart diseases are life-threatening, we decided to study the frequency of congenital heart diseases in children with congenital sensory-neural deafness.  Materials and Methods: All children who had undergone cochlear implantation surgery due to SNHL and who had attended our hospital for speech therapy during 2008–2011 were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography.  Results: Thirty-one children (15 boys and 16 girls with a mean age of 55.70 months were examined, and underwent electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography. None of the children had any signs of heart problems in their medical records. Most of their heart examinations were normal, one patient had expiratory wheeze, four (12% had mid-systolic click, and four (12% had an intensified S1 sound. In echocardiography, 15 children (46% had mitral valve prolapse (MVP and two (6% had minimal mitral regurgitation (MR. Mean ejection fraction (EF was 69% and the mean fractional shortening (FS was 38%.  Conclusion:  This study indicates the need for echocardiography and heart examinations in children with SNHL.

  18. Cytogenetic damage and postradiation restoration of eye cornea epithelium of Rodentia characterizing by different radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Intensity of beam damage and reparation of eye cornea epithelium of animals inhabiting under different conditions and differing by radiosensitivity has been studied. Mice differing by high radiosensitivity have the hardest cytogenetic damage. Cornea epithelium of bank voles is more radiostable than that of mice. The most negligible damages of cornea epithelium is observed in Mongolian sandwort despite the fact that their total radiation stability is lower than that of bank voles. High protective-restoring properties of eye cornea epithelium of Mongolian sandwort are explained by the structure of epithelium cells diffe-- ring by a large number of cytoplasm

  19. Perilymph sampling from the cochlear apex: a reliable method to obtain higher purity perilymph samples from scala tympani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alec N; Hale, Shane A; Plonkte, Stefan K R

    2006-05-15

    Measurements of drug levels in the fluids of the inner ear are required to establish kinetic parameters and to determine the influence of specific local delivery protocols. For most substances, this requires cochlear fluids samples to be obtained for analysis. When auditory function is of primary interest, the drug level in the perilymph of scala tympani (ST) is most relevant, since drug in this scala has ready access to the auditory sensory cells. In many prior studies, ST perilymph samples have been obtained from the basal turn, either by aspiration through the round window membrane (RWM) or through an opening in the bony wall. A number of studies have demonstrated that such samples are likely to be contaminated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF enters the basal turn of ST through the cochlear aqueduct when the bony capsule is perforated or when fluid is aspirated. The degree of sample contamination has, however, not been widely appreciated. Recent studies have shown that perilymph samples taken through the round window membrane are highly contaminated with CSF, with samples greater than 2microL in volume containing more CSF than perilymph. In spite of this knowledge, many groups continue to sample from the base of the cochlea, as it is a well-established method. We have developed an alternative, technically simple method to increase the proportion of ST perilymph in a fluid sample. The sample is taken from the apex of the cochlea, a site that is distant from the cochlear aqueduct. A previous problem with sampling through a perforation in the bone was that the native perilymph rapidly leaked out driven by CSF pressure and was lost to the middle ear space. We therefore developed a procedure to collect all the fluid that emerged from the perforated apex after perforation. We evaluated the method using a marker ion trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA). TMPA was applied to the perilymph of guinea pigs either by RW irrigation or by microinjection into the apical turn. The

  20. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Integrin Beta 1 Suppresses Multilayering of a Simple Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jichao; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelia are classified as either simple, a single cell layer thick, or stratified (multilayered). Stratified epithelia arise from simple epithelia during development, and transcription factor p63 functions as a key positive regulator of epidermal stratification. Here we show that deletion of integrin beta 1 (Itgb1) in the developing mouse airway epithelium abrogates airway branching and converts this monolayer epithelium into a multilayer epithelium with more than 10 extra layers. Mutant lung epithelial cells change mitotic spindle orientation to seed outer layers, and cells in different layers become molecularly and functionally distinct, hallmarks of normal stratification. However, mutant lung epithelial cells do not activate p63 and do not switch to the stratified keratin profile of epidermal cells. These data, together with previous data implicating Itgb1 in regulation of epidermal stratification, suggest that the simple-versus-stratified developmental decision may involve not only stratification inducers like p63 but suppressors like Itgb1 that prevent simple epithelia from inappropriately activating key steps in the stratification program. PMID:23285215

  2. Zinc uptake in vitro by human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, D.A.; Rothman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is present in unusually high concentrations in the chorioretinal complex relative to most other tissues. Because little has been known about the interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium and free or protein-associated zinc, we studied 65 Zn uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. When monolayers were exposed to differing concentrations from 0 to 30 microM 65 Zn in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 5.4 gm/l glucose at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, we observed a temperature-dependent saturable accumulation of the radiolabel. With 15 microM 65 Zn, we saw a biphasic pattern of uptake with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase over 120 min. Uptake of 65 Zn was inhibited by iodacetate and cold, and reduced approximately 50% by the addition of 2% albumin to the labelling medium. Neither ouabain nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake. Cells previously exposed to 65 Zn retained approximately 70% of accumulated 65 Zn 60 min after being changed to radiolabel-free medium. Following removal of cells from the extracellular matrix adherent to the dish bottom, a variable amount of nonspecific binding of 65 Zn to the residual matrix was demonstrated. These observations are consistent with a facilitated type of transport and demonstrate the ability of human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro to accumulate and retain zinc

  3. Regeneration of tracheal epithelium using mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshie, Susumu; Otsuki, Koshi; Miyake, Masao; Hazama, Akihiro; Wada, Ikuo; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion The findings demonstrated the potential use of induced pluripotent stem cells for regeneration of tracheal epithelium. Objective Autologous tissue implantation techniques using skin or cartilage are often applied in cases of tracheal defects with laryngeal inflammatory lesions and malignant tumor invasion. However, these techniques are invasive with an unstable clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate regeneration in a tracheal defect site of nude rats after implantation of ciliated epithelium that was differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells. Method Embryoid bodies were formed from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. They were cultured with growth factors for 5 days, and then cultured at the air-liquid interface. The degree of differentiation achieved prior to implantation was determined by histological findings and the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Embryoid bodies including ciliated epithelium were embedded into collagen gel that served as an artificial scaffold, and then implanted into nude rats, creating an 'air-liquid interface model'. Histological evaluation was performed 7 days after implantation. Results The ciliated epithelial structure survived on the lumen side of regenerated tissue. It was demonstrated histologically that the structure was composed of ciliated epithelial cells.

  4. Recovery of Vocal Fold Epithelium after Acute Phonotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bernard; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kimball, Emily E; Valenzuela, Carla V; Mizuta, Masanobu; Daniero, James J; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was an immediate decrease in the microprojection depth and height following raised-intensity phonation, paired with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2. This initial 24-h period was also characterized by the significant downregulation of junction proteins. Interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β1 were upregulated for 3 and 7 days, respectively, followed by an increase in epithelial cell surface depth at 3 and 7 days. These data appear to demonstrate a shift from inflammatory response to the initiation of a restorative process in the vocal fold epithelium between 24 h and 3 days. Despite the initial damage from raised-intensity phonation, the vocal fold epithelium demonstrates a remarkable capacity for the expeditious recovery of structural changes from transient episodes of acute phonotrauma. While structurally intact, the return of functional barrier integrity may be delayed by repeated episodes of phonotrauma and may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of vocal fold lesions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Automatic Model Generation Framework for Computational Simulation of Cochlear Implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangado Lopez, Nerea; Ceresa, Mario; Duchateau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    . To address such a challenge, we propose an automatic framework for the generation of patient-specific meshes for finite element modeling of the implanted cochlea. First, a statistical shape model is constructed from high-resolution anatomical μCT images. Then, by fitting the statistical model to a patient......'s CT image, an accurate model of the patient-specific cochlea anatomy is obtained. An algorithm based on the parallel transport frame is employed to perform the virtual insertion of the cochlear implant. Our automatic framework also incorporates the surrounding bone and nerve fibers and assigns......Recent developments in computational modeling of cochlear implantation are promising to study in silico the performance of the implant before surgery. However, creating a complete computational model of the patient's anatomy while including an external device geometry remains challenging...

  6. Evidence of echoic memory with a multichannel cochlear prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, S; Watkins, M J

    1988-10-01

    Short-term memory was examined in a subject with a multichannel cochlear prosthesis. Serial recall for lists of digits revealed what are widely regarded as the principal hallmarks of echoic memory, namely the recency effect and the suffix effect. Thus, probability of recall increased for the last one or two digits, except when a nominally irrelevant but spoken item was appended to the to-be-remembered list. It appears, therefore, that a multichannel cochlear implant can give rise to not only the perception of, but also an echoic memory for, speech. As with normal subjects, the suffix effect did not occur with a nonspeech suffix, implying that the echoic memory from the prosthesis shows normal sensitivity to the distinction between speech and nonspeech.

  7. [Cochlear implant in children: rational, indications and cost/efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, A; Bovo, R; Trevisi, P; Forli, F; Berrettini, S

    2013-06-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a partially implanted electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound and support speech to severely to profoundly hearing impaired patients. It is constituted by an external portion, that usually sits behind the ear and an internal portion surgically placed under the skin. The external components include a microphone connected to a speech processor that selects and arranges sounds pucked up by the microphone. This is connected to a transmitter coil, worn on the side of the head, which transmits data to an internal receiver coil placed under the skin. The received data are delivered to an array of electrodes that are surgically implanted within the cochlea. The primary neural targets of the electrodes are the spiral ganglion cells which innervate fibers of the auditory nerve. When the electrodes are activated by the signal, they send a current along the auditory nerve and auditory pathways to the auditory cortex. Children and adults who are profoundly or severely hearing impaired can be fitted with cochlear implants. According to the Food and Drug Administration, approximately 188,000 people worldwide have received implants. In Italy it is extimated that there are about 6-7000 implanted patients, with an average of 700 CI surgeries per year. Cochlear implantation, followed by intensive postimplantation speech therapy, can help young children to acquire speech, language, and social skills. Early implantation provides exposure to sounds that can be helpful during the critical period when children learn speech and language skills. In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration lowered the age of eligibility to 12 months for one type of CI. With regard to the results after cochlear implantation in relation to early implantation, better linguistic results are reported in children implanted before 12 months of life, even if no sufficient data exist regarding the relation between this advantage and the duration of implant use and how long

  8. Directional cell movements downstream of Gbx2 and Otx2 control the assembly of sensory placodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Steventon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial placodes contribute to sensory structures including the inner ear, the lens and olfactory epithelium and the neurons of the cranial sensory ganglia. At neurula stages, placode precursors are interspersed in the ectoderm surrounding the anterior neural plate before segregating into distinct placodes by as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we perform live imaging to follow placode progenitors as they aggregate to form the lens and otic placodes. We find that while placode progenitors move with the same speed as their non-placodal neighbours, they exhibit increased persistence and directionality and these properties are required to assemble morphological placodes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these factors are components of the transcriptional networks that coordinate placode cell behaviour including their directional movements. Together with previous work, our results support a dual role for Otx and Gbx transcription factors in both the early patterning of the neural plate border and the later segregation of its derivatives into distinct placodes.

  9. Complications in cochlear implantation at the Clinical Center of Vojvodina

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    Dankuc Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The first modern cochlear implantation in Serbia was performed on November 26, 2002 at the Center for Cochlear Implantation of the Clinic for Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Clinical Center of Vojvodina. Objective. The aim of the paper is the analysis of intraoperative and postoperative complications. Major complications include those resulting in the necessity for revision surgery, explantation, reimplantation, severe disease or even lethal outcomes. Minor complications resolve spontaneously or can be managed by conservative therapy and do not require any prolonged hospitalization of the patient. Methods. In the 2002-2013 period, 99 patients underwent surgical procedures and 100 cochlear implants were placed. Both intraoperative and postoperative complications were analyzed in the investigated patient population. Results. The analysis encompassed 99 patients, the youngest and the oldest ones being one year old and 61 years old, respectively. The complications were noticed in 11 patients, i.e. in 10.5% of 105 surgical procedures. The majority of procedures (89.5% were not accompanied by any post-surgical complications. Unsuccessful implantation in a single-step procedure (4.04% and transient facial nerve paralysis can be considered most frequent among our patients, whereas cochlear ossification (1.01% and transient ataxia (2.02% occurred rarely. Stimulation of the facial nerve (1.01%, intraoperative perilymph liquid gusher (1.01%, device failure and late infections (1.01% were recorded extremely rarely. Conclusion. Complications such as electrode extrusion, skin necrosis over the implant or meningitis, which is considered the most severe postoperative complication, have not been recorded at our Center since the very beginning. Absence of postoperative meningitis in patients treated at the Center can be attributed to timely pneumococcal vaccination of children.

  10. Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M D; Burton, J A; Hauser, S N; Hackett, T A; Ramachandran, R; Liberman, M C

    2017-09-01

    Cochlear synaptopathy can result from various insults, including acoustic trauma, aging, ototoxicity, or chronic conductive hearing loss. For example, moderate noise exposure in mice can destroy up to ∼50% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and inner hair cells (IHCs) without affecting outer hair cells (OHCs) or thresholds, because the synaptopathy occurs first in high-threshold ANFs. However, the fiber loss likely impairs temporal processing and hearing-in-noise, a classic complaint of those with sensorineural hearing loss. Non-human primates appear to be less vulnerable to noise-induced hair-cell loss than rodents, but their susceptibility to synaptopathy has not been studied. Because establishing a non-human primate model may be important in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics, we examined cochlear innervation and the damaging effects of acoustic overexposure in young adult rhesus macaques. Anesthetized animals were exposed bilaterally to narrow-band noise centered at 2 kHz at various sound-pressure levels for 4 h. Cochlear function was assayed for up to 8 weeks following exposure via auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). A moderate loss of synaptic connections (mean of 12-27% in the basal half of the cochlea) followed temporary threshold shifts (TTS), despite minimal hair-cell loss. A dramatic loss of synapses (mean of 50-75% in the basal half of the cochlea) was seen on IHCs surviving noise exposures that produced permanent threshold shifts (PTS) and widespread hair-cell loss. Higher noise levels were required to produce PTS in macaques compared to rodents, suggesting that primates are less vulnerable to hair-cell loss. However, the phenomenon of noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy in primates is similar to that seen in rodents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Balance Performance of Deaf Children With and Without Cochlear Implants

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    Amir-Abbas Ebrahimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this study was to compare the static and dynamic balance performance of deaf children with and without cochlear implants. This is a cross-sectional study of 145 school children, aged between 7 and 12 years comprising 85 children with congenital or early acquired bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss (the hearing loss group and 60 normal hearing aged-matched control counterparts were assessed using the balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. The hearing loss group, 50 without cochlear implants (the non-implant group and 35 of them with unilateral cochlear implants (the implant group were recruited from schools for the deaf and normal hearing children (the control group randomly selected from two randomly selected elementary schools of Tehran city. The scores were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The total score of deaf children especially the implant group were significantly lower than the control group P<0.001. The balance performance of the control group was better than the implant group in all of the items as well as the non-implant group except the fourth tested item (walking forward on a line (P<0.05. The balance score of the implant group was significantly lower than the non-implant group except for the third tested item (standing on the preferred leg on a balance beam with eyes closed. The findings suggested that deaf children, specifically those with cochlear implants are at risk for motor and balance deficits. Thus, vestibular and motor evaluations, as well as interventions to improve balance and motor skills, should be prioritized for this population.

  12. Challenging aspects of contemporary cochlear implant electrode array design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistrík, Pavel; Jolly, Claude; Sieber, Daniel; Hochmair, Ingeborg

    2017-12-01

    A design comparison of current perimodiolar and lateral wall electrode arrays of the cochlear implant (CI) is provided. The focus is on functional features such as acoustic frequency coverage and tonotopic mapping, battery consumption and dynamic range. A traumacity of their insertion is also evaluated. Review of up-to-date literature. Perimodiolar electrode arrays are positioned in the basal turn of the cochlea near the modiolus. They are designed to initiate the action potential in the proximity to the neural soma located in spiral ganglion. On the other hand, lateral wall electrode arrays can be inserted deeper inside the cochlea, as they are located along the lateral wall and such insertion trajectory is less traumatic. This class of arrays targets primarily surviving neural peripheral processes. Due to their larger insertion depth, lateral wall arrays can deliver lower acoustic frequencies in manner better corresponding to cochlear tonotopicity. In fact, spiral ganglion sections containing auditory nerve fibres tuned to low acoustic frequencies are located deeper than 1 and half turn inside the cochlea. For this reason, a significant frequency mismatch might be occurring for apical electrodes in perimodiolar arrays, detrimental to speech perception. Tonal languages such as Mandarin might be therefore better treated with lateral wall arrays. On the other hand, closer proximity to target tissue results in lower psychophysical threshold levels for perimodiolar arrays. However, the maximal comfort level is also lower, paradoxically resulting in narrower dynamic range than that of lateral wall arrays. Battery consumption is comparable for both types of arrays. Lateral wall arrays are less likely to cause trauma to cochlear structures. As the current trend in cochlear implantation is the maximal protection of residual acoustic hearing, the lateral wall arrays seem more suitable for hearing preservation CI surgeries. Future development could focus on combining the

  13. Cochlear implantation in children and adults in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Yves; Senn, Pascal; Kompis, Martin; Dillier, Norbert; Allum, John H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The cochlear implant (CI) is one of the most successful neural prostheses developed to date. It offers artificial hearing to individuals with profound sensorineural hearing loss and with insufficient benefit from conventional hearing aids. The first implants available some 30 years ago provided a limited sensation of sound. The benefit for users of these early systems was mostly a facilitation of lip-reading based communication rather than an understanding of speech. Considerable progress has...

  14. Effects of congruent and incongruent visual cues on speech perception and brain activity in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo; Chang, Sun O; Oh, Seung Ha

    2015-03-01

    While deafness-induced plasticity has been investigated in the visual and auditory domains, not much is known about language processing in audiovisual multimodal environments for patients with restored hearing via cochlear implant (CI) devices. Here, we examined the effect of agreeing or conflicting visual inputs on auditory processing in deaf patients equipped with degraded artificial hearing. Ten post-lingually deafened CI users with good performance, along with matched control subjects, underwent H 2 (15) O-positron emission tomography scans while carrying out a behavioral task requiring the extraction of speech information from unimodal auditory stimuli, bimodal audiovisual congruent stimuli, and incongruent stimuli. Regardless of congruency, the control subjects demonstrated activation of the auditory and visual sensory cortices, as well as the superior temporal sulcus, the classical multisensory integration area, indicating a bottom-up multisensory processing strategy. Compared to CI users, the control subjects exhibited activation of the right ventral premotor-supramarginal pathway. In contrast, CI users activated primarily the visual cortices more in the congruent audiovisual condition than in the null condition. In addition, compared to controls, CI users displayed an activation focus in the right amygdala for congruent audiovisual stimuli. The most notable difference between the two groups was an activation focus in the left inferior frontal gyrus in CI users confronted with incongruent audiovisual stimuli, suggesting top-down cognitive modulation for audiovisual conflict. Correlation analysis revealed that good speech performance was positively correlated with right amygdala activity for the congruent condition, but negatively correlated with bilateral visual cortices regardless of congruency. Taken together these results suggest that for multimodal inputs, cochlear implant users are more vision-reliant when processing congruent stimuli and are disturbed

  15. Neuronal differentiation of hair-follicle-bulge-derived stem cells co-cultured with mouse cochlear modiolus explants.

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    Timo Schomann

    Full Text Available Stem-cell-based repair of auditory neurons may represent an attractive therapeutic option to restore sensorineural hearing loss. Hair-follicle-bulge-derived stem cells (HFBSCs are promising candidates for this type of therapy, because they (1 have migratory properties, enabling migration after transplantation, (2 can differentiate into sensory neurons and glial cells, and (3 can easily be harvested in relatively high numbers. However, HFBSCs have never been used for this purpose. We hypothesized that HFBSCs can be used for cell-based repair of the auditory nerve and we have examined their migration and incorporation into cochlear modiolus explants and their subsequent differentiation. Modiolus explants obtained from adult wild-type mice were cultured in the presence of EF1α-copGFP-transduced HFBSCs, constitutively expressing copepod green fluorescent protein (copGFP. Also, modiolus explants without hair cells were co-cultured with DCX-copGFP-transduced HFBSCs, which demonstrate copGFP upon doublecortin expression during neuronal differentiation. Velocity of HFBSC migration towards modiolus explants was calculated, and after two weeks, co-cultures were fixed and processed for immunohistochemical staining. EF1α-copGFP HFBSC migration velocity was fast: 80.5 ± 6.1 μm/h. After arrival in the explant, the cells formed a fascicular pattern and changed their phenotype into an ATOH1-positive neuronal cell type. DCX-copGFP HFBSCs became green-fluorescent after integration into the explants, confirming neuronal differentiation of the cells. These results show that HFBSC-derived neuronal progenitors are migratory and can integrate into cochlear modiolus explants, while adapting their phenotype depending on this micro-environment. Thus, HFBSCs show potential to be employed in cell-based therapies for auditory nerve repair.

  16. Development and function of the voltage-gated sodium current in immature mammalian cochlear inner hair cells.

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    Tobias Eckrich

    Full Text Available Inner hair cells (IHCs, the primary sensory receptors of the mammalian cochlea, fire spontaneous Ca(2+ action potentials before the onset of hearing. Although this firing activity is mainly sustained by a depolarizing L-type (Ca(V1.3 Ca(2+ current (I(Ca, IHCs also transiently express a large Na(+ current (I(Na. We aimed to investigate the specific contribution of I(Na to the action potentials, the nature of the channels carrying the current and whether the biophysical properties of I(Na differ between low- and high-frequency IHCs. We show that I(Na is highly temperature-dependent and activates at around -60 mV, close to the action potential threshold. Its size was larger in apical than in basal IHCs and between 5% and 20% should be available at around the resting membrane potential (-55 mV/-60 mV. However, in vivo the availability of I(Na could potentially increase to >60% during inhibitory postsynaptic potential activity, which transiently hyperpolarize IHCs down to as far as -70 mV. When IHCs were held at -60 mV and I(Na elicited using a simulated action potential as a voltage command, we found that I(Na contributed to the subthreshold depolarization and upstroke of an action potential. We also found that I(Na is likely to be carried by the TTX-sensitive channel subunits Na(V1.1 and Na(V1.6 in both apical and basal IHCs. The results provide insight into how the biophysical properties of I(Na in mammalian cochlear IHCs could contribute to the spontaneous physiological activity during cochlear maturation in vivo.

  17. The beauty of sensory ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Aldana, Elis

    2017-08-10

    Sensory ecology is a discipline that focuses on how living creatures use information to survive, but not to live. By trans-defining the orthodox concept of sensory ecology, a serious heterodox question arises: how do organisms use their senses to live, i.e. to enjoy or suffer life? To respond to such a query the objective (time-independent) and emotional (non-rational) meaning of symbols must be revealed. Our program is distinct from both the neo-Darwinian and the classical ecological perspective because it does not focus on survival values of phenotypes and their functions, but asks for the aesthetic effect of biological structures and their symbolism. Our message recognizes that sensing apart from having a survival value also has a beauty value. Thus, we offer a provoking and inspiring new view on the sensory relations of 'living things' and their surroundings, where the innovating power of feelings have more weight than the privative power of reason.

  18. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  19. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  20. Free-form image registration of human cochlear μCT data using skeleton similarity as anatomical prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin; Fagertun, Jens; Vera, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the anatomical variability of the human cochlear is important for the design and function of Cochlear Implants. Proper non-rigid alignment of high-resolution cochlear μCT data is a challenge for the typical cubic B-spline registration model. In this paper we study one way ...

  1. Cochlear function tests in estimation of speech dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Ju; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae; Na, Mi Sun; Lee, Philip; Han, Jae Sang

    2016-10-01

    The loss of active cochlear mechanics causes elevated thresholds, loudness recruitment, and reduced frequency selectivity. The problems faced by hearing-impaired listeners are largely related with reduced dynamic range (DR). The aim of this study was to determine which index of the cochlear function tests correlates best with the DR to speech stimuli. Audiological data on 516 ears with pure tone average (PTA) of ≤55 dB and word recognition score of ≥70% were analyzed. PTA, speech recognition threshold (SRT), uncomfortable loudness (UCL), and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) were explored as the indices of cochlear function. Audiometric configurations were classified. Correlation between each index and the DR was assessed and multiple regression analysis was done. PTA and SRT demonstrated strong negative correlations with the DR (r = -0.788 and -0.860, respectively), while DPOAE sum was moderately correlated (r = 0.587). UCLs remained quite constant for the total range of the DR. The regression equation was Y (DR) = 75.238 - 0.719 × SRT (R(2 )=( )0.721, p equation.

  2. Paediatric Cochlear Implantation in Patients with Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Josephine W I; Snabel, Rebecca R; Langereis, Margreet; Pennings, Ronald J E; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Kunst, Henricus P M

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the benefit of cochlear implantation in young deaf children with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) compared to a reference group of young deaf children without additional disabilities. A retrospective study was conducted on children with WS who underwent cochlear implantation at the age of 2 years or younger. The post-operative results for speech perception (phonetically balanced standard Dutch consonant-vocal-consonant word lists) and language comprehension (the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, RDLS), expressed as a language quotient (LQ), were compared between the WS group and the reference group by using multiple linear regression analysis. A total of 14 children were diagnosed with WS, and 6 of them had additional disabilities. The WS children were implanted at a mean age of 1.6 years and the 48 children of the reference group at a mean age of 1.3 years. The WS children had a mean phoneme score of 80% and a mean LQ of 0.74 at 3 years post-implantation, and these results were comparable to those of the reference group. Only the factor additional disabilities had a significant negative influence on auditory perception and language comprehension. Children with WS performed similarly to the reference group in the present study, and these outcomes are in line with the previous literature. Although good counselling about additional disabilities concomitant to the syndrome is relevant, cochlear implantation is a good rehabilitation method for children with WS. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Design of a new electrode array for cochlear implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kha, H.; Chen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This study aims to design a new electrode array which can be precisely located beneath the basilar membrane within the cochlear scala tympani. This placement of the electrode array is beneficial for increasing the effectiveness of the electrical stimulation of the audi tory nerves and maximising the growth factors delivered into the cochlea for regenerating the progressively lost auditory neurons, thereby significantly improving performance of the cochlear implant systems. Methods The design process involved two steps. First, the biocom patible nitinol-based shape memory alloy, of which mechanical deformation can be controlled using electrical cUTents/fields act vated by body temperature, was selected. Second, five different designs of the electrode array with embedded nitinol actuators were studied (Table I). The finite element method was employed to predict final positions of these electrode arrays. Results The electrode array with three 6 mm actuators at 2-8, 8-J4 and 14-20 mm from the tip (Fig. I) was found to be located most closely to the basilar membrane, compared with those in the other four cases. Conclusions A new nitinol cochlear implant electrode array with three embedded nitinol actuators has been designed. This electrode array is expected to be located beneath the basilar membrane for maximising the delivery of growth factors. Future research will involve the manufacturing of a prototype of this electrode array for use in insertion experiments and neurotrophin release tests.

  4. Development of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) cochlear biomodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngelayang, Thailis Bounya Anak; Latif, Rhonira [Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Human cochlear is undeniably one of the most amazing organs in human body. The functional mechanism is very unique in terms of its ability to convert the sound waves in the form of mechanical vibrations into the electrical nerve impulses. It is known that the normal human auditory system can perceive the audible frequency range between 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Scientists have conducted several researches trying to build the artificial basilar membrane in the human cochlea (cochlear biomodel). Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) is one of the potential inventions that have the ability to mimic the active behavior of the basilar membrane. In this paper, an array of MEMS bridge beams that are mechanically sensitive to the perceived audible frequency has been proposed. An array of bridge bridge beams with 0.5 µm thickness and length varying from 200 µm to 2000 µm have been designed operate within the audible frequency range. In the bridge beams design, aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), tantalum (Ta) and platinum (Pt) have considered as the material for the bridge beam structure. From the finite element (FE) and lumped element (LE) models of the MEMS bridge beams, platinum has been found to be the best material for the cochlear biomodel design, closely mimicking the basilar membrane.

  5. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Venail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement, electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device. The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = −0.11 ± 0.02, P<0.01, the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = −8.50 ± 1.97, P<0.01, and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF. Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas.

  6. Ethical considerations in resource allocation in a cochlear implant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Brian D; Pijl, Sipke; McDonald, Michael

    2008-04-01

    To review processes of resource allocation and the ethical considerations relevant to the fair allocation of a limited number of cochlear implants to increasing numbers of potential recipients. Review of relevant considerations. Tertiary referral hospital. Editorial discussion of the ethical issues of resource allocation. Heterogeneity of audiometric thresholds, self-reported disability of hearing loss, age of the potential cochlear implant recipient, cost-effectiveness, access to resources, compliance with follow-up, social support available to the recipient, social consequences of hearing impairment, and other recipient-related factors. In a publicly funded health care system, there will always be a need for decision-making processes for allocation of finite fiscal resources. All candidates for cochlear implantation deserve fair consideration. However, they are a heterogeneous group in terms of needs and expected outcomes consisting of traditional and marginal candidates, with a wide range of benefit from acoustic amplification. We argue that implant programs should thoughtfully prioritize treatment on the basis of need and potential benefit. We reject queuing on the basis of "first-come, first-served" or on the basis of perceived social worth.

  7. Development of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) cochlear biomodel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngelayang, Thailis Bounya Anak; Latif, Rhonira

    2015-01-01

    Human cochlear is undeniably one of the most amazing organs in human body. The functional mechanism is very unique in terms of its ability to convert the sound waves in the form of mechanical vibrations into the electrical nerve impulses. It is known that the normal human auditory system can perceive the audible frequency range between 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Scientists have conducted several researches trying to build the artificial basilar membrane in the human cochlea (cochlear biomodel). Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) is one of the potential inventions that have the ability to mimic the active behavior of the basilar membrane. In this paper, an array of MEMS bridge beams that are mechanically sensitive to the perceived audible frequency has been proposed. An array of bridge bridge beams with 0.5 µm thickness and length varying from 200 µm to 2000 µm have been designed operate within the audible frequency range. In the bridge beams design, aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), tantalum (Ta) and platinum (Pt) have considered as the material for the bridge beam structure. From the finite element (FE) and lumped element (LE) models of the MEMS bridge beams, platinum has been found to be the best material for the cochlear biomodel design, closely mimicking the basilar membrane

  8. Cochlear implantation in patient with Dandy-walker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adriana Kosma Pires; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Mocelin, Marcos; Rezende, Rodrigo K

    2012-07-01

     Dandy Walker Syndrome is a congenital abnormality in the central nervous system, characterized by a deficiency in the development of middle cerebelar structures, cystic dilatation of the posterior pit communicating with the fourth ventricle and upward shift of the transverse sinuses, tentorium and dyes. Among the clinical signs are occipital protuberances, a progressive increase of the skull, bowing before the fontanels, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual impairment.  To describe a case of female patient, 13 years old with a diagnosis of this syndrome and bilateral hearing loss underwent cochlear implant surgery under local anesthesia and sedation.  CGS, 13 years old female was referred to the Otolaryngological Department of Otolaryngology Institute of Parana with a diagnosis of "Dandy-Walker syndrome" for Otolaryngological evaluation for bilateral hearing loss with no response to the use of hearing aids. Final Comments: The field of cochlear implants is growing rapidly. We believe that the presence of Dandy-Walker syndrome cannot be considered a contraindication to the performance of cochlear implant surgery, and there were no surgical complications due to neurological disorders with very favorable results for the patient who exhibits excellent discrimination. It has less need for lip reading with improvement in speech quality.

  9. Cochlear implantation in patient with Dandy-walker syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Adriana Kosma Pires de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dandy Walker Syndrome is a congenital abnormality in the central nervous system, characterized by a deficiency in the development of middle cerebelar structures, cystic dilatation of the posterior pit communicating with the fourth ventricle and upward shift of the transverse sinuses, tentorium and dyes. Among the clinical signs are occipital protuberances, a progressive increase of the skull, bowing before the fontanels, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual impairment. Objectives: To describe a case of female patient, 13 years old with a diagnosis of this syndrome and bilateral hearing loss underwent cochlear implant surgery under local anesthesia and sedation. Case Report: CGS, 13 years old female was referred to the Otolaryngological Department of Otolaryngology Institute of Parana with a diagnosis of "Dandy-Walker syndrome" for Otolaryngological evaluation for bilateral hearing loss with no response to the use of hearing aids. Final Comments: The field of cochlear implants is growing rapidly. We believe that the presence of Dandy-Walker syndrome cannot be considered a contraindication to the performance of cochlear implant surgery, and there were no surgical complications due to neurological disorders with very favorable results for the patient who exhibits excellent discrimination. It has less need for lip reading with improvement in speech quality.

  10. Ultrastructure of photo-sensory cells and pigment epithelium in the retina of the Antarctic fish Notothenia neglecta Nybelin (Nototheniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucelia, Donatti; Edith, Fanta

    2002-01-01

    南極産の魚Notothenia neglectaはキングジョージ島, アドミラルティ湾の生息域では優先的に出現する魚である。本種は捕食者であり, しばしば, 正確な視覚を用いた待ち伏せ採餌を行う。そこで網膜の光受容細胞と色素上皮の微細構造を電子顕微鏡を用いて解析することとした。網膜には色素上皮と桿体, 短い独立型錐体, 長い独立型錐体, 不等双子型錐体, 三子型錐体の5種の光受容細胞とニューロン, 支持細胞が存在する。色素上皮はたたみ込まれた基底膜, 基底ミトコンドリア, 平滑な網状体, 大量の微小管, メラニン顆粒, 食作用胞, 光受容細胞の剥離膜で特徴づけられている。錐体には外節の二重膜状板, 楕円体・筋様体の副錐体, 連結繊毛, 微絨毛が, 楕円体中には中心小体, そして筋様体・楕円体域には掌状筋様体, ミューラー細胞の頂上微絨毛が存在する。これら総ての状態は, N. neglectaに環境の光条件の変化に対するあらゆる種類の適応を可能にし, N. neglectaを, 水平, 垂直方向に調整可能な10層に配置された細胞を持つという, 複雑な網膜を備える魚類の1種としている...

  11. LGR4 and LGR5 regulate hair cell differentiation in the sensory epithelium of the developing mouse cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Magdalena; Van Oort, Thijs; Hendriksen, Ferry G.; Garcia, Marie Isabelle; Vassart, Gilbert; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    In the developing cochlea, Wnt/β-catenin signaling positively regulates the proliferation of precursors and promotes the formation of hair cells by up-regulating Atoh1 expression. Not much, however, is known about the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin activity in the cochlea. In multiple tissues, the

  12. Artificial induction of Sox21 regulates sensory cell formation in the embryonic chicken inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Freeman

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, hair cells and support cells in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear derive from progenitors that express Sox2, a member of the SoxB1 family of transcription factors. Sox2 is essential for sensory specification, but high levels of Sox2 expression appear to inhibit hair cell differentiation, suggesting that factors regulating Sox2 activity could be critical for both processes. Antagonistic interactions between SoxB1 and SoxB2 factors are known to regulate cell differentiation in neural tissue, which led us to investigate the potential roles of the SoxB2 member Sox21 during chicken inner ear development. Sox21 is normally expressed by sensory progenitors within vestibular and auditory regions of the early embryonic chicken inner ear. At later stages, Sox21 is differentially expressed in the vestibular and auditory organs. Sox21 is restricted to the support cell layer of the auditory epithelium, while it is enriched in the hair cell layer of the vestibular organs. To test Sox21 function, we used two temporally distinct gain-of-function approaches. Sustained over-expression of Sox21 from early developmental stages prevented prosensory specification, and abolished the formation of both hair cells and support cells. However, later induction of Sox21 expression at the time of hair cell formation in organotypic cultures of vestibular epithelia inhibited endogenous Sox2 expression and Notch activity, and biased progenitor cells towards a hair cell fate. Interestingly, Sox21 did not promote hair cell differentiation in the immature auditory epithelium, which fits with the expression of endogenous Sox21 within mature support cells in this tissue. These results suggest that interactions among endogenous SoxB family transcription factors may regulate sensory cell formation in the inner ear, but in a context-dependent manner.

  13. Aspects of Music with Cochlear Implants – Music Listening Habits and Appreciation in Danish Cochlear Implant Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Hansen, Mads; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Cochlear implant users differ significantly from their normal hearing peers when it comes to perception of music. Several studies have shown that structural features – such as rhythm, timbre, and pitch – are transmitted less accurately through an implant. However, we cannot predict personal...... music less post-implantation than prior to their hearing loss. Nevertheless, a large majority of CI listeners either prefer music over not hearing music at all or find music as pleasant as they recall it before their hearing loss, or more so....... enjoyment of music solely as a function of accuracy of perception. But can music be pleasant with a cochlear implant at all? Our aim here was to gather information of both music enjoyment and listening habits before the onset of hearing loss and post-operation from a large, representative sample of Danish...

  14. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayoz Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results Under control conditions, constitutive release of ATP occurs via exocytosis, hemichannels and ABC transporters and is inhibited by vesicular fusion inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin A and hemichannel and ABC transporter inhibitor probenecid. Constitutive ATP release is negatively regulated by the ATP breakdown product ADP through activation of P2Y receptors, likely via the cAMP/PKA pathway. In vivo studies indicate that constitutive ATP may play a role in neuronal homeostasis as inhibition of exocytosis inhibited normal proliferation in the OE. ATP-evoked ATP release is also present in mouse neonatal OE, triggered by several ionotropic P2X purinergic receptor agonists (ATP, αβMeATP and Bz-ATP and a G protein-coupled P2Y receptor agonist (UTP. Calcium imaging of P2X2-transfected HEK293 “biosensor” cells confirmed the presence of evoked ATP release. Following purinergic receptor stimulation, ATP is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis, activated P2X1,7 receptors, activated P2X7 receptors that form a complex with pannexin channels, or ABC transporters. The ATP-evoked ATP release is inhibited by the purinergic receptor inhibitor PPADS, Clostridium difficile toxin A and two inhibitors of pannexin channels: probenecid and carbenoxolone. Conclusions The constitutive release of ATP might be involved in normal cell turn-over or modulation of odorant sensitivity in physiological conditions. Given the growth-promoting effects of ATP, ATP-evoked ATP

  15. Can cochlear implantation improve neurocognition in the aging population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völter C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Christiane Völter,1 Lisa Götze,1 Stefan Dazert,1 Michael Falkenstein,2,3 Jan Peter Thomas1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ruhr University Bochum, St. Elisabeth-Hospital, Bochum, Germany; 2Institute for Work, Learning and Ageing (ALA, Bochum, Germany; 3Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany Introduction: The relationship between cognition and the ability to hear is well known. Due to changes in demographics, the number of people with sensorineural hearing loss and cognitive impairment is increasing. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of hearing rehabilitation via cochlear implantation on cognitive decline among the aging population. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 60 subjects aged between 50 and 84 years (mean 65.8 years, SD=8.9 with a severe to profound bilateral hearing impairment. A computer-based evaluation of short- and long-term memory, processing speed, attention, working memory and inhibition was performed prior to surgery as well as 6 and 12 months after cochlear implantation. Additionally, speech perception at 65 and 80 dB (Freiburger monosyllabic speech test as well as disease-related (Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire and general (WHOQOL-OLD quality of life were assessed. Results: Six months postimplantation, speech perception, quality of life and also neurocognitive abilities significantly increased. The most remarkable improvement after 6 months was detected in executive functions such as attention (p<0.001, inhibition (p=0.025 and working memory (n-back: p=0.002; operation span task: p=0.008, followed by delayed recall (p=0.03. In contrast, long-term memory showed a significant change of performance only after 12 months (p=0.021. After 6 months, most cognitive domains remained stable, except working memory assessed by the operation span task, which significantly improved between 6 and 12 months (p<0.001. No

  16. Parental mode of communication is essential for speech and language outcomes in cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Breinegaard, Nina

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a very strong effect of the parental communication mode on the auditory capabilities and speech/language outcome for cochlear implanted children. The children exposed to spoken language had higher odds of scoring high in all tests applied and the findings suggest...... a very clear benefit of spoken language communication with a cochlear implanted child....

  17. Cyborgization: Deaf Education for Young Children in the Cochlear Implantation Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    The author, who was raised oral deaf himself, recounts a visit to a school for young deaf children and discovers that young d/Deaf children and their rights are subverted by the cochlear implantation empire. The hypercapitalist, techno-manic times of cochlear implantation has wreaked havoc to the lives of not only young children with deafness but…

  18. Effects of residual hearing on cochlear implant outcomes in children: A systematic-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo

    2017-09-01

    to investigate if preoperative residual hearing in prelingually deafened children can interfere on cochlear implant indication and outcomes. a systematic-review was conducted in five international databases up to November-2016, to locate articles that evaluated cochlear implantation in children with some degree of preoperative residual hearing. Outcomes were auditory, language and cognition performances after cochlear implant. The quality of the studies was assessed and classified according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence table - 2011. Risk of biases were also described. From the 30 articles reviewed, two types of questions were identified: (a) what are the benefits of cochlear implantation in children with residual hearing? (b) is the preoperative residual hearing a predictor of cochlear implant outcome? Studies ranged from 04 to 188 subjects, evaluating populations between 1.8 and 10.3 years old. The definition of residual hearing varied between studies. The majority of articles (n = 22) evaluated speech perception as the outcome and 14 also assessed language and speech production. There is evidence that cochlear implant is beneficial to children with residual hearing. Preoperative residual hearing seems to be valuable to predict speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation, even though the mechanism of how it happens is not clear. More extensive researches must be conducted in order to make recommendations and to set prognosis for cochlear implants based on children preoperative residual hearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  20. Sequential bilateral cochlear implantation in children: parents' perspective and device use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, M.; Leeuw, A.R.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was (1) to measure parental expectations before surgery of a sequentially placed second cochlear implant and compare these results with parental observations postoperatively and (2) to measure device use of the second cochlear implant and compare to unilateral

  1. Quality of life and cochlear implantation in Usher syndrome type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, G.W.J.A.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this descriptive, retrospective study were to evaluate quality of life, hearing, and vision in patients with Usher syndrome type I with and without cochlear implant. METHODS: Quality of life (QoL) of 14 patients with Usher type I (USH1) with a cochlear implant (CI)

  2. Advances in cochlear implant telemetry: evoked neural responses, electrical field imaging, and technical integrity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, L.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, cochlear implantation has evolved into a well-established treatment of deafness, predominantly because of many improvements in speech processing and the controlled excitation of the auditory nerve. Cochlear implants now also feature telemetry, which is highly useful to

  3. Protective role of hydrogen sulfide against noise-induced cochlear damage: a chronic intracochlear infusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction in cochlear blood flow plays an essential role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. The timely regulation of cochlear perfusion determines the progression and prognosis of NIHL. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has attracted increasing interest as a vasodilator in cardiovascular systems. This study identified the role of H(2S in cochlear blood flow regulation and noise protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The gene and protein expression of the H(2S synthetase cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE in the rat cochlea was examined using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Cochlear CSE mRNA levels varied according to the duration of noise exposure. A chronic intracochlear infusion model was built and artificial perilymph (AP, NaHS or DL-propargylglycine (PPG were locally administered. Local sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS significantly increased cochlear perfusion post-noise exposure. Cochlear morphological damage and hearing loss were alleviated in the NaHS group as measured by conventional auditory brainstem response (ABR, cochlear scanning electron microscope (SEM and outer hair cell (OHC count. The highest percentage of OHC loss occurred in the PPG group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that H(2S plays an important role in the regulation of cochlear blood flow and the protection against noise. Further studies may identify a new preventive and therapeutic perspective on NIHL and other blood supply-related inner ear diseases.

  4. A new computed tomography method to identify meningitis-related cochlear ossification and fibrosis before cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kazunori; Kashio, Akinori; Mori, Harushi; Ochi, Atushi; Karino, Shotaro; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kakigi, Akinobu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2014-04-01

    To develop a new method to determine the presence of intracochlear ossification and/or fibrosis in cochlear implantation candidates with bilateral profound deafness following meningitis. Diagnostic test assessment. A university hospital. This study involved 15 ears from 13 patients with profound deafness following meningitis who underwent cochlear implantation. These ears showed normal structures, soft tissue, partial bony occlusion, and complete bony occlusion in 4, 3, 2, and 6 ears, respectively. We measured radiodensity in Hounsfield units (HU) using 0.5-mm-thick axial high-resolution computed tomography image slices at 3 different levels in the basal turn, the fenestration, and inferior and ascending segment sites, located along the electrode-insertion path. Pixel-level analysis on the DICOM viewer yielded actual computed tomography values of intracochlear soft tissues by eliminating the partial volume effect. The values were compared with the intraoperative findings. Values for ossification (n = 12) ranged from +547 HU to +1137 HU; for fibrosis (n = 11), from +154 HU to +574 HU; and for fluid (n = 22), from -49 HU to +255 HU. From these values, we developed 2 presets of window width (WW) and window level (WL): (1) WW: 1800, WL: 1100 (200 HU to 2000 HU) and (2) WW: 1500, WL: 1250 (500 HU to 2000 HU). The results using these 2 presets corresponded well to the intraoperative findings. Our new method is easy and feasible for preoperative determination of the presence of cochlear ossification and/or fibrosis that develops following meningitis.

  5. Cochlear implantation in the world's largest medical device market: utilization and awareness of cochlear implants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L

    2013-03-01

    Provision of cochlear implants (CIs) for those within the criteria for implantation remains lower in the United States than in some other developed nations. When adults and children are grouped together, the rate of utilization/provision remains low at around 6%. For children, the provision rate is about 50% of those who could benefit from an implant, compared with figures of about 90% for the Flanders part of Belgium, the United Kingdom and other European countries. The probable reasons for this underprovision include: low awareness of the benefits of CIs among the population; low awareness among health-care professionals; the lack of specific referral pathways; some political issues relating to the Deaf Community; and financial issues related to health provision. Such financial issues result in situations which either fail to provide for access to implants or provide too low a level of the necessary funding, especially for low-income individuals covered by public health-care programs such as Medicaid. These issues might be mitigated by adoption and publication of standards for best clinical practices for CI provision, availability of current cost-effectiveness data, and the existence of an organization dedicated to cochlear implantation. Such an organization, the American Cochlear Implant Alliance (ACI Alliance), was recently organized and is described in the paper by Niparko et al. in this Supplement.

  6. Nonverbal cognitive development in children with cochlear implants: relationship between the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and later performance on the Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Susan E; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Oghalai, John S; Lin, Jerry; Caudle, Donald D

    2014-02-01

    Methodologically, longitudinal assessment of cognitive development in young children has proven difficult because few measures span infancy through school age. This matter is further complicated when the child presents with a sensory deficit such as hearing loss. Few measures are validated in this population, and children who are evaluated for cochlear implantation are often reevaluated annually. The authors sought to evaluate the predictive validity of subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) on Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised (LIPS-R) Full-Scale IQ scores. To further elucidate the relationship of these two measures, comparisons were also made with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Second Edition (VABS), which provides a measure of adaptive functioning across the life span. Participants included 35 children (14 female, 21 male) who were evaluated both as part of the precandidacy process for cochlear implantation using the MSEL and VABS and following implantation with the LIPS-R and VABS. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that the MSEL Visual Reception subdomain score significantly predicted 52% of the variance in LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores at follow-up, F(1, 34) = 35.80, p < .0001, R (2) = .52, β = .72. This result suggests that the Visual Reception subscale offers predictive validity of later LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores. The VABS was also significantly correlated with cognitive variables at each time point.

  7. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  8. Standardization of reliability reporting for cochlear implants: an interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backous, Douglas D; Watson, Stacey D

    2007-04-01

    To propose a standard definition of "out of specification" for cochlear implants and a paradigm for inclusion of category C of the ISO standard 5841-2:2000 for reporting in cumulative survival statistics. A standard definition of "out of specification" and consistent reporting by manufacturers of cochlear implants will create a fair and consistent representation of cumulative survival. This will allow discernment of differences between manufacturers for reliability and for detection of trends in reliability between model types from the same manufacturer. Three separate meetings with representatives of the three manufacturers of cochlear implants marketed in the United States were staged over a 13-mo period. Standard questions, created by the authors, were addressed by each representative to determine the current state of device reliability reporting. Results were presented to clinicians at the William House Cochlear Implant study Group and the Implantable devices sub-committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology (2004, 2005) and at the 8th International Cochlear Implant Conference (2004) for feedback. After assimilation of feedback by all parties, the standard was written and reviewed by representatives from each manufacturer for accuracy of data. A complaint-driven standard was developed. A "cochlear implant" as an internal device placed and skin closed in surgery. An internal device is "out of specification" when one or more technical characteristics is outside the limits of normal function and results in explantation or non-use by the patient." Children will be reported separately from adults, each model of device will be reported on annually, a minimum of 200 devices must be in each model group for Cumulative Survival Reporting (CSR). Confidence limits are set at 95%. Explants will be determined to be "biological" or "technical." Technical explants are included in CSR reports. Devices failing to meet specifications set by the manufacturer, not in use but

  9. The pattern of auditory brainstem response wave V maturation in cochlear-implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai-Van, Hung; Cozma, Sebastian; Boutitie, Florent; Disant, François; Truy, Eric; Collet, Lionel

    2007-03-01

    . Maturational time-course for the ABR in preterm and full term infants. Hear Res 33, 35-47; Eggermont, J.J., Salamy, A., 1988b. Development of ABR parameters in a preterm and a term born population. Ear Hear 9, 283-9] of normal hearing children: a sum of two decaying exponential functions, one showing an early rapid decrease in latency and the other a slower decrease. Remarkably, the time-constants fell well within the ranges described by Eggermont and Salamy (i.e., 3.9 and 68 weeks), consistent with the time-course of the neurophysiological mechanisms presumably involved in auditory pathway maturation during the first 2 years of life: i.e., myelination and increased synaptic efficacy. In contrast, relatively little change in wave V was evident in children with late-onset deafness. In agreement with the notion that EABR maturation follows an apex-to-base gradient as described for ABR, we observed that wave V latencies were longer for the basal than the apical end of the implant electrode array and remained so throughout the study period, whatever the time of onset of deafness. The findings in the early-onset of deafness group support the theory that auditory pathways remain "frozen" during the period of sensory deprivation until cochlear implant rehabilitation restores the normal chronology of maturational processes. In children with late-onset deafness, however, some maturational processes may occur before the onset of deafness, and thus less additional maturation is required during the first two years of implant use resulting in no significant EABR latency changes being observed in this period. The results suggest that the rehabilitation-induced plasticity of the auditory pathways is, in case of late auditory deprivation, unlikely to result in neurophysiological outcomes similar to those observed in children with early auditory deprivation. Changes in EABR wave V latency over the first 2 years of cochlear implant use were found to be well fitted by the sum of two decaying

  10. Adipose-derived stromal cells enhance auditory neuron survival in an animal model of sensory hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendzielorz, Philipp; Vollmer, Maike; Rak, Kristen; Wiegner, Armin; Nada, Nashwa; Radeloff, Katrin; Hagen, Rudolf; Radeloff, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic prosthesis that can partially restore speech perception capabilities. Optimum information transfer from the cochlea to the central auditory system requires a proper functioning auditory nerve (AN) that is electrically stimulated by the device. In deafness, the lack of neurotrophic support, normally provided by the sensory cells of the inner ear, however, leads to gradual degeneration of auditory neurons with undesirable consequences for CI performance. We evaluated the potential of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) that are known to produce neurotrophic factors to prevent neural degeneration in sensory hearing loss. For this, co-cultures of ASCs with auditory neurons have been studied, and autologous ASC transplantation has been performed in a guinea pig model of gentamicin-induced sensory hearing loss. In vitro ASCs were neuroprotective and considerably increased the neuritogenesis of auditory neurons. In vivo transplantation of ASCs into the scala tympani resulted in an enhanced survival of auditory neurons. Specifically, peripheral AN processes that are assumed to be the optimal activation site for CI stimulation and that are particularly vulnerable to hair cell loss showed a significantly higher survival rate in ASC-treated ears. ASC transplantation into the inner ear may restore neurotrophic support in sensory hearing loss and may help to improve CI performance by enhanced AN survival. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria

    2013-01-01

    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...

  12. Differential response of olfactory sensory neuron populations to copper ion exposure in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.lazzari@unibo.it; Bettini, Simone; Milani, Liliana; Maurizii, Maria Gabriella; Franceschini, Valeria

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Copper exposure affects ciliated olfactory receptors more than microvillar cells. • Crypt olfactory sensory neurons are not affected by copper exposure. • Copper exposure induces an increase in the amount of sensory epithelium. - Abstract: The peripheral olfactory system of fish is in direct contact with the external aqueous environment, so dissolved contaminants can easily impair sensory functions and cause neurobehavioral injuries. The olfactory epithelium of fish is arranged in lamellae forming a rosette in the olfactory cavity and contains three main types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): ciliated (cOSNs) and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (mOSNs), common to all vertebrates, and a third minor group of olfactory neurons, crypt cells, absent in tetrapods. Since copper is a ubiquitously diffusing olfactory toxicant and a spreading contaminant in urban runoff, we investigated the effect of low copper concentration on the three different OSNs in the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish, a model system widely used in biological research. Image analysis was applied for morphometry and quantification of immunohistochemically detected OSNs. Copper exposure resulted in an evident decrease in olfactory epithelium thickness. Moreover, after exposure, the lamellae of the dorsal and ventral halves of the olfactory rosettes showed a different increase in their sensory areas, suggesting a lateral migration of new cells into non-sensory regions. The results of the present study provide clear evidence of a differential response of the three neural cell populations of zebrafish olfactory mucosa after 96 h of exposure to copper ions at the sublethal concentration of 30 μg L{sup −1}. Densitometric values of cONS, immunostained with anti-G {sub αolf}, decreased of about 60% compared to the control. When the fish were transferred to water without copper addition and examined after 3, 10 and 30 days, we observed a partial restoration of anti-G {sub

  13. Differential response of olfactory sensory neuron populations to copper ion exposure in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Bettini, Simone; Milani, Liliana; Maurizii, Maria Gabriella; Franceschini, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper exposure affects ciliated olfactory receptors more than microvillar cells. • Crypt olfactory sensory neurons are not affected by copper exposure. • Copper exposure induces an increase in the amount of sensory epithelium. - Abstract: The peripheral olfactory system of fish is in direct contact with the external aqueous environment, so dissolved contaminants can easily impair sensory functions and cause neurobehavioral injuries. The olfactory epithelium of fish is arranged in lamellae forming a rosette in the olfactory cavity and contains three main types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): ciliated (cOSNs) and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (mOSNs), common to all vertebrates, and a third minor group of olfactory neurons, crypt cells, absent in tetrapods. Since copper is a ubiquitously diffusing olfactory toxicant and a spreading contaminant in urban runoff, we investigated the effect of low copper concentration on the three different OSNs in the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish, a model system widely used in biological research. Image analysis was applied for morphometry and quantification of immunohistochemically detected OSNs. Copper exposure resulted in an evident decrease in olfactory epithelium thickness. Moreover, after exposure, the lamellae of the dorsal and ventral halves of the olfactory rosettes showed a different increase in their sensory areas, suggesting a lateral migration of new cells into non-sensory regions. The results of the present study provide clear evidence of a differential response of the three neural cell populations of zebrafish olfactory mucosa after 96 h of exposure to copper ions at the sublethal concentration of 30 μg L"−"1. Densitometric values of cONS, immunostained with anti-G _α_o_l_f, decreased of about 60% compared to the control. When the fish were transferred to water without copper addition and examined after 3, 10 and 30 days, we observed a partial restoration of anti-G _

  14. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  15. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Amidfar, Meysam; Dadgar, Hooshang; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-04-01

    Working memory has an important role in language acquisition and development of cognition skills. The ability of encoding, storage and retrieval of phonological codes, as activities of working memory, acquired by audition sense. Children with cochlear implant experience a period that they are not able to perceive sounds. In order to assess the effect of hearing on working memory, we investigated working memory as a cognition skill in children with normal development and cochlear implant. Fifty students with normal hearing and 50 students with cochlear implant aged 5-7 years participated in this study. Children educated in the preschool, the first and second grades. Children with normal development were matched based on age, gender, and grade of education with cochlear implant. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. Phonological loop assessed by nonword repetition task and forward digit span. To assess central executive component backward digit span was used. The developmental trend was studied in children with normal development and cochlear implant as well. The effect of age at implantation in children with cochlear implants on components of working memory was investigated. There are significant differences between children with normal development and cochlear implant in all tasks that assess working memory (p memory between different grades showed significant differences both in children with normal development and in children with cochlear implant (p implied that children with cochlear implant may experience difficulties in working memory. Therefore, these children have problems in encoding, practicing, and repeating phonological units. The results also suggested working memory develops when the child grows up. In cochlear implant children, with decreasing age at implantation and increasing their experience in perceiving sound, working memory skills improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  16. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

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    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  17. Immune defense mechanisms in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caernohabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune signaling network within these cells and suggest mechanisms used by the nematode to monitor for infection. In reviewing studies of pathogenesis that use this simple model system, we hope to illustrate some of the basic principles of epithelial immunity that may also be of relevance in higher order hosts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  19. Ultrastructure of respiratory tract epithelium following irradiation or application of cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konradova, V.; Smelhaus, V.; Kanta, J.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure was studied of the large bronchi epithelium in 3 patients with malignant tumors where signs of pulmonary fibrosis were found following irradiation and combined therapy. In 2 patients, pseudostratified cylindrical epithelium was observed with signs of pathological alteration, in the third patient an altered pseudostratified cylindrical epithelium with ultrastructural signs of commencing reconstructure into stratified squamous epithelium. The findings in the respiratory track epithelium of the patients were similar to those observed in a group of children with chronic or relapsing bronchitis and bronchopneumonia. The findings show marked disturbance of the ciliary border caused by reduction in the number of kinocilia which is associated with an impairment of the self-cleaning capacity of epithelium. (author). 1 tab., 10 refs

  20. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  1. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N F; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Cuddihy, R G

    1988-12-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  2. Conductive Hearing Loss Has Long-Lasting Structural and Molecular Effects on Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures of Auditory Nerve Synapses in the Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Antunes, Flora M; Rubio, Maria E

    2016-09-28

    Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus. We assessed whether structural and molecular substrates at auditory nerve (endbulb of Held) synapses in the cochlear nucleus could explain these long-lasting changes in hearing processing. During earplugging, vGluT1 expression in the presynaptic terminal decreased and synaptic vesicles were smaller. Together, there was an increase in postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness and an upregulation of GluA3 AMPA receptor subunits on bushy cells. After earplug removal and a 10 d recovery period, the density of synaptic vesicles increased, vesicles were also larger, and the PSD of endbulb synapses was larger and thicker. The upregulation of the GluA3 AMPAR subunit observed during earplugging was maintained after the recovery period. This suggests that GluA3 plays a role in plasticity in the cochlear nucleus. Our study demonstrates that sound deprivation has long-lasting alterations on structural and molecular presynaptic and postsynaptic components at the level of the first auditory nerve synapse in the auditory brainstem. Despite being the second most prevalent form of hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and its effects on central synapses have received relatively little attention. Here, we show that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss leads to an increase in hearing thresholds, to an increased central gain upstream of the cochlear nucleus at

  3. Expression and distribution of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiqun; Hill, Warren G; Apodaca, Gerard; Zeidel, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    The urothelium is proposed to be a sensory tissue that responds to mechanical stress by undergoing dynamic membrane trafficking and neurotransmitter release; however, the molecular basis of this function is poorly understood. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are ideal candidates to fulfill such a role as they can sense changes in temperature, osmolarity, and mechanical stimuli, and several are reported to be expressed in the bladder epithelium. However, their complete expression profile is unknown and their cellular localization is largely undefined. We analyzed expression of all 33 TRP family members in mouse bladder and urothelium by RT-PCR and found 22 specifically expressed in the urothelium. Of the latter, 10 were chosen for closer investigation based on their known mechanosensory or membrane trafficking functions in other cell types. Western blots confirmed urothelial expression of TRPC1, TRPC4, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM4, TRPM7, TRPML1, and polycystins 1 and 2 (PKD1 and PKD2) proteins. We further defined the cellular and subcellular localization of all 10 TRP channels. TRPV2 and TRPM4 were prominently localized to the umbrella cell apical membrane, while TRPC4 and TRPV4 were identified on their abluminal surfaces. TRPC1, TRPM7, and TRPML1 were localized to the cytoplasm, while PKD1 and PKD2 were expressed on the apical and basolateral membranes of umbrella cells as well as in the cytoplasm. The cellular location of TRPV1 in the bladder has been debated, but colocalization with neuronal marker calcitonin gene-related peptide indicated clearly that it is present on afferent neurons that extend into the urothelium, but may not be expressed by the urothelium itself. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the urothelium acts as a sentinel and by expressing multiple TRP channels it is likely it can detect and presumably respond to a diversity of external stimuli and suggest that it plays an important role in urothelial signal

  4. A confocal microscopic study of solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in human airway epithelium

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    Sparrow Malcolm P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC are specialized epithelial cells that are thought to play important roles in lung development and airway function. PNEC occur either singly or in clusters called neuroepithelial bodies. Our aim was to characterize the three dimensional morphology of PNEC, their distribution, and their relationship to the epithelial nerves in whole mounts of adult human bronchi using confocal microscopy. Methods Bronchi were resected from non-diseased portions of a lobe of human lung obtained from 8 thoracotomy patients (Table 1 undergoing surgery for the removal of lung tumors. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies to reveal all nerves (PGP 9.5, sensory nerves (calcitonin gene related peptide, CGRP, and PNEC (PGP 9.5, CGRP and gastrin releasing peptide, GRP. The analysis and rendition of the resulting three-dimensional data sets, including side-projections, was performed using NIH-Image software. Images were colorized and super-imposed using Adobe Photoshop. Results PNEC were abundant but not homogenously distributed within the epithelium, with densities ranging from 65/mm2 to denser patches of 250/mm2, depending on the individual wholemount. Rotation of 3-D images revealed a complex morphology; flask-like with the cell body near the basement membrane and a thick stem extending to the lumen. Long processes issued laterally from its base, some lumenal and others with feet-like processes. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was present in about 20% of PNEC, mainly in the processes. CGRP-positive nerves were sparse, with some associated with the apical part of the PNEC. Conclusion Our 3D-data demonstrates that PNEC are numerous and exhibit a heterogeneous peptide content suggesting an active and diverse PNEC population.

  5. Renal cystic disease proteins play critical roles in the organization of the olfactory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Pluznick

    Full Text Available It was reported that some proteins known to cause renal cystic disease (NPHP6; BBS1, and BBS4 also localize to the olfactory epithelium (OE, and that mutations in these proteins can cause anosmia in addition to renal cystic disease. We demonstrate here that a number of other proteins associated with renal cystic diseases - polycystin 1 and 2 (PC1, PC2, and Meckel-Gruber syndrome 1 and 3 (MKS1, MKS3 - localize to the murine OE. PC1, PC2, MKS1 and MKS3 are all detected in the OE by RT-PCR. We find that MKS3 localizes specifically to dendritic knobs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, while PC1 localizes to both dendritic knobs and cilia of mature OSNs. In mice carrying mutations in MKS1, the expression of the olfactory adenylate cyclase (AC3 is substantially reduced. Moreover, in rats with renal cystic disease caused by a mutation in MKS3, the laminar organization of the OE is perturbed and there is a reduced expression of components of the odor transduction cascade (G(olf, AC3 and α-acetylated tubulin. Furthermore, we show with electron microscopy that cilia in MKS3 mutant animals do not manifest the proper microtubule architecture. Both MKS1 and MKS3 mutant animals show no obvious alterations in odor receptor expression. These data show that multiple renal cystic proteins localize to the OE, where we speculate that they work together to regulate aspects of the development, maintenance or physiological activities of cilia.

  6. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  7. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Embryo-epithelium interactions during implantation at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, John D; Ruane, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    At implantation, with the acquisition of a receptive phenotype in the uterine epithelium, an initial tenuous attachment of embryonic trophectoderm initiates reorganisation of epithelial polarity to enable stable embryo attachment and the differentiation of invasive trophoblasts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article, we describe cellular and molecular events during the epithelial phase of implantation in rodent, drawing on morphological studies both in vivo and in vitro, and genetic models. Evidence is emerging for a repertoire of transcription factors downstream of the master steroidal regulators estrogen and progesterone that coordinate alterations in epithelial polarity, delivery of signals to the stroma and epithelial cell death or displacement. We discuss what is known of the cell interactions that occur during implantation, before considering specific adhesion molecules. We compare the rodent data with our much more limited knowledge of the human system, where direct mechanistic evidence is hard to obtain. In the accompanying poster, we represent the embryo-epithelium interactions in humans and laboratory rodents, highlighting similarities and differences, as well as depict some of the key cell biological events that enable interstitial implantation to occur. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Nanotopography follows force in TGF-β1 stimulated epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoelking, Gerold; Oberleithner, Hans; Riethmuller, Christoph; Reiss, Bjoern; Wegener, Joachim; Pavenstaedt, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation and cellular fibrosis often imply an involvement of the cytokine TGF-β1. TGF-β1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT), a term describing the loss of epithelium-specific function. Indicative for this process are an elongated cell shape parallel to stress fibre formation. Many signalling pathways of TGF-β1 have been discovered, but mechanical aspects have not yet been investigated. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyse surface topography and mechanical properties of EMT in proximal kidney tubule epithelium (NRK52E). Elongated cells, an increase of stress fibre formation and a loss of microvillus compatible structures were observed as characteristic signs of EMT. Furthermore, AFM could identify an increase in stiffness by 71% after six days of stimulation with TGF-β1. As a novel topographical phenomenon, nodular protrusions emerged at the cell-cell junctions. They occurred preferentially at sites where stress fibres cross the border. Since these nodular protrusions were sensitive to inhibitors of force generation, they can indicate intracellular tension. The results demonstrate a manifest impact of elevated tension on the cellular topography.

  10. Coordination of Cellular Dynamics Contributes to Tooth Epithelium Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ritsuko; Kihira, Miho; Nakatsu, Yousuke; Nomoto, Yohei; Ogawa, Miho; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Morishita, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The morphologies of ectodermal organs are shaped by appropriate combinations of several deformation modes, such as invagination and anisotropic tissue elongation. However, how multicellular dynamics are coordinated during deformation processes remains to be elucidated. Here, we developed a four-dimensional (4D) analysis system for tracking cell movement and division at a single-cell resolution in developing tooth epithelium. The expression patterns of a Fucci probe clarified the region- and stage-specific cell cycle patterns within the tooth germ, which were in good agreement with the pattern of the volume growth rate estimated from tissue-level deformation analysis. Cellular motility was higher in the regions with higher growth rates, while the mitotic orientation was significantly biased along the direction of tissue elongation in the epithelium. Further, these spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics and tissue-level deformation were highly correlated with that of the activity of cofilin, which is an actin depolymerization factor, suggesting that the coordination of cellular dynamics via actin remodeling plays an important role in tooth epithelial morphogenesis. Our system enhances the understanding of how cellular behaviors are coordinated during ectodermal organogenesis, which cannot be observed from histological analyses. PMID:27588418

  11. Ethanol impedes embryo transport and impairs oviduct epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tonghui; Yang, Qiuhong; Liu, Ruoxi; Wang, Wenfu; Wang, Shuanglian; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50 ± 6 mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group. It is worth mentioning that the oviductal epithelium destruction was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations in chronic alcohol intake group. In conclusion, alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct by suppressing the spontaneous motility of oviduct and/or impairing oviductal epithelium. These findings suggested that alcohol abuse increases the incident of ectopic pregnancy.

  12. The epithelium in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: breaking the barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eCamelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of unknown etiology characterised by a dysregulated wound healing response that leads to fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the lung, which compromises tissue architecture and lung function capacity. Injury to type II alveolar epithelial cells is thought to be the key event for the initiation of the disease, and so far both genetic factors, such as mutations in telomerase and MUC5b genes as well as environmental components, like cigarette smoking, exposure to asbestos and viral infections have been implicated as potential initiating triggers. The injured epithelium then enters a state of senescence-associated secretory phenotype whereby it produces both pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors that contribute to the wound healing process in the lung. Immune cells, like macrophages and neutrophils as well as activated myofibroblasts then perpetuate this cascade of epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation by release of pro-fibrotic TGF-β and continuous deposition of extracellular matrix stiffens the basement membrane, altogether having a deleterious impact on epithelial cell function. In this review we describe the role of the epithelium as both a physical and immunological barrier between environment and self in the homeostatic versus diseased lung and explore the potential mechanisms of epithelial cell injury and the impact of loss of epithelial cell permeability and function on cytokine production, inflammation and myofibroblast activation in the fibrotic lung.

  13. Radio-iodination of plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, H J; Edelman, I S [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Medicine; California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics)

    1979-01-01

    The present report describes high yield enzymatic radio-iodination of the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium with /sup 125/I-Na, by a procedure that does not breach the functional integrity of the epithelium, as assessed by the basal and vasopressin-sensitive short-circuit current (SCC). Iodination of basal-lateral plasma membranes, at a yield comparable to that obtained with apical labelling, was attained after about 30 min of exposure of the intact bladder to the labelling solutions. Approximately 25% of the basal-lateral labeling was lost when the epithelial cells were harvested after collagenase treatment, implying that some iodination of the basement membrane had taken place. Less than 10% of iodination of the apical or basal-lateral surfaces was accounted for by lipid-labeling. Analysis of the labeled apical and basal-lateral species by enzymatic digestion and thin layer chromatography disclosed that virtually all the radioactivity was present as mono-iodotyrosine (MIT). (orig./AJ).

  14. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 μMoles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K m of 24.9 μM. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium

  15. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  16. Ethanol impedes embryo transport and impairs oviduct epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tonghui; Yang, Qiuhong; Liu, Ruoxi; Wang, Wenfu; Wang, Shuanglian; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2016-05-16

    Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50±6mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group. It is worth mentioning that the oviductal epithelium destruction was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations in chronic alcohol intake group. In conclusion, alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct by suppressing the spontaneous motility of oviduct and/or impairing oviductal epithelium. These findings suggested that alcohol abuse increases the incident of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomical and molecular consequences of Unilateral Naris Closure on two populations of olfactory sensory neurons expressing defined odorant receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Adrien; Aoudé, Imad; Soubeyre, Vanessa; Tazir, Bassim; Cadiou, Hervé; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2016-07-28

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the primary elements of the olfactory system, are located in the olfactory epithelium lining the nasal cavity. Exposed to the environment, their lifespan is short. Consequently, OSNs are regularly regenerated and several reports show that activity strongly modulates their development and regeneration: the peripheral olfactory system can adjust to the amount of stimulus through compensatory mechanisms. Unilateral naris occlusion (UNO) was frequently used to investigate this mechanism at the entire epithelium level. However, there is little data regarding the effects of UNO at the cellular level, especially on individual neuronal populations expressing a defined odorant receptor. Here, using UNO during the first three postnatal weeks, we analyzed the anatomical and molecular consequences of sensory deprivation in OSNs populations expressing the MOR23 and M71 receptors. The density of MOR23-expressing neurons is decreased in the closed side while UNO does not affect the density of M71-expressing neurons. Using Real Time qPCR on isolated neurons, we observed that UNO modulates the transcript levels for transduction pathway proteins (odorant receptors, CNGA2, PDE1c). The transcripts modulated by UNO will differ between populations depending on the receptor expressed. These results suggest that sensory deprivation will have different effects on different OSNs' populations. As a consequence, early experience will shape the functional properties of OSNs differently depending on the type of odorant receptor they express. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  19. Ototoxicity of paclitaxel in rat cochlear organotypic cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Shi, Jian-rong; Salvi, Richard; Roth, Jerome A.

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used antineoplastic drug employed alone or in combination to treat many forms of cancer. Paclitaxel blocks microtubule depolymerization thereby stabilizing microtubules and suppressing cell proliferation and other cellular processes. Previous reports indicate that paclitaxel can cause mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss and some histopathologic changes in the mouse cochlea; however, damage to the neurons and the underlying cell death mechanisms are poorly understood. To evaluate the ototoxicity of paclitaxel in more detail, cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 3 rats were treated with paclitaxel for 24 or 48 h with doses ranging from 1 to 30 μM. No obvious histopathologies were observed after 24 h treatment with any of the paclitaxel doses employed, but with 48 h treatment, paclitaxel damaged cochlear hair cells in a dose-dependent manner and also damaged auditory nerve fibers and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) near the base of the cochlea. TUNEL labeling was negative in the organ of Corti, but positive in SGN with karyorrhexis 48 h after 30 μM paclitaxel treatment. In addition, caspase-6, caspase-8 and caspase-9 labeling was present in SGN treated with 30 μM paclitaxel for 48 h. These results suggest that caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways are involved in paclitaxel-induced damage of SGN, but not hair cells in cochlea. - Highlights: • Paclitaxel was toxic to cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. • Paclitaxel-induced spiral ganglion degeneration was apoptotic. • Paclitaxel activated caspase-6, -8 and -8 in spiral ganglion neurons

  20. Cochlear implant rehabilitation outcomes in Waardenburg syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Andrade, Susana Margarida; Monteiro, Ana Rita Tomé; Martins, Jorge Humberto Ferreira; Alves, Marisa Costa; Santos Silva, Luis Filipe; Quadros, Jorge Manuel Cardoso; Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto Reis

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of children with documented Waardenburg syndrome implanted in the ENT Department of Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra, concerning postoperative speech perception and production, in comparison to the rest of non-syndromic implanted children. A retrospective chart review was performed for children congenitally deaf who had undergone cochlear implantation with multichannel implants, diagnosed as having Waardenburg syndrome, between 1992 and 2011. Postoperative performance outcomes were assessed and confronted with results obtained by children with non-syndromic congenital deafness also implanted in our department. Open-set auditory perception skills were evaluated by using European Portuguese speech discrimination tests (vowels test, monosyllabic word test, number word test and words in sentence test). Meaningful auditory integration scales (MAIS) and categories of auditory performance (CAP) were also measured. Speech production was further assessed and included results on meaningful use of speech Scale (MUSS) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR). To date, 6 implanted children were clinically identified as having WS type I, and one met the diagnosis of type II. All WS children received multichannel cochlear implants, with a mean age at implantation of 30.6±9.7months (ranging from 19 to 42months). Postoperative outcomes in WS children were similar to other nonsyndromic children. In addition, in number word and vowels discrimination test WS group showed slightly better performances, as well as in MUSS and MAIS assessment. Our study has shown that cochlear implantation should be considered a rehabilitative option for Waardenburg syndrome children with profound deafness, enabling the development and improvement of speech perception and production abilities in this group of patients, reinforcing their candidacy for this audio-oral rehabilitation method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cochlear Implant Spatial Selectivity with Monopolar, Bipolar and Tripolar Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyan; Tang, Qing; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Guan, Tian; Ye, Datian

    2011-01-01

    Sharp spatial selectivity is critical to auditory performance, particularly in pitch related tasks. Most contemporary cochlear implants have employed monopolar stimulation that produces broad electric fields, which presumably contribute to poor pitch and pitch-related performance by implant users. Bipolar or tripolar stimulation can generate focused electric fields but requires higher current to reach threshold and, more interestingly, has not produced any apparent improvement in cochlear implant performance. The present study addressed this dilemma by measuring psychophysical and physiological spatial selectivity with both broad and focused stimulations in the same cohort of subjects. Different current levels were adjusted by systematically measuring loudness growth for each stimulus, each stimulation mode, and in each subject. Both psychophysical and physiological measures showed that, although focused stimulation produced significantly sharper spatial tuning than monopolar stimulation, it could shift the tuning position or even split the tuning tips. The altered tuning with focused stimulation is interpreted as a result of poor electrode-to-neuron interface in the cochlea, and is suggested to be mainly responsible for the lack of consistent improvement in implant performance. A linear model could satisfactorily quantify the psychophysical and physiological data and derive the tuning width. Significant correlation was found between the individual physiological and psychophysical tuning widths, and the correlation was improved by log-linearly transforming the physiological data to predict the psychophysical data. Because the physiological measure took only one-tenth of the time of the psychophysical measure, the present model is of high clinical significance in terms of predicting and improving cochlear implant performance. PMID:22138630

  2. Short-term risk of falling after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Madelyn N; Baudhuin, Jacqueline E; Hullar, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is a highly effective intervention for hearing loss, but insertion of an implant into the cochlea is often accompanied by loss of residual hearing function. Sometimes, postoperative testing also shows loss of function in the semicircular canals or otolith organs. The effect of this loss on equilibrium, particularly in the short term following surgery, and the risk of falling due to this loss is unknown. We prospectively measured balance in 16 consecutive adult cochlear implant patients before and 2 weeks after surgery. Subjects stood on a foam pad with eyes closed, feet together and arms at the side. The length of time over which this posture could be maintained was recorded up to a maximum value of 30 s indicating normal performance. Ten of 16 subjects reached a maximal time on preoperative testing. Nine of 16 subjects lost balance function after surgery. Four of the 10 subjects with normal preoperative balance function lost function. Subjects older than the age of 60 were more likely to lose balance function than younger subjects. We used previously published values relating balance performance on foam to risk of falling to calculate the fall risk among our subjects. The relative risk of falling increased after surgery by more than threefold in some patients. Imbalance after cochlear implantation may be much more common, particularly in the short term, than previously appreciated. This imbalance is accompanied by an increased risk of falling in many patients. Careful preoperative counseling before implantation and postoperative therapeutic intervention to improve comfort and reduce the chance of falling may be warranted, particularly in patients at a risk for injuries from falls (level of evidence: 2b). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Ototoxicity of paclitaxel in rat cochlear organotypic cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yang [Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan [Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Shi, Jian-rong [Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Salvi, Richard [Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Roth, Jerome A., E-mail: jaroth@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University at Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used antineoplastic drug employed alone or in combination to treat many forms of cancer. Paclitaxel blocks microtubule depolymerization thereby stabilizing microtubules and suppressing cell proliferation and other cellular processes. Previous reports indicate that paclitaxel can cause mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss and some histopathologic changes in the mouse cochlea; however, damage to the neurons and the underlying cell death mechanisms are poorly understood. To evaluate the ototoxicity of paclitaxel in more detail, cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 3 rats were treated with paclitaxel for 24 or 48 h with doses ranging from 1 to 30 μM. No obvious histopathologies were observed after 24 h treatment with any of the paclitaxel doses employed, but with 48 h treatment, paclitaxel damaged cochlear hair cells in a dose-dependent manner and also damaged auditory nerve fibers and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) near the base of the cochlea. TUNEL labeling was negative in the organ of Corti, but positive in SGN with karyorrhexis 48 h after 30 μM paclitaxel treatment. In addition, caspase-6, caspase-8 and caspase-9 labeling was present in SGN treated with 30 μM paclitaxel for 48 h. These results suggest that caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways are involved in paclitaxel-induced damage of SGN, but not hair cells in cochlea. - Highlights: • Paclitaxel was toxic to cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. • Paclitaxel-induced spiral ganglion degeneration was apoptotic. • Paclitaxel activated caspase-6, -8 and -8 in spiral ganglion neurons.

  4. "COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borghei S. Abdi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings,complications, and postoperative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average follow-up period was 27 months. Malformations included one incomplete partition, one common cavity, one narrow internal acoustic canal (IAC in a patient with Riley-Day syndrome and 3 cases of large vestibular aqueduct. All received multi-channel implants either Nucleus 22 or Clarion device. Facial nerve was anomalous in 2 cases. CSF gusher occurred in 4 patients, which was controlled with packing the cochleostomy site. In all cases, the full length of electrode array was inserted, except one with Mondini's dysplasia where insertion failed in the first operation and was referred to another center for a successful surgery on the opposite ear. No other surgical complications were encountered. In 4 cases, all the 22 electrodes could be activated. All patients showed improved hearing performance after implantation. Four showed open-set speech recognition. The one with narrow IAC showed improved awareness to environmental sounds. In the other case (common cavity, the perception tests could not be performed because of very young age. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformations is a successful way of rehabilitation, although complications should be expected and auditory responses may be highly variable and relatively moderate.

  5. Safety of Monopolar Electrocautery in Patients With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Duc A; Woodson, Erika A; Anne, Samantha

    2016-09-01

    The outcomes of 2 patients with cochlear implants (CIs) who underwent adenotonsillectomy (AT) with inadvertent use of monopolar cautery are presented. The safety data regarding monopolar cautery use in CI recipients is also reviewed. This is a retrospective case series of 2 CI recipients that underwent AT with monopolar cautery and literature review of electrocautery safety in the setting of CI. Two patients with CIs underwent AT with use of monopolar cautery inadvertently by surgeons that do not routinely perform cochlear implants as part of his or her clinical practice. Patient 1 was a 9-year-old female who had AT for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after undergoing unilateral CI for profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) 8 years ago. Patient 2 was a 7-year-old female who underwent AT for OSA 4 months after undergoing unilateral CI for congenital SNHL. Both patients had no immediate signs of complications with their CI use postoperatively. Both patients demonstrated unchanged postoperative neural response telemetry and behavioral audiometric testing. Patient 1 continues to have no CI-related complications 3.5 years after the procedure. Patient 2 has been followed for at least 3 months by audiometric testing and 10 months by otolaryngologist with no CI-related complications. Although animal and cadaveric studies suggest that monopolar cautery may be safely used in patients with cochlear implants, there have been no in vivo human studies that have evaluated the risk to the patient or implant. This is a report of a small, unintended experience with 2 patients, both of whom exhibit no complications or changes to CI function thus far. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. [Responses of bat cochlear nucleus neurons to ultrasonic stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A G; Grigor'eva, T I

    1977-01-01

    The responses of cochlear nuclei single units in Vespertilionidae and Rhinolophidae were studied by means of ultrasound stimuli of different frequencies. Most neurons were found to have one or two complementary response areas with best frequencies equal to 1/2 and 1/3 of the highest one (which we regard as the basic best frequency). In Vespertilionidae which emit frequency-modulated signals some neurons have complementary areas with upper thresholds. The latency of responses do not correlate with the stimulus frequency. This suggests that there is no correlative reception of echosignals at this level of auditory system in bats.

  7. Perceptual Interactions Between Electrodes Using Focused and Monopolar Cochlear Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marozeau, Jeremy; McDermott, Hugh J.; Swanson, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    -matched sequential and simultaneous stimuli composed of 2 spatially separated pulse trains was measured as function of the electrode separation. Results indicated a strong current-summation interaction for simultaneous stimuli in the MP mode for separations up to at least 4.8 mm. No significant interaction was found......In today’s cochlear implant (CI) systems, the monopolar (MP) electrode configuration is the most commonly used stimulation mode, requiring only a single current source. However, with an implant that will allow simultaneous activation of multiple independent current sources, it is possible...

  8. Cochlear implantation for severe sensorineural hearing loss caused by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Il-Woo; Goh, Eui-Kyung; Kong, Soo-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Lightning strike can produce an array of clinical symptoms and injuries. It may damage multiple organs and cause auditory injuries ranging from transient hearing loss and vertigo to complete disruption of the auditory system. Tympanic-membrane rupture is relatively common in patients with lightning injury. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms of auditory lesions in lightning survivors have not been fully elucidated. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss caused by a lightning strike, who was successfully rehabilitated after a cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Mandarin spoken language after pediatric cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Li, Gang; Meng, Zhaoli

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate early spoken language development in young Mandarin-speaking children during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation, as measured by receptive and expressive vocabulary growth rates. Growth rates were compared with those of normally hearing children and with growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants. Receptive and expressive vocabularies were measured with the simplified short form (SSF) version of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI) in a sample of 112 pediatric implant recipients at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Implant ages ranged from 1 to 5 years. Scores were expressed in terms of normal equivalent ages, allowing normalized vocabulary growth rates to be determined. Scores for English-speaking children were re-expressed in these terms, allowing direct comparisons of Mandarin and English early spoken language development. Vocabulary growth rates during the first 12 months after implantation were similar to those for normally hearing children less than 16 months of age. Comparisons with growth rates for normally hearing children 16-30 months of age showed that the youngest implant age group (1-2 years) had an average growth rate of 0.68 that of normally hearing children; while the middle implant age group (2-3 years) had an average growth rate of 0.65; and the oldest implant age group (>3 years) had an average growth rate of 0.56, significantly less than the other two rates. Growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants were 0.68 in the youngest group, 0.54 in the middle group, and 0.57 in the oldest group. Growth rates in the middle implant age groups for the two languages differed significantly. The SSF version of the MCDI is suitable for assessment of Mandarin language development during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation. Effects of implant age and duration of implantation can be compared directly across

  10. Dual Coding of Frequency Modulation in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraouty, Nihaad; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Lorenzi, Christian; Varnet, Léo; Winter, Ian M

    2018-04-25

    Frequency modulation (FM) is a common acoustic feature of natural sounds and is known to play a role in robust sound source recognition. Auditory neurons show precise stimulus-synchronized discharge patterns that may be used for the representation of low-rate FM. However, it remains unclear whether this representation is based on synchronization to slow temporal envelope (ENV) cues resulting from cochlear filtering or phase locking to faster temporal fine structure (TFS) cues. To investigate the plausibility of those encoding schemes, single units of the ventral cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs of either sex were recorded in response to sine FM tones centered at the unit's best frequency (BF). The results show that, in contrast to high-BF units, for modulation depths within the receptive field, low-BF units (modulation depths extending beyond the receptive field, the discharge patterns follow the ENV and fluctuate at the modulation rate. The receptive field proved to be a good predictor of the ENV responses for most primary-like and chopper units. The current in vivo data also reveal a high level of diversity in responses across unit types. TFS cues are mainly conveyed by low-frequency and primary-like units and ENV cues by chopper and onset units. The diversity of responses exhibited by cochlear nucleus neurons provides a neural basis for a dual-coding scheme of FM in the brainstem based on both ENV and TFS cues. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Natural sounds, including speech, convey informative temporal modulations in frequency. Understanding how the auditory system represents those frequency modulations (FM) has important implications as robust sound source recognition depends crucially on the reception of low-rate FM cues. Here, we recorded 115 single-unit responses from the ventral cochlear nucleus in response to FM and provide the first physiological evidence of a dual-coding mechanism of FM via synchronization to temporal envelope cues and phase locking to temporal

  11. Use of CT in the evaluation of cochlear otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafee, M.F.; Valvassori, G.E.; Deitch, R.L.; Norouzi, P.; Henrikson, G.C.; Capek, V.; Applebaum, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Otosclerosis (otospongiosis) occurs when the hard endochondral bone of the otic capsule is replaced by spongy vascular foci of haversian bone. Using computed tomography (CT), the authors studied the ears of 32 selected patients with mixed or sensorineural hearing loss; 24 were suspected of having otosclerosis. CT proved valuable in detecting cochlear otosclerosis, foci of demineralization, and changes in bony texture and enables the easy recognition of subtle radiographic findings. This paper also reports the CT findings of temporal bones in osteogenesis imperfecta and Paget disease

  12. [Strategy for minimally invasive cochlear implantation and residual hearing preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Y; Chen, J Y; Shen, M; Yang, J

    2018-01-07

    In the past few decades, considerable development was achieved in the cochlear implantation following the emergence of innovative electrode array and advances in minimally invasive surgery. Minimally invasive technique led to a better preservation of residual low-frequency hearing. The loss of residual hearing was caused by complicated factors. According to previous studies, a slower and stable speed of electrode insertion and the use of perioperative steroids were demonstrated to have a positive impact on hearing preservation. The selection of electrode array or its insertion approaches didn't show any distinctive benefits in hearing preservation.

  13. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  14. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  15. Threshold shift: effects of cochlear implantation on the risk of pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2007-04-01

    The study goals were to examine whether cochlear implantation increases the risk of meningitis in the absence of other risk factors and to understand the pathogenesis of pneumococcal meningitis post cochlear implantation. Four weeks following surgery, 54 rats (18 of which received a cochleostomy alone, 18 of which received a cochleostomy and acute cochlear implantation using standard surgical techniques, and 18 of which received a cochlear implant) were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae via three different routes of bacterial inoculation (middle ear, inner ear, and intraperitoneal) to represent all potential routes of bacterial infection from the upper respiratory tract to the meninges. The presence of a cochlear implant reduced the threshold of bacteria required to cause pneumococcal meningitis from all routes of infection in healthy animals. The presence of a cochlear implant increases the risk of pneumococcal meningitis regardless of the route of bacterial infection. Early detection and treatment of pneumococcal infection such as otitis media may be required, as cochlear implantation may lead to a reduction of infectious threshold for meningitis.

  16. [Cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of the inner ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liang-cai; Guo, Meng-he; Qian, Yu-hong; Liu, Shuang-xiu; Zhang, Hong-zheng; Chen, Shuai-jun; Chen, Hao; Gong, Jian

    2009-10-01

    To summarize the clinical experience with multi-channel cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformations and evaluate and the outcomes of speech rehabilitation. A retrospective study was conducted in 295 patients receiving cochlear implantation from 1998 to 2007, including 25 patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS), 9 with Modini malformation, and 5 with common cavity deformity. All the patients received the Nucleus24 cochlear implants. In LVAS cases, 4 had Nucleus 24R (ST) implants, 8 had Contuor implants, 10 had Contuor Advance, and the remaining cases used Nucleus24(M) straight-electrode implants. Severe gusher appeared in 3 cases of LVAS, and perilymph fluctuation were seen in other 15 cases. Four patients with Mondini malformation and 2 with common cavity malformation also experienced severe gusher, but the electrodes were inserted smoothly in all the patients without postoperative facial paralysis or cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The hearing threshold in these patients was similar to that in patients with normal cochlear structure. After speech rehabilitation for over 6 months, the abilities of speech discrimination and spoken language improved in all the cases in comparison with the preoperative lingual functions. Multi-channel cochlear implantation can be performed in patients with inner ear malformation, but should not be attempted in patients with poor cochlear and cochlear nerve development. A comprehensive pre-operative radiographic and audiological evaluation is essential.

  17. [Emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Dong, Ruijuan; Zhou, Yun; Li, Jing; Qi, Beier; Liu, Bo

    2012-10-01

    To assess the emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users. Munich music questionnaire (MUMU) was used to match the music experience and the motivation of use of music between 12 normal-hearing and 12 cochlear implant subjects. Emotion rating test in Musical Sounds in Cochlear Implants (MuSIC) test battery was used to assess the emotion perception ability for both normal-hearing and cochlear implant subjects. A total of 15 pieces of music phases were used. Responses were given by selecting the rating scales from 1 to 10. "1" represents "very sad" feeling, and "10" represents "very happy feeling. In comparison with normal-hearing subjects, 12 cochlear implant subjects made less active use of music for emotional purpose. The emotion ratings for cochlear implant subjects were similar to normal-hearing subjects, but with large variability. Post-lingually deafened cochlear implant subjects on average performed similarly in emotion rating tasks relative to normal-hearing subjects, but their active use of music for emotional purpose was obviously less than normal-hearing subjects.

  18. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  19. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  20. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    compounds and consequently change the sensory quality in wine which provide the useful information of wine quality management to winemakers to as well as knowledge on the behaviour of wine oxidation. Additional, studies focused on understanding the development of volatiles during accelerated cheese ripening......In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... and sensory methods in understanding the pre-fermentation treatment on sensory quality of wine (Study 3). In Study 4, the RATA method was used to provide the intensity of significant sensory descriptors that discriminate the significant differences between chocolate samples. Part three step by step moves...