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Sample records for cochabamba mountain-finches compsospiza

  1. COCHABAMBA READER.

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    LASTRA, YOLANDA

    INTENDED AS FOLLOWUP MATERIAL AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE TWO-VOLUME SPOKEN COCHABAMBA COURSE, THIS READER CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LONG STORY, "JUANITO," WRITTEN BY OSCAR TERAN. IT HAS BEEN USED AS A RADIO SCRIPT FOR A SERIES OF BROADCASTS FROM A COCHABAMBA STATION WHICH SERVES THE SURROUNDING INDIGENOUS POPULATION. THE MATERIAL IS…

  2. THE STRUCTURE OF COCHABAMBA QUECHUA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO DESCRIBE THE MAIN STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF COCHABAMBA QUECHUA. IT IS INTENDED TO SERVE AS A REFERENCE BOOK FOR LINGUISTS AND THOSE LEARNING THIS DIALECT. THE INTRODUCTION DISCUSSES THE STUDY'S PURPOSE, INFORMANTS, METHODS, TERMINOLOGY, AND NOTATION. THE AUTHORS THEN EXAMINE IN SEPARATE CHAPTERS PHONOLOGY,…

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF COCHABAMBA QUECHUA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO DESCRIBE THE MAIN STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF COCHABAMBA QUECHUA. IT IS INTENDED TO SERVE AS A REFERENCE BOOK FOR LINGUISTS AND THOSE LEARNING THIS DIALECT. THE INTRODUCTION DISCUSSES THE STUDY'S PURPOSE, INFORMANTS, METHODS, TERMINOLOGY, AND NOTATION. THE AUTHORS THEN EXAMINE IN SEPARATE CHAPTERS PHONOLOGY,…

  4. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…

  5. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 1-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    THE FIRST OF TWO VOLUMES PREPARED FOR TEACHING THE COCHABAMBA DIALECT OF QUECHUA TO SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH, THIS DOCUMENT IS MADE UP OF 12 UNITS THAT COMPRISE A 6-WEEK INTENSIVE COURSE OF 20 CLASS HOURS A WEEK. EACH UNIT CONSISTS OF ONE OR MORE DIALOGS TO BE MEMORIZED, A DIALOG REVIEW, A SECTION ON GRAMMAR WITH ACCOMPANYING EXERCISES, CONVERSATION,…

  6. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 1-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    THE FIRST OF TWO VOLUMES PREPARED FOR TEACHING THE COCHABAMBA DIALECT OF QUECHUA TO SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH, THIS DOCUMENT IS MADE UP OF 12 UNITS THAT COMPRISE A 6-WEEK INTENSIVE COURSE OF 20 CLASS HOURS A WEEK. EACH UNIT CONSISTS OF ONE OR MORE DIALOGS TO BE MEMORIZED, A DIALOG REVIEW, A SECTION ON GRAMMAR WITH ACCOMPANYING EXERCISES, CONVERSATION,…

  7. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…

  8. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL GRAMMATICAL…

  9. Multiple transnational household arrangements in the city of Cochabamba

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    Carmen Ledo García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that over the last 15 years Bolivia and Cochabamba have experienced increased migration flows and that international emigration has become an important strategy for many households. The purpose of this article is to show intra-family solidarity, as well as how households respond to an absent parent in the Cochabamba urban area. The simultaneous interaction of six analytic dimensions is analysed: the socio-economic situation in the country of origin; the characteristics of migrants in the host country; maternal/paternal communication from a distance; the role of remittances; and political participation and role changes within the family remaining in the country of origin. The procedure of generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA allows us to demonstrate the multiple transnational maternity/paternity arrangements and the solidarity of the family networks in Cochabamba.

  10. Informalidades e legitimidades das periferias Bolivianas (Cochabamba Informalities and legitimacies in the Bolivian urban peripheries (Cochabamba

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    Cristina Cielo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O tema deste artigo é a territorialização legítima, ainda que informal, das periferias urbanas na Bolívia. Baseado em uma etnografia de bairros marginais de Cochabamba, identifica os mecanismos de estabelecimento da legitimidade sem legalidade, sobretudo sua articulação com demandas e discursos do movimento indígena do país. Enfatiza a hegemonia retórica necessária à sustentação dessa legitimidade no contexto de marginalidade periurbana. Finalmente, examina como a instabilidade acarretada por essa fronteira movediça entre ordens normativas resolve-se de maneira burocrática a partir do sistema sociopolítico liberal.This article's topic is the legitimate but informal territorialization of Bolivia's urban peripheries. Based on an ethnography of outlying districts of Cochabamba, it identifies the mechanisms for establishing legitimacy without legality, especially their connections to the demands and discourses of the country's indigenous movement. It emphasizes the rhetorical hegemony needed to sustain this legitimacy in the periurban context. Finally it examines how the instability generated by the boundary shifts between normative orders is resolved bureaucratically through the liberal sociopolitical system.

  11. La dominación incaica en Cochabamba

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    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available - En los últimos años del reinado del Inca Pachacutec, su heredero, el Inca Tupac Yupanqui, conquistó Charcas. En el valle de Cochabamba halló tres etnias: cotas, chuyes y sipesipes. Deportó a los cotas y chuyes a Pocona y Mizque y dejó a los sipesipes, que eran una 'colonia' de la etnia sora. Tupac Yupanqui, luego de despoblar el valle, introdujo mitimaes de Contisuyo y destinó la mayor parte del valle a la cría de auquénidos. Huayna Capac repartió parte del valle entre las etnias de habla aymará para que enviasen anualmente un contingente que debía sembrar las tierras para su sustento y, en su mayor parte, para el estado incaico. Desde entonces, Cochabamba se convirtió en un centro muy importante para el aprovisionamiento de los ejércitos incaicos en el Collasuyo y para el mismo Cuzco. En Cotapachi, cerca de Cochabamba, se encontraron más de mil cimientos de collcas o depósitos incaicos, donde se guardaba el maíz antes de enviarlo al Cuzco en auquénidos. También introdujo Hayna Capac en Cochabamba mitimaes de Contisuyo, en Perú factor que colaboró a la difusión de la lengua quechua en el área.

  12. ENGLISH-QUECHUA DICTIONARY--CUZCO, AYACUCHO, COCHABAMBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARKER, GARY; AND OTHERS

    WRITTEN TO SUPPLEMENT THE AUTHORS' SPOKEN QUECHUA MATERIALS, THIS TRIDIALECTAL DICTIONARY PROVIDES THE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH WHO HAS HAD SOME TRAINING IN QUECHUA GRAMMAR WITH A MEANS OF ACCESS TO ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY IN THE CUZCO, AYACUCHO, AND COCHABAMBA DIALECTS. ALL THE QUECHUA WORDS AND PHRASES INCLUDED ARE IN ACTUAL USE AND WERE GATHERED FROM…

  13. Geophysical survey in `Albanico El Paso` Cochabamba - Bolivia; Levantamento geofisico no `Albanico El Paso` Cochabamba - Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, N.; Rodas, C.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Ricaldi, V.; Jaldin, L.A. [Corporacion para el Desarrollo de Cochabamba (Bolivia)

    1994-12-31

    Vertical electrical soundings were measured in the Cochabamba sedimentary basin at several alluvial fans (locally called `abanicos`). This paper presents data from the Abanico El Paso. This research attempted to correlate geophysical data with the presence of paleo-channels inside the alluvial fans. These fans, mostly concentrated at the foot of the Cordilheira Ocidental, are about 1 km across and up to 4 km long. Data from deep wells were used to establish a correlation between the geophysical and hydrogeological data. The specific yield of the deep wells can be correlated with the grain size of the sediments. Apparent resistivity values of the vertical electrical soundings, for several AB/2 spacing were used to construct resistivity profiles, where the distance between each measured points correspond to the distances between the points where a vertical electrical sounding was measured. Once again, the electro-resistivity method demonstrated its potentiality as an exploration tool. (author). 3 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Vowel Height Allophony and Dorsal Place Contrasts in Cochabamba Quechua.

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    Gallagher, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of two studies investigating the role of allophony in cueing phonemic contrasts. In Cochabamba Quechua, the uvularvelar place distinction is often cued by additional differences in the height of the surrounding vowels. An acoustic study documents the lowering effect of a preceding tautomorphemic or a following heteromorphemic uvular on the high vowels /i u/. A discrimination study finds that vowel height is a significant cue to the velar-uvular place contrast. These findings support a view of contrasts as collections of distinguishing properties, as opposed to oppositions in a single distinctive feature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Urban transmission of Chagas disease in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

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    Medrano-Mercado, N; Ugarte-Fernandez, R; Butrón, V; Uber-Busek, S; Guerra, H L; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C de; Correa-Oliveira, R

    2008-08-01

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Bolivia. In the city of Cochabamba, 58% of the population lives in peripheral urban districts ("popular zones") where the infection prevalence is extremely high. From 1995 to 1999, we studied the demographics of Chagas infections in children from five to 13 years old (n = 2218) from the South zone (SZ) and North zone (NZ) districts, which differ in social, environmental, and agricultural conditions. Information gathered from these districts demonstrates qualitative and quantitative evidence for the active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in urban Cochabamba. Seropositivity was high in both zones (25% in SZ and 19% in NZ). We observed a high risk of infection in children from five to nine years old in SZ, but in NZ, a higher risk occurred in children aged 10-13, with odds ratio for infection three times higher in NZ than in SZ. This difference was not due to triatomine density, since more than 1,000 Triatoma infestans were captured in both zones, but was possibly secondary to the vector infection rate (79% in SZ and 37% in NZ). Electrocardiogram abnormalities were found to be prevalent in children and pre-adolescents (SZ = 40%, NZ = 17%), indicating that under continuous exposure to infection and re-infection, a severe form of the disease may develop early in life. This work demonstrates that T. cruzi infection should also be considered an urban health problem and is not restricted to the rural areas and small villages of Bolivia.

  16. Urban transmission of Chagas disease in Cochabamba, Bolivia

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    N Medrano-Mercado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Bolivia. In the city of Cochabamba, 58% of the population lives in peripheral urban districts ("popular zones" where the infection prevalence is extremely high. From 1995 to 1999, we studied the demographics of Chagas infections in children from five to 13 years old (n = 2218 from the South zone (SZ and North zone (NZ districts, which differ in social, environmental, and agricultural conditions. Information gathered from these districts demonstrates qualitative and quantitative evidence for the active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in urban Cochabamba. Seropositivity was high in both zones (25% in SZ and 19% in NZ. We observed a high risk of infection in children from five to nine years old in SZ, but in NZ, a higher risk occurred in children aged 10-13, with odds ratio for infection three times higher in NZ than in SZ. This difference was not due to triatomine density, since more than 1,000 Triatoma infestans were captured in both zones, but was possibly secondary to the vector infection rate (79% in SZ and 37% in NZ. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were found to be prevalent in children and pre-adolescents (SZ = 40%, NZ = 17%, indicating that under continuous exposure to infection and re-infection, a severe form of the disease may develop early in life. This work demonstrates that T. cruzi infection should also be considered an urban health problem and is not restricted to the rural areas and small villages of Bolivia.

  17. Circulating Practices: Migration and Translocal Development in Washington D.C. and Cochabamba, Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Strunk

    2013-01-01

    .... I document the movement of migrant practices between Washington D.C. and Cochabamba and the influence of monetary and non-monetary flows on Bolivian cultural practices, politics, and development...

  18. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    .... Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia...

  19. Tráfico y Venta Ilegal de Animales Silvestres en la Ciudad de Cochabamba, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    L P Meriles-Treviño; E R Fortón-Rojas

    2008-01-01

    Artículo divulgativo sobre venta ilegal de fauna silvestre en la Ciudad de Cochabamba, Bolívia. Identifica las problemáticas, marco legal, lugares de venta y actividades para mitigar el impacto de esta actividad.

  20. Doblado de clítico de complemento directo: Estudio de la variedad de Cochabamba (Bolivia)

    OpenAIRE

    Hellestøl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we study clitic doubling, known as ‘doblado de clítico’ or ‘duplicación de complemento directo’ in Spanish, in the variety of Spanish spoken in Cochabamba, Bolivia. After dealing with personal pronouns in general, explaining the general use of clitic doubling in Spanish and introducing some of the characteristics of the variety spoken in Cochabamba, we consider this grammatical phenomena through a field study. With the use of two questionnaires, we examine possible factors that...

  1. [Rotavirus in the feces of children with acute diarrhea in Cochabamba, Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E; Barrera, F; Saavedra, J; Cona, E; Aguilera, G

    1989-01-01

    Eighty patients with acute diarrheal disease from Cochabamba, Bolivia, were investigated for rotavirus infection by rotapheresis. Rotavirus ARN was detected in 18 (22.5%) of the cases, thus suggesting that this agent is also a frequent cause of acute diarrhea in the studied population as reported from other places of the world.

  2. Biodiversidad de la sub-cuenca del rio Jatun mayu (Cochabamba, Bolivia)

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ruiz; Cahill, J.; Arrázola, S.; Mercado, M; Navarro, F.; Fernández, M.

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Paper published in special edition of Revista de Agricultura. Paper provides an assessment of biodiversity in the watershed río Jatun Mayu, Provincia Tiraque Valles (Cochabamba). It details species of flora and fauna and compares biodiversity to similar Andean areas. LTRA-7 (Pathways to CAPS in the Andes)

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius robustus adults invade households in the Tropics of Cochabamba region of Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojas-Cortez, Mirko; Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Garcia, Lineth; Arteaga, Mery; Uriona, Liliana; Gamboa, Seyla; Mejía, Carolina; Lozano, Daniel; Gascon, Joaquim; Torrico, Faustino; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2016-01-01

    ... in the Tropics of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Local families from communities were responsible for the capture of triatomine specimens, following a strategic methodology based on entomological surveillance with community participation developed...

  4. Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracin-Veizaga Hugo; Carvalho Maria Esther de; Nascimento Elvira M M do; Rodrigues Vera Lúcia C. C.; Casanova Cláudio; Barata José Maria S

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000), where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. METHODS: The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males) sel...

  5. Circulating Practices: Migration and Translocal Development in Washington D.C. and Cochabamba, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Migrant remittances are increasingly seen as a potential form of development in the global South, but the impact of international migration on sending regions is far from straightforward. In this article, I analyze migrant communities of origin in rural Bolivia as dynamic places that are constantly reproduced through connections with other places. I document the movement of migrant practices between Washington D.C. and Cochabamba and the influence of monetary and non-monetary flows on Bolivia...

  6. Circulating Practices: Migration and Translocal Development in Washington D.C. and Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Strunk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Migrant remittances are increasingly seen as a potential form of development in the global South, but the impact of international migration on sending regions is far from straightforward. In this article, I analyze migrant communities of origin in rural Bolivia as dynamic places that are constantly reproduced through connections with other places. I document the movement of migrant practices between Washington D.C. and Cochabamba and the influence of monetary and non-monetary flows on Bolivian cultural practices, politics, and development. I demonstrate how hometown associations and returning migrants have transferred organizational practices and political ideas about development from the United States to rural Bolivia. In addition, I explore migration’s role in struggles over belonging in Cochabamba, focusing on the efforts by migrants in Washington D.C. to stake their claim through transnational houses and collective remittance projects and on recent internal migration from other regions in Bolivia. Finally, I assess the sustainability of migrant-led development in Cochabamba. Although collaboration with migrants can strengthen the local state by providing more resources, it conditions the type of development that can take place and has yet to provide adequate opportunities for returning migrants or young people in rural Bolivia.

  7. Dolarization and Monetary Reform. Evidence from the Cochabamba Region of Bolivia Dolarization and Monetary Reform. Evidence from the Cochabamba Region of Bolivia

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    Kurt Fenske

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Using data on informal market loans in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia, we test the hypothesis that monetary reform in the 1985-87 period resulted in a dedollarization of the economy. A theoretical model of the loan market suggests variables to be examined in the empirical analysis. A PROBIT model of the probability of dollar-denominated loans is estimated as a function of Bolivian inflation, exchange-rate depreciation, and exchangerate volatility. In addition, policy reforms are modeled with dummy variables that switch on at the date of the reforms. In addition to the PROBIT estimates, we aggregate monthly average time series data for the informal market and investigate the hypotheses studied in this alternative data set.The evidence from the informal loan market suggests that the Bolivian stabilization plan was associated with an increase in dollarization rather than a decrease. Several possible reasons for this result are discussed, including a lack of credibility of the announced plan. Dolarization and Monetary Reform. Evidence from the Cochabamba Region of Bolivia

  8. Nutritional status of children from Cochabamba, Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Maria; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María Del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía

    2015-12-01

    To assess the adequacy of energy and nutritional intakes compared to recommended daily intakes (RDIs) in schoolchildren from the Cochabamba region (Bolivia) and to determine micronutrient intake distributions across different ages and genders. This nutritional study (n = 315) was part of a larger population-based crosssectional study (the "Bolkid" survey) that collected data on schoolchildren 5-16 years old in 2010 in the Cochabamba region. Information about food intake was gathered with a semiquan-titative, food-frequency, parent-administered questionnaire about l2 months before the study. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of energy and nutrient intakes were assessed. For all ages studied and both genders, the average energy and micronutrient intakes were acceptable but below the requirements. The diet included high amounts of fiber, some minerals (iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium), and vitamins (pantothenic acid, niacin, vitamins B2, B12, C, and E), but was low in calcium and vitamin D. However, more than half the children had insufficient energy intake, and low calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin D intakes, according to RDIs adjusted for age and gender; one-third of the children had insufficient folate and magnesium intakes; and adolescent girls had low iron intakes. Regardless of recommendations or demographic characteristics, the vast majority of children in Cochabamba consumed insufficient energy and too little calcium, folate, magnesium, and vitamin A and D. In addition, adolescent girls consumed insufficient iron. Higher energy intake for schoolchildren through increased food availability, frequency, and size portions in daily meals should be a priority for Bolivian public health institutions.

  9. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus infection in children from Cochabamba: tropical or temperate pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Ma; Casanova-Rituerto, Aurora; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María Del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía

    2013-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of varicella-zoster viral (VZV) infections in schoolchildren from the Cochabamba region (Bolivia), and its association with socio-demographic variables, socio-economic status and geographical location. Seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) on VZV of schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia in 2010. An ELISA test was used to measure varicella antibodies. Parents or guardians completed a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic information (age, gender, living area, parental educational level, presence of siblings and number of family members in the household), and a blood sample was collected from each child to check for VZV antibodies. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed. The global prevalence of VZV was 78.2% (95% CI 74.3-82.1). It was higher in females (82.1%), pre-adolescents (aged 10.1-13 years: 81.4%) and adolescents (aged >13 years: 80.2%), in children with less well-educated parents (81.3% to 81.6%), in warmer municipalities (81.4% to 82.2%), in rural areas (80.0%), in children with siblings (80.1%), those who although the latter association was not statistically significant. The prevalence of VZV infection in childhood was relatively high for a tropical country, and much closer to that of temperate countries prior to the introduction of varicella vaccine into vaccination programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Four thousand years of environmental change and human activity in the Cochabamba Basin, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Gosling, William D.; Coe, Angela L.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Gulliver, Pauline

    The Cochabamba Basin (Bolivia) is on the ancient road network connecting Andean and lowland areas. Little is known about the longevity of this trade route or how people responded to past environmental changes. The eastern end of the Cochabamba valley system constricts at the Vacas Lake District, constraining the road network and providing an ideal location in which to examine past human-environmental interactions. Multi-proxy analysis of sediment from Lake Challacaba has allowed a c. 4000 year environmental history to be reconstructed. Fluctuations in drought tolerant pollen taxa and calcium carbonate indicate two periods of reduced moisture availability ( c. 4000-3370 and c. 2190-1020 cal yr BP) compared to adjacent wetter episodes ( c. 3370-2190 and c. 1020 cal yr BP-present). The moisture fluctuations broadly correlate to El Niño/Southern Oscillation variations reported elsewhere. High charcoal abundance from c. 4000 to 2000 yr ago indicates continuous use of the ancient road network. A decline in charcoal and an increase in dung fungus ( Sporormiella) c. 1340 -1210 cal yr BP, suggests that cultural changes were a major factor in shaping the modern landscape. Despite undisputable impacts of human populations on the Polylepis woodlands today, we see no evidence of woodland clearance in the Challacaba record.

  11. First survey on antibiotic resistance markers in Enterobacteriaceae in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba Villarroel, Paola M; Gutkind, Gabriel O; Di Conza, José A; Radice, Marcela A

    A molecular survey was conducted in Cochabamba, Bolivia, to characterize the mechanism involved in the resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Extended Spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) markers were investigated in a total of 101 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria recovered from different health centers during four months (2012-2013). CTX-M enzymes were detected in all isolates, being the CTX-M-1 group the most prevalent (88.1%). The presence of blaOXA-1 was detected in 76.4% of these isolates. A high quinolone resistance rate was observed among the included isolates. The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was the most frequent PMQR identified (83.0%). Furthermore, 6 isolates harbored the qnrB gene. Interestingly, qepA1 (6) and oqxAB (1), were detected in 7 Escherichia coli, being the latter the first to be reported in Bolivia. This study constitutes the first molecular survey on resistance markers in clinical enterobacterial isolates in Cochabamba, Bolivia, contributing to the regional knowledge of the epidemiological situation. The molecular epidemiology observed herein resembles the scene reported in South America. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Rickettsia infection in dogs and Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum ticks, Cochabamba Department, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassone, Laura; Conte, Valeria; Parrilla, Guillermo; De Meneghi, Daniele

    2010-12-01

    Only few published data are available on ticks and tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in Bolivia. To evaluate rickettsial seroprevalence and infection in dogs and ticks, during February-April 2007, we collected whole blood, sera, and ticks from dogs living in the rural, peri-urban, and urban areas of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Dog sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect IgG antibodies against Rickettsia rickettsii and 68.2% of samples were found to be positive (n = 30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.4-81.4). Blood samples and ticks were tested using polymerase chain reaction to detect spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. One blood sample was positive for Rickettsia parkeri (2.3%; 95% CI: 0.06-12.3). Ticks were collected from 10 dogs and were identified as Amblyomma tigrinum (n = 44) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 1). All A. tigrinum ticks were collected from resident dogs from the rural areas of Cochabamba, whereas R. sanguineus was from a dog originating from Santa Cruz. Of 42 DNA samples extracted from ticks, 23 (54.8%; 95% CI: 38.7-70.1) were polymerase chain reaction positive for Rickettsia spp. Sequencing analysis identified 22 samples as R. parkeri and one as Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Positive ticks (all A. tigrinum) were collected from six dogs, all of which were seropositive. This is the first report of SFG rickettsiae in A. tigrinum, suggesting that this tick-like others species in the Amblyomma maculatum group--may play a role in the biological cycle of Ri. parkeri. The high infection prevalence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks and the even higher seroprevalence in dogs suggest an active circulation of agents of rickettsiosis in the study area, although there are no confirmed cases of infection in humans. Our study supports the use of canine serology as risk indicator for SF rickettsioses.

  13. Interpretation of groundwater flow patterns through a reconstruction of the tritium precipitation record in the Cochabamba Valley, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, Jesse; Rudolph, David; Frape, Shaun; Drimmie, Robert

    1996-05-01

    Regional behaviour of the groundwater flow system in the Cochabamba Valley, Bolivia, is evaluated through the interpretation of tritium ( 3H) distributions in groundwater samples from wells and springs. In order to interpret groundwater 3H concentrations in Cochabamba Valley, where no historical record of 3H concentrations in rainfall exists, a reconstructed 3H precipitation record is developed. The record of 3H concentrations in precipitation is fairly extensive in the Amazon Basin and this record was extrapolated to the neighbouring Cochabamba Valley. Tritium concentrations in rainfall have been observed to increase under natural conditions with increasing latitude and with increasing distance from the ocean. By considering these trends, a linear relationship for increasing 3H concentration in precipitation is developed, based on data from the Amazon Basin, that realistically predicts regional 3H distributions from the northeast Brazilian coast to Cuzco, Peru. This 3H precipitation record is then extrapolated to the Cochabamba Valley and, after correction for radiogenic decay, is used to interpret trends in groundwater 3H concentrations within the valley. The groundwater flow system in one of the principal alluvial fans, which serves as an important groundwater resource for the city, is studied in detail. Tritium concentrations drop from approximately 8-10 tritium units (TU) in the recharge area to concentrations below the detection limit of 0.8 TU further out in the valley. Groundwater velocities of approximately 0.3 to 0.9 m d -1 are estimated from distributions of groundwater 3H concentrations along the alluvial fan with the use of the reconstructed precipitation 3H record. Regional characteristics of the groundwater flow system are discussed with respect to future development and protection of the groundwater resources.

  14. Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin-Veizaga, H; de Carvalho, M E; Nascimento, E M; Rodrigues, V L; Casanova, C; Barata, J M

    1999-06-01

    A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000), where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males) selected by systematic sampling. Concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. Vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. Seropositive, 12.5% (16/128): females, 15.1% (11/73); males, 9.1% (5/55). Average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. Most houses had adobe walls (76. 7%, n= 30), galvanized iron rooves (86.7%) and earthen floors (53. 4%) 80% of the walls had crevices. One hundred forty seven specimens of Triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7%) were domestic, and 1 peridomestic Triatoma sordida. Precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8. 7%; cats, 1.6%. House infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. We found 21 (14.3%) specimens of T. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7%) of which in domestic environments. The elements for the vector transmission of Chagas disease are present in Avaroa/Primer de Mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. In neighboring Cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of Chagas disease. Prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional modes of acquisition, is required.

  15. Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarracin-Veizaga Hugo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000, where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. METHODS: The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males selected by systematic sampling. Concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. Vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: Seropositive, 12.5% (16/128: females, 15.1% (11/73; males, 9.1% (5/55. Average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. Most houses had adobe walls (76.7% , n= 30, galvanized iron rooves (86.7% and earthen floors (53.4% 80% of the walls had crevices. One hundred forty seven specimens of Triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7% were domestic, and 1 peridomestic Triatoma sordida. Precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8.7%; cats, 1.6%. House infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. We found 21 (14.3% specimens of T. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7% of which in domestic environments. DISCUSSION: The elements for the vector transmission of Chagas disease are present in Avaroa/Primer de Mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. In neighboring Cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of Chagas disease. Prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional

  16. The Scale of Informality: Community-Run Water Systems in Peri-Urban Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Marston

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of the urban waterscape is an ongoing process. In this paper, I examine the strategies used by members of 'water committees' in peri-urban Cochabamba, Bolivia in their attempts to ensure the long-term integration of their community-run water systems into municipal water plans. My analysis underscores two points. First, the water committees and their advocates have engaged a range of scalar strategies in an effort to transform their water systems from informal to quasi-formal (and therefore more temporally stable structures. Second, I contend that the literature on politics of scale can potentially enrich theories of urban informality. Interpreting the political strategies of informal collectives through a scalar lens highlights the fact that 'inter-institutional' alliances are usually also – and importantly – multi-scalar. The literature on politics of scale, moreover, offers an important reminder about the role of history in urban waterscapes. Scales of governance are not politically neutral, and scalar interventions can engage historical legacies that are not necessarily compatible with contemporary aspirations.

  17. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in different cropping systems at Cochabamba, Bolivia (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VESTBERG

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of arbuscule-forming fungi in different cropping systems was investigated at Cochabamba in the province of Cercado, Bolivia. The cropping systems included grain and mixed pasture systems, with or without fertilization and agrochemicals. Geographically, the soils studied were situated at 17°23'9'' southern latitude and 66°9'35'' western longitude and a mean height of 2600 m above sea level. Spores of four arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi-forming genera were observed; Glomus Tul. & Tul., Entrophospora Ames & Schneider, Sclerocystis Berk. & Broome emend. Almeida & Schenck and Scutellospora Walker & Sanders. Glomus was the dominating genus, followed by Sclerocystis; Scutellospora and Entrophospora were observed occasionally. A cropping system consisting of a native pasture without any fertilization or other plant or soil treatments had the highest numbers of spores and the highest species richness, i.e. eight out of nine species identified. The mycorrhizal diversity measured with the Shannon-Wiener index did however not differ very much between cropping systems. ;

  18. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L.; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P.; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5–24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  19. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus.

  20. Late Quaternary geomorphic history of a glacial landscape - new sedimentary and chronological data from the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.-H.; Preusser, F.; Zech, R.; Ilgner, J.; Veit, H.

    2009-04-01

    Throughout the Central Andes, glacial landscapes have long been used for the reconstruction of Late Quaternary glaciations and landscape evolution. Much work has focused on the Andes in Peru, Chile and the Bolivian Altiplano, whereas relatively little data has been published on glaciation history in the eastern Andean ranges and slopes. Even less is known with regard to the postglacial evolution of these glacial landscapes. In the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), local maximum advances probably peaked around 20-25 ka BP and were followed by significant readvances between ~12-16 ka BP. This generally points to temperature controlled maximum glacial advances along the humid eastern slopes of the Central Andes, which is supported by glacier-climate-modelling studies. However, most studies include only marginal information with regard to the complex geomorphic and sedimentary situation in the Cordillera de Cochabamba. Furthermore, the chronological results are afflicted with several methodological uncertainties inherent to surface exposure dating and call for application of alternative, independent age dating methods. Therefore this study aims at i) documenting and interpreting the complex glacial geomorphology of the Huara Loma valley in the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), ii) analyzing the involved units of glacial sediments, and iii) improving the chronological framework by applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating (14C). For this purpose, geomorphic mapping was combined with field documentation of sedimentary profiles. The involved sediments were subject to geochemical and mineralogical analysis in order to deduce information on their erosional and weathering histories. In addition, the interpretation of OSL ages from glacial and proglacial sediments integrated several methodological procedures with regard to sample preparation and statistical analysis of the measurements in order to increase the degree of confidence. These

  1. Cactus pear and cochineal in Cochabamba: the development of a cross-epistemological management toolkit for interactive design of farm innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekelenburg, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this book, the local research and development process of the small-farmers (campesino) union of Huancarani (Cochabamba region in Bolivia) is discussed. Research activities were carried out by farmers themselves as well as by facilitators and scientists, but the farmers union kept control

  2. Cactus Pear and Cochineal in Cochabamba: The development of a cross-epistemological management toolkit for interactive design of farm innovation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekelenburg, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this book, the local research and development process of the small-farmers (campesino) union of Huancarani (Cochabamba region in Bolivia) is discussed. Research activities were carried out by farmers themselves as well as by facilitators and scientists, but the farmers union kept control on plann

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius robustus adults invade households in the Tropics of Cochabamba region of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Cortez, Mirko; Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Garcia, Lineth; Arteaga, Mery; Uriona, Liliana; Gamboa, Seyla; Mejía, Carolina; Lozano, Daniel; Gascon, Joaquim; Torrico, Faustino; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2016-03-16

    There are hardly any data available on the relationships between the parasite and the vector or regarding potential reservoirs involved in the natural transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Tropics of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Local families from communities were responsible for the capture of triatomine specimens, following a strategic methodology based on entomological surveillance with community participation developed by the National Chagas Programme of the Ministry of Health of Bolivia. We describe the collection of adult Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius robustus naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from houses and from the hospital of Villa Tunari municipality. The flagellates found in the digestive tract of P. geniculatus belong to genetic lineages or DTUs TcI and TcIII, whereas only lineage DTU TcI was found in R. robustus. The detection of these vectors infected with T. cruzi reveals the vulnerability of local communities. The results presented here highlight the risk of Chagas disease transmission in a region previously thought not to be endemic, indicating that the Tropics of Cochabamba should be placed under permanent entomological and epidemiological surveillance.

  4. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from Cochabamba (Bolivia); a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Maria; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía

    2013-11-01

    The anthropometric status of school age children and young adolescents in Andean countries is not well known. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia), and their association with different variables, as well as to determine the agreement between two classifications (BAP, IOTF) of obesity and overweight. A school-based cross-sectional survey (n=441) was carried out in 2010 in pupils, aged 5 to 16 years old, living in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia). Evaluations were based on parent-administered questionnaires and a physical examination based on anthropometric measures. Descriptive, bivariate, and concordance analyses were performed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 20.9% (CI95% 17.1-24.7) and 3.2% (CI 95% 1.6-4.8) respectively, with higher incidences in younger birth cohorts from rural areas. No differences were observed according to gender, parent's educational level, nutritional patterns, or physical activity. There was a moderate agreement globally and on overweight, and excellent on obesity. This study determined that the prevalence of overweight and obese Bolivian school children is increasing, mainly in younger birth cohorts from rural areas, independently from physical activity and energy intake. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida Trypanosomatidae): ecology of the transmission cycle in the wild environment of the Andean valley of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Pinho, Ana Paula; Cuervo, Patricia; Alfaro, Fernando; Solano, Marco; Xavier, Samanta C C; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Fernandes, Octavio; Torrico, Faustino; Noireau, François; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2006-12-01

    An active Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle maintained by wild rodents in the Andean valleys of Cochabamba Bolivia is described. Wild and domestic Triatoma infestans with 60% infection with T. cruzi were found and was evidenced in 47.5% (rodents) and 26.7% (marsupial) by parasitological and/or serologycal methods. Phyllotis ocilae and the marsupial species Thylamys elegans, are the most important reservoirs followed by Bolomys lactens and Akodon boliviensis. In spite of both genotypes (TCI and TCII) being prevalent in Bolivia, in our study area only T. cruzi I is being transmitted. Our data suggest that wild T. infestans and wild small mammals play an important role in the maintenance of the transmission cycle of T. cruzi. Furthermore, the finding of high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in wild T. infestans point to the risk of the dispersion of Chagas' disease.

  6. Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia Doença de Chagas numa área de ocupação recente em Cochabamba, Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Albarracin-Veizaga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000, where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. METHODS: The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males selected by systematic sampling. Concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. Vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: Seropositive, 12.5% (16/128: females, 15.1% (11/73; males, 9.1% (5/55. Average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. Most houses had adobe walls (76.7% , n= 30, galvanized iron rooves (86.7% and earthen floors (53.4% 80% of the walls had crevices. One hundred forty seven specimens of Triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7% were domestic, and 1 peridomestic Triatoma sordida. Precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8.7%; cats, 1.6%. House infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. We found 21 (14.3% specimens of T. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7% of which in domestic environments. DISCUSSION: The elements for the vector transmission of Chagas disease are present in Avaroa/Primer de Mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. In neighboring Cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of Chagas disease. Prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional

  7. Chagas disease vector control in a hyperendemic setting: the first 11 years of intervention in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Natalisisy; Borrás, Rafael; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Chagas disease has historically been hyperendemic in the Bolivian Department of Cochabamba. In the early 2000s, an extensive vector control program was implemented; 1.34 million dwelling inspections were conducted to ascertain infestation (2000-2001/2003-2011), with blanket insecticide spraying in 2003-2005 and subsequent survey-spraying cycles targeting residual infestation foci. Here, we assess the effects of this program on dwelling infestation rates (DIRs). Program records were used to calculate annual, municipality-level aggregate DIRs (39 municipalities); very high values in 2000-2001 (median: 0.77-0.69) dropped to ∼0.03 from 2004 on. A linear mixed model (with municipality as a random factor) suggested that infestation odds decreased, on average, by ∼28% (95% confidence interval [CI95] 6-44%) with each 10-fold increase in control effort. A second, better-fitting mixed model including year as an ordinal predictor disclosed large DIR reductions in 2001-2003 (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, CI95 0.06-0.19) and 2003-2004 (OR 0.22, CI95 0.14-0.34). Except for a moderate decrease in 2005-2006, no significant changes were detected afterwards. In both models, municipality-level DIRs correlated positively with previous-year DIRs and with the extent of municipal territory originally covered by montane dry forests. Insecticide-spraying campaigns had very strong, long-lasting effects on DIRs in Cochabamba. However, post-intervention surveys consistently detected infestation in ∼3% of dwellings, underscoring the need for continuous surveillance; higher DIRs were recorded in the capital city and, more generally, in municipalities dominated by montane dry forest--an eco-region where wild Triatoma infestans are widespread. Traditional strategies combining insecticide spraying and longitudinal surveillance are thus confirmed as very effective means for area-wide Chagas disease vector control; they will be particularly beneficial in highly-endemic settings, but should also be

  8. Chagas disease vector control in a hyperendemic setting: the first 11 years of intervention in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalisisy Espinoza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease has historically been hyperendemic in the Bolivian Department of Cochabamba. In the early 2000s, an extensive vector control program was implemented; 1.34 million dwelling inspections were conducted to ascertain infestation (2000-2001/2003-2011, with blanket insecticide spraying in 2003-2005 and subsequent survey-spraying cycles targeting residual infestation foci. Here, we assess the effects of this program on dwelling infestation rates (DIRs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Program records were used to calculate annual, municipality-level aggregate DIRs (39 municipalities; very high values in 2000-2001 (median: 0.77-0.69 dropped to ∼0.03 from 2004 on. A linear mixed model (with municipality as a random factor suggested that infestation odds decreased, on average, by ∼28% (95% confidence interval [CI95] 6-44% with each 10-fold increase in control effort. A second, better-fitting mixed model including year as an ordinal predictor disclosed large DIR reductions in 2001-2003 (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, CI95 0.06-0.19 and 2003-2004 (OR 0.22, CI95 0.14-0.34. Except for a moderate decrease in 2005-2006, no significant changes were detected afterwards. In both models, municipality-level DIRs correlated positively with previous-year DIRs and with the extent of municipal territory originally covered by montane dry forests. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Insecticide-spraying campaigns had very strong, long-lasting effects on DIRs in Cochabamba. However, post-intervention surveys consistently detected infestation in ∼3% of dwellings, underscoring the need for continuous surveillance; higher DIRs were recorded in the capital city and, more generally, in municipalities dominated by montane dry forest--an eco-region where wild Triatoma infestans are widespread. Traditional strategies combining insecticide spraying and longitudinal surveillance are thus confirmed as very effective means for area-wide Chagas disease vector control; they

  9. LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia) deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, R.; Kull, Ch.; Kubik, P. W.; Veit, H.

    2007-10-01

    Surface exposure dating (SED) is an innovative tool already being widely applied for moraine dating and for Late Quaternary glacier and climate reconstruction. Here we present exposure ages of 28 boulders from the Cordillera Real and the Cordillera Cochabamba, Bolivia. Our results indicate that the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Eastern Cordilleras occurred at ~22-25 ka and was thus synchronous to the global temperature minimum. We were also able to date several Late Glacial moraines to ~11-13 ka, which likely document lower temperatures and increased precipitation ("Coipasa" humid phase). Additionally, we recognize the existence of older Late Glacial moraines re-calculated to ~15 ka from published cosmogenic nuclide data. Those may coincide with the cold Heinrich 1 event in the North Atlantic region and the pronounced "Tauca" humid phase. We conclude that (i) exposure ages in the tropical Andes may have been overestimated so far due to methodological uncertainties, and (ii) although precipitation plays an important role for glacier mass balances in the tropical Andes, it becomes the dominant forcing for glaciation only in the drier and thus more precipitation-sensitive regions farther west and south.

  10. LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating

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    H. Veit

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface exposure dating (SED is an innovative tool already being widely applied for moraine dating and for Late Quaternary glacier and climate reconstruction. Here we present exposure ages of 28 boulders from the Cordillera Real and the Cordillera Cochabamba, Bolivia. Our results indicate that the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in the Eastern Cordilleras occurred at ~22–25 ka and was thus synchronous to the global temperature minimum. We were also able to date several Late Glacial moraines to ~11–13 ka, which likely document lower temperatures and increased precipitation ("Coipasa" humid phase. Additionally, we recognize the existence of older Late Glacial moraines re-calculated to ~15 ka from published cosmogenic nuclide data. Those may coincide with the cold Heinrich 1 event in the North Atlantic region and the pronounced "Tauca" humid phase. We conclude that (i exposure ages in the tropical Andes may have been overestimated so far due to methodological uncertainties, and (ii although precipitation plays an important role for glacier mass balances in the tropical Andes, it becomes the dominant forcing for glaciation only in the drier and thus more precipitation-sensitive regions farther west and south.

  11. Grado de conocimiento de la Diabetes Mellitus en la población de barrio “Quijarro” en la provincia Cercado del Departamento de Cochabamba

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La diabetes Mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad crónica, comprende un grupo de trastornos metabólicos frecuentes, además comparten el fenotipo de hiperglucemia. Hay varios tipos de DM con interacción genética y ambiental.Generalmente se encuentra afectada la población con un desequilibrio en el consumo de glucosa, carbohidratos, etc.Se realizó un estudio sobre el conocimiento de Diabetes Mellitus en el Barrio de “Quijarro” en la provincia Cercado de la ciudad de Cochabamba, durante los meses de A...

  12. Hegemonía y polarización en Bolivia. El primer año del gobierno de Evo Morales y el conflicto en Cochabamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Choque Aldana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Un conflicto sucedido en el departamento de Cochabamba al concluir el primer año de gobierno de Evo Morales evidencia la polarización existente en Bolivia, alrededor del proceso constituyente y la demanda de autonomías departamentales. Si bien el gobierno tuvo varios éxitos de gestión, las oscilaciones entre matrices de acción y discursos no armonizados en el seno del partido oficialista y los movimientos que lo respaldan plantearon desafíos políticos que continúan irresueltos.

  13. Hegemonía y polarización en Bolivia. El primer año del gobierno de Evo Morales y el conflicto en Cochabamba

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    Marlene Choque Aldana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Un conflicto sucedido en el departamento de Cochabamba al concluir el primer año de gobierno de Evo Morales evidencia la polarización existente en Bolivia, alrededor del proceso constituyente y la demanda de autonomías departamentales. Si bien el gobierno tuvo varios éxitos de gestión, las oscilaciones entre matrices de acción y discursos no armonizados en el seno del partido oficialista y los movimientos que lo respaldan plantearon desafíos políticos que continúan irresueltos.

  14. Grado de conocimiento de la Diabetes Mellitus en la población de barrio “Quijarro” en la provincia Cercado del Departamento de Cochabamba

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Alex Clavijo Vargas

    2011-01-01

    La diabetes Mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad crónica, comprende un grupo de trastornos metabólicos frecuentes, además comparten el fenotipo de hiperglucemia. Hay varios tipos de DM con interacción genética y ambiental.Generalmente se encuentra afectada la población con un desequilibrio en el consumo de glucosa, carbohidratos, etc.Se realizó un estudio sobre el conocimiento de Diabetes Mellitus en el Barrio de “Quijarro” en la provincia Cercado de la ciudad de Cochabamba, durante los meses de A...

  15. LA PRESERVACIÓN Y REVITALIZACION DEL CENTRO HISTÓRICO COMO LUGAR DE MEMORIA URBANA: El Caso de la Ciudad de Cochabamba, Bolivia.

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    Chugar Zubieta, I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the preservation’s importance and revitalization of historical centers as a place of memory in urban cities. The study’s area includes the "Historic Center" of the city of Cochabamba, Bolivia. The methodology applied was observation and analysis, developed in two phases: direct observation through the lifting of the photographic studio urban cut, and indirect observation made through a literature review of books, magazines and newspapers to identify the historical and urban development. Some of the pictures were recorded by a photographic survey of museums and newspapers. Afterwards, it was made a diagnosis of the information obtained.

  16. Evaluation of agricultural reuse practices and relevant guidelines for the alba rancho WWTP (primary and secondary facultative ponds) in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalaga, J; Amy, G; von Münch, E

    2007-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries are experiencing high population growth, which is generating chaotic and unplanned development, reducing land areas available for agriculture, and polluting surface and groundwater. Consequently, the reuse of untreated or partially treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation is increasing in arid and semi-arid regions in developing countries. Cochabamba city in Bolivia also has a high population growth. The climatic characteristics and the lack of clean water sources in this city are forcing the agriculture sector to use treated and untreated wastewater for irrigation. We investigated the effluent quality of the Alba Rancho Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Cochabamba, Bolivia, and the existing effluent reuse practices for irrigation of fodder crops in the surrounding agricultural land (La Mayca area). The plant uses primary and secondary facultative ponds, and does not achieve the required effluent quality (according to Bolivian environmental law) for effluent BOD, COD, TDS and faecal coliforms. This paper also includes a brief comparison of guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture from several developing and developed countries, comparing the parameters measured as pollution indicators. It appears that for developed countries, the main concern is the health risk that reuse can cause to the farmers and consumers. For developing countries on the other hand, pollution reduction is currently the major aim in their guidelines and standards.

  17. La influencia del fenómeno El Niño y del índice de oscilación del sur en las precipitaciones de Cochabamba, Bolivia

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    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INFLUENCE DU PHENOMENE EL NIÑO ET DE L’INDICE D’OSCILLATION DU SUD SUR LES PRECIPITATIONS DE COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIE. On n’avait, jusqu’à présent, apporté que peu d’importance à l’influence du phénomène El Niño et de l’Indice d’Oscillation du Sud (IOS sur les précipitations de Cochabamba et plus généralement de la Bolivie. L’étude a été réalisée à partir de l’information de 20 stations météorologiques des vallées hautes, centrales et basses du département de Cochabamba, situées entre 17°20’ et 17°45’ de latitude sud et 66°05’ et 66°20’ de longitude ouest en utilisant aussi les séries de TSM et de l’IOS. Les séries ont été étudiées au niveau annuel, mensuel et journalier, au niveau qualitatif et quantitatif. Une analyse des séries chronologiques a déterminé l’année hydrologique et les anomalies de précipitations, en calculant une moyenne mobile sur 4 ans pour les stations soumises à une influence rémanente des fronts du sud et à celle de la Zone de Convergence Intertropicale-ZCIT, et sur 5 ans pour le reste des stations. On a pu conclure que l’influence du phénomène El Niño était plus nette dans les précipitations enregistrées à Cochabamba qu’à Arani, alors que l’influence de l’IOS se fait davantage sentir à Arani qu’à Cochabamba. Ceci montre bien l’influence du phénomène El Niño et de l’IOS sur la distribution spatio-temporelle des précipitations des vallées de Cochabamba. Ces anomalies affectent directement l’agriculture et contribueront ensuite à l’aggravation des problèmes socio-économiques du département de Cochabamba. Tradicionalmente se ha dado poca importancia al fenómeno El Niño y al Índice de Oscilación del Sur en la influencia de la distribución espacio-temporal de las precipitaciones que se registran en los valles de Cochabamba, principalmente, y de forma general en Bolivia. El estudio se realizó en los valles Alto, Central y Bajo del departamento de

  18. La Cuadrilla de Punata. Un caso de bandolerismo político en Cochabamba a fines del siglo XIX

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    Huascar Rodríguez García

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los orígenes, las andanzas y el ocaso de una organización criminal boliviana denominada “la cuadrilla de Punata”: un clan familiar que trabajaba para los gobiernos conservadores de fines del siglo XIX mediante redes clientelares de las que formaban parte no pocos policías. En un momento la banda puso en jaque al gobierno de Severo Fernández Alonso y se convirtió en un asunto de Estado, pese a lo cual esta organización jamás ha sido investigada y su historia permaneció hasta hoy sepultada en los archivos. Por otra parte, a través de la saga de la cuadrilla de Punata pueden conocerse un conjunto de temas inexplorados en la historiografía cochabambina: los nexos entre el crimen, la política y el poder policial, el tratamiento periodístico de la delincuencia y las pugnas entre liberales y conservadores en la antesala de la Guerra Federal. Finalmente el artículo propone también una interpretación original del fenómeno del bandolerismo político.   This article discusses the origins, undertakings and decline of a Bolivian criminal organization called the "Punata Gang": a family clan that worked for the conservative governments of the late nineteenth century through patronage networks, of which more than a few policemen partook. At one point, the gang threatened the government of Severo Fernández Alonso and the issue became a State affair. In spite of that, the organization was never investigated and its history has remained until today buried in the archives. Moreover, by looking at the Punata Gang’s saga this paper addresses a series of topics yet to be explored in the Cochabamba historiography: the relation between crime, politics and police power; the press coverage of delinquency; and the conflicts between liberals and conservatives on the verge of the Federal War. Finally, this article further proposes an original interpretation of the phenomenon of political banditry.

  19. [The creation and changing definitions of demographic knowledge: the case of mestizos in the indigenous communities of the Valle Bajo of Cochabamba, Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R H

    1996-01-01

    "In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Spanish officials and members of the Catholic church created a series of race-based caste terms designed to identify and categorize the peoples of mixed ancestry. The Spanish American caste system relied on the assumed ability of a census-taker or priest to define the blood lines of an individual based on skin color and physical characteristics. However, the demographic knowledge created from the caste system was imprecise, and changed over time.... There were also long-term shifts in the meaning of terms and the definitions of status caused by socioeconomic changes. An example is the rapid rate of apparent mestizoization in the...indigenous communities of the Valle Bajo of Cochabamba, Bolivia. The rapid increase in the number of mestizos was related to changing definitions of the status and identity of indigenous peoples, and was not strictly caused by racial mixture." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  20. El encomendero Polo de Ondegardo y los mitimaes del valle de Cochabamba: los interrogatorios contra los indios de Paria y Tapacarí

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    Villarías Robles, Juan J. R.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Los autores ofrecen una nueva transcripción de dos interrogatorios judiciales relacionados con Polo de Ondegardo (ca. 1520-1575 y la situación en el valle de Cochabamba (Bolivia en el siglo XVI. Los dos documentos ayudan a entender el concepto que tenía Polo de Ondegardo sobre los mitimaes en el imperio inca. También ilustran sobre el importante papel económico que podía llegar a tener esta categoría social en el orden incaico. Los mitimaes no perdían por ello necesariamente la vinculación con sus grupos étnicos de origen, contrariamente a la idea más extendida sobre los llamados “mitimaes del Inca” que se encuentra en la bibliografía.

  1. Characterization of sediment sources, sediment budget estimations, consequences and implications for populations in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuignier, Jean-Marie; Penna, Ivanna; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Natural and human-induced erosive processes shape landscape by transferring masses from the mountain to downstream areas. They also impact population both located in the source areas of sediments as well as urban areas settle on the depositional area. Mountain areas in Bolivia present high surface dynamics and high rates of rural migrations, causing e.g. a significant increase of population in Cochabamba city in the last 20 years. This work aims to estimate the sediment production on the Jatún Mayu (Pankuruma) watershed in Cochabamba department taking into account the different origins of sediments. The population of this region is predominantly rural and quechua speaking. The region of study consists in a mountain area situated in the Andes with altitudes ranging from 2500 to 4600m. Field work on July 2014 and high resolution satellite image interpretation (2004 & 2009) allowed us to map and measure landslides and gullies. Almost a hundred of landslides are recorded mostly around the river channel in the middle and the lower part of the valley and provide a moving surface estimated at 3,15km2. Most of the gullies are situated in the upper part of the valley where the vegetation is less abundant on low-sloping agricultural lands. Photogrammetric reconstructions using camera and drone were the main method used to characterise some strategic points along the river in order to get dimensions of landslides, gullies, as well as the riverbed roughness, as the final goal was to model the flooding prone area at the mouth of the watershed, were migrants have been settling for the last years. A total of 9 points of interests along the river bed were surveyed and for each of them a square surface equal to 25m2 was analysed. Approximately 250 pictures by area were needed to estimate roughness along the channel. A flood model has been performed, by using the Riverflo-2D software, to produce a susceptibility map of the downstream region.

  2. Características clínico-epidemiológicas de la enfermedad de Chagas en comunidades del Chapare, Departamento Cochabamba, Bolivia

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    Orlando Cruz Martínez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La enfermedad de Chagas o tripanosomiasis americana existe en el continente americano desde antes de la colonización. Es una zoonosis propia del continente. Constituye un importante problema de salud y afecta a más de 20 millones de personas. Objetivo: Describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de la enfermedad de Chagas en las comunidades del Chapare, Departamento Cochabamba, República de Bolivia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, observacional, de serie de casos, en las regiones del Chapare, departamento de Cochabamba, Bolivia, en el periodo comprendido entre el 1ro de enero de 2008 al 30 de junio del propio año. Se estudiaron todos los pacientes (510 que acudieron a consulta y que tenían el diagnóstico previo de la enfermedad. Se estudiaron variables como, la edad, sexo, escolaridad, ocupación, síntomas y signos de la enfermedad, entre otras, procesadas con el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 15.0 para Windows. Resultados: El sexo predominante resultó ser el femenino; el grupo etario más frecuente fue el comprendido entre los 46 a 55 años. Como factores de riesgos para la infección se identificaron el vivir en casa de adobe y paja, la presencia de vectores, animales domésticos y el almacenar alimentos dentro del hogar. El 79,2 % se mantienen asintomáticos y un escaso número de pacientes cumplen con las medidas de prevención. Conclusiones: Esta es una enfermedad común en el Departamento, asociada principalmente a la insalubridad y pobreza, constituyendo la transmisión vectorial la principal vía para adquirir la infección.

  3. Las especies nativas y la deforestación en los Andes. Una visión histórica, social y cultural en Cochabamba, Bolivia

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    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available LES ESPECES NATIVES ET LA DÉFORESTATION DANS LES ANDES - UNE VISION HISTORIQUE, SOCIALE ET CULTURELLE A COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIE. Ce travail présente les résultats de 3 ans d’observations de terrain, de conversations avec les paysans, complétées par une large révision bibliographique. à travers une reconstitution historique, sociale et culturelle, il essaie de montrer la dynamique régressive de la végétation andine, en particulier à Cochabamba. Les forêts résiduelles, les documents des chroniqueurs des XVIè et XVIIè siècles, des explorateurs et les travaux actuels des chercheurs sont les éléments qui permettent d’imaginer les associations végétales et les types de boisements qui existaient dans le passé. En partant d’une analyse des modes d’utilisation de l’espace par les différentes sociétés qui ont peuplé les Andes, ses vallées et ses zones hautes, depuis la préhistoire jusqu’à notre époque, cette étude procède à une interprétation des causes de la déforestation, si alarmante aujourd’hui. Ainsi, les effets de l’augmentation de la population, la pression du bétail, le rôle des mines, la construction des chemins de fer sont analysés sous l’éclairage de leur influence sur la végétation native. Les implications de la fabrication de la chicha, du foncier et des nombreuses guerres ou batailles militaires sur la dégradation de l’environnement sont aussi prises en compte. La connaissance des éléments du passé amène, en conclusion, à présenter de futures pistes de travail, techniques et sociales, pour réduire ou contrecarrer la déforestation. El presente estudio suma los frutos de 3 años de observaciones de campo y de intercambios con los campesinos a una revisión bibliográfica amplia. Intenta presentar, mediante una reconstitución histórica, social y cultural, la dinámica regresiva de la vegetación andina, en particular en Cochabamba. Las huellas de los bosques relictos, los documentos de

  4. The epidemiology of Chagas' disease in a hyperendemic area of Cochabamba, Bolivia: a clinical study including electrocardiography, seroreactivity to Trypanosoma cruzi, xenodiagnosis, and domiciliary triatomine distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, M; Juranek, D; Kozarsky, P; Steurer, F; Tapia, G; Bermudez, H

    1992-11-01

    A clinicoepidemiologic survey of Chagas' disease was conducted in the remote rural village of Tabacal in southcentral Cochabamba, Bolivia. In June and July 1988, we interviewed and examined 153 of 160 villagers > five years old for signs and symptoms of Chagas' disease. All participants had electrocardiograms (EKGs) and serologic analysis performed, and 20 villagers underwent xenodiagnosis. All 40 houses in the village were examined for triatomes, and house construction materials and defects were recorded. Seventy-four percent of all villagers had serologic evidence of Chagas' disease, and were defined as cases. Cases were three and one-half times more likely to have signs and symptoms of heart failure than non-cases (P = 0.2) and were nine times more likely to have EKG conduction abnormalities than non-cases (P = 0.02). Thirty-three percent of all EKG conduction defects occurred in individuals < 35 years of age. All dwellings had evidence of triatome infestation; 72% of the triatomes collected were positive for metacyclic trypanosomes. We conclude that Trypanosoma cruzi infection is highly prevalent in Tabacal and is a common cause of morbidity in that region.

  5. Reconstruction of a complex late Quaternary glacial landscape in the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia) based on a morphostratigraphic and multiple dating approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jan-Hendrik; Zech, Jana; Zech, Roland; Preusser, Frank; Argollo, Jaime; Kubik, Peter W.; Veit, Heinz

    Although glacial landscapes have previously been used for the reconstruction of late Quaternary glaciations in the Central Andes, only few data exist for the Eastern Cordillera in Bolivia. Here, we present results from detailed morphostratigraphic mapping and new data of surface exposure dating (SED), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and radiocarbon dating ( 14C) from the Huara Loma Valley, Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia). Discrepancies between individual dating methods could be addressed within the context of a solid geomorphic framework. We identified two major glaciations. The older is not well constrained by the available data, whereas the younger glaciation is subdivided into at least four major glacial stages. Regarding the latter, a first advance dated to ~ 29-25 ka occurred roughly contemporaneous with the onset of the global last glacial maximum (LGM) and was followed by a less extensive (re-)advance around 20-18 ka. The local last glacial maximum (LLGM) in the Huara Loma Valley took place during the humid lateglacial ~ 17-16 ka, followed by several smaller readvances until ~ 10-11 ka, and complete deglaciation at the end of the Early Holocene.

  6. Grado de conocimiento de la Diabetes Mellitus en la población de barrio “Quijarro” en la provincia Cercado del Departamento de Cochabamba

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    Gary Alex Clavijo Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes Mellitus (DM es una enfermedad crónica, comprende un grupo de trastornos metabólicos frecuentes, además comparten el fenotipo de hiperglucemia. Hay varios tipos de DM con interacción genética y ambiental.Generalmente se encuentra afectada la población con un desequilibrio en el consumo de glucosa, carbohidratos, etc.Se realizó un estudio sobre el conocimiento de Diabetes Mellitus en el Barrio de “Quijarro” en la provincia Cercado de la ciudad de Cochabamba, durante los meses de Agosto a Diciembre del 2010 para evaluar los conocimientos de la población sobre la Diabetes y su prevención. El estudio es prospectivo, transversal y descriptivo. Se recolectó la información a través de Test, con preguntas directas acerca de los cuidados y los conocimientos que se tenía sobre Diabetes Mellitus.El resultado obtenido fue que el 25% de los entrevistados practica una vida saludable, y que solo el 13% tiene los conocimientos suficientes sobre la enfermedad de la diabetes.Por lo tanto, al observar los mínimos porcentajes, la mayoría de los habitantes se encuentran en riesgo de padecer Diabetes debido a la inadecuada información sobre esta.

  7. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  8. Leishmaniasis in the lowlands of Bolivia. Entomological studies on sandflies of the "Valle del Sacta". Tropical Carrasco of the Department of Cochabamba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, H; Garcia, A L; Troncoso, F

    1993-01-01

    Up to 1987, through the LEISHBOL project (CEE-STD1) studies on sandflies were performed in the rain forests of Yapacani, a region of the Department of Santa Cruz. In another set of studies, also carried out within the LEISHBOLPE project (CEE-STD2), sandflies were studied in the rain forests of the "Valle del Sacta, Prov. Carrasco" of the Departament of Cochabamba, to determine the composition of the species, its density, the anthropophilic species, and its infection by flagellates. 18 species were identified, from those collected in the Valle del Sacta, one of which was a new species now being described as Lutzomyia lerayi n-sp. Only 7 species are common with those identified in Yapacani, in spite of the proximity and of the apparent similarity of the biotopes. Lu. shawi was the only species captured practically year round, and highest densities were identified in October with 7.6 "females/hour/shannon trap". The lowest monthly density occurred in July with "0.2 female/hour/shannon trap." In relation to the altitudinal density of Lu. shawi, it was higher at 5 meters (5.5 females/night/CDC in October) than at 1 meter (2.3 females/night/CDC-trap in November) above ground level. The following species was detected as anthropophilic: Lu. shawi, Lu. amazonensis, Lu. evangelistai and Lu. sherlocki. 4.5% (7 of 154) of Lu. shawi were found to be infected by flagellates in suprapiloric position. The composition of the sandfly species of Valle del Sacta is different than that of Yacapani. The most important species of Valle del Sacta is Lu. shawi, instead of Lu. yucumensis of Yapacani.

  9. CHOICE OF MACROPHYTE SUBSTRATE IN THE USE OF DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF POND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT: PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE CASE OF ALALAY POND (COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alalay Pond is a 230-hectare, shallow aquatic ecosystem within Cochabamba, the third largest city in Bolivia. With the aim to determine the suitability of epiphytic diatoms for water quality assessment in the pond and to choose a substrate that would hold a representative bioindicator epiphytic community, the macrophytes Schoenoplectus californicus subsp. tatora (Kunth T. Koyama, Typha dominguensis Pers., Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. were selected and differences in diatom community composition and structure were tested. Diatoms were collected during four sampling campaigns in the March-September, 2011 period, from three stations contiguous to the pelagic zone and prepared for analysis using standard, internationally used protocols. In all, 27 samples were collected from which 28 taxa characteristic of eutrophic environments were identified and 17 others could not be assigned names from the literature. Although many of the species are shared among sampling sites, the epiphytic communities developing at each station were different in structure and composition. Although, there are marked temporal variations in community features on each of the macrophytes, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes, as well as canonical correspondence analysis, showed no marked differences within a single campaign and station among the 4 macrophytes. Shifts in structure and composition are denoted less commonly by species replacement and more often by changes in percent relative abundance of dominant and rare species. Very few species are restricted to a station or seem to show strong preference for a particular substrate. Taking into account growth, structural and ecological characteristics, as well as some phenological features of the macrophytes, S. californicus subsp. tatora and T. dominguensis are the most suitable substrates for water quality assessments in the pond. As demonstrated by multivariate analyses, among-site and time

  10. La decisión de los agricultores del área tropical de Cochabamba (Bolivia de cultivar coca en lugar de los productos alternativos recomendados por el Estado

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    Juan Carlos Barrientos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la prohibición estatal del cultivo de coca desde 1973 y de la reducción rápida de las plantaciones de coca hasta 2002, este arbusto todavía se cultiva en las zonas tropicales de Cochabamba (Bolivia. Tanto aspectos técnicos como económicos, son responsables de que muchos agricultores se decidan por el cultivo de la coca y no por el de cultivos alternativos. Técnicamente, el cultivo de la coca es más adaptable y menos exigente, en comparación con los cinco cultivos alternativos analizados en esta investigación: piña, banano, maracuyá, palmito y pimienta; que requieren mayores insumos o mayor capital, así como más experiencia y habilidades técnicas de parte de los productores. Desde el punto de vista económico, la demanda de hojas de la coca, contrariamente a la de los cultivos alternativos, excede a la oferta, por lo que los precios de la coca tienden a subir. El cultivo de coca es, en este sentido, más ventajoso, porque les deja a los agricultores mayores ingresos que aquéllos que reciben de los cultivos alternativos. La comercialización de las hojas de la coca, así como su transporte, es relativamente fácil, principalmente por la escasa exigencia de calidad por parte de los compradores. La posibilidad de venta rápida -y, en cierta medida, garantizada- de las hojas de coca favorece claramente su cultivo, comparada con la de los productos alternativos. Sin embargo, muchas de las ventajas mencionadas del cultivo de coca, respecto a las de los cultivos alternativos, se ven desfavorecidas por la prohibición y el combate a los cultivos de coca por parte del estado.

  11. Tipificación del grupo sanguíneo A B O y el factor Rh en la población de Totora-Cochabamba gestión 2012

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    Ruth Leny Jarro Mena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La determinación del grupo sanguíneo y el factor Rh son importantes en el campo de la biología, genética y en la práctica médica por su valor clínico en las transfusiones sanguíneas. Por ello, en la presente investigación se tipificó el grupo sanguíneo de la población de Totora y se analizó su prevalencia tanto en hombres como mujeres.Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal; en una población total de 12 961, del cual se obtuvo una muestra de 175 personas, comprendidas entre las edades de 18 a 84 años que dieron su consentimiento; se excluyó al resto de la población que no quiso participar y que no tuvo acceso al estudio. Para la determinación delgrupo sanguíneo y factor Rh se utilizaron los reactivos de la marca DIALAB ® importados de Australia, siguiendo el protocolo establecido. El control de calidad del Kit se realizó con sangre ya tipificada, proporcionada por el Banco de Sangre de Cochabamba. Los resultados mostraron un predominio de grupo sanguíneo O con 85 %, seguido del tipo A con 9%, tipo B 6%, no habiendo resultados para el grupo sanguíneo AB; en cuanto al factor Rh las personas con el factor Rh positivo representan el 99% y el factor Rh negativo 1%. El grupo sanguíneo O y el factor Rh positivo es el predominante en ambos sexos.

  12. The decision of farmers from the tropical region of Cochabamba in Bolivia to cultivate coca instead of state-recommended alternative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos Juan Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    Despite national coca cultivation having been prohibited from 1973 onwards and the rapid reduction of coca plantations up to 2000, coca is still being cultivated in the tropical region of  Cochabamba. Technical and economic aspects are responsible for many farmers deciding to continue to cultivate coca and not to cultivate alternative crops. Coca cultivation

  13. Oleoducto Carrasco Cochabamba OCC - lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarria, Edwin; Collazos, Alfonso; Blanco, Ernesto [TRANSREDES S.A. (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    This article describes the challenges and activities performed to place 'in service' condition a pipeline that was constructed in 2001, that was never placed in service, and further, in 2003, suffered the loss of 3 river crossings (80, 120, and 300 meters wide), in addition to several damages to the pipeline in 17 different locations. The project's execution was divided into two phases. Phase 1, Emergency Shut Down (ESD) in the four pipeline stations; Installing Remote Operated Valves (ROV); ROW repairs; Equipment's Mechanical and Instrument and Electric/electronic maintenance. Phase 2, Complementary pipeline and ROW stabilization tasks, pipeline burial and river crossings; Geometric internal inspections and repairs; Intelligent inspection; Leak Detection System (LDS); fuel consumption performance improvements. The pipeline has 4 stations; the first, second, and third are pumping stations. The pipeline is located in part of a national park with high environmental and social risks. Considering its geographical condition, the location's area is considered to be within the five locations in the world that have the highest accumulated rains with its 5570 mm of annual precipitation; it has 70 river crossings (22 aerial bridges, 22 buried river crossings, and 22 river crossings attached to road bridges); the overall length is 250 Km, part of the area is geologically active; the profile starts at 400 masl, then down to 250 masl up to 3700 masl. (author)

  14. Síndrome de Poems Hospital Obrero Nº 2, Cochabamba-Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Orlando Antezana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 52 años hospitalizado en marzo del 2007 manifestando datosclínicos y de laboratorio de un cuadro multiglandular endocrino asociado a alteraciones cutáneas y polineuropatía periféricacorrespondientes al síndrome de POEMS. El síndrome de POEMS del acrónimo Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly,Endocrine abnormalities, M protein, Skin lesions es un raro cuadro neoplásico de células plasmáticas específicamenteun mieloma osteosclerotico pero también puede estar presente en la gamapatía monoclonal de significado incierto yotras gamapatias monoclonales. El mieloma osteoclástico representa el 3-5% de todos los mielomas y esta asociado a unapolineuropatía periférica en un 50% a 90% de los casos.

  15. Destitution through “Development”: A Case Study of the Laka Laka Project in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrum J. Shriar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined environmental and socioeconomic outcomes of a water project in rural Bolivia, and sought insights on how and why its planning was so flawed. The project destroyed an ancient, sustainable irrigation system, and replaced it with one that provides insufficient and diminishing quantities of water to many fewer people, appears to be causing land degradation and groundwater depletion, and has fueled conflicts. The study shows that even relatively small, NGO-led projects can generate significant negative impacts, and raises questions about the pressures on development agencies to charge ahead with projects, despite obvious potential for such impacts.

  16. Sustaining the benefits of rural water supply investments: Experience from Cochabamba and Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer; Lukacs, Heather; Jeuland, Marc; Alvestegui, Alfonso; Soto, Betty; LizáRraga, Gloria; Bakalian, Alex; Wakeman, Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Many rural water supply interventions in developing countries have been marked by a poor record of sustainability. Considerable progress has been made over the past several decades on the development of lower-cost technologies that are easier for communities in developing countries to maintain and also on improving project design and implementation to enhance sustainability of outcomes. Less attention has been given to the necessary and sufficient supports for water system maintenance in the postconstruction period. This study explores the contribution of various types of postconstruction support (PCS) to the sustainability of rural water supply systems in Bolivia. Using regression and matched pair statistical analyses, the effects of PCS on water system performance and user satisfaction with service are modeled. Communities that received management-oriented PCS visits from external agencies, and those whose system operators attended training workshops, had better performing systems than communities that received no such support. Engineering-oriented PCS visits to communities had no measurable impact on system functioning or user satisfaction.

  17. Calidad de Arención del Adulto Mayor en la Caja Nacional de Salud Cochabamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Villarroel Lafuente

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En Bolivia un 7% de la población es Adulta Mayor (AM, de los cuales el 61% vive en la pobreza; por ello se promulgó laley 1889 que pone en vigencia el Seguro Medico Gratuito de Vejez (SMGV, sin embargo la Caja Nacional de Salud (CNSsoporta el 88% de los afiliados al SMGV, por lo cual esta actualmente colapsada por la demanda de servicios, con la consecuenteperdida de calidad y calidez en la atención del AM. Por lo tanto desarrollamos el presente estudio de tipo transversal,descriptivo con el propósito de determinar la percepción del Adulto Mayor sobre la calidad de atención y la relaciónmédico paciente dentro del marco de las prestaciones del SMGV. Analizamos 170 muestras, 114 en la CNS policlínicoAnexo 32 y 56 en la CNS Quillacollo. Observamos que la percepción sobre la calidad de Atención del SMGV en la CNSes buena en 51% de los casos, 27% la catalogan como regular a mala y el 22% como pésima. Referente a la relación médicopaciente tenemos que 68% de los pacientes están de acuerdo con el trato que se les brinda en el SMGV. Se concluye coneste estudio que el nivel de trato y calidad de atención al paciente AM, nos falta aun mucho por avanzar, un trato cordial osolo un apretón de manos serian un buen comienzo para un tratamiento mejor del adulto mayor.

  18. The arabesque of local knowledge : Potatoes, farmers and technicians in highland Tiraque, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzeda, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work has to do with knowledge and, particularly, with the encounter between different traditions of knowledge, which - through potato cropping - take place between farmers and experts.In this way the present research makes problematic the fact that knowledge is some

  19. Factores causales de complicaciones en el trabajo de parto, de los Centros de Salud del Valle Alto, Cochabamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Álvarez Rodriguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se denomina trabajo de parto a un conjunto de fenomenos fisiológicos que tienen por objeto de salida del feto viable de los genitales maternos. Con el presente estudio se determiná los factores causales de complicaciones en el trabajo de parto y el tipo de costumbre al desasrrollo del mismo. Se realizo un estudio de tipo retrospectivo;transversal y cuantitativo comprendiendo a los municipios de Punata, Arani, Villa Rivero, Tiraque,Cliza y Tarata y de Vacas. El método de recolección de datos fue a raves de la utilización de un cuestionario dirigido a las mujeres pos-puerperio. La informacion se obtuvo de los cuadernos de control prenatal, parto, y puerperio del Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud (SNIS. Entre los resultados obtenidos se tiene que los factores causales de complicaciones en el trabajo de parto en la mayoría se debe a la realización de actividades costumbristas traumáticas que se caracteriza por el balanceo horizontal de la gestante sobre una sabana (manteo63%. Se concluye que los factores de riesgo en el trabajo del parto son: el vivir en un lugar pobre, no realizar un adecuado control prenatal, presentar el antecedente de un parto pretérmino y además que la comunidades tienen costumbres que ponen en peligro el bienestar de la madre en trabajo de parto.

  20. Co-Infection of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and HIV: report of a case of mucosal leishmaniasis in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Faustino; Parrado, Rudy; Castro, Rosario; Marquez, Carla Jimena; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Solano, Marco; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth

    2009-10-01

    We describe the first case of Leishmania/HIV co-infection reported in Bolivia. Initially hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and bronchitis, the patient had numerous cutaneous and mucosal lesions caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The patient was also diagnosed as severely immunocompromised because of HIV infection.

  1. Risk factors for diarrhea in children under five years of age residing in peri-urban communities in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Perin, Jamie; Neiswender de Calani, Karen J; Norman, W Ray; Perry, Henry; Davis, Thomas P; Lindquist, Erik D

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood diarrhea prevalence and caregiver knowledge of the causes and prevention of diarrhea in a prospective cohort of 952 children diarrhea. Furthermore, when asked how to keep food safe for children to eat only 17% of caregivers reported hand washing before cooking and feeding a child. Lack of caregiver awareness of the importance of practices related to hygiene and sanitation for diarrhea prevention were significant risk factors for diarrheal disease in this cohort. The knowledge findings from this study suggest that health promotion in these communities should put further emphasis on increasing knowledge of how water treatment, hand washing with soap, proper disposal of child feces, and food preparation relate to childhood diarrhea prevention. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Prácticas cotidianas y estrategias de producción de continuidad urbana en la ciudad de Cochabamba

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Zubieta, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    ¿Cuál es el lugar de habitar en la producción del espacio urbano? ¿Cuáles son sus capacidades y sus limitaciones en la construcción de la ciudad? y ¿Cuál es la nueva condición del urbanismo a partir del momento en que se reconoce al habitante como un actor urbanizante antes y no solamente como un actor urbanizado? La tesis aborda estas preguntas con una metodología original que se basa en la concepción de la ciudad como sujeto y fenómeno viviente, antes que como objeto abstracto, aprehensi...

  3. Nuevas fracturas, desigualdades sociales y fragmentación en el área urbana de Cochabamba - Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Claros, Sonia Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    La visualización del Municipio del Cercado y de su red intrincada de dimensiones tangibles e intangibles que refieren su insustentabilidad conlleva miradas a los procesos de gestión del uso del suelo y construcción de ciudadanía desde los espacios de la sociedad civil. Un recorrido socio espacial - no exhaustivo - realizado desde el año 2003 al presente intenta describir la transformación de la ciudad ligada a diversos fenómenos dinámicos que han dejado huellas físicas en cuanto a su contenid...

  4. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, Tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Ballart Ferrer, J. Cristina; Vidal, G.; Picado, A; Rojas, M.; Torrico, F; Torrico, M.C.; Lozano, D; Gállego Culleré, M. (Montserrat)

    2015-01-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (...

  5. Integration de donnees multisources de teledetection et de donnees morphometriques pour la cartographie des formations meubles: Region de Cochabamba en Bolivie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Lacina

    2002-04-01

    In this study, we develop a new method for mapping surficial deposits based on the modeling of the synergistic relationship between objects on the surface identifiable from remote sensing data, morphometric information derived from a DEM and geoscience ancillary data. The performance of SPOT-4 HRVIR, Landsat-7 ETM+, and RADARSAT-1 S4 and S5 mode SAR satellite data are compared in order to identify and map the surface indicators of surficial deposits. Furthermore, morphometric data such as altitude, slope, slope orientation, slope curvature and the potential moisture index extracted from the DEM are used to define the ground topographical characteristics. Supervised classifications were carried out from single source images and multisource image combinations using image fusion techniques including RVB, ACP and HIS. Different spectral indices including NDVI, TSAVI, RI and IF, as well as texture indices (average, standard deviation, entropy, contrast) are also compared. The different layers of information obtained are regrouped into categories of variables in relation to the vegetation cover, soils, the textural organization of the landscape and the topography. Results show that the supervised classification using the maximum likelihood method based on the RVB fusion of HRVIR and SAR S4 data provides the best classification rate of the land cover estimated at 96%. The morphometric data derived from the DEM are integrated with the results of the spectral indices, the texture indices and the land cover map in a linear equation within a discriminant analysis. Based on this equation, we were able to model the synergy between the surficial deposits indicators which allowed their identification and mapping. Based solely on the binary units derived from the land cover variables, the model is capable of identifying and classifying surficial deposits in the study area with a global accuracy of 70%. The addition of spectral indices relating to vegetation and soil to the preceding information increases the global classification precision to 79%. This improvement in the results confirms the importance of the two categories of spectral indices in providing information on the density of the vegetation cover, the state of growth of the vegetation and the soil spectral characteristics. The addition of texture indices added to the previous information increases the classification accuracy to 81%. Finally, the addition of topographical information to the parameters of the previous step provides a further improvement in the global classification rate from 81% to 88%, a further increase of 7%. Validation of the final results of the model applied to the entire study area, in comparison with ground truth data and geological maps, gives a global classification rate of 88%. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Efecto de la tala de Podocarpus glomeratus (Podocarpaceae sobre la estructura de un bosque de neblina en los Andes (Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Isaías Ayma-Romay

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron analizados los efectos de la tala sobre la estructura, composición y la regeneración natural de un bosque andino de neblina. Se instalaron 40 parcelas de 707 m2 para medir individuos >10 cm DAP y sub-parcelas de 5 m2 para evaluar la regeneración de individuos <10 cm DAP y de 1 m2 para evaluar el banco de semillas. Se evaluó la densidad y cobertura de todos los árboles. Se realizó un análisis cluster para establecer las categorías de cobertura de dosel y un análisis de componentes principales para determinar su asociación con la densidad de diferentes especies de plántulas. La tala ha modificado la cobertura (p= <0,001 generando doseles de poco a fuertemente intervenidos. Los claros de dosel favorecen a las heliófitas (Myrsine pseudocrenata, Vallea stipularis, Nectandra sp., Trichilia hirta, Miconia theaezans, algunas esciófitas que requieren luz en clases avanzadas (Podocarpus glomeratus y Myrcianthes osteomeloides y otros arbustos (Solanaceae, Verbenaceae y otras. Por otra parte, algunas esciófitas reducen su densidad en doseles inter- venidos (Weinmannia microphylla, Condalia weberbaueri, Blepharocalix salicifolius y Styloceras columnare. El manejo del bosque debe mantener la cobertura de individuos > 60 cm DAP, la creación de reservas en bosques maduros y prácticas de facilitación para el crecimiento de especies de árboles claves.

  7. Leishmaniasis in the lowlands of Bolivia, prevalence of the disease in two groups of localities with different settlement ages in Carrasco Tropical, Cochabamba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, H; Torrico, F; Rojas, E; Balderrama, F; Le Ray, D; Guerra, H; Arévalo, J

    1993-01-01

    The invasion of the Bolivian Jungle has brought the new colonists some unfamiliar diseases, among which we study Leishmaniasis. A previous study described the situation in Yapacaní. Departamento of Santa Cruz, a primary rain forest lowland area. We now focus on the characteristics of Carrasco Tropical, close to a hilly territory of the andean mountains. We studied 11 localities ("colonies") grouped as unions with different lengths of residence in the area. We considered males and females over 15 years old as "at risk" and studied in them all forms of leishmanial infection, through clinical and laboratory (smears) means, including the Montenegro Skin Test (IDRM). Cutaneous ulcers and scars were seen in 2.9% (10 patients of 339 at risk, 6 from "27 de octubre", a younger settlement, 4 from the older Tamboradas): mucocutaneous lesions in 3 (1 from the younger settlement); and skin scars alone in 10.3% (35 from the younger area). The only 2 females with positive findings in the study were seen in this latter group. Transmission is apparently associated with the primary forest which exists at the foot of the Andes in the area, which is visited preferentially by young men.

  8. Contaminación Enterobacteriana del Guarapo de una Fábrica de Cochabamba, en Fermentación Normal y Fermentación Flemosa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El guarapo es una bebida alcohólica que sigue la vía de fermentación y un desvío del mismo resulta en guarapo deconsistencia flemosa. La presencia de enterobacterias (entéricas fecales y la E. coli) son indicadores de contaminacióny tienen relación con los grupos tifoide-paratifoide. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la contaminaciónenterobacteriana presente en el guarapo en fermentación normal y en fermentación de consistenciaflemosa en muestras recolectadas en una fábrica de la...

  9. Roger Leonardo Mamani Siñani. “La División de los Valles”: estructura militar, social y étnica de la guerrilla de La Paz y Cochabamba (1814-1817

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Zavala Córdova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 El presente libro se ocupa de un importante tema de la historiografía sobre la participación indígena durante las guerras de independencia: la guerra de guerrillas. Tradicionalmente, la historiografía se ha ocupado de este tema en términos generales o señalando a los indígenas como seguidores irracionales del caudillo del momento. Tomando como fuente principal el Diario de José Santos Vargas,** el trabajo de Mamani se articula en tres ejes principales: la formación y estructura de la guerrilla; los caudillos; y la participación de los indios en la guerrilla. Estos ejes son desarrollados en los capítulos que conforman el libro. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  10. Frecuencia de los factores de riesgo de Cáncer Cervicouterino en mujeres de 14-65 años, Comunidad Ramadas, Provincia Tapacarí-Cochabamba gestión 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Pamela Romero Ledezma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer cervicouterino se puede detectar a través de frotis de Papanicolaou, la causa generalmente es la infección por el virus del papiloma humano. El presente estudio busca identificar la frecuencia de los factores de riesgo de cáncer de cuello uterino en mujeres de 14-65 años en la comunidad de Ramadas. Se realizó un muestreo no probalístico de tipo discrecional, seguridad del 85%; precisión del 3%(0,03; proporción esperada 5%, proporción el valor p=0,5(50%. También se realizó una revisión de los resultados de toma PAP, haciendo un total 218 muestras citológicas. Los resultados mostraron que el: microorganismo más frecuente son cocos bacilos cortos; Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC saludable (63% ; indican tener una sola muestra de PAP (32%, nunca se realizó una muestra de PAP (25%; asitomaticas de ITS (71% ; de factor económico regular (77,3%; mujeres gran multiparas (34%, no saben si tienen antecedente familiar de cáncer uterino (85%; no utiliza ningun método anticonceptivo (70% y solo toman la pildora anticonceptiva (2%, indican que no consume cigarillo y en el mismo porcentaje indican que no presentan múltiples parejas sexuales (99%, tienen su primer embarazo a los 18–22 años de edad (32%. La cobertura de toma de PAP es 21% en la gestión 2011. Por lo tanto se deduce que los factores de riesgos de cáncer cervicouterino antes descritos, son similares a los descritos en la literatura médica.

  11. Tipificación del grupo sanguíneo A B O y el factor Rh en la población de Totora-Cochabamba gestión 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La determinación del grupo sanguíneo y el factor Rh son importantes en el campo de la biología, genética y en la práctica médica por su valor clínico en las transfusiones sanguíneas. Por ello, en la presente investigación se tipificó el grupo sanguíneo de la población de Totora y se analizó su prevalencia tanto en hombres como mujeres.Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal; en una población total de 12 961, del cual se obtuvo una muestra de 175 personas, comprendidas entre la...

  12. Espacios rurales y sociedades campesinas de una región andina

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Lejos de ser homogéneo, el espacio rural boliviano comprende una gran diversidad de paisajes agrarios y de economías agrícolas. En este conjunto, las sociedades campesinas quechuas de la región de Cochabamba ocupan un lugar específico, tanto por su origen sociohistórico como por su economía rural. Las transformaciones económicas, políticas y sociales que han afectado al espacio rural boliviano a partir de los años cincuenta, fueron especialmente intensas en los valles de Cochabamba. Son ejemp...

  13. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 250.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    tigating the extent to which the private sector could be more widely involved in the provision of existing or prop- osed telecommunications ser ...equipment from La Paz to install this rural telecommunications service. [Text] [Cochabamba LOS TIEMPOS in Spanish 12 Oct 82 p 6] 9972 9972 CSO

  14. Adoption and diffusion of natural gas in the small-scale rural industry of Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhout, van Maarten; Engelen, van Donne; Romijn, Henny

    2005-01-01

    The paper portrays the complexity of energy transitions drawing on the experience of the Bolivian National Biomass Programme. The transitions from wood to natural gas systems in the rural stucco and chicha (local beer) industries of Cochabamba serve as case-studies. A broad literature review of dete

  15. The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the marginalization…

  16. The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the…

  17. UNASUR and Its Future Impact on the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-24

    articulos/ wagner_palestra2005.htm (accessed February 10, 2009). 19 Andean Community, “Declaración sobre la Convergencia de los Procesos de Integración en...declaracion_cochabamba.htm (accessed February 17, 2009). 38 Juan Carlos Salinas, “Gobierno iniciará proceso legal contra Perú por TLC”, El Deber, January 19

  18. Leposoma percarinatum (Müller, 1923 (Sauria: Gymnophthalmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinteros Muñoz, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available República de Bolivia, Departamento de Pando, Provincia Federico Román, Reserva de Vida Silvestre Bruno Racua, laguna Tucunaré (9º55'15,43" S, 65º20'37,36" O. Fecha de colección: 05/09/2007. Col.: Oliver Quinteros. Colección de vertebrados del Centro de Biodiversidad y Genética (CBG 356, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Un ejemplar hembra adulta (34,12 mm LHC.

  19. New species and records of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Pérez, Roberto; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-28

    Two new species of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Bolivia are described and illustrated: M. megaphyllus new species (from Comarapa, Santa Cruz and Sehuenca, Cochabamba) and M. yunganus new species (from Mairana and Comarapa, Santa Cruz). In addition, the species Macrodactylus bolivianus Moser, M. gracilis Moser, and M. nobilis Frey are redescribed and illustrated to help facilitate identification of these species. A key to the 10 species of Macrodactylus presently known from Bolivia is provided. 

  20. Attalea blepharopus Mart. (Arecaceae) from Bolivia revisited since Martius

    OpenAIRE

    MORAES, R. M.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Populations in Bolivia of an Attalea Kunth species (Arecaceae) with regularly spaced pinnae were historically assigned to Attalea butyracea (Mutis) Wess. Boer, which also occurs in Colombia, western Venezuela and northern Ecuador. During a recent fieldtrip to the Chapare province in Cochabamba department (central Bolivia), we visited the Yuracare people's territory that Alcide d'Orbigny mentioned as harboring a large and distinct palm, Attalea blepharopus Mart. Based on its morphology, we rec...

  1. History of Bolivian Archaeology: Geraldine Byrne de Caballero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Today the principal archaeological museum of Cochabamba, Bolivia is called the Museo Geraldine Byrne de Caballero. Yet there is surprisingly little information on Byrne de Caballero at the museum, or elsewhere in Bolivian sources. Fortunately, Walter Sánchez Canedo (2006 has written a brief article, providing some more information about her career. Byrne de Caballero investigated and wrote articles on Cochabamba sites, from the formative period up through historical periods. I knew most of the eight journal articles cited for her, but she wrote another five dozen articles for local newspapers. All of these publications, however, were written when she was director of the museum in Cochabamba, from 1972 to 1986, so we lack information on her earlier archaeological contributions. Although publishing in special supplemental newspaper sections has been a well-accepted practice or tradition for informing the public and specialists about Bolivian archaeology, it obviously makes it difficult for the non-Cochabambinos to track down her publications. But at least now with title, newspaper, and date, it may be possible to go back into old local archives and retrieve some of these articles.

  2. Governability and Citizen Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarla de Quiroga

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available bjective conditions that allow for a harmonic relationship between the governors and the governed. We are speaking about a set of conditions for governing by consensus and in harmony. By “citizen participation” we refer to the fact that citizens share in the powerof decision over something that concerns them. In Bolivia, as well in other Latin American countries, citizenship participation in municipal management is a recent phenomena. This article describes the experience of citizenry participation in the municipality ofCochabamba (Bolivia in relation to quality of life and living conditions in a neighborhood. The municipality of Cochabamba has embarked upon a mission of rescue and evaluation of the neighborhood organizations, not only incorporating the population into the processes of participation, but also acting in favor of social integration because this stresses the commitment of the neighborhood citizens in the design of the plans. In conclusion, the unfolding experience in the municipality of Cochabamba makes the fact clear that beyond the concept of governability, the search for a co-government-type relation prevails, one that is more horizontal and equitable and where the population takes on a leading role for bringing about the social cohesion and the sense of belonging needed to face the serious problems that afflict Latin American cities.

  3. LOS COMITÉS DE ÉTICA DE INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMÉDICA Y PSICOSOCIAL EN BOLIVIA OS COMITÊS DE ÉTICA DE PESQUISA BIOMÉDICA E PSICOSSOCIAL NA BOLIVIA BIOMEDICAL AND PSICOSOCIAL SCIENTIFIC ETHICAL REVIEW COMMITTEES IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Zwareva Mashiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reporta un estudio realizado en las ciudades de La Paz, Cochabamba y Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Interesaba saber cuál era la situación de la bioética en Bolivia y cómo se estaba protegiendo a los sujetos de investigación. Luego de revisar algunos conceptos bioéticos, la legislación boliviana y los métodos del estudio se dan a conocer los resultados del mismo, los cuales revelan gran desconocimiento respecto de cómo proteger los derechos de los sujetos, por la casi ausencia o el inadecuado funcionamiento de los comités de ética de la investigación.Este artigo reporta a um estudo realizado nas cidades de La Paz, Cochabamba, e Santa Cruz, na Bolivia. Interessava-se saber qual era a situação da bioética na Bolivia e como se estava protegendo os sujeitos de pesquisa. Ao revisar alguns conceitos bioéticos, a legislação boliviana e os métodos de estudo foi possível identificar os resultados pesquisados; esses revelaram grande desconhecimento a respeito de como garantir os direitos dos sujeitos de pesquisa, por conta da quase ausência e/ou do inadequado funcionamento dos comitês de ética de pesquisa.This article reports a study carried out in the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz in Bolivia. The interest was to know the situation of bioethics in Bolivia and how research subjects are being protected. After revising some bioethical concepts, Bolivian legislation and study methods, results revealed great lack of knowledge on how to protect research subjects, due to the almost absence or inadequate functioning of scientific ethical review committees.

  4. Variations of the External Male Genitalia in Three Populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Herton Helder Rocha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans is the triatomine that presents the greatest dispersion area in South America. However, it is not known whether the original characteristics of this insect remained in its long dispersion process. The purpose of this work was to study comparatively the external male genitalia of insects from different populations of T. infestans, two from Brazil (Minas Gerais and Bahia and one from Bolivia (Cochabamba Valley, and to investigate the correlation between the morphological and behavioral variations. Differences were observed in one of the structures of the external genitalia (endosoma process that could be used to characterize the insects from the three populations studied.

  5. Visiones de fin de siglo

    OpenAIRE

    Acchini, Leonardo Martínez; Alejo, Esteban Ticona; Angulo, Salvador; Berthin, Elizabeth Cécile; Bravo, Carmen Giona; Bravo, María Celia; Burke, Melvin; C., Javier Sanjinés; Campi,Daniel; Canqui, Roberto Choque; Capra, Ana María Seoane de; Contreras, Manuel E.; Coro, Víctor Hugo Quintanilla; Correa, Loreto; Guerrero, Alicia Castellanos

    2016-01-01

    La presente publicación concentra los trabajos presentados por investigadores nacionales y extranjeros en el "Il Encuentro Internacional de Historia. El siglo XX en Bolivia y América Latina. Visiones de fin de siglo", que se realizó en la ciudad de Cochabamba entre el 27 y el 31 de julio de 1998. El encuentro fue organizado por la "Coordinadora de Historia. Investigadores Asociados" y contó con el auspicio del Centro Cultural Portales con sede en esa ciudad, así como con el apoyo de las sigui...

  6. Valor Normal de los Signos Vitales en Adultos de la Provincia Cercado debido a la Altura

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Chacon Baltazar; Andrea Choque Campero; Oscar J. Choquecallata Mamani; Roberth Choquecallata

    2010-01-01

    El siguiente estudio está dirigido a determinar cuáles son los valores normales de la frecuencia cardíaca, frecuencia respiratoria y presión arterial en la población de Cercado, Cochabamba ubicada a 2558 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Se tomó como universo a la población de Cercado y una muestra de 200 personas estratificadas equitativamente por sexo. Se excluyó a personas embarazadas, discapacitadas, menores de 20 años y mayores de 50. Se recolectaron los datos mediante registros de signos v...

  7. Evaluación de la respuesta glucemica post-ingesta de la hoja de coca (Erythroxylum coca) en personas sin antecedente patológico metabólico

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Considerando la veracidad de los beneficios de la hoja de Coca (Erythroxylum coca), este estudio tiene por objetivo evaluar la respuesta glucémica post ingesta de hoja de coca en personas sin previa patología metabólica. La metodología empleada es experimental, tipo ensayo clínico de campo. De una población de 345 personas de laEscuela Militar de Sargentos del Ejército de la ciudad de Cochabamba – Bolivia, se seleccionaron a 90 personas, de sexo masculino entre 18 a 25 años, sin antecedentes ...

  8. Resource Conflicts. Emerging Struggles over Strategic Commodities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    and Inequalities,” 269). 43 Energy Sector Management Assistance Program, Comparative Study on the Distribution of Oil Rents in Bolivia, Colombia ...in José De Echave, et al., Minería y Conflicto Social, Minería y Sociedad (Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Centro de Investigación y Promoción...President but also faced major protests in the western highland cities of El Alto, La Paz , and Cochabamba.141 In response to the hydrocarbon issue

  9. Evaluación de la respuesta glucemica post-ingesta de la hoja de coca (Erythroxylum coca) en personas sin antecedente patológico metabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pedro Erostegui Revilla; Clara Amparo Hurtado Sánchez; Doris Cartagena Triveño

    2013-01-01

    Considerando la veracidad de los beneficios de la hoja de Coca (Erythroxylum coca), este estudio tiene por objetivo evaluar la respuesta glucémica post ingesta de hoja de coca en personas sin previa patología metabólica. La metodología empleada es experimental, tipo ensayo clínico de campo. De una población de 345 personas de laEscuela Militar de Sargentos del Ejército de la ciudad de Cochabamba – Bolivia, se seleccionaron a 90 personas, de sexo masculino entre 18 a 25 años, sin antecedentes ...

  10. Rodent consumption by Philodryas psammophidea (Serpentes: Colubridae, from the inter-andean dry valleys of central Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinteros-Muñoz, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In May 18, 2009 we found an adult female of Philodryas psammophidea (930 mm SVL, at a side of a crop field in the Tabacal valley (18º23'7.42" S – 64º38'7.88" W, 2015 m, Narciso Campero province southern Cochabamba, Bolivia. Ecologically, this valley belongs to the Inter-Andean Dry Forests of Bolivia. In the stomach of the snake probably killed by a settler, there was an adult female of Graomys domorum (Phyllotini; Sigmodontidae, a native rodent species widely distributed in the region.

  11. Concepciones culturales del VIH/Sida de adolescentes de Bolivia, Chile y México

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Margarita Torres López; Carolina Reynaldos Quinteros; Aldo Favio Lozano González; Jazmín Aranzazú Munguía Cortés

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comprender las dimensiones culturales del VIH/Sida deestudiantes adolescentes.MÉTODOS: Estudio antropológico cognitivo. Realizado en Cochabamba(Bolivia), Talca (Chile) y Guadalajara (México) entre 2007 y 2008. Un totalde 184 jóvenes (de 14 y 19 años de edad) fueron seleccionados por muestreopropositivo en centros de estudios de educación media superior de cada país.Fueron utilizadas las técnicas de listados libres y el sorteo de montones. Seindagaron términos asociados al concepto V...

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluación de la investigacion en las XXIV Jornadas de Residencia Médica Regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Cartagena Triveño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con una gran participación se realizó en Cochabamba las XXIV Jornadasde Residencia Médica del 22 al 26 de febrero del 2010, con un total de 116 trabajos puestos en el cronograma, donde cada uno de los médicos residentes tuvo la oportunidad de defender su proyecto.Sin duda la realización de dicho evento tiene como meta no solo preparar a los médicos en lo que corresponde a su formación académica en las distintas especialidades con las que cuentan los hospitales y centros de salud de Cochabamba. Sino también, se busca un desarrollo en el ámbito de la investigación científica, con la realización de trabajos de investigación que se enfocan en el campode la salud en nuestro medio y, porque no decirlo, del país.

  14. Concepciones culturales del VIH/Sida de adolescentes de Bolivia, Chile y México Conceitos culturais sobre o HIV/Aids de adolescentes de Bolívia, Chile e México Cultural conceptions of HIV/AIDS among teenagers in Bolivia, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Margarita Torres López

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comprender las dimensiones culturales del VIH/Sida de estudiantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudio antropológico cognitivo. Realizado en Cochabamba (Bolivia, Talca (Chile y Guadalajara (México entre 2007 y 2008. Un total de 184 jóvenes (de 14 y 19 años de edad fueron seleccionados por muestreo propositivo en centros de estudios de educación media superior de cada país. Fueron utilizadas las técnicas de listados libres y el sorteo de montones. Se indagaron términos asociados al concepto VIH/Sida y grupos de dimensiones conceptuales. Posteriormente se aplicó análisis de consenso mediante factorización de componentes principales y análisis dimensional mediante conglomerados jerárquicos y escalas multidimensionales. RESULTADOS: Las diferencias entre los contextos fueron en el grado de consenso en relación al término de VIH/Sida, ya que fue mayor en Cochabamba. En Talca y Guadalajara los jóvenes mencionaron metáforas de lucha frente a la enfermedad, mientras en Cochabamba se refirieron a la ayuda, apoyo y amor que las personas infectadas deberían recibir. Las coincidencias entre las conceptualizaciones de los jóvenes de los tres países fueron: los riesgos (las prácticas sexuales desprotegidas y el contacto con algunos grupos poblacionales específicos, las consecuencias (muerte física y social, entendida ésta última como el rechazo de la sociedad hacia los enfermos y la prevención de la enfermedad (con base en la información así como uso del condón. CONCLUSIONES: Para los estudiantes adolescentes el VIH/Sida es una enfermedad causada por prácticas sexuales y consumo de drogas que implica daño, dolor y muerte. Los programas preventivos del VIH/Sida para los adolescentes deben promover la búsqueda de información sobre el tema con bases científicas, y no centrarse en las consecuencias emocionales y sociales de la enfermedad.OBJETIVO: Compreender as dimensões culturais do HIV/Aids por estudantes adolescentes. M

  15. Vida cotidiana, ciudadanía y el género de la política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Lagos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo discute relaciones de género en Cochabamba, Bolivia, desde una perspectiva que toma en cuenta los aspectos materiales y culturales de la producción, la política y el Estado. El trabajo se enfoca en las tensiones que las demandas de la vida cotidiana generan al interior de las unidades domésticas y comunidades, para examinar las diversas maneras en que mujeres y hombres responden a ellas. Discute también el papel que juega el Estado en la definición de categorías sociales y de espacios públicos y privados en función del género, y analiza cómo estas prescripciones del Estado interactúan con ideologías y relaciones desiguales de género locales para dar forma al género de la política.O presente ensaio visa discutir as relações de gênero em Cochabamba, na Bolívia, a partir de uma perspectiva que considera os aspectos materiais e culturais da produção, a política e o Estado. O trabalho focaliza nas tensões geradas pelas demandas da vida cotidiana no interior das unidades domésticas e das comunidades, no intuito de checar as diversas maneiras nas quais homens e mulheres ajustam-se a elas. Além disso, procura discutir o papel jogado pelo Estado na definição de categorias sociais e de espaços públicos e privados segundo o gênero. Por último, analiza o modo em que tais prescrições do Estado vinculam-se com ideologias e relações desiguais de gênero locais para configurar o gênero da política.This essay discusses gender relations in rural Cochabamba, Bolivia, from a perspective that takes into account the material and cultural aspects of production, politics, and the State. It focuses on the tensions that the conflicting demands of livelihood generate within households and villages, in order to describe how women and men deal with them as gendered subjects. It also examines the role of the state in defining social categories and in prescribing gendered spheres of public and private practices, and analyzes

  16. Educación y comunicación, una experiencia en la educación formal

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Los contenidos violentos y pornográficos que aparecen en los medios de comunicación ejercen una influencia negativa sobre niños y jóvenes. Esta influencia, según la autora del artículo, se debe a una invasión cultural que se propaga con las nuevas tecnologías y que tiene como consecuencia el fin de la capacidad crítica y la creatividad. Para evitarlo, se ha realizado en la ciudad de Cochabamba un proyecto de formación de profesores que intentará educar a jóvenes y adultos. Este proyecto se ha...

  17. Communitarian water management in Bolivia: The case of Cochabamba’s Comités de Agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Minelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water issues in the post-global world are becoming a priority for the survival of local communities. In order to understand the processes, impact and viable alternatives to water privatization, case-studies such as the model of water governance given by the Comités de Agua of Cochabamba can be of support to the researchers. Comités de Agua is the name attributed to groups providing water and sanitation services in which every service user is also a member and co-owner of the organization. The paper analyzes the structure of this organization taking into consideration the Bolivian policy on water and the peculiar social and political contest of peri-urban areas.

  18. Between crisis, agency and return: the vulnerability of Bolivian migrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Yépez del Castillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the interrelationships between the economic crisis, international migration and the labour market, and their impact on female migration agency, both in the decision to migrate and in the subsequent possibility of return to Bolivia. Based on information collected in a large survey conducted in the city of Cochabamba and the tracing of multiple female migration trajectories, the extreme vulnerability of these women, who are the heads of single-parent households, working in elderly care in Bergamo, is shown. Despite their deteriorating working conditions in the context of current Italian economic crisis and the competition of immigrant care workers from countries of Eastern Europe, they choose to remain in Italy instead of returning to Bolivia.

  19. Science.gov (United States)

    Zwareva Mashiri, Elizabeth C

    2010-06-01

    Este artículo reporta un estudio realizado en las ciudades de La Paz, Cochabamba, y Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Interesaba saber cuál era la situación de la bioética en Bolivia y cómo se estaba protegiendo a los sujetos de investigación.Luego de revisar algunos conceptos bioéticos, la legislación boliviana y los métodos del estudio, se dan a conocer los resultados del mismo, los cuales revelan gran desconocimiento respecto de cómo proteger los derechos de los sujetos, por la casi ausencia o el inadecuado funcionamiento de los comités de ética de la investigación.

  20. LOS COMITÉS DE ÉTICA DE INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMEDICA Y PSICOSOCIAL EN BOLIVIA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwareva Mashiri, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo reporta un estudio realizado en las ciudades de La Paz, Cochabamba, y Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Interesaba saber cuál era la situación de la bioética en Bolivia y cómo se estaba protegiendo a los sujetos de investigación. Luego de revisar algunos conceptos bioéticos, la legislación boliviana y los métodos del estudio, se dan a conocer los resultados del mismo, los cuales revelan gran desconocimiento respecto de cómo proteger los derechos de los sujetos, por la casi ausencia o el inadecuado funcionamiento de los comités de ética de la investigación. PMID:20802822

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly; Monrad, Jesper

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine prevalences and intensities of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites in lamas in the Bolivian Andes. A quantitative and qualitative necro-copro-parasitlogical study was performed on 33 lamas between October and December 2007. At the time of necropsy the......  lamas were aged 1½  to >4 years. They originated from 14 different farms in the most lama dense areas of Bolivia: Oruro, Potosi, La Paz and the highlands above Cochabamba. In total 16 different species of nematodes, one cestode species, one trematode species, and one coccidian genus were detected...... %); in the liver: Fasciola hepatica (12 %); in faeces Eimeria spp. (82 %). Pathological changes in the liver were ascribed to be most probably caused by L. chavezi larva migration. The latter species, considered to be the very most pathogenic of all lama GIT nematode species, was also the species detected...

  2. Sand fly fauna in Chapare, Bolivia: an endemic focus of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Marinely; Diaz, Mery; Espinoza, Jorge; Parrado, Rudy; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth

    2012-09-01

    Data on the distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bolivia is scarce. Sand flies from an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis endemicity in the Isiboro-Secure National Park in the Department of Cochabamba were captured and identified to species. In total, 945 sand flies (789 females and 156 males) belonging to 15 species were collected from the four collection points in two study villages in 2007. With 549 (58.1%) specimens, Lutzomyia shawi was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) sp. (22.2%), Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi (8.3%), Lutzomyia antunesi (4.3%), and Lutzomyia olmeca (2.1%). Abundance and species composition varied between rainy and dry seasons, with 99.3% of all sand flies being collected outdoors. Because of species abundance and confirmed Leishmania infection in previous entomological collections, we believe Lu. shawi is the vector of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in Isiboro-Secure National Park.

  3. Capital social y políticas de Atención Primaria de la Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Pablo BÁSCOLO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la influencia de la configuración del capital social de las políticas de atención primaria de la salud (APS sobre las condiciones de acceso a los servicios de salud. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos múltiples (Cochabamba-Bolivia, Rosario y Vicente López-Argentina retrospectivo (1990-2008. El concepto de capital social fue entendido como el resultado de la relación entre Estado y sociedad. En Rosario se lograron mejoras sustantivas en las condiciones de acceso a partir de la creación de nuevas estructuras en donde profesionales de APS establecieron vínculos de cooperación con actores del Estado municipal, movimientos sociales y gestores y médicos especialistas de hospitales. En Vicente López, las mejoras en las condiciones de acceso a los servicios de salud fueron más limitadas debido a que los cambios en la relación Estado y sociedad solo involucraron a profesionales del primer nivel de atención sin mecanismos de cooperación estables con actores claves de los hospitales, el nivel municipal y los movimientos sociales. Por último, en Cochabamba, las mejoras en las condiciones de acceso fueron marginales debido a que los profesionales del sistema de servicios de salud se opusieron a la alianza establecida entre los movimientos sociales y los actores del Estado municipal para generar cambios en el sistema de salud. Este estudio permite reconocer la influencia de la configuración entre Estado y sociedad para modelar las relaciones de poder que subyacen al proceso de implementación de las reformas del sector salud y sus resultados.

  4. First records of five species of the genus Eleutherodactylus Duméril and Bibron, 1841 (Anura, Leptodactylidae for Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Riva, Ignacio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Five species of the genus Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae are reported from Bolivia for the first time: E. altamazonicus from Departments Pando and La Paz; E. carvalhoi from Cochabamba; and E. ockendeni, E. skydmainos and E. zimmermanae from Pando. New departmental records are provided for other species: E. cruralis for Department Pando, E. danae for Beni and La Paz, E. platydactylus for Beni, E. toftae for Pando and La Paz and E. ventrimarmoratus for La Paz. Currently, 25 species of Eleutherodactylus are known in Bolivia. The taxonomic status of some species remains uncertain, new species are being described and others are still to be discovered. Therefore, the actual number of Bolivian Eleutherodactylus species is still unknown.En este trabajo se publican los primeros registros de cinco especies del género Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae para Bolivia: E. altamazonicus en los Departamentos de Pando y La Paz; E. carvalhoi en Cochabamba; y E. ockendeni, E. skydmainos y E. zimmermanae en Pando. Además, se aportan las primeras citas de E. cruralis para el Departamento de Pando, de E. danae para Beni y La Paz, de E. platydactylus para Beni, de E. toftae para Pando y La Paz y de E. ventrimarmoratus para La Paz. La diversidad conocida de Eleutherodactylus en Bolivia es de 25 especies, aunque los problemas taxonómicos sin resolver, las especies en descripción y el alto número de especies aún no citadas que se considera probable encontrar, hacen que aún desconozcamos la verdadera diversidad de este género en Bolivia.

  5. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    whistling thrush (Myophonus caeruleus turcestanicus, paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi leucogaster and several species of highland finches, including Eurasian crimson-winged finch (Rhodopechys sanguinea, white-winged snowfinch (Montifringilla nivalis alpicola and Brandt's mountain finch (Leucosticte brandti; reptiles – Ophisaurus apodus, Elape dione and Coluber rhodorhachis. 18 Vertebrate and 26 invertebrate species are listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan. In the 90 years of its existence a huge research was carried out and the scientific staff of field biologists, botanists and zoologists were prepared (N.K. Karmysheva, V.V. Shevchenko, F.D. Shaposhnikov, V.D. Utekhin, A.F. Kovshar, A.A. Ivaschenko, B.M. Gubin, Yu.A. Grachyov, etc.. At the same time dozens of expeditions were working on this territory from several scientific institutions – institutes of botany and zoology (Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Leningrad, Kiev, botanical gardens (Moscow, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, All-Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow, All-Union Institute of Pharmacology (Moscow, Institute of Plant Protection (Alma-Ata, Zoological Museum of Moscow State University (Moscow, Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of USSR and many others. As a result from the material collected on the territory of the nature reserve, more than 900 scientific works were published, including 11 issues of Proceedings of the nature reserve, published since 1948 till 2016.

  6. Knodus shinahota (Characiformes: Characidae a new species from the río Shinahota, río Chapare basin (Mamoré system, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Knodus shinahota, new species, is described from río Shinahota, a tributary of the upper rio Mamoré basin, Província de Tiraque, Cochabamba State, Bolivia. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners except K. chapadae and K. geryi by having six rows of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (vs 4 or 5 rows of scales in the other species. Knodus shinahota differs from K. chapadae by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 3½ or 4, respectively and more lateral line scales (38-41 vs 36-38, respectively. It differs from K. geryi by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral-line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 4, respectively; fewer branched anal-fin rays (17-20 vs 15-17, respectively, and by lacking the two symmetric, large, dark, blotches on the basal portions of the caudal-fin lobes that characterize K. geryi.Knodus shinahota, espécie nova, é descrita do río Shinahota, um afluente do alto da bacia do rio Mamoré, Província de Tiraque, Estado de Cochabamba, Bolívia. A espécie nova pode ser distinguida de todas as suas congêneres exceto K. chapadae e K. geryi por ter seis fileiras de escamas entre a linha lateral e a origem da nadadeira dorsal (vs 4 ou 5 fileiras de escamas nas demais espécies. Knodus shinahota difere de K. chapadae por possuir mais fileiras de escamas entre a linha lateral e a origem da nadadeira pélvica (5 vs 3½ ou 4, respectivamente e mais escamas na linha lateral (38-41 vs 36-38, respectivamente. Difere de K. geryi por possuir mais fileiras de escamas entre a linha lateral e a origem da nadadeira pélvica (5 vs 4, respectivamente; menos raios ramificados na nadadeira anal (17-20 vs 15-17, respectivamente, e pela falta das duas grandes manchas escuras, simétricas, basalmente nos lobos da nadadeira caudal que caracteriza K. geryi.

  7. La divergencia genética entre poblaciones del Área Andina Centro Meridional evaluada mediante rasgos no métricos del cráneo

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    Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante más de 10.000 años el Area Andina Centro Meridional proporcionó un escenario ideal para el desarrollo de distintas poblaciones y entidades culturales, interactuando a través de una amplia red de intercambio y distribución de productos. A pesar de este nivel de interacción, la información métrica disponible (Bolivia, Norte de Chile y Noroeste Argentino, reveló un fuerte proceso de divergencia genética (FST = 0.195 entre subregiones (Varela et al., 2008. Esta evidencia es contrastada en el presente trabajo a partir del análisis de una muestra integrada por 1416 individuos de ambos sexos, cubriendo un intervalo de 4.500 años. Se emplearon 12 atributos (rasgos no métricos del cráneo registrados como presencia-ausencia. Las diferencias entre subáreas fueron evaluadas mediante la estadística MMDS y D2 de Mahalanobis calculada a partir de componentes principales. Ambas matrices de distancias fenotípicas presentaron una alta correlación, destacando una significativa diferenciación a nivel regional. La mayor distancia se registra entre el Noroeste Argentino y el Norte de Chile, ocupando Bolivia una posición equidistante entre ambas regiones. Dentro de cada región las muestras están más relacionadas entre si ((Cochabamba, (Puna, Quebrada, Valliserrana y Pampa Grande, (Arica, Pisagua, Norte Semiárido. Hay mayor vinculación entre Cochabamba y el Noroeste Argentino y mayor divergencia entre los grupos de Chile. Se confi rma un modelo de poblamiento a partir de la subdivisión de una población ancestral en dos ramas que ocuparon: una el Norte de Chile y otra el Noroeste Argentino. En cada una de ellas el proceso dispersivo originó varias líneas que se diferenciaron gradualmente hacia el sur, durante la exploración de nuevos ambientes cuya conquista y colonización garantizó la subsistencia de la población.

  8. The herpetological collection from Bolivia in the “Estación Biológica de Doñana” (Spain

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    Padial, J. M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection consists of 822 specimens, of which 529 are amphibians, all of them anurans (5 families, 17 genera and 51 species and 293 specimens are reptiles (10 families, 28 genera and 49 species. The collection has around 25% of the amphibians species known to occur in Bolivia and about 19% of the reptile species. They come from 55 localities of the Bolivian Departments of Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Potosí and Santa Cruz and represent the following bioregions: Puna, Chaco, Chiquitanian Forest, Wet Savannas, Ceja de Montaña, Yungas, Interandean Dry Valleys and Humid Lowland Forest. The specimens of Scinax chiquitanus and Phrynopus kempffi are paratypes. The record of Pleurodema borelli is the first for the Santa Cruz Department and second for Bolivia. Liolaemus dorbignyi also constitutes the second report for the country and Tropidurus melanopleurus is cited for the first time for the Beni Department.

    La colección se compone de 822 ejemplares, 529 anfibios y 293 reptiles. Los anfibios son todos anuros, pertenecientes a 51 especies de 17 géneros y cinco familias. Los reptiles estan representados por 49 especies, incluidas en 28 géneros de 10 familias. Los ejemplares provienen de 55 localidades repartidas en los Departamentos bolivianos de Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Potosí y Santa Cruz, y representan las siguientes bioregiones: Puna, Chaco, Bosque Chiquitano, Sabanas Húmedas, Ceja de Montaña, Yungas, Valles Secos Interandinos y Bosque Húmedo de Llanura. Los ejemplares de Scinax chiquitanus y Phrynopus kempffi son paratipos. Pleurodema borelli es citada por primera vez para el Departamento de Santa Cruz y por segunda vez para Bolivia; también el registro de Liolaemus dorbignyi constituye el segundo para el país y el de Tropidurus melanopleurus el primero para el Departamento Beni.

  9. Reflexiones sobre la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC: la experiencia de un programa de RBC en Bolivia Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR: the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia

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    Urko Díaz-Aristizabal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC es una estrategia de desarrollo comunitario avalada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO, que persigue la rehabilitación, la igualdad de oportunidades y la integración social de las Personas con Discapacidad (PD en sus entornos. Con este objetivo promueve la colaboración entre las PD, sus familias y los diferentes actores de la comunidad involucrados, así como el liderazgo comunitario y la participación de las PD mediante el impulso de la colaboración multisectorial. Este artículo expone los antecedentes históricos y las características fundamentales de la estrategia de RBC a partir de un programa llevado a cabo por una fundación del departamento de Cochabamba (Bolivia, para después incidir en algunos aspectos referentes al contexto sociocultural, que especialmente en situaciones de interculturalidad, pueden determinar que un programa de RBC tenga éxito o esté abocado al fracaso.Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO, the International Labor Office (ILO and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO. It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio

  10. Sphaerionini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae: novos taxons, sinonímia, chaves e nova combinação

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    Ubirajara R Martins

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available New taxa described: Neomallocera, gen. n., type-species, Mallocera opulenta Newman, 1841; Protomallocera, gen. n., type-species, Mallocera hilairei Gounelle, 1908; Championa chemsaki, sp. n. (Mexico: Chiapas; Parasphaerion, gen. n., type-species, P. granulosum, sp. n. (Suriname; Mephritus quadrimaculatus, sp. n. (Bolivia: Cochabamba. M. castaneus, sp. n. (Peru: Pasco; M. fraterculus, sp. n. (Peru: Cajamarca; Nesostizocera suturalis. sp. n. (Peru and Ecuador; Morphaneflus, gen. n., type-species, M. prolixus, sp. n. (Argentina: Salta, Jujuy; Amethysphaerion eximium, sp. n. (Ecuador; A. jocosum, sp. n. (Brazil: Espírito Santo; A. submetallicum, sp. n. (Brazil: Minas Gerais; A. guarani, sp. n. (Paraguay; Aposphaerion punctulatum, sp. n. (Brazil: Amazonas; Pilisphaerion, gen. n., type-species, P. exoticum, sp. n. (Brazil: Pará; Adiposphaerion, gen n., type-species. A. rubrum, sp. n. (Brazil: Amazonas; Minipsyrassa guanabarina, sp. n. (Brazil: Rio de Janeiro; Sphaerioeme, gen. n., type-species, S. rubristerna, sp. n. (Suriname, Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná; Apoclausirion. gen. n., type-species, A. nigricorne (Brazil: Mato Grosso. Mallocera pickeli Melzer, 1931 is considered a synonym of M. simplex White, 1853. Psyrassa trinidadensis Gilmour, 1963 is transferred to the genus Amethysphaerion. Keys to the genera related with Mallocera and to the species of Amethysphaerion are added.

  11. Perception and Interpretation of Climate Change among Quechua Farmers of Bolivia: Indigenous Knowledge as a Resource for Adaptive Capacity

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    Sébastien Boillat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aim to explore how indigenous peoples observe and ascribe meaning to change. The case study involves two Quechua-speaking farmer communities from mountainous areas near Cochabamba, Bolivia. Taking climate change as a starting point, we found that, first, farmers often associate their observations of climate change with other social and environmental changes, such as value change in the community, population growth, out-migration, urbanization, and land degradation. Second, some of the people interpret change as part of a cycle, which includes a belief in the return of some characteristics of ancient or mythological times. Third, environmental change is also perceived as the expression of "extra-human intentionalities," a reaction of natural or spiritual entities that people consider living beings. On the basis of these interpretations of change and their adaptive strategies, we discuss the importance of indigenous knowledge as a component of adaptive capacity. Even in the context of living with modern science and mass media, indigenous patterns of interpreting phenomena tend to be persistent. Our results support the view that indigenous knowledge must be acknowledged as process, emphasizing ways of observing, discussing, and interpreting new information. In this case, indigenous knowledge can help address complex relationships between phenomena, and help design adaptation strategies based on experimentation and knowledge coproduction.

  12. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

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    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  13. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

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    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  14. Emergence and clonal dissemination of carbapenem-hydrolysing OXA-58-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Bolivia.

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    Sevillano, Elena; Fernández, Elena; Bustamante, Zulema; Zabalaga, Silvia; Rosales, Ikerne; Umaran, Adelaida; Gallego, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen and very little information is available regarding its imipenem resistance in Latin American countries such as Bolivia. This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile of 46 clinical strains from different hospitals in Cochabamba, Bolivia, from March 2008 to July 2009, and the presence of carbapenemases as a mechanism of resistance to imipenem. Isolates were obtained from 46 patients (one isolate per patient; 30 males,16 females) with an age range of 1 day to 84 years, and were collected from different sample types, the majority from respiratory tract infections (17) and wounds (13). Resistance to imipenem was detected in 15 isolates collected from different hospitals of the city. These isolates grouped into the same genotype, named A, and were resistant to all antibiotics tested including imipenem, with susceptibility only to colistin. Experiments to detect carbapenemases revealed the presence of the OXA-58 carbapenemase. Further analysis revealed the location of the bla(OXA-58) gene on a 40 kb plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii isolates from Bolivia that is conferred by the OXA-58 carbapenemase. The presence of this gene in a multidrug-resistant clone and its location within a plasmid is of great concern with regard to the spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in the hospital environment in Bolivia.

  15. Valor Normal de los Signos Vitales en Adultos de la Provincia Cercado debido a la Altura

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    Orlando Chacon Baltazar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente estudio está dirigido a determinar cuáles son los valores normales de la frecuencia cardíaca, frecuencia respiratoria y presión arterial en la población de Cercado, Cochabamba ubicada a 2558 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Se tomó como universo a la población de Cercado y una muestra de 200 personas estratificadas equitativamente por sexo. Se excluyó a personas embarazadas, discapacitadas, menores de 20 años y mayores de 50. Se recolectaron los datos mediante registros de signos vitales durante siete días consecutivos en puntos de concurrencia masiva. Se usaron estetoscopios y esfigmomanómetros aneroides debidamente calibrados. Los resultados fueron analizados por sexo y revelaron que la frecuencia cardíaca no muestra cambios importantes. La presiónarterial mostró una disminución en mujeres, en tanto que en los hombres es normal. La frecuencia respiratoria se halla elevada en ambos sexos aunque con ligeras diferencias. En conclusión, esta altitud tiene ligero efecto sobre la presión arterial y la respiración.

  16. Knodus shinahota (Characiformes: Characidae a new species from the río Shinahota, río Chapare basin (Mamoré system, Bolivia

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    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Knodus shinahota, new species, is described from río Shinahota, a tributary of the upper rio Mamoré basin, Província de Tiraque, Cochabamba State, Bolivia. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners except K. chapadae and K. geryi by having six rows of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (vs 4 or 5 rows of scales in the other species. Knodus shinahota differs from K. chapadae by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 3½ or 4, respectively and more lateral line scales (38-41 vs 36-38, respectively. It differs from K. geryi by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral-line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 4, respectively; fewer branched anal-fin rays (17-20 vs 15-17, respectively, and by lacking the two symmetric, large, dark, blotches on the basal portions of the caudal-fin lobes that characterize K. geryi.

  17. Universalismo y particularismo: repensando el derecho humano al agua en el caso boliviano

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    Amalia Salgado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Se propone usar el caso del agua para examinar los desafíos que enfrenta el ejercicio de los derechos, así como las cuestiones de aplicabilidad y justicia, particularmente lo referido a los derechos humanos. Se retomará la experiencia de Bolivia para analizar lo referente a la defensa de los derechos comunitarios de agua en Cochabamba, cuya defensa elucidó cuestiones sobre la desigual distribución de recursos enmarcados en políticas neoliberales. Con el análisis de esta experiencia, se espera discutir teóricamente sobre las tensiones existentes entre los derechos comunitarios, colectivos e individuales relacionados con el derecho humano al agua. Por lo que se hará una revisión sobre cuestiones relacionadas al universalismo y particularismo: repensando el derecho humano al agua en el ejemplo Boliviano; así como los Derechos colectivos, derechos comunitarios y derechos individuales a la luz de los nuevos enfoques de ciudadanía.

  18. [Megacolon and sigmoid volvulus: incidence and physiopathology].

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    Saravia Burgos, Jaime; Acosta Canedo, Abel

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of Megacolon is multiple. One of these causes and the most frequent is Chagas disease. Its complication: sigmoid volvulus was de main diagnosis in the admitted patients at the Bolivian and Japanese Gastroenterological Institute of Cochabamba Bolivia. It usually affects people of a low economic income. In this Gastroenterological Hospital a transversal and prospective study has been done, in order to know the real incidence and the physiopathology of this disease. In a six year period, from 2000 to 2006, 8.954 patients were admitted to the Hospital: of these, 814 (9.09%), where diagnosticated as lower intestinal obstruction. In 608 (74.7%) the final diagnosis was sigmoid torsion. Radiological diagnosis was made in 84% of the patients and endoscopic decompression was successful in 88.7%. As reported in the medical literature, the main cause of megacolon in this part of the world is Chagas disease. In our investigation 22% (98 patients), were serology positive to Chagas disease, and another 21.44% (95 patients) were serology negative. They were coca leaf chewers. One of coca leaf compounds is cocaine which blocks the adrenaline and noradrenaline degradation by mean of monoamine oxidase inactivation. These two hormones stay a long term of time in the target organ: the large bowel. By this mean chronic and persistent vessel constriction develops intestinal wall atrophy and lower resistance to the intraintestinal pressure.

  19. Phlébotomes de Bolivie: VII. Répartition des deux morphotypes du phlébotome lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae dans le piémont andin de Bolivie

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    Francois Le Pont

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Deux morphotypes de Lytzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 ont été décrits au Brésil, l'un avec une seule paire de taches tergales, l'autre avec deux paires de taches. Ce caractère est propre aux mâles. En Bolivie, la forme à une tache existe seule dans le foyer de leishmaniose viscérale des Yungas (alt. 1000-2000 m dans l'envirionnement péridomicilliaire; c'est le vecteur confirmé de cette maladie. Le second morphotype à deux taches a été récemment découvert sous le porche de grottes dans le région de Cochabamba (alt. 2700 m; il était absent dans et autour des habitations de cette région, où la leishmaniose vicérale est inconnue. Les deux morphotypes de Lu. longipalpis ont, en Bolivie, une distribution allopatrique, et leurs écologies respectives sont très différentes.

  20. VALORACIÓN ECONÓMICA DE BIENES AMBIENTALES POR BENEFICIARIOS CIRCUNDANTES Y NO CIRCUNDANTES

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    Mauricio G Villena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La pregunta básica de investigación detrás de este trabajo es cómo difiere la valoración económica de un bien ambiental considerando beneficiarios circundantes (quienes viven cerca del bien en cuestión y no circundantes (quienes habitando el país donde se encuentra el bien, viven en poblaciones distantes y por tanto disfrutan esporádicamente de los beneficios provistos por el bien ambiental. En particular, en este documento se valora económicamente el Bosque de Algarrobos de la comunidad de Tiataco (Bolivia, realizando un análisis comparativo entre beneficiarios circundantes (familias residentes en la comunidad de Tiataco y beneficiarios no circundantes (familias residentes en la ciudad de Cochabamba, a 35 Km de Tiataco, a través del Método de Valoración Contingente con formato binario. Se estimaron medidas de cambio en el bienestar para ambos grupos, empleando estimaciones paramétricas y no paramétricas. Posteriormente, estas medidas se compararon estadísticamente por medio de la construcción de intervalos de confianza (entre estimaciones paramétricas y no paramétricas de cada población y entre ambas poblaciones. Por último, se identificaron los componentes del valor económico total que los beneficiarios tanto circundantes como no circundantes asignaron al bosque.

  1. Miasis en paciente con Carcinoma Basocelular

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    Dr. Hugo Pérez Vedia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de sexo masculino, de 71 años de edad, proveniente de la provincia Chapare, Cochabamba, es remitido por sus familiares al servicio de Infectologíadel Hospital Obrero Nº2 Caja Nacional de Salud, tras presentar cuadro clínico de varios días de evolución, caracterizado por lesión ulcerada de bordes irregulares, con secreciónserosanguinolenta localizada en hemicara derecha, con extensión a tejidos profundos y destrucción ósea con pérdida del pabellón auricular derecho,destrucción de la fosa nasal derecha, exposición de globo ocular por destrucción de tejido,destrucción del paladar duro y blando del lado derecho, lengua saburral, faringe hiperémica,acompañado de dolor intenso y signos de un procesoinfeccioso-inflamatorio en la zona, además de presentar larvas en dicha lesión, y antecedentes de carcinoma basocelular de 20 añosde evolución.

  2. Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Nélida; Quispe, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Giménez, Alberto; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) and NMR analysis. TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic-rich and triterpene-rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic-rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene-rich propolis were weakly active. High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Anti-Neoliberal Struggles in the 21st Century: Gramsci Revised

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    Rebeca Jasso-Aguilar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of neoliberalism in the past three decades suggests the capacity of capitalism to adapt and restructure itself in periods of crisis and to curb progressive movements that threaten its hegemony. Yet social movements that challenge neoliberalism continue to emerge, sending hopeful signs of its potential demise by ushering in progressive governments that often appear to fall short of expectations. Building off the growing body of research that utilizes Gramscian theory to categorize neoliberalism as a passive revolution, I examine the concept of anti-passive revolution with empirical data to propose a theory of resistance against neoliberalism. The empirical data comes from two movements against neoliberalism: the coalition that challenged the privatization of water in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2000; and, the movement that challenged the results of the Mexican presidential election in 2006. By examining the trajectories of these movements over a timespan of several years, I identify the empirical conditions for a theory of anti-passive revolution, and the potential for such processes to challenge the hegemony of the passive revolution represented by neoliberalism

  4. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

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    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  5. Notas sinonímicas sobre Hesperiidae neotropicais, com descrições de novos gêneros, espécies e subespécies (Lepidoptera

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    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. de La Mercede e Rio Colorado, Peru e Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Artines tobiasi sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. do Maranhão, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. do Espirito Santo, Brasil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. de Minas Geras, Brasil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. de Minas Gerais e Espirito Santo, Brasil; Vettius ploetzii morretesi, ssp. n. do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Propapias, gen. n., tipo: Rhinthon proximus Bell, 1934, única espécie incluída. Celaenorrhinus songoensis saroma Evans, 1952, comb. n.; Celaenorrhinus songoensis tonio Evans, 1952, comb. n. Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883, comb. n. e sp. rev. Lerema duroca lenta Evans, 1955, stat. n. Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937, comb. n. e stat. n., Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936, comb. n. e stat. n., Phocides zancleius 1932 syn. n. de Phocides pialia (Hewitson, 1857; Dalla eburones elna Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937; Staphylus holaphegges Dyar, 1913 syn. n. de Eprius veleda veleda (Godman, 1901; Eprius veleda palta Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936; Lerema elgina Schaus, 1902 syn. n. de Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883. Dalla Mabille, 1904 syn. n. de Eumesia Felder &. Felder, 1867, n. rev, Eumesiinae Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev.Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. from La Merced and Rio Colorado, Peru, and Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Artines tobiasi, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. from Maranhão, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. from Espírito Santo, Brazil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. from

  6. Novos táxons e novo registro em Hemilophini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae New taxa and new record of Hemilophini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas e ilustradas: Adesmus nigrolineatus sp. nov. do México (Oaxaca. Da Costa Rica: A. moruna sp. nov. (Heredia; Corcovado bezarki sp. nov. (Guanacaste; Alampyris fuscus sp. nov. (Guanacaste, Cariua gen. nov. espécie-tipo C. sulphurea sp. nov., (Guanacaste. Da Bolívia: Phoebemima albomaculata sp. nov. (Cochabamba; Ipepo gen. nov. espécie-tipo I. dilatatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz. Do Brasil: Adesmus facetus sp. nov. e Canarana arguta sp. nov. (Rondônia. É acrescentado novo registro na Costa Rica para Piruanycha pitilla Galileo & Martins, 2005. As três espécies novas de Adesmus distinguem-se: A. nigrolineatus sp. nov. pelas faixas longitudinais de tegumento preto nos élitros; A. moruna sp. nov. pelos élitros inteiramente pretos; A. facetus pelas faixas oblíquas de pubescência branca após o meio dos élitros além das manchas do quarto apical e das epipleuras. Phoebemima albomaculata sp. nov. caracteriza-se pela mancha basal de pubescência branca dos élitros estendendo-se sobre a sutura. Corcovado bezarki sp. nov. distingue-se pelo escapo preto e antenômeros esbranquiçados. Canarana arguta sp. nov. tem o protórax e os urosternitos I a IV cobertos por densa pubescência amarelada. Alampyris fusca sp. nov. difere de A. cretaria principalmente pelo antenômero III mais longo que o escapo. Cariua sulphurea sp. nov. separa-se pela presença de urosternitos revestidos por pubescência branca compacta e Ipepo dilatatus sp. nov. caracteriza-se pelos élitros tri-carenados.New species described and illustrated: Adesmus nigrolineatus sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca. From Costa Rica: A. moruna sp. nov. (Heredia; Corcovado bezarki sp. nov. (Guanacaste; Alampyris fuscus sp. nov. (Guanacaste, Cariua gen. nov. type species C. sulphurea sp. nov. (Guanacaste. From Bolivia: Phoebemima albomaculata sp. nov. (Cochabamba; Ipepo gen. nov. type species I. dilatatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz. From Brazil: Adesmus facetus sp. nov. and Canarana

  7. Further Studies of Bolivian Crocidolite –Part IV: Fibre Width, Fibre Drift and their relation to Mesothelioma Induction: Preliminary Findings

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    Edward B Ilgren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe hypothesis that fibre width is a major determinant of mesothelioma induction has been examined by comparative studies of two crocidolites from different sources. Fine fibres fromCapesouthAfricaand the thicker fibre found and used similarly inBolivia. It is well established that ‘thin’ fibre crocidolite fromCapeSouth Africais extremely mesotheliomagenic. Bolivian crocidolite has a much wider width distribution and relatively little mesothelioma inducing potential. MethodsWe analysed the mesothelioma demography inBoliviawhere local crocidolite has been used for decades This was compared with the mesothelioma demography in theItalianCityof Casale Monteferrato whereCapecrocidolite was processed for many decades in the Eternit Asbestos Cement plant producing numerous cases of mesothelioma.We also conducted a limited downwind study from the fiberizing part of the historical operating plant where products containing Bolivian crocidolite were made for sale and use inCochabamba. ResultsThe demographic study confirmed the absence of a significant mesothelioma excess inBolivia.Despite the extremely high fibre concentrations measured in the plant, no significant fibre levels were detected 100 meters away. Conclusion These preliminary findings undermine claims such as those made at Casale that crocidolite fibre can drift up to 15 km and remain airborne in quantities sufficient to contribute significantly to mesothelioma induction. We propose the difference in thickness and the attendant reduction in the percentage ofStantonfibres provides an explanation for the difference in mesothelioma patterns found in each city.

  8. Water privatization and public health in Latin America.

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    Mulreany, John P; Calikoglu, Sule; Ruiz, Sonia; Sapsin, Jason W

    2006-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to determine what the public health and development literature has found regarding the public health outcomes of water privatization in Latin America and (2) to evaluate whether the benefits of water privatization, if any, outweigh the equity and justice concerns that privatization raises. Using a standard set of terms to search several databases, the authors identified and reviewed articles and other materials from public health and development sources that were published between 1995 and 2005 and that evaluated the public health effects of water privatizations in Latin America from 1989 to 2000, based on (1) access to water by the poor and/or (2) improvements in public health. Next, the authors examined the experiences of three cities in Bolivia (Cochabamba, El Alto, and La Paz) in order to illuminate further the challenges of water privatization. Finally, the authors considered the equity and justice issues raised by the privatization of water. The literature review raised persistent concerns regarding access to water by the poor under privatization. The review also suggested that the public sector could deliver public health outcomes comparable to those of the private sector, as measured by access rates and decreasing child mortality rates. In terms of social equity and justice, privatization marked a troubling shift away from the conception of water as a "social good" and toward the conception of water--and water management services--as commodities. Our results indicated there is no compelling case for privatizing existing public water utilities based on public health grounds. From the perspective of equity and justice, water privatization may encourage a minimalist conception of social responsibility for public health that may hinder the development of public health capacities in the long run.

  9. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of climatic shifts on the production and processing of native and traditional crops in the Bolivian Andes

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    Alder eKeleman Saxena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data was collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed-methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes a the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia; and b the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp., oca (Oxalis tuberosa, tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis, papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus, and charkay (llama or sheep jerky. Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Further, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. While these findings are drawn from a single case-study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, indigenous food systems. Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture, and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  10. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of Climatic Shifts on the Production and Processing of Native and Traditional Crops in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleman Saxena, Alder; Cadima Fuentes, Ximena; Gonzales Herbas, Rhimer; Humphries, Debbie L

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes (a) the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia and (b) the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis), papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus), and charke (llama or sheep jerky). Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, and the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Furthermore, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. Although these findings are drawn from a single case study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, "indigenous food systems." Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  11. HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation: a systematic review.

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    Noreña-Herrera, Camilo; Rojas, Carlos Alberto; Cruz-Jiménez, Lizeth

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this review was to describe HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, and the studies' characteristics in terms of place, time, population, and sample design. This was a systematic review, not a meta-analysis, based on an article search in 10 electronic databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, OVID, LILACS, Wiley InterScience, MD Consult, Springer Link, Embase, Web of Science, and Ebsco. A complementary search was also performed in the libraries of schools of public health and webpages of U.N. agencies, besides the reference lists from the selected articles. We selected observational studies focused on children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, ranging in age from 10 to 20 years, with the results for HIV prevalence rates. A total of 9,829 references were retrieved, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria and comprise this descriptive summary. Of these 15 articles, 12 were conducted in children and youth living on the street and three in children subject to commercial sexual exploitation. All 15 were cross-sectional studies. HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street ranged from 0% in Dallas, USA and Cochabamba, Bolivia to 37.4% in St. Petersburg, Russia. In children and youth living subject to commercial sexual exploitation, prevalence ranged from 2% in Toronto, Canada to 20% in Kolkata, India. In conclusion, HIV infection is present in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation. Measures are needed for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment as a public health priority and an ethical responsibility on the part of governments and society.

  12. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

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    Patricia V Aguilar

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of <7 days duration were enrolled in the study and blood samples were obtained from each patient and assayed by virus isolation. Demographic and clinical information from each patient was also obtained at the time of voluntary enrollment. In 2005-2007, cases of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE were diagnosed for the first time in residents of Bolivia; the patients did not report traveling, suggesting endemic circulation of VEEV in Bolivia. In 2001 and 2003, VEE cases were also identified in Ecuador. Since 1993, VEEV has been continuously isolated from patients in Loreto, Peru, and more recently (2005, in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  13. Evaluation of a residential nutrition rehabilitation center in rural Bolivia: short-term effectiveness and follow-up results.

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    Forney, Kristen M; Polansky, Lauren S; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Huamani, Katherine Foy; Mues, Katherine E; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Leon, Juan S

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) have shown mixed results in reducing morbidity and mortality among undernourished children in the developing world. Follow-up on children after leaving these programs remains undocumented. To assess the nutritional improvement of children attending the Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Nutricional (CRIN), a residential NRC in rural Bolivia, from entrance to exit and to a household follow-up visit 1 month to 6 years later, and to identify factors associated with nutritional improvement. A retrospective analysis was conducted of clinical records collected by CRIN staff from 135 children under 3 years of age attending CRIN in rural Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 2003 to 2009, and of clinical records of household follow-up measurements on a subset of 26 children that were taken between 1 month and 6 years postexit. Nutritional status was evaluated by calculating z-scores for weight-for-height (WHZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and height-for-age (HAZ). Children with z-scores < -2 were considered to be wasted, underweight, or stunted, respectively. The prevalence of wasting decreased significantly, while the prevalence of stunting did not change significantly between entrance and exit from the program. From entrance to exit, the mean changes in WHZ (0.79) and WAZ (1.08) were statistically significant, while the mean change in HAZ (-0.02) was not significant. Linear regression analysis suggested that nutritional status and diarrhea at entrance had the greatest effect on WHZ and HAZ changes between entrance and exit. Children maintained their nutritional gains from the program between exit and follow-up and showed statistically significant improvement in WAZ (but not HAZ). CRIN is effective at rehabilitating nutritional deficits associated with wasting, but not those associated with stunting.

  14. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

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    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH

  15. Evaluación de la respuesta glucemica post-ingesta de la hoja de coca (Erythroxylum coca en personas sin antecedente patológico metabólico

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    Carlos Pedro Erostegui Revilla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la veracidad de los beneficios de la hoja de Coca (Erythroxylum coca, este estudio tiene por objetivo evaluar la respuesta glucémica post ingesta de hoja de coca en personas sin previa patología metabólica. La metodología empleada es experimental, tipo ensayo clínico de campo. De una población de 345 personas de laEscuela Militar de Sargentos del Ejército de la ciudad de Cochabamba – Bolivia, se seleccionaron a 90 personas, de sexo masculino entre 18 a 25 años, sin antecedentes personales patológicos, con índices antropométricos normalesy glucemia en ayunas de 60 a 100 mg/dl. La muestra se dividió en un grupo control, un grupo post-ingesta de mate de 5 gr. de hoja de coca y otro grupo post-masticación de 5 gr. de hoja de coca, durante una prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa, evaluada por la toma glucemia capilar en ayunas y dos horas postprandial. Se analizaron:el promedio, desviación estándar y prueba t student. Los resultados más relevantes fueron: Glucemia postprandial del grupo control 100,4 (±11,9 mg/dl. Y (p=2,129, en el grupo de mate de coca 81,8 (±7,5 mg/dl y (p=0,003, y en el grupo de masticación de hoja de coca 82,07 (± 8,8 mg/dl y (p=0,082. Se concluye que la hoja de coca (Erythroxylum coca reduce la glucemia postprandial en este grupo, siendo estadísticamente significativa en las dos formas de consumo mate y masticación en comparación que el grupo control.

  16. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-12-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes

  17. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual

  18. [Endemic level of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the areas of maternal residence and the development of congenital Chagas disease in Bolivia].

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    Torrico, Faustino; Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Suarez, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Patricia; Torrico, Mary-Cruz; Dramaix, Michele; Truyens, Carine; Carlier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    In Bolivia, the prevalence of infection by T. cruzi in women in fertile age can vary between 20 and 60%. The present study made in the Maternity Germin Urquidi of Cochabamba - Bolivia, it has demonstrated, that 19.9% of the mothers who go to this hospitable center to be taken care of in the childbirth, they are carrying of the infection and that 4,6% of them, they are going to transmit, by transplacentaria route, the infection to its babies. Of the 71 children born with congenital Chagas, only 47,8 % present/display some type of alteration or of development(Apgar to 1 minute low, BPN, prematuridad, pathological dismadurez) or signs (SDR, hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia, neurological signs, cardiomegalia, anasarca, petequias). When investigating the effect of the differences in the vectorial density (low, medium and high) of the zone of maternal residence, on the transmission of the infection of the mother infected to the fetus, we concluded that the rate of transmission of the congenital infection of T. cruzi is not modified by the level of endemicidad of the zone of maternal residence. By another infected new born sides whose mothers reside in zones of high endemicidad present/display, most frequently and of significant way, Apgar to 1 minute prematuridad or an association of these alterations with respiratory syndrome of distress or anasarca, when one compares them with new born of resident mothers in the zones of loss or medium endemicidad, mortality in this group is greater. These results suggest calls to account it of the mothers, in areas of high endemicidad, she is associate with a serious increase in the risk of Disease of newborn severe and mortal congenital Chagas in.

  19. Prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en mujeres embarazadas del Centro de Salud Jaihuayco Julio-Septiembre 2012

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    Ana Gilca Santander Lopez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las parasitosis intestinales afectan de manera especial a poblaciones con bajos recursos económicos, con una alta prevalencia en países en vías de desarrollo, probablemente debido a la falta educación (higiene o de manipulación de alimentos, poca accesibilidad a recursos básicos (agua potable, alcantarillado, etc. y la pobreza. Los extremosde vida como niños y ancianos, al igual que las mujeres embarazadas son grupos poblacionales vulnerables a las parasitosis, siendo importante la repercusión en la salud de cada uno de estos grupos poblacionales pero, en este caso nos centraremos en los efectos negativos que traen consigo estas enfermedades en las mujeres embarazadas (anemia, desnutrición, niños con bajo peso al nacer, etc.Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, el universo fue de 111 mujeres embarazadas que acudieron a consulta del Centro de Salud Jaihuayco ubicado en la zona sud de la ciudad de Cochabamba – Bolivia; se encontró que 25 mujeres de las 111 mujeres embarazadas tenían parasitosis intestinal determinando una prevalenciade 22,5%. Los parásitos más frecuentes hallados fueron: Entamoeba histolitica/coli con 15,3% y Giardia lamblia con 3,6%; de las 25 mujeres con parasitosis; 10 presentaron anemia, a pesar de que en su visita de control se les proporciono las tabletas de hierro para evitar la anemia producida por su estado fisiológico.

  20. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

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    Lina Jaruseviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to

  1. Antibacterial and leishmanicidal activity of Bolivian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, N; Lima, B; Feresin, G E; Giménez, A; Salamanca Capusiri, E; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G

    2016-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Bolivian propolis was assessed for the first time on a panel of bacteria and two endemic parasitic protozoa. Ten samples of Bolivian propolis and their main constituents were tested using the micro-broth dilution method against 11 bacterial pathogenic strains as well as against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. braziliensis using the XTT-based colorimetric method. The methanolic extracts showed antibacterial effect ranging from inactive (MICs > 1000 μg ml(-1) ) to low (MICs 250-1000 μg ml(-1) ), moderate (62·5-125 μg ml(-1) ) and high antibacterial activity (MIC 31·2 μg ml(-1) ), according to the collection place and chemical composition. The most active samples towards Leishmania species were from Cochabamba and Tarija, with IC50 values of 12·1 and 7·8, 8·0 and 10·9 μg ml(-1) against L. amazonensis and Leishmania brasiliensis respectively. The results show that the best antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect was observed for some phenolic-rich propolis. Propolis is used in Bolivia as an antimicrobial agent. Bolivian propolis from the main production areas was assessed for antibacterial and leishmanicidal effect and the results were compared with the propolis chemical composition. The active antibacterial propolis samples were phenolic-rich while those containing mainly triterpenes were devoid of activity or weakly active. A similar picture was obtained for the effect on Leishmania, with better effect for the phenolic-rich samples. As propolis is used for the same purposes regardless of the production area and composition, our findings indicate the need for the standardization of this natural product as antimicrobial. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Conocimiento sobre Lactancia Materna en Madres de los Centros de Salud Pacata y Jaihuayco del 2008 al 2009

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    Alvaro Ulunque Unzueta

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad evaluar el conocimiento sobre lactancia materna en los Centros de Salud de Tupuraya y Jaihuayco (por conveniencia, porque la leche materna es el alimento ideal para promover el desarrollo y crecimiento neonatal durante los primeros 4 a 6 meses de vida.Es un estudio descriptivo, transversal cuantitativo donde a través de encuestas se estudió a una muestra total de 40 madres, 17 madres que asistieron al Centro de Salud Tupuraya durante los meses de Agosto y Septiembre del año 2008 y 23 madres que asistieron al Centro de Salud Jaihuayco durante los meses de Agosto y Septiembredel año 2009. Algunos resultados relevantes obtenidos en las madres encuestadas muestran que el 45% no conocen el tiempo exclusivo de lactancia materna, el 40% dan LM junto con leche de vaca y/o leche artificial durante el tiempo exclusivo de lactancia, el 57,5% consumen bebidas alcohólicas durante el período de lactancia y el 30% sufren de complicaciones clínicas en la glándula mamaria durante el período de lactancia. El conocimiento sobre lactancia materna que tienen las madres es insuficiente e inadecuado, por lo que el presente trabajo en base a los resultados encontrados propone realizar estudios sobre conocimiento para ver si es conveniente elaborar un programa de capacitación sobre lactancia en madres que asistan a distintos hospitales o centros de salud en Cochabamba por estudiantes que cursen el 1er y 2do año académico en la carrera de medicina en las materias de Medicina Social y Preventiva.

  3. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

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    Sara De Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender

  4. Adaptation of indeterminate tomato hybrids [Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.] under greenhouse conditions

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    Gabriel Julio

    2016-08-01

    (round, Centenario and Policarpo (Pears, which are now commercially that, are taking place in the greenhouses of El Paso in Cochabamba was achieved.

  5. Generic classification of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), with a revision of Antrops Enderlein, Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kits, Joel H; Marshall, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    The Archiborborinae comprise a diverse clade of flies in the family Sphaeroceridae. We here revise the generic classification, redefining the genus Antrops Enderlein and naming 5 new genera: Boreantrops gen. nov., Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov. The genus Archiborborus, until recently a paraphyletic assemblage including most of the described species in the subfamily, is treated as a junior synonym of Antrops (syn. nov.) We revise the genera Antrops (53 species, including 40 sp. nov.: Antrops anovariegatus, Antrops aurantifemur, Antrops baeza, Antrops bellavista, Antrops biflavus, Antrops bucki, Antrops carpishensis, Antrops cochabamba, Antrops cochinoca, Antrops coniobaptos, Antrops coroico, Antrops cotopaxi, Antrops didactylos, Antrops diversipennis, Antrops eurus, Antrops fulgiceps, Antrops fuliginosus, Antrops guandera, Antrops guaramacalensis, Antrops inca, Antrops juninensis, Antrops mucarensis, Antrops niger, Antrops papallacta, Antrops pecki, Antrops podocarpus, Antrops quadrilobus, Antrops siberia, Antrops sierrazulensis, Antrops tachira, Antrops tequendama, Antrops tetrastichus, Antrops tumbrensis, Antrops unduavi, Antrops variegatus, Antrops versabilis, Antrops vittatus, Antrops yungas, and Antrops zongo and the following comb. nov.: Antrops annulatus (Richards), Antrops chaetosus (Richards), Antrops femoralis (Blanchard), Antrops hirtus (Bigot), Antrops maculipennis (Duda), Antrops maximus (Richards), Antrops microphthalmus (Richards), Antrops quadrinotus (Bigot), Antrops setosus (Duda), Antrops simplicimanus (Richards), Antrops nitidicollis (Becker), and Antrops orbitalis (Duda)), Coloantrops (1 species: Coloantrops daedalus, sp. nov.), Maculantrops (2 species, Maculantrops hirtipes (Macquart) comb. nov. and Maculantrops altiplanus, sp. nov.), Photoantrops (1 species: Pho-toantrops echinus sp. nov.), and Poecilantrops (10 species: Poecilantrops baorucensis, Poecilantrops boraceiensis

  6. Miocardiopatía Chagásica con taquicardia ventricular: Hospital Obrero Nº 2 “Caja Nacional de Salud”

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    Dr. Raúl Arnez Terrazas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La miocardiopatía chagásica es la inflamación del músculo cardiaco producida por el Trypanosoma cruzi. Los parásitos que se encuentran en los excrementos de la vinchuca (Tripanosoma infestans son transmitidos al organismo luego de la alimentación del vector. Afecta varias áreas del organismo humano como son los nervios periféricos y las paredes del intestino grueso entre otros, sin embargo el corazón es uno de los órganos que con mayor frecuencia es afectado una vez producida la infección. Otros mecanismos de infección son a través de transfusiones de sangre contaminada y por medio de la placenta al feto. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años transferido del policlínico Nº 32 de la ciudad de Cochabamba con el diagnóstico de Insuficiencia Cardiaca Congestiva y bradicardia sinusal: El diagnóstico de bradicardia sinusal se realizó hace 2 años, donde se le propuso al paciente un implante de marcapasos, que este no realizó. Ingresó a salas de unidad de terapia intensiva con el diagnóstico de admisión de síndrome de taquicardia – bradicardia con antecedente de miocardiopatía chagásica. Al examen físico paciente presenta disnea, mareos y palpitaciones. Durante su internación el paciente presenta episodios de taquicardia sinusal de hasta 150 latidos por minuto y bradicardias sistólicas hasta 30 latidos por minuto, taquicardia ventricular y fibrilación auricular por lo que se considera como diagnóstico: miocardiopatía chagásica con taquicardia ventricular. Se decide implantar un marcapaso temporal y luego definitivo, se decide descontinuar la dosis de amiodarona, a la auscultación se presenta ritmo regular sin ruidos sobre agregados.

  7. Landscape processes, effects and the consequences of migration in their management at the Jatún Mayu watershed (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna; Jaquet, Stephanie; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Kaenzig, Raoul; Schwilch, Gudrun; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Liniger, Hanspeter; Machaca, Angelica; Cuba, Edgar; Boillat, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    Bolivia has a large rural population, mostly composed of subsistence farmers that face natural and anthropogenic driven processes affecting their livelihoods. In order to establish sustainable management strategies, it is important to understand the factors governing landscape changes. This work explores the geomorphic imprint and effects of natural and anthropogenic driven processes on three mountain communities undergoing de-population in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia). Based on satellite image interpretation, field work and household surveys, we have identified gullies and landslides as main active processes, causing land losses, affecting inter-communal roads, etc. While landslides are mostly occurring in the middle and lower section of the basin, gullies are especially affecting the upper part (especially the southern slope). Our analysis indicated that in the middle and lower part of the basin, landslides are developing in response to the Jatún Mayu incision (slopes reach a critical angle and slope failures increase). However in the upper part, where no river down-cutting is taking place, preliminary analysis indicates that past and present human interventions (over-grazing, agriculture, road construction, etc.) play a key role on driving land degradation toward the formation of gullies. Based on the comparison of high resolution images from 2004 and 2009, we determined an agricultural land loss rate of 8452 m2/year, mostly in the form of landslides. One single event swept away 0.03 km2 of agricultural lands (~13 parcels), approximately 87% of an average household property. People's main concerns are hail, frost and droughts because they cause an "immediate" loss on family incomes, but the impacts caused by landslides and gullies are not disregarded by the communities and the government. Communities are organized to set up and maintain key infrastructure such as irrigation canals and roads. They also intend to develop protective measures

  8. Prevalencia del VIH en niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y explotación sexual comercial: una revisión sistemática

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    Camilo Noreña-Herrera

    Full Text Available Resumen: Describir la prevalencia de infección por el VIH en los niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y de explotación sexual comercial y las características de lugar, tiempo, población y tipo de muestreo de los estudios. Revisión sistemática, no metaanálisis, con búsqueda en 10 bases de datos electrónicas: Science Direct, MEDLINE, OVID, LILACS, Wiley InterScience, MD Consult, Springer Link, Embase, Web of Science, Ebsco. También, existe búsqueda complementada en dos bibliotecas de escuelas de salud pública y páginas de Internet de Organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas y lista de referencias de los artículos incluidos. Seleccionamos estudios observacionales con niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y explotación sexual comercial en edades entre diez y veinte años, con resultados de las prevalencias del VIH. Fueron recuperadas 9.829 referencias, 15 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y componen esta síntesis descriptiva. De este conjunto, doce fueron realizados en niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y tres en población en explotación sexual comercial. Todos fueron estudios transversales. La prevalencia del VIH en la población en situación de calle va desde 0% en Dallas, Estados Unidos y Cochabamba, Bolivia hasta 37,4% en San Petersburgo, Rusia. En la población en explotación sexual comercial, va desde 2% en Toronto, Canadá hasta 20% en Calcuta, India. Concluimos que la infección por VIH está presente en los niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y de explotación sexual. Siendo necesarias acciones de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento como un asunto prioritario de la salud pública y una responsabilidad ética de los gobiernos y la sociedad.

  9. Asynchronous Glacial Chronologies in the Central Andes (15-40°S) and Paleoclimatic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, R.; Kull, C.; Kubik, P. W.; Veit, H.

    2006-12-01

    We have established glacial chronologies along a N-S transect over the Central Andes using 10Be surface exposure dating. Our results show that maximum glacial advances occurred asynchronously and reflect the varying influence and shifts of the major atmospheric circulation systems during the Late Quaternary: the tropical circulation in the north and the westerlies in the south. In Bolivia (three research areas in the Cordillera Real and the Cordillera Cochabamba, ~15°S) glacial advances could be dated to ~20 and 12 ka BP. This is in good agreement with published exposure age data from moraines in Bolivia and Peru (provided that all ages are calculated following the same scaling system). Accordingly, the maximum glaciation there probably occurred roughly synchronous to the temperature minimum of the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the lateglacial cold reversals. Strict correlation with neither the Younger Dryas in the northern hemisphere, nor the Antarctic Cold Reversal is possible due to the current systematic exposure age uncertainties (~10%). Glacier-Climate-Modelling corroborates the sensitivity of the reconstructed glaciers to temperature changes, rather than precipitation. On the contrary, there is good evidence for the dominant role of precipitation changes on the glacial chronologies in the lee of the Cordillera Occidental, i.e. on the Altiplano and further south. The pronounced lateglacial wet phase, which is well documented in lake transgression phases as far south as 28°S (-> tropical moisture source), seems to have caused glacial advances even at ~30°S. In two research areas in Chile at that latitude, we were able to date several lateglacial moraines. Besides, the maximum datable glaciation there occurred at ~30 ka BP. That is significantly earlier than the LGM (sensu strictu) and points to favourable climate conditions for glaciation at that time (particularly increased precipitation). We conclude that the westerlies were more intensive or

  10. Deep Sequencing of the Trypanosoma cruzi GP63 Surface Proteases Reveals Diversity and Diversifying Selection among Chronic and Congenital Chagas Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Martin S.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Garcia, Lineth; Torrico, Faustino; Tavares, Suelene B. N.; Cheaib, Bachar; Derome, Nicolas; Delepine, Marc; Baulard, Céline; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Sauer, Sascha; Miles, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease results from infection with the diploid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi is highly genetically diverse, and multiclonal infections in individual hosts are common, but little studied. In this study, we explore T. cruzi infection multiclonality in the context of age, sex and clinical profile among a cohort of chronic patients, as well as paired congenital cases from Cochabamba, Bolivia and Goias, Brazil using amplicon deep sequencing technology. Methodology/ Principal Findings A 450bp fragment of the trypomastigote TcGP63I surface protease gene was amplified and sequenced across 70 chronic and 22 congenital cases on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In addition, a second, mitochondrial target—ND5—was sequenced across the same cohort of cases. Several million reads were generated, and sequencing read depths were normalized within patient cohorts (Goias chronic, n = 43, Goias congenital n = 2, Bolivia chronic, n = 27; Bolivia congenital, n = 20), Among chronic cases, analyses of variance indicated no clear correlation between intra-host sequence diversity and age, sex or symptoms, while principal coordinate analyses showed no clustering by symptoms between patients. Between congenital pairs, we found evidence for the transmission of multiple sequence types from mother to infant, as well as widespread instances of novel genotypes in infants. Finally, non-synonymous to synonymous (dn:ds) nucleotide substitution ratios among sequences of TcGP63Ia and TcGP63Ib subfamilies within each cohort provided powerful evidence of strong diversifying selection at this locus. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the diversity of parasite DTUs within each patient, as well as the extent to which parasite strains pass between mother and foetus in congenital cases. Although we were unable to find any evidence that parasite diversity accumulates with age in our study cohorts, putative diversifying selection within members of the TcGP63I

  11. LAS RAZAS DE MANÍ DE BOLIVIA The peanut landraces from Bolivia

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Bolivia se destaca como probable lugar de origen del maní cultivado y un centro de variación único en el mundo, lo que señala a Bolivia como una importante fuente de materiales para el mejoramiento de este cultivo de importancia mundial. En este estudio para maní se diferencian para Bolivia 62 razas de maní cultivado de las cuales, 42 pertenecen a Arachis hypogaea L subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea, 17 a A. hypogaea susbp. fastigiata Waldron var. fastigiata, 1 a A. hypogaea susbp. fastigiata var. vulgaris y 2 a A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. peruviana Krapov. & W. C. Gregory. Bolivia constituye un centro de variación independiente pues sus razas son exclusivas de su territorio, salvo muy pocas excepciones. Bolivia como unidad, se caracteriza por las razas "Crema", "Colorado San Simón", "Bayo americano", "Overo" y "Overo carenado", que se cultivan en todo el país. Se pueden delimitar algunas regiones de mayor diversidad: la región de los Yungas de La Paz, donde se coleccionaron 11 razas de las cuales 3 son exclusivas y la región montañosa de Santa Cruz y Cochabamba, con 18 razas de las cuales 6 son exclusivas. Estas dos regiones pertenecen a la cuenca del Amazonas. Una
    tercera región se encuentra en el Departamento de Tarija, perteneciente a la cuenca del Plata, donde se coleccionaron 14 razas, de las cuales 2 son exclusivas. Todas estas razas pertenecen a la var. hypogaea. La subsp. fastigiata, presenta un centro de variación muy notable en la cuenca del río Beni, donde en un área muy pequeña se coleccionaron 10 razas, de las cuales 9 son exclusivas. Se destaca Bolivia como un centro de variación único en el mundo y la gran variabilidad del maní señala a Bolivia como una importante fuente de posibilidades para el mejoramiento de este cultivo
  12. 18,000 years of environmental change in the Eastern Cordillera of the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. J.; Gosling, W. D.; Coe, A. L.; Brooks, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    Mountainous regions are considered to be early warning sites for climatic change because narrow vertical species ranges mean even small temperature/precipitation variation can result in species movement. This is especially true in the tropical Andes where the complex topography of the Andean valleys allows biodiverse woodland to be separated from grassland and snow dominated peaks by just a few kilometers, with microclimates clearly playing an important role. To begin to predict the likely impacts of future climatic changes and to help protect Andean woodlands, an understanding of baseline ecological conditions and previous responses to longer-term climatic shifts is vital. The Cochabamba Basin and surrounding mountain peaks is situated within the Eastern Andean Cordillera on the margin between the Altiplano and Yungas cloud forest. We present here multi-proxy data from two high elevation (>3400 m) lake sediment records which reveal sub-500 year ecosystem response to climatic shifts since the last glacial period and the impact of pre-Hispanic human populations. The sediment cores recovered from Lakes Challacaba (17°33’ S, 65°34’ W, 3400 m) and Khomer Kocha (17°16’ S, 65°43’ W, 4153 m) span the last c. 4000 and c. 18,000 years respectively. The two sites are only 35 km apart but are positioned within very different climatic and vegetation zones; Challacaba is within a cold and seasonally dry valley, and Khomer Kotcha is located on the steep slopes above the Yungas cloud forests. Analysis of pollen, chironomid, charcoal, geochemical and physical proxies from within the sediment cores provided insight into the drivers of environmental change at a local and regional scale. The Challacaba and Khomer Kocha records are the first from the eastern flank of the Bolivian Andes to record the last 4000 years and help to fill a gap in our understanding of vegetation succession and subsequent climatic variability since the late glacial. Our results suggest that, prior

  13. Utilisation de la teledetection, des SIG et de l'intelligence artificielle pour determiner le niveau de susceptibilite aux mouvements de terrain: Application dans les Andes de la Bolivie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, Stephane

    1999-11-01

    The socio-economic impact of mass movements for our society is getting more and more serious. The loss of lives and economic losses are now ten times greater than they were at the beginning of the decade. In the hope of reducing these impacts, it is essential to adopt a preventive policy that will encourage mapping of mass movement susceptibility level (MMSL) in critical zones. However, this task is complex and only experts using present techniques can provide satisfactory results. To make possible the production of these maps by a larger number of individuals, we have developed an expert system called EXPERIM that uses remote sensing data and geographic information systems to facilitate the complex tasks without requiring the user to be highly competent in this field of study. This thesis presents the results obtained from a complete strategy developed for a region surrounding Cochabamba, Bolivia. The operational expert system prototype will soon be integrated within the watershed management program directed by the local executing organisation PROMIC. The knowledge acquisition and its expression in concrete terms constitute the principal axis of this research, while the results obtained are the heart of the EXPERIM expert system. These strategic steps aim to establish a knowledge base of data and rules that describe field conditions for each MMSL. We have been able to extract this information by using binary discriminant analysis of a MMSL map produced by an expert for a pilot zone called Cuenca Taquina, which is geoecologically representative of the 38 neighbouring watersheds. Using this technique, we were able to establish a sensitivity model that recreates the expert's map with a success rate of 89% and 78% when two or three MMS levels are used. Based on a detailed analysis of the susceptibility model it was evident that stability conditions are the result of the topographic, geologic and geomorphologic environments. The level of susceptibility was found to be

  14. Retos y perspectivas de la gobernanza del agua y gestión integral de recursos hídricos en Bolivia

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    Sergio Antonio Ruiz

    2008-10-01

    Ministerio del Agua en el año 2006, que surgió de movimientos sociales como la ‘guerra por el agua’ en Cochabamba en el 2000, abrió una nueva perspectiva para las políticas hídricas en Bolivia. No obstante, a dos años de gestión, la nueva política hídrica boliviana se encuentra estancada, entre otros motivos, debido al debilitamiento político y técnico del propio Ministerio del Agua, que no permite coordinar acciones con las instancias públicas de los gobiernos departamentales y municipales, y la escasa coherencia entre las normas que regulan las actividades del sector. El presente documento expone los retos y las perspectivas del proceso de formulación e implementación de la política nacional de agua en Bolivia, sobre la base de reflexiones respecto del marco regulatorio existente y la estrategia de implementación sectorial de riego, agua potable y cuencas. El objetivo final es delinear las brechas entre el discurso oficial en el agua y las realidades y dificultades locales y regionales en el agua e indicar algunos métodos alternativos para una acción cívico- pública más coherente en la gobernanza del agua y la gestión integrada de recursos hídricos.

  15. Presentación - Minga-Mutirão de Revistas de Teología latinoamericanas - A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro

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    José Maria Vigil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available KOINONIA/ASETTMINGA/MUTIRÃO DE REVISTAS DE TEOLOGIA LATINO-AMERICANASÍndice del número colectivo Minga-Mutirão de Revistas Latinoamericanas de Teología 2013, «A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro»VIGIL, José Maria. Presentación. BARROS, Marcelo; VIGIL, José Maria. Anunciaron su muerte, ¡pero está bien viva! Teología de la Liberación 40 años: balance y perspectivas. SUSIN, Luiz Carlos, Secretario Executivo do Foro Mundial de Teologia e Libertação, Porto Alegre, Brasil, Teologia da Libertação: de onde viemos, para onde vamos? ALMEIDA, Antonio José de, Teologia da Libertação e transições eclesiasis pendentes para o futuro. ARAGÃO, Gilbraz, Recife, Brasil, A Libertação se desdobra em diálogo. Teologia da Libertação e pluralismo religioso. BARROS, Marcelo, Recife, Brasil, Para una teología bolivariana de la Liberación. Teología de la Liberación y Patria Grande hoy. SCHIAVO, Luigi, San José, Costa Rica, Tiempos oscuros, tiempos de monstruos. Teología de la Liberación y nuevos desafíos culturales. OSORIO, Sergio, Bogotá, Colombia, Una nueva dimensión epistemológica para la teología. La Teología de la Liberación y el desafío epistemológico. RODRIGUES SILVA Marcos, Coordenador da Comissão de Teologia Afro da ASETT, Teologia Afro (ou Negra da Libertação: balanço e perspectivas. TOMICHÁ, Roberto, Cochabamba, Bolivia, Teologías de la liberación indígenas. VÉLEZ, Consuelo, Coordinadora de la Comisión de Teología Feminista de la ASETT, Universidad Xaveriana, Bogotá, Colombia, Teología feminista latinoamericana de la Liberación: balance y futuro. KERBER, Guillermo: Teología de la liberación y movimiento ecuménico. CASTILLO, Jorge, panameño profesor de teología en la Universidad de Nijmegen, Holanda, Teología de la liberación y «cristianismo mundial». VIGIL, José María, Panamá, Panamá, Teología de la Liberación en camino hacia nuevos paradigmas.

  16. Glacial evolution of the Ampato Volcanic Complex (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Vázquez, L.

    2009-04-01

    .O. (1990): Recent glacial history and paleoclimate of the Peruvian - Bolivian Andes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 9: 137-152. Seltzer, G. O.; Rodbell, D. T; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Tapia, P. M.; Rowe, H.D.; y Dunbar, R. B. (2002): Early warming of Tropical South America at the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition. Science, 296: 1.685-1.686. Smith, J. A.; Seltzer, G.O.; Rodbell, R.T.; y Klein, A.R. (2005): Regional synthesis of last glacial maximum snowlines in the tropical Andes, South America. Quaternary International, 138: 145 -167. Zech, R.; Kull, CH.; Kubik, P. W. y Veit, H. (2007): Exposure dating of Late Glacial and pre-LGM moraines in the Cordon de Doña Rosa, Northern/Central Chile (31° S). Climate of the Past, 3: 1-14. Zech, R.; Kull, CH.; Kubik, P. W. y Veit, H. (2007): LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia) deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating. Climate of the Past, 3: 623-635. Zreda, M., J. England, F. Phillips, D. Elmore, and P. Sharma, (1999): Unblocking the Nares Strait by Greenland and Ellesmere ice-sheet retreat 10,000 years ago, Nature, 398: 139-142.