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Sample records for cochabamba mountain-finches compsospiza

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF COCHABAMBA QUECHUA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO DESCRIBE THE MAIN STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF COCHABAMBA QUECHUA. IT IS INTENDED TO SERVE AS A REFERENCE BOOK FOR LINGUISTS AND THOSE LEARNING THIS DIALECT. THE INTRODUCTION DISCUSSES THE STUDY'S PURPOSE, INFORMANTS, METHODS, TERMINOLOGY, AND NOTATION. THE AUTHORS THEN EXAMINE IN SEPARATE CHAPTERS PHONOLOGY,…

  2. Cochabamba

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    BOLIVIA as a livelihood option for poor women and men. Garbage separation ... They perform this work at the K'ara K'ara municipal garbage dump, in the many containers ... many hours as those of a normal working day. The average age ...

  3. Cochabamba

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    del método cuantitativo, aplicada a una muestra representativa de la población de .... en esta condición. En el botadero, sólo el 2% de las viviendas tiene agua ... lo que implica que realizan sus necesidades a campo abierto. El servicio de ...

  4. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192 Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  5. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 1-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    THE FIRST OF TWO VOLUMES PREPARED FOR TEACHING THE COCHABAMBA DIALECT OF QUECHUA TO SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH, THIS DOCUMENT IS MADE UP OF 12 UNITS THAT COMPRISE A 6-WEEK INTENSIVE COURSE OF 20 CLASS HOURS A WEEK. EACH UNIT CONSISTS OF ONE OR MORE DIALOGS TO BE MEMORIZED, A DIALOG REVIEW, A SECTION ON GRAMMAR WITH ACCOMPANYING EXERCISES, CONVERSATION,…

  6. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…

  7. Multiple transnational household arrangements in the city of Cochabamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ledo García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that over the last 15 years Bolivia and Cochabamba have experienced increased migration flows and that international emigration has become an important strategy for many households. The purpose of this article is to show intra-family solidarity, as well as how households respond to an absent parent in the Cochabamba urban area. The simultaneous interaction of six analytic dimensions is analysed: the socio-economic situation in the country of origin; the characteristics of migrants in the host country; maternal/paternal communication from a distance; the role of remittances; and political participation and role changes within the family remaining in the country of origin. The procedure of generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA allows us to demonstrate the multiple transnational maternity/paternity arrangements and the solidarity of the family networks in Cochabamba.

  8. Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba (Bolivia). The city of ... Project status. Closed ... Studies. Inclusión social y económica de los recicladores en la gestión integrada de los residuos sólidos urbanos. 49088.

  9. ENGLISH-QUECHUA DICTIONARY--CUZCO, AYACUCHO, COCHABAMBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARKER, GARY; AND OTHERS

    WRITTEN TO SUPPLEMENT THE AUTHORS' SPOKEN QUECHUA MATERIALS, THIS TRIDIALECTAL DICTIONARY PROVIDES THE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH WHO HAS HAD SOME TRAINING IN QUECHUA GRAMMAR WITH A MEANS OF ACCESS TO ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY IN THE CUZCO, AYACUCHO, AND COCHABAMBA DIALECTS. ALL THE QUECHUA WORDS AND PHRASES INCLUDED ARE IN ACTUAL USE AND WERE GATHERED FROM…

  10. La dominación incaica en Cochabamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available - En los últimos años del reinado del Inca Pachacutec, su heredero, el Inca Tupac Yupanqui, conquistó Charcas. En el valle de Cochabamba halló tres etnias: cotas, chuyes y sipesipes. Deportó a los cotas y chuyes a Pocona y Mizque y dejó a los sipesipes, que eran una 'colonia' de la etnia sora. Tupac Yupanqui, luego de despoblar el valle, introdujo mitimaes de Contisuyo y destinó la mayor parte del valle a la cría de auquénidos. Huayna Capac repartió parte del valle entre las etnias de habla aymará para que enviasen anualmente un contingente que debía sembrar las tierras para su sustento y, en su mayor parte, para el estado incaico. Desde entonces, Cochabamba se convirtió en un centro muy importante para el aprovisionamiento de los ejércitos incaicos en el Collasuyo y para el mismo Cuzco. En Cotapachi, cerca de Cochabamba, se encontraron más de mil cimientos de collcas o depósitos incaicos, donde se guardaba el maíz antes de enviarlo al Cuzco en auquénidos. También introdujo Hayna Capac en Cochabamba mitimaes de Contisuyo, en Perú factor que colaboró a la difusión de la lengua quechua en el área.

  11. Vowel Height Allophony and Dorsal Place Contrasts in Cochabamba Quechua.

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    Gallagher, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of two studies investigating the role of allophony in cueing phonemic contrasts. In Cochabamba Quechua, the uvularvelar place distinction is often cued by additional differences in the height of the surrounding vowels. An acoustic study documents the lowering effect of a preceding tautomorphemic or a following heteromorphemic uvular on the high vowels /i u/. A discrimination study finds that vowel height is a significant cue to the velar-uvular place contrast. These findings support a view of contrasts as collections of distinguishing properties, as opposed to oppositions in a single distinctive feature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Urban transmission of Chagas disease in Cochabamba, Bolivia

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    N Medrano-Mercado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Bolivia. In the city of Cochabamba, 58% of the population lives in peripheral urban districts ("popular zones" where the infection prevalence is extremely high. From 1995 to 1999, we studied the demographics of Chagas infections in children from five to 13 years old (n = 2218 from the South zone (SZ and North zone (NZ districts, which differ in social, environmental, and agricultural conditions. Information gathered from these districts demonstrates qualitative and quantitative evidence for the active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in urban Cochabamba. Seropositivity was high in both zones (25% in SZ and 19% in NZ. We observed a high risk of infection in children from five to nine years old in SZ, but in NZ, a higher risk occurred in children aged 10-13, with odds ratio for infection three times higher in NZ than in SZ. This difference was not due to triatomine density, since more than 1,000 Triatoma infestans were captured in both zones, but was possibly secondary to the vector infection rate (79% in SZ and 37% in NZ. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were found to be prevalent in children and pre-adolescents (SZ = 40%, NZ = 17%, indicating that under continuous exposure to infection and re-infection, a severe form of the disease may develop early in life. This work demonstrates that T. cruzi infection should also be considered an urban health problem and is not restricted to the rural areas and small villages of Bolivia.

  13. Initiative Villes ciblées : gestion des déchets urbains à Cochabamba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La ville de Cochabamba produit chaque jour 400 tonnes de déchets solides qui sont transportées au dépotoir de K'ara K'ara, situé à 10 km de la ville. Les services de gestion des déchets solides de Cochabamba sont inefficaces; les conditions d'exploitation du dépotoir entraînent une contamination de l'eau souterraine, ...

  14. Nutritional status of children from Cochabamba, Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Maria; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María Del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía

    2015-12-01

    To assess the adequacy of energy and nutritional intakes compared to recommended daily intakes (RDIs) in schoolchildren from the Cochabamba region (Bolivia) and to determine micronutrient intake distributions across different ages and genders. This nutritional study (n = 315) was part of a larger population-based crosssectional study (the "Bolkid" survey) that collected data on schoolchildren 5-16 years old in 2010 in the Cochabamba region. Information about food intake was gathered with a semiquan-titative, food-frequency, parent-administered questionnaire about l2 months before the study. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of energy and nutrient intakes were assessed. For all ages studied and both genders, the average energy and micronutrient intakes were acceptable but below the requirements. The diet included high amounts of fiber, some minerals (iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium), and vitamins (pantothenic acid, niacin, vitamins B2, B12, C, and E), but was low in calcium and vitamin D. However, more than half the children had insufficient energy intake, and low calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin D intakes, according to RDIs adjusted for age and gender; one-third of the children had insufficient folate and magnesium intakes; and adolescent girls had low iron intakes. Regardless of recommendations or demographic characteristics, the vast majority of children in Cochabamba consumed insufficient energy and too little calcium, folate, magnesium, and vitamin A and D. In addition, adolescent girls consumed insufficient iron. Higher energy intake for schoolchildren through increased food availability, frequency, and size portions in daily meals should be a priority for Bolivian public health institutions.

  15. ESTUDIO SOBRE LA DINÁMICA TEMPORAL DE MATERIAL PARTICULADO PM 10 EMITIDO EN COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Salini Calderón, Giovanni Angelo; Medina Mitma, Evelin Jhovana

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN En este documento se presenta un estudio de series temporales de PM10 que muestran la mala calidad del aire en Cochabamba, mediante parámetros estadísticos usados en estudios sobre dinámica no lineal. El promedio diario de PM10 sigue patrones similares al de grandes ciudades que poseen altos índices de contaminación ambiental. Uno de los parámetros resultó del mismo orden y característica que los presentados en trabajos similares sobre el estudio de caoticidad en variables de contamin...

  16. Four thousand years of environmental change and human activity in the Cochabamba Basin, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Gosling, William D.; Coe, Angela L.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Gulliver, Pauline

    The Cochabamba Basin (Bolivia) is on the ancient road network connecting Andean and lowland areas. Little is known about the longevity of this trade route or how people responded to past environmental changes. The eastern end of the Cochabamba valley system constricts at the Vacas Lake District, constraining the road network and providing an ideal location in which to examine past human-environmental interactions. Multi-proxy analysis of sediment from Lake Challacaba has allowed a c. 4000 year environmental history to be reconstructed. Fluctuations in drought tolerant pollen taxa and calcium carbonate indicate two periods of reduced moisture availability ( c. 4000-3370 and c. 2190-1020 cal yr BP) compared to adjacent wetter episodes ( c. 3370-2190 and c. 1020 cal yr BP-present). The moisture fluctuations broadly correlate to El Niño/Southern Oscillation variations reported elsewhere. High charcoal abundance from c. 4000 to 2000 yr ago indicates continuous use of the ancient road network. A decline in charcoal and an increase in dung fungus ( Sporormiella) c. 1340 -1210 cal yr BP, suggests that cultural changes were a major factor in shaping the modern landscape. Despite undisputable impacts of human populations on the Polylepis woodlands today, we see no evidence of woodland clearance in the Challacaba record.

  17. Validation of Satellite Precipitation Products Using Local Rain Gauges to Support Water Assessment in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, O.

    2017-12-01

    The metropolitan region of Cochabamba has been struggling for a consistent water supply master plan for years. The limited precipitation intensities and growing water demand have led to severe water conflicts since 2000 when the fight for water had international visibility. A new dam has just placed into operation, located at the mountain range north of the city, which is the hope to fulfill partially water demand in the region. Looking for feasible water sources and projects are essential to fulfill demand. However, the limited monitoring network composed by conventional rain gauges are not enough to come up with the proper aerial precipitation patterns. This study explores the capabilities of GSMaP-GPM satellite products combined with local rain gauge network to obtain an enhanced product with spatial and temporal resolution. A simple methodology based on penalty factors is proposed to adjust GSMaP-GPM intensities on grid-by-grid basis. The distance of an evaluated grid to the surrounding rain gauges was taken into account. The final correcting factors were obtained by iteration, at this particular case of study four iterations were enough to reduce the relative error. A distributed hydrological model was forced with the enhanced precipitation product to simulate the inflow to the new operating dam. Once the model parameters were calibrated and validated, forecast simulations were run. For the short term, the precipitation trend was projected using exponential equation. As for the long term projection, precipitation and temperature from the hadGEM2 and MIROC global circulation model outputs were used where the last one was found in closer agreement of predictions in the past. Overall, we found out that the amount of 1000 l/s for water supply to the region should be possible to fulfill till 2030. Beyond this year, the intake of two neighboring basins should be constructed to increase the stored volume. This is study was found particularly useful to forecast river

  18. Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albarracin-Veizaga Hugo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000, where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. METHODS: The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males selected by systematic sampling. Concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. Vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: Seropositive, 12.5% (16/128: females, 15.1% (11/73; males, 9.1% (5/55. Average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. Most houses had adobe walls (76.7% , n= 30, galvanized iron rooves (86.7% and earthen floors (53.4% 80% of the walls had crevices. One hundred forty seven specimens of Triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7% were domestic, and 1 peridomestic Triatoma sordida. Precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8.7%; cats, 1.6%. House infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. We found 21 (14.3% specimens of T. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7% of which in domestic environments. DISCUSSION: The elements for the vector transmission of Chagas disease are present in Avaroa/Primer de Mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. In neighboring Cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of Chagas disease. Prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional

  19. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L.; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P.; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5–24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  20. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Late Quaternary geomorphic history of a glacial landscape - new sedimentary and chronological data from the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.-H.; Preusser, F.; Zech, R.; Ilgner, J.; Veit, H.

    2009-04-01

    Throughout the Central Andes, glacial landscapes have long been used for the reconstruction of Late Quaternary glaciations and landscape evolution. Much work has focused on the Andes in Peru, Chile and the Bolivian Altiplano, whereas relatively little data has been published on glaciation history in the eastern Andean ranges and slopes. Even less is known with regard to the postglacial evolution of these glacial landscapes. In the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), local maximum advances probably peaked around 20-25 ka BP and were followed by significant readvances between ~12-16 ka BP. This generally points to temperature controlled maximum glacial advances along the humid eastern slopes of the Central Andes, which is supported by glacier-climate-modelling studies. However, most studies include only marginal information with regard to the complex geomorphic and sedimentary situation in the Cordillera de Cochabamba. Furthermore, the chronological results are afflicted with several methodological uncertainties inherent to surface exposure dating and call for application of alternative, independent age dating methods. Therefore this study aims at i) documenting and interpreting the complex glacial geomorphology of the Huara Loma valley in the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), ii) analyzing the involved units of glacial sediments, and iii) improving the chronological framework by applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating (14C). For this purpose, geomorphic mapping was combined with field documentation of sedimentary profiles. The involved sediments were subject to geochemical and mineralogical analysis in order to deduce information on their erosional and weathering histories. In addition, the interpretation of OSL ages from glacial and proglacial sediments integrated several methodological procedures with regard to sample preparation and statistical analysis of the measurements in order to increase the degree of confidence. These

  2. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from Cochabamba (Bolivia); a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Maria; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía

    2013-11-01

    The anthropometric status of school age children and young adolescents in Andean countries is not well known. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia), and their association with different variables, as well as to determine the agreement between two classifications (BAP, IOTF) of obesity and overweight. A school-based cross-sectional survey (n=441) was carried out in 2010 in pupils, aged 5 to 16 years old, living in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia). Evaluations were based on parent-administered questionnaires and a physical examination based on anthropometric measures. Descriptive, bivariate, and concordance analyses were performed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 20.9% (CI95% 17.1-24.7) and 3.2% (CI 95% 1.6-4.8) respectively, with higher incidences in younger birth cohorts from rural areas. No differences were observed according to gender, parent's educational level, nutritional patterns, or physical activity. There was a moderate agreement globally and on overweight, and excellent on obesity. This study determined that the prevalence of overweight and obese Bolivian school children is increasing, mainly in younger birth cohorts from rural areas, independently from physical activity and energy intake. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius robustus adults invade households in the Tropics of Cochabamba region of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Cortez, Mirko; Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Garcia, Lineth; Arteaga, Mery; Uriona, Liliana; Gamboa, Seyla; Mejía, Carolina; Lozano, Daniel; Gascon, Joaquim; Torrico, Faustino; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2016-03-16

    There are hardly any data available on the relationships between the parasite and the vector or regarding potential reservoirs involved in the natural transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Tropics of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Local families from communities were responsible for the capture of triatomine specimens, following a strategic methodology based on entomological surveillance with community participation developed by the National Chagas Programme of the Ministry of Health of Bolivia. We describe the collection of adult Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius robustus naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from houses and from the hospital of Villa Tunari municipality. The flagellates found in the digestive tract of P. geniculatus belong to genetic lineages or DTUs TcI and TcIII, whereas only lineage DTU TcI was found in R. robustus. The detection of these vectors infected with T. cruzi reveals the vulnerability of local communities. The results presented here highlight the risk of Chagas disease transmission in a region previously thought not to be endemic, indicating that the Tropics of Cochabamba should be placed under permanent entomological and epidemiological surveillance.

  4. Cactus pear and cochineal in Cochabamba: the development of a cross-epistemological management toolkit for interactive design of farm innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekelenburg, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this book, the local research and development process of the small-farmers (campesino) union of Huancarani (Cochabamba region in Bolivia) is discussed. Research activities were carried out by farmers themselves as well as by facilitators and scientists, but the farmers union kept control

  5. Incidence and Mortality Rates and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes among Children and Young Adults in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Duarte Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine incidence, mortality, and clinical status of youth with diabetes at the Centro Vivir con Diabetes, Cochabamba, Bolivia, with support from International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program. Methods. Incidence/mortality data analysis of all cases (<25 year (y diagnosed January 2005–February 2017 and cross-sectional data (December 2015. Results. Over 12.2 years, 144 cases with type 1 diabetes (T1D were diagnosed; 43.1% were male. Diagnosis age was 0.3–22.2 y; peak was 11-12 y. 11.1% were <5 y; 29.2%, 5–<10 y; 43.1%, 10–<15 y; 13.2%, 15–<20 y; and 3.5%, 20–<25 y. The youngest is being investigated for monogenic diabetes. Measured incidence in Cercado Province (Cochabamba Department was 2.2/100,000 children < 15 y/y, with ≈80% ascertainment, giving total incidence of 2.7/100,000 children < 15 y/y. Two had died. Crude mortality rate was 2.3/1000 patient years. Clinical data on 141 cases <35 y: mean/median HbA1c was 8.5/8.2% (69/62 mmol/mol, levels higher in adolescents. Three were on renal replacement therapy; four others had substantial renal impairment. Elevated BMI, triglycerides, and cholesterol were common: 19.1%, 18.3%, and 39.1%, respectively. Conclusions. Bolivia has low T1D incidence. Reasonable glycemic control is being achieved despite limited resources; however, some have serious complications and adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Further attention is needed for complications.

  6. Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia Doença de Chagas numa área de ocupação recente em Cochabamba, Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Albarracin-Veizaga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000, where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. METHODS: The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males selected by systematic sampling. Concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. Vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: Seropositive, 12.5% (16/128: females, 15.1% (11/73; males, 9.1% (5/55. Average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. Most houses had adobe walls (76.7% , n= 30, galvanized iron rooves (86.7% and earthen floors (53.4% 80% of the walls had crevices. One hundred forty seven specimens of Triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7% were domestic, and 1 peridomestic Triatoma sordida. Precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8.7%; cats, 1.6%. House infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. We found 21 (14.3% specimens of T. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7% of which in domestic environments. DISCUSSION: The elements for the vector transmission of Chagas disease are present in Avaroa/Primer de Mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. In neighboring Cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of Chagas disease. Prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional

  7. Chagas disease vector control in a hyperendemic setting: the first 11 years of intervention in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalisisy Espinoza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease has historically been hyperendemic in the Bolivian Department of Cochabamba. In the early 2000s, an extensive vector control program was implemented; 1.34 million dwelling inspections were conducted to ascertain infestation (2000-2001/2003-2011, with blanket insecticide spraying in 2003-2005 and subsequent survey-spraying cycles targeting residual infestation foci. Here, we assess the effects of this program on dwelling infestation rates (DIRs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Program records were used to calculate annual, municipality-level aggregate DIRs (39 municipalities; very high values in 2000-2001 (median: 0.77-0.69 dropped to ∼0.03 from 2004 on. A linear mixed model (with municipality as a random factor suggested that infestation odds decreased, on average, by ∼28% (95% confidence interval [CI95] 6-44% with each 10-fold increase in control effort. A second, better-fitting mixed model including year as an ordinal predictor disclosed large DIR reductions in 2001-2003 (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, CI95 0.06-0.19 and 2003-2004 (OR 0.22, CI95 0.14-0.34. Except for a moderate decrease in 2005-2006, no significant changes were detected afterwards. In both models, municipality-level DIRs correlated positively with previous-year DIRs and with the extent of municipal territory originally covered by montane dry forests. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Insecticide-spraying campaigns had very strong, long-lasting effects on DIRs in Cochabamba. However, post-intervention surveys consistently detected infestation in ∼3% of dwellings, underscoring the need for continuous surveillance; higher DIRs were recorded in the capital city and, more generally, in municipalities dominated by montane dry forest--an eco-region where wild Triatoma infestans are widespread. Traditional strategies combining insecticide spraying and longitudinal surveillance are thus confirmed as very effective means for area-wide Chagas disease vector control; they

  8. LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Veit

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface exposure dating (SED is an innovative tool already being widely applied for moraine dating and for Late Quaternary glacier and climate reconstruction. Here we present exposure ages of 28 boulders from the Cordillera Real and the Cordillera Cochabamba, Bolivia. Our results indicate that the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in the Eastern Cordilleras occurred at ~22–25 ka and was thus synchronous to the global temperature minimum. We were also able to date several Late Glacial moraines to ~11–13 ka, which likely document lower temperatures and increased precipitation ("Coipasa" humid phase. Additionally, we recognize the existence of older Late Glacial moraines re-calculated to ~15 ka from published cosmogenic nuclide data. Those may coincide with the cold Heinrich 1 event in the North Atlantic region and the pronounced "Tauca" humid phase. We conclude that (i exposure ages in the tropical Andes may have been overestimated so far due to methodological uncertainties, and (ii although precipitation plays an important role for glacier mass balances in the tropical Andes, it becomes the dominant forcing for glaciation only in the drier and thus more precipitation-sensitive regions farther west and south.

  9. Grado de conocimiento de la Diabetes Mellitus en la población de barrio “Quijarro” en la provincia Cercado del Departamento de Cochabamba

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Alex Clavijo Vargas

    2011-01-01

    La diabetes Mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad crónica, comprende un grupo de trastornos metabólicos frecuentes, además comparten el fenotipo de hiperglucemia. Hay varios tipos de DM con interacción genética y ambiental.Generalmente se encuentra afectada la población con un desequilibrio en el consumo de glucosa, carbohidratos, etc.Se realizó un estudio sobre el conocimiento de Diabetes Mellitus en el Barrio de “Quijarro” en la provincia Cercado de la ciudad de Cochabamba, durante los meses de A...

  10. La Cuadrilla de Punata. Un caso de bandolerismo político en Cochabamba a fines del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huascar Rodríguez García

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los orígenes, las andanzas y el ocaso de una organización criminal boliviana denominada “la cuadrilla de Punata”: un clan familiar que trabajaba para los gobiernos conservadores de fines del siglo XIX mediante redes clientelares de las que formaban parte no pocos policías. En un momento la banda puso en jaque al gobierno de Severo Fernández Alonso y se convirtió en un asunto de Estado, pese a lo cual esta organización jamás ha sido investigada y su historia permaneció hasta hoy sepultada en los archivos. Por otra parte, a través de la saga de la cuadrilla de Punata pueden conocerse un conjunto de temas inexplorados en la historiografía cochabambina: los nexos entre el crimen, la política y el poder policial, el tratamiento periodístico de la delincuencia y las pugnas entre liberales y conservadores en la antesala de la Guerra Federal. Finalmente el artículo propone también una interpretación original del fenómeno del bandolerismo político.   This article discusses the origins, undertakings and decline of a Bolivian criminal organization called the "Punata Gang": a family clan that worked for the conservative governments of the late nineteenth century through patronage networks, of which more than a few policemen partook. At one point, the gang threatened the government of Severo Fernández Alonso and the issue became a State affair. In spite of that, the organization was never investigated and its history has remained until today buried in the archives. Moreover, by looking at the Punata Gang’s saga this paper addresses a series of topics yet to be explored in the Cochabamba historiography: the relation between crime, politics and police power; the press coverage of delinquency; and the conflicts between liberals and conservatives on the verge of the Federal War. Finally, this article further proposes an original interpretation of the phenomenon of political banditry.

  11. La influencia del fenómeno El Niño y del índice de oscilación del sur en las precipitaciones de Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INFLUENCE DU PHENOMENE EL NIÑO ET DE L’INDICE D’OSCILLATION DU SUD SUR LES PRECIPITATIONS DE COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIE. On n’avait, jusqu’à présent, apporté que peu d’importance à l’influence du phénomène El Niño et de l’Indice d’Oscillation du Sud (IOS sur les précipitations de Cochabamba et plus généralement de la Bolivie. L’étude a été réalisée à partir de l’information de 20 stations météorologiques des vallées hautes, centrales et basses du département de Cochabamba, situées entre 17°20’ et 17°45’ de latitude sud et 66°05’ et 66°20’ de longitude ouest en utilisant aussi les séries de TSM et de l’IOS. Les séries ont été étudiées au niveau annuel, mensuel et journalier, au niveau qualitatif et quantitatif. Une analyse des séries chronologiques a déterminé l’année hydrologique et les anomalies de précipitations, en calculant une moyenne mobile sur 4 ans pour les stations soumises à une influence rémanente des fronts du sud et à celle de la Zone de Convergence Intertropicale-ZCIT, et sur 5 ans pour le reste des stations. On a pu conclure que l’influence du phénomène El Niño était plus nette dans les précipitations enregistrées à Cochabamba qu’à Arani, alors que l’influence de l’IOS se fait davantage sentir à Arani qu’à Cochabamba. Ceci montre bien l’influence du phénomène El Niño et de l’IOS sur la distribution spatio-temporelle des précipitations des vallées de Cochabamba. Ces anomalies affectent directement l’agriculture et contribueront ensuite à l’aggravation des problèmes socio-économiques du département de Cochabamba. Tradicionalmente se ha dado poca importancia al fenómeno El Niño y al Índice de Oscilación del Sur en la influencia de la distribución espacio-temporal de las precipitaciones que se registran en los valles de Cochabamba, principalmente, y de forma general en Bolivia. El estudio se realizó en los valles Alto, Central y Bajo del departamento de

  12. El encomendero Polo de Ondegardo y los mitimaes del valle de Cochabamba: los interrogatorios contra los indios de Paria y Tapacarí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías Robles, Juan J. R.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Los autores ofrecen una nueva transcripción de dos interrogatorios judiciales relacionados con Polo de Ondegardo (ca. 1520-1575 y la situación en el valle de Cochabamba (Bolivia en el siglo XVI. Los dos documentos ayudan a entender el concepto que tenía Polo de Ondegardo sobre los mitimaes en el imperio inca. También ilustran sobre el importante papel económico que podía llegar a tener esta categoría social en el orden incaico. Los mitimaes no perdían por ello necesariamente la vinculación con sus grupos étnicos de origen, contrariamente a la idea más extendida sobre los llamados “mitimaes del Inca” que se encuentra en la bibliografía.

  13. EL MERCADO INMOBILIARIO EN EL ÁREA METROPOLITANA DE COCHABAMBA-BOLIVIA: CARACTERÍSTICAS E INFLUENCIAS EN LA CONFIGURACIÓN URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone resultados parciales de un trabajo de monitoreo del mercado inmobiliario del Área Metropolitana de Cochabamba desarrollado entre el año 2013 y 2017 coordinado por la Dirección del Centro de Investigaciones en Arquitectura y Urbanismo. A través de la sistematización de un conjunto amplio de datos alfanuméricos y geográficos, se expone la situación del mercado inmobiliario metropolitano de Cochabamba desde la dimensión de la oferta especializada. En ese marco, el artículo da luces sobre un posible estancamiento y/o desaceleración de la dinámica inmobiliaria regional, lo que sugiere la conclusión del proceso expansivo del sector de la construcción en la última década. En su dimensión geográfica el artículo presenta un análisis que expone algunas particularidades del comportamiento espacial de la oferta de inmuebles en el área de estudio, seguido de una evaluación de características e influencias en la configuración urbana y la segregación socio espacial. Se parte de la hipótesis de que la dinámica del mercado inmobiliario influye más que la planificación en la configuración urbana de la región.

  14. Las especies nativas y la deforestación en los Andes. Una visión histórica, social y cultural en Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available LES ESPECES NATIVES ET LA DÉFORESTATION DANS LES ANDES - UNE VISION HISTORIQUE, SOCIALE ET CULTURELLE A COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIE. Ce travail présente les résultats de 3 ans d’observations de terrain, de conversations avec les paysans, complétées par une large révision bibliographique. à travers une reconstitution historique, sociale et culturelle, il essaie de montrer la dynamique régressive de la végétation andine, en particulier à Cochabamba. Les forêts résiduelles, les documents des chroniqueurs des XVIè et XVIIè siècles, des explorateurs et les travaux actuels des chercheurs sont les éléments qui permettent d’imaginer les associations végétales et les types de boisements qui existaient dans le passé. En partant d’une analyse des modes d’utilisation de l’espace par les différentes sociétés qui ont peuplé les Andes, ses vallées et ses zones hautes, depuis la préhistoire jusqu’à notre époque, cette étude procède à une interprétation des causes de la déforestation, si alarmante aujourd’hui. Ainsi, les effets de l’augmentation de la population, la pression du bétail, le rôle des mines, la construction des chemins de fer sont analysés sous l’éclairage de leur influence sur la végétation native. Les implications de la fabrication de la chicha, du foncier et des nombreuses guerres ou batailles militaires sur la dégradation de l’environnement sont aussi prises en compte. La connaissance des éléments du passé amène, en conclusion, à présenter de futures pistes de travail, techniques et sociales, pour réduire ou contrecarrer la déforestation. El presente estudio suma los frutos de 3 años de observaciones de campo y de intercambios con los campesinos a una revisión bibliográfica amplia. Intenta presentar, mediante una reconstitución histórica, social y cultural, la dinámica regresiva de la vegetación andina, en particular en Cochabamba. Las huellas de los bosques relictos, los documentos de

  15. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Importance of triggers and veto-barriers for the implementation of sanitation in informal peri-urban settlements – The case of Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Sebastien; Cossio, Claudia; Landaeta, Graciela; McConville, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 2.4 billion people lack access to improved sanitation which has devastating consequences for human health and the environment. Understanding what constitute sanitation demand is crucial for accelerating the spread of improved sanitation. This study aims to understand the adoption mechanisms for improved sanitation. An informal peri-urban settlement in Cochabamba, Bolivia was selected as a case study to understand adoption patterns. Various qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were employed. The findings showed that pour-flush toilets was the only preferred sanitation alternative at the study site. An adoption framework for waterborne toilets was developed based on diffusion of innovation theory. Factors that influence adoption were identified. Some functioned as triggers and initiated adoption, whereas some factors blocked adoption and constituted veto-barriers. Most factors were connected to the individual household situation and its members, but neighborhood development also affected pour-flush adoption. Based on adoption time the residents were divided into the following adoption groups: first adopters, early majority, late majority, laggards and non-adopters. Each adoption group followed its own adoption route with specific characteristics and respective triggers or veto-barriers. We argue that the strong demand for waterborne toilets in peri-urban areas need to be recognized and the developed framework could be used for customizing sanitation improvement programs for certain target groups. PMID:29617459

  17. La decisión de los agricultores del área tropical de Cochabamba (Bolivia) de cultivar coca en lugar de los productos alternativos recomendados por el Estado

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Barrientos; Walter Schug

    2006-01-01

    A pesar de la prohibición estatal del cultivo de coca desde 1973 y de la reducción rápida de las plantaciones de coca hasta 2002, este arbusto todavía se cultiva en las zonas tropicales de Cochabamba (Bolivia). Tanto aspectos técnicos como económicos, son responsables de que muchos agricultores se decidan por el cultivo de la coca y no por el de cultivos alternativos. Técnicamente, el cultivo de la coca es más adaptable y menos exigente, en comparación con los cinco cultivos alternativos anal...

  18. CHOICE OF MACROPHYTE SUBSTRATE IN THE USE OF DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF POND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT: PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE CASE OF ALALAY POND (COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alalay Pond is a 230-hectare, shallow aquatic ecosystem within Cochabamba, the third largest city in Bolivia. With the aim to determine the suitability of epiphytic diatoms for water quality assessment in the pond and to choose a substrate that would hold a representative bioindicator epiphytic community, the macrophytes Schoenoplectus californicus subsp. tatora (Kunth T. Koyama, Typha dominguensis Pers., Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. were selected and differences in diatom community composition and structure were tested. Diatoms were collected during four sampling campaigns in the March-September, 2011 period, from three stations contiguous to the pelagic zone and prepared for analysis using standard, internationally used protocols. In all, 27 samples were collected from which 28 taxa characteristic of eutrophic environments were identified and 17 others could not be assigned names from the literature. Although many of the species are shared among sampling sites, the epiphytic communities developing at each station were different in structure and composition. Although, there are marked temporal variations in community features on each of the macrophytes, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes, as well as canonical correspondence analysis, showed no marked differences within a single campaign and station among the 4 macrophytes. Shifts in structure and composition are denoted less commonly by species replacement and more often by changes in percent relative abundance of dominant and rare species. Very few species are restricted to a station or seem to show strong preference for a particular substrate. Taking into account growth, structural and ecological characteristics, as well as some phenological features of the macrophytes, S. californicus subsp. tatora and T. dominguensis are the most suitable substrates for water quality assessments in the pond. As demonstrated by multivariate analyses, among-site and time

  19. The decision of farmers from the tropical region of Cochabamba in Bolivia to cultivate coca instead of state-recommended alternative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos Juan Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    Despite national coca cultivation having been prohibited from 1973 onwards and the rapid reduction of coca plantations up to 2000, coca is still being cultivated in the tropical region of  Cochabamba. Technical and economic aspects are responsible for many farmers deciding to continue to cultivate coca and not to cultivate alternative crops. Coca cultivation

  20. REVISIÓN DE LAS EXPERIENCIAS EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMÉSTICAS MEDIANTE REACTORES UASB EN COCHABAMBA-BOLIVIA COMPARADAS CON LAS DE LATINOAMÉRICA, INDIA Y EUROPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gandarillas R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de tratamiento anaeróbico es cada vez más reconocido como opción viable para la protección del medio ambiente y la conservación de los recursos y representa, combinado con otros métodos adecuados, un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales sostenible y apropiado para los países en vías de desarrollo. El tratamiento anaeróbico de aguas residuales se está utilizando con éxito en los países tropicales desde la década de los 80, y con resultados alentadores en las regiones subtropicales y templadas. En este estudio se revisan las principales características del tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas, con énfasis en el Reactor Anaeróbico de Mantos de Lodos de Flujo Ascendente (RALF o Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB de su sigla en inglés. Se revisaron las aplicaciones del proceso UASB en Europa, Asia y las Américas. En Latino América y en particular en Bolivia el uso de esta tecnología ha incrementado considerablemente debido a la pequeña demanda de terreno requerida para su implementación y a sus atractivos costos de inversión y operación. La revisión mostró, en base a la experiencia de operación de distintas plantas de tratamiento ubicadas en los valles de Cochabamba, que los reactores anaerobios de mantos de lodos de flujo ascendente apropiadamente diseñados, son adecuados para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas en las regiones de los valles y llanos de Bolivia debido a que presentan condiciones ambientales que hacen que el uso de esta biotecnología anaerobia sea favorable bajo la perspectiva del desarrollo sostenible.

  1. Oleoducto Carrasco Cochabamba OCC - lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarria, Edwin; Collazos, Alfonso; Blanco, Ernesto [TRANSREDES S.A. (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    This article describes the challenges and activities performed to place 'in service' condition a pipeline that was constructed in 2001, that was never placed in service, and further, in 2003, suffered the loss of 3 river crossings (80, 120, and 300 meters wide), in addition to several damages to the pipeline in 17 different locations. The project's execution was divided into two phases. Phase 1, Emergency Shut Down (ESD) in the four pipeline stations; Installing Remote Operated Valves (ROV); ROW repairs; Equipment's Mechanical and Instrument and Electric/electronic maintenance. Phase 2, Complementary pipeline and ROW stabilization tasks, pipeline burial and river crossings; Geometric internal inspections and repairs; Intelligent inspection; Leak Detection System (LDS); fuel consumption performance improvements. The pipeline has 4 stations; the first, second, and third are pumping stations. The pipeline is located in part of a national park with high environmental and social risks. Considering its geographical condition, the location's area is considered to be within the five locations in the world that have the highest accumulated rains with its 5570 mm of annual precipitation; it has 70 river crossings (22 aerial bridges, 22 buried river crossings, and 22 river crossings attached to road bridges); the overall length is 250 Km, part of the area is geologically active; the profile starts at 400 masl, then down to 250 masl up to 3700 masl. (author)

  2. HIDROQUÍMICA DE LA PRESENCIA NATURAL DE ARSÉNICO EN AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS DE ÁREAS SUBURBANAS DE COCHABAMBA-BOLIVIA Y EVALUACIÓN DE LA VIABILIDAD TÉCNICA DE PROCESOS DE REMOCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Escalera Vásquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha realizado un análisis hidroquimico de 18 pozos ubicados en la zona periurbana oeste de la ciudad de Cochabamba. También se ha efectuado una evaluación de la viabilidad técnica de diferentes procesos de remoción de arsénico en función de los parámetros físicos y químicos de calidad de las aguas provenientes de los pozos más contaminados. Se han logrado los siguientes resultados importantes: La tendencia de evolución geoquímica hacia el tipo de agua Na-Ca-HCO3 puede ser causada por la mineralización y/o disolución de minerales tipo halita [NaCl], dolomita [CaMg(CO32], calcita [CaCO3] y/o magnesita [MgCO3]. El As disuelto presenta concentraciones variables en 3 órdenes de magnitud, desde 3 hasta 581,7 µg/L, lo que supone un alto riesgo a la salud por exposición. La variabilidad espacio-temporal en las concentraciones de arsénico se explica por la variabilidad litológica del lugar, donde las diferentes capas de arcilla, limo y/o arena contendrían composiciones heterogéneas y variables de As. La correlación positiva moderada entre el arsénico y el hierro presentes sugiere la disolución y/o mineralización de fases amorfas de oxi-hidróxido de hierro asociadas con el arsénico haciendo posible su  movilización del As hacia el acuífero subterráneo. Las características físico-químicas de casi todos los pozos altamente contaminados, favorecen la viabilidad técnica de la mayoría los procesos comparados: coagulación con Fe(III y Al(III, adsorción sobre alúmina activada, intercambio iónico, filtración en lechos de arena recubierta con óxido de hierro (IHE-ADART, Remoción de Arsénico Asistida por Oxidación Solar, RAOS, nano-filtración y osmosis reversa. El pozo con mayor contaminación y mayor salinidad presenta condiciones más desventajosas para su tratabilidad, siendo los procesos de membrana los más viables técnicamente; sin embargo, los procesos IHE-ADART, adsorción sobre alumina activada y RAOS

  3. The arabesque of local knowledge : Potatoes, farmers and technicians in highland Tiraque, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzeda, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work has to do with knowledge and, particularly, with the encounter between different traditions of knowledge, which - through potato cropping - take place between farmers and experts.In this way the present research makes problematic the fact that knowledge is

  4. Destitution through “Development”: A Case Study of the Laka Laka Project in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrum J. Shriar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined environmental and socioeconomic outcomes of a water project in rural Bolivia, and sought insights on how and why its planning was so flawed. The project destroyed an ancient, sustainable irrigation system, and replaced it with one that provides insufficient and diminishing quantities of water to many fewer people, appears to be causing land degradation and groundwater depletion, and has fueled conflicts. The study shows that even relatively small, NGO-led projects can generate significant negative impacts, and raises questions about the pressures on development agencies to charge ahead with projects, despite obvious potential for such impacts.

  5. Giving a voice to the urban poor: the scavengers of Cochabamba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... For many, this is their sole source of income, leaving them reliant on an ... led to serious health risks from air, land, and water contamination. ... used to implement an evidence-based Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan, ...

  6. Efecto de la tala de Podocarpus glomeratus (Podocarpaceae sobre la estructura de un bosque de neblina en los Andes (Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Isaías Ayma-Romay

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron analizados los efectos de la tala sobre la estructura, composición y la regeneración natural de un bosque andino de neblina. Se instalaron 40 parcelas de 707 m2 para medir individuos >10 cm DAP y sub-parcelas de 5 m2 para evaluar la regeneración de individuos <10 cm DAP y de 1 m2 para evaluar el banco de semillas. Se evaluó la densidad y cobertura de todos los árboles. Se realizó un análisis cluster para establecer las categorías de cobertura de dosel y un análisis de componentes principales para determinar su asociación con la densidad de diferentes especies de plántulas. La tala ha modificado la cobertura (p= <0,001 generando doseles de poco a fuertemente intervenidos. Los claros de dosel favorecen a las heliófitas (Myrsine pseudocrenata, Vallea stipularis, Nectandra sp., Trichilia hirta, Miconia theaezans, algunas esciófitas que requieren luz en clases avanzadas (Podocarpus glomeratus y Myrcianthes osteomeloides y otros arbustos (Solanaceae, Verbenaceae y otras. Por otra parte, algunas esciófitas reducen su densidad en doseles inter- venidos (Weinmannia microphylla, Condalia weberbaueri, Blepharocalix salicifolius y Styloceras columnare. El manejo del bosque debe mantener la cobertura de individuos > 60 cm DAP, la creación de reservas en bosques maduros y prácticas de facilitación para el crecimiento de especies de árboles claves.

  7. Search Results | Page 70 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 691 - 700 of 869 ... ... closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba (Bolivia). The city of Cochabamba produces 400 tons of solid waste per ...

  8. Search Results | Page 715 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7141 - 7150 of 9602 ... Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ... in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba (Bolivia).

  9. Search Results | Page 31 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 301 - 310 of 374 ... Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ... lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba (Bolivia).

  10. All projects related to bolivia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The city of Cochabamba produces 400 tons of solid waste per day, which is ... Over the past 15 years, the Andean countries - Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and ... Bolivia has gone through a long and conflictive process related to land redistribution.

  11. First record of chytridiomycosis in Bolivia (Rhinella quechua; Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Aguayo, Rodrigo; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2008-11-20

    The finding of tadpoles of Rhinella quechua (Huayramayu River, Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba, Bolivia) with oral abnormalities caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis constitutes the first record of this fungal infection reported for Bolivian amphibians.

  12. Evaluation of Water Resources in Bolivia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    liters/second demanded). Because of the effects of the drought, SEMAPA (Servicio Municipal de Agua Potables y Alcantarillado, the area water supply...departments of Potosi and Cochabamba and is in the eastern range of the Andes mountains. The western edge of the department borders Chile and is in the...Cochabamba to the east, Potosi to the south and Chile to the West. Encompassing 53,588 square kilometers, Oruro ranks fifth in size out of the seven

  13. Commentaire : Comment gérer l'eau qui se raréfie dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 oct. 2010 ... Les agriculteurs protestèrent contre la perte de sources d'eau qui leur avaient appartenu pendant des générations. La grogne monta et aboutit à la très médiatisée « guerre de l'eau » de Cochabamba en 2000 et aux manifestations massives d'El Alto. À Cochabamba, les escouades anti-émeute et les ...

  14. General Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribunal Children Civil Society Corruption Cyber-crime Democracy Disabilities Drugs Education and Culture session Cochabamba, Bolivia, June 2012 Forty First regular session San Salvador, El Salvador, June 2011 States of America - November 1980 Ninth regular session - La Paz, Bolivia - October 1979 Eighth regular

  15. QUECHUA LANGUAGE MATERIALS PROJECT, GUIDE TO THE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLA, DONALD F.

    THIS GUIDEBOOK DESCRIBES THE NATURE AND USE OF THE MATERIALS PREPARED FOR TEACHING THREE OF THE MAIN DIALECTS OF QUECHUA TO SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH INTERESTED IN WORKING OR DOING RESEARCH IN THE ANDEAN REGION. DESCRIPTIVE AND PEDAGOGICAL MATERIALS HAVE BEEN PREPARED FOR EACH OF THREE IMPORTANT DIALECTS--CUZCO AND AYACUCHO IN PERU, AND COCHABAMBA IN…

  16. Search Results | Page 70 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 691 - 700 of 875 ... Filter by region .... growth of collaborative spaces (Web 2.0) and social networking sites. ... The city of Cochabamba produces 400 tons of solid waste per day, which is transported 10 km to the K'ara K'ara (KK) dump.

  17. Adoption and diffusion of natural gas in the small-scale industry of Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, Maarten; van Engelen, D.M.; Romijn, Henny

    2005-01-01

    The paper portrays the complexity of energy transitions drawing on the experience of the Bolivian National Biomass Programme. The transitions from wood to natural gas systems in the rural stucco and chicha (local beer) industries of Cochabamba serve as case-studies. A broad literature review of

  18. Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on Climate Change Adaptation ... They will develop environmental economics methods to address specific climate change challenges caused by extreme weather stressors. ... Initiative Villes ciblées : gestion des déchets urbains à Cochabamba, en Bolivie.

  19. Leposoma percarinatum (Müller, 1923 (Sauria: Gymnophthalmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinteros Muñoz, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available República de Bolivia, Departamento de Pando, Provincia Federico Román, Reserva de Vida Silvestre Bruno Racua, laguna Tucunaré (9º55'15,43" S, 65º20'37,36" O. Fecha de colección: 05/09/2007. Col.: Oliver Quinteros. Colección de vertebrados del Centro de Biodiversidad y Genética (CBG 356, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Un ejemplar hembra adulta (34,12 mm LHC.

  20. Rompre le cycle de la pauvreté urbaine | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2010 ... De même, à Jakarta, un programme de conversion des sédiments des caniveaux en briques a permis de transformer un risque pour la santé publique en une ressource qui joue un rôle social tout en produisant un revenu pour la collectivité. David, un récupérateur de déchets de Cochabamba, est venu ...

  1. La voie vers l'harmonie : savoir partager les ressources | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 janv. 2011 ... Au Pérou, institutions publiques, entreprises privées, porteurs, touristes et même l'UNESCO forment un tissu complexe d'intérêts divers et se disputent sur la façon de gérer le site fragile qu'est la citadelle du Machu Picchu. À Cochabamba, en Bolivie, la gestion de l'approvisionnement en eau a fait l'objet ...

  2. Cultural conceptions of HIV/AIDS among teenagers in Bolivia, Chile and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres López, Teresa Margarita; Reynaldos Quinteros, Carolina; Lozano González, Aldo Favio; Munguía Cortés, Jazmín Aranzazú

    2010-10-01

    To understand the cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS among adolescent students. A cognitive anthropological study was undertaken in Cochabamba (Bolivia), Talca (Chile) and Guadalajara (Mexico), during 2007 and 2008. A total of 184 teenagers (from 14 to 19 years old) were selected by purposeful sampling at secondary schools in each country. Free association lists and pile sorts were utilized. Terms associated with the concept of HIV/AIDS and groups of conceptual dimensions were investigated. Subsequently, consensus analysis was performed using factorial principal components and dimensional analysis through hierarchical clusters and multidimensional scales. The differences between the country contexts were in the degree of consensus in relation to the term HIV/AIDS, which was greater in Cochabamba. In Talca and Guadalajara the youths mentioned metaphors of fighting against HIV/AIDS, while in Cochabamba participants talked about help, support and love that infected people should receive. The similarities among conceptions by youth from the three countries were: the risk factors (unprotected sexual practice and contact with specific population groups), the consequences (physical and social death, being the latter understood as social rejection of people living with HIV/AIDS) and the prevention of illness (based on information and condom use). For adolescent students, HIV/AIDS is a disease caused by sexual practices and drug use and involves harm, pain and death. HIV/AIDS prevention programs for adolescents should promote science based information on the topic and not concentrate only on the emotional and social consequences of HIV/AIDS.

  3. LOS COMITÉS DE ÉTICA DE INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMÉDICA Y PSICOSOCIAL EN BOLIVIA OS COMITÊS DE ÉTICA DE PESQUISA BIOMÉDICA E PSICOSSOCIAL NA BOLIVIA BIOMEDICAL AND PSICOSOCIAL SCIENTIFIC ETHICAL REVIEW COMMITTEES IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Zwareva Mashiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reporta un estudio realizado en las ciudades de La Paz, Cochabamba y Santa Cruz en Bolivia. Interesaba saber cuál era la situación de la bioética en Bolivia y cómo se estaba protegiendo a los sujetos de investigación. Luego de revisar algunos conceptos bioéticos, la legislación boliviana y los métodos del estudio se dan a conocer los resultados del mismo, los cuales revelan gran desconocimiento respecto de cómo proteger los derechos de los sujetos, por la casi ausencia o el inadecuado funcionamiento de los comités de ética de la investigación.Este artigo reporta a um estudo realizado nas cidades de La Paz, Cochabamba, e Santa Cruz, na Bolivia. Interessava-se saber qual era a situação da bioética na Bolivia e como se estava protegendo os sujeitos de pesquisa. Ao revisar alguns conceitos bioéticos, a legislação boliviana e os métodos de estudo foi possível identificar os resultados pesquisados; esses revelaram grande desconhecimento a respeito de como garantir os direitos dos sujeitos de pesquisa, por conta da quase ausência e/ou do inadequado funcionamento dos comitês de ética de pesquisa.This article reports a study carried out in the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz in Bolivia. The interest was to know the situation of bioethics in Bolivia and how research subjects are being protected. After revising some bioethical concepts, Bolivian legislation and study methods, results revealed great lack of knowledge on how to protect research subjects, due to the almost absence or inadequate functioning of scientific ethical review committees.

  4. O retorno de Katari: cultura hist?rica e processo de emerg?ncia pol?tica do movimento Cocalero na Bol?via (1995-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, L?cio Romero

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho discute o processo de emerg?ncia pol?tica do movimento cocalero na Bol?via, especificamente dos camponeses plantadores de coca cuja produ??o est? centrada nos vales tropicais do departamento de Cochabamba, na regi?o do Chapare. Partindo do pressuposto que o estudo das experi?ncias pr?prias dos cocaleros constitui um elemento fundamental para compreendermos a elabora??o de sua identidade e o seu fazer-se como sujeito de a??o coletiva, buscamos analisar as transform...

  5. Apropiaciones sociodeportivas de espacios públicos urbanos. El caso de la comunidad cochabambina en Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Borrás Tissoni, Omar

    2013-01-01

    [spa] Estudio cualitativo y cuantitativo de las apropiaciones de espacios públicos y semipúblicos de Barcelona y poblaciones limítrofes para la práctica del deporte por parte de colectivos de trabajadores extranjeros procedentes preferentemente de la región de Cochabamba, en Bolivia. Una parte del trabajo investigador se realizó en las poblaciones bolivianas de origen, con el fin de establecer qué pautas se reproducen y cuáles se modifican o se generan de nuevo en Catalunya. La investigac...

  6. Variations of the External Male Genitalia in Three Populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Herton Helder Rocha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans is the triatomine that presents the greatest dispersion area in South America. However, it is not known whether the original characteristics of this insect remained in its long dispersion process. The purpose of this work was to study comparatively the external male genitalia of insects from different populations of T. infestans, two from Brazil (Minas Gerais and Bahia and one from Bolivia (Cochabamba Valley, and to investigate the correlation between the morphological and behavioral variations. Differences were observed in one of the structures of the external genitalia (endosoma process that could be used to characterize the insects from the three populations studied.

  7. Procesos de privatización del agua en América Latina: análisis y seguimiento de la interacción estratégica entre movimientos sociales versus multinacionales en Bolivia, Uruguay y México. Período 2000 – 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Becerra, Lina María

    2013-01-01

    El presente escrito, constituye una aproximación a los procesos de privatización del agua en América Latina. Lo anterior, en el marco de la acción colectiva, específicamente de los movimientos sociales y su interacción estratégica con oponentes como las compañías multinacionales, las organizaciones financieras internacionales y el Estado. Tomando como referencia las luchas ocurridas en Bolivia, Uruguay y México, con especial énfasis en La Guerra del Agua en Cochabamba (Bolivia).

  8. Zonas de contacto: la “nación” y la “identidad” en la obra de Alejandro Saravia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo explora los conceptos de “nación” e “identidad” en la obra del autor bolivianocanadiense Alejandro Saravia, nacido en Cochabamba, en 1962. La obra de Saravia se inserta dentro del debate crucial que se realiza en Canadá sobre los procesos de inmigración, exilio y diáspora y la forma en que estos fenómenos afectan las  identidades culturales de los emigrados y sus formas monolíticas de pertenencia. Es cada vez más evidente que el desplazamiento (violento o no) produce en el indiv...

  9. Four new species of frogs and one new species of snake from the Chapare region of Bolivia, with notes on other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.P.; Foster, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report on a collection of 74 frogs, 11 lots of frog eggs or tadpoles, and two snakes collected from the Chapare Region in the yungas of the eastern Andean Cordillera de Cochabamba, Bolivia. Collecting localities range from approximately 300 m to >3200 m in elevation. The specimens pertain to 23 species, probably 10 of which are undescribed. We describe four new species of frogs, one each in the genera Bufo, Centrolenella, Colostethus, and Hyla, and one new species of snake, genus Dipsas. We place Atelopus rugulosus in synonymy with A. tricolor.

  10. Entre crisis, agencia y retorno: vulnerabilidad de las migrantes bolivianas en Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Yépez del Castillo, Isabel; Marzadro, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se abordan las interrelaciones entre crisis, migración y mercado de trabajo y su incidencia en la agencia migratoria femenina, tanto en relación con la decisión inicial de migrar hacia Italia, como con la posibilidad posterior de retornar a Bolivia. A partir de la información recogida en una encuesta de gran envergadura realizada en Cochabamba y del seguimiento de diversas trayectorias migratorias femeninas, damos cuenta de la vulnerabilidad extrema a la que están sometidas l...

  11. Capital social y políticas de Atención Primaria de la Salud

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Pablo BÁSCOLO; Natalia YAVICH

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la influencia de la configuración del capital social de las políticas de atención primaria de la salud (APS) sobre las condiciones de acceso a los servicios de salud. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos múltiples (Cochabamba-Bolivia, Rosario y Vicente López-Argentina) retrospectivo (1990-2008). El concepto de capital social fue entendido como el resultado de la relación entre Estado y sociedad. En Rosario se lograron mejoras sustantivas en las condi...

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Installation of a variable-angle spectrometer system for monitoring diffuse and global solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea, O.; Abrahamse, A.; Tolavi, N.; Romero, F.; Urquidi, O.; Pearce, J. M.; Andrews, R.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the design and installation of a spectrometer system for monitoring solar radiation in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Both the light intensity and the spectral distribution affect the power produced by a photovoltaic device. Local variations in the solar spectrum (especially compared to the AM1.5 standard) may have important implications for device optimization and energy yield estimation. The spectrometer system, based on an Ocean Optics USB4000 (300-900nm) spectrometer, was designed to increase functionality. Typically systems only record the global horizontal radiation. Our system moves a fiber-optic cable 0-90 degrees and takes measurements in 9 degree increments. Additionally, a shadow band allows measurement of the diffuse component of the radiation at each position. The electronic controls utilize an Arduino UNO microcontroller to synchronizes the movement of two PAP bipolar (stepper) motors with the activation of the spectrometer via an external trigger. The spectrometer was factory calibrated for wavelength and calibrated for absolute irradiance using a Sellarnet SL1-Cal light source. We present preliminary results from data taken March-June, 2013, and comment on implications for PV devices in Cochabamba.

  14. Concepciones culturales del VIH/Sida de adolescentes de Bolivia, Chile y México Conceitos culturais sobre o HIV/Aids de adolescentes de Bolívia, Chile e México Cultural conceptions of HIV/AIDS among teenagers in Bolivia, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Margarita Torres López

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comprender las dimensiones culturales del VIH/Sida de estudiantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudio antropológico cognitivo. Realizado en Cochabamba (Bolivia, Talca (Chile y Guadalajara (México entre 2007 y 2008. Un total de 184 jóvenes (de 14 y 19 años de edad fueron seleccionados por muestreo propositivo en centros de estudios de educación media superior de cada país. Fueron utilizadas las técnicas de listados libres y el sorteo de montones. Se indagaron términos asociados al concepto VIH/Sida y grupos de dimensiones conceptuales. Posteriormente se aplicó análisis de consenso mediante factorización de componentes principales y análisis dimensional mediante conglomerados jerárquicos y escalas multidimensionales. RESULTADOS: Las diferencias entre los contextos fueron en el grado de consenso en relación al término de VIH/Sida, ya que fue mayor en Cochabamba. En Talca y Guadalajara los jóvenes mencionaron metáforas de lucha frente a la enfermedad, mientras en Cochabamba se refirieron a la ayuda, apoyo y amor que las personas infectadas deberían recibir. Las coincidencias entre las conceptualizaciones de los jóvenes de los tres países fueron: los riesgos (las prácticas sexuales desprotegidas y el contacto con algunos grupos poblacionales específicos, las consecuencias (muerte física y social, entendida ésta última como el rechazo de la sociedad hacia los enfermos y la prevención de la enfermedad (con base en la información así como uso del condón. CONCLUSIONES: Para los estudiantes adolescentes el VIH/Sida es una enfermedad causada por prácticas sexuales y consumo de drogas que implica daño, dolor y muerte. Los programas preventivos del VIH/Sida para los adolescentes deben promover la búsqueda de información sobre el tema con bases científicas, y no centrarse en las consecuencias emocionales y sociales de la enfermedad.OBJETIVO: Compreender as dimensões culturais do HIV/Aids por estudantes adolescentes. M

  15. Vida cotidiana, ciudadanía y el género de la política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Lagos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo discute relaciones de género en Cochabamba, Bolivia, desde una perspectiva que toma en cuenta los aspectos materiales y culturales de la producción, la política y el Estado. El trabajo se enfoca en las tensiones que las demandas de la vida cotidiana generan al interior de las unidades domésticas y comunidades, para examinar las diversas maneras en que mujeres y hombres responden a ellas. Discute también el papel que juega el Estado en la definición de categorías sociales y de espacios públicos y privados en función del género, y analiza cómo estas prescripciones del Estado interactúan con ideologías y relaciones desiguales de género locales para dar forma al género de la política.O presente ensaio visa discutir as relações de gênero em Cochabamba, na Bolívia, a partir de uma perspectiva que considera os aspectos materiais e culturais da produção, a política e o Estado. O trabalho focaliza nas tensões geradas pelas demandas da vida cotidiana no interior das unidades domésticas e das comunidades, no intuito de checar as diversas maneiras nas quais homens e mulheres ajustam-se a elas. Além disso, procura discutir o papel jogado pelo Estado na definição de categorias sociais e de espaços públicos e privados segundo o gênero. Por último, analiza o modo em que tais prescrições do Estado vinculam-se com ideologias e relações desiguais de gênero locais para configurar o gênero da política.This essay discusses gender relations in rural Cochabamba, Bolivia, from a perspective that takes into account the material and cultural aspects of production, politics, and the State. It focuses on the tensions that the conflicting demands of livelihood generate within households and villages, in order to describe how women and men deal with them as gendered subjects. It also examines the role of the state in defining social categories and in prescribing gendered spheres of public and private practices, and analyzes

  16. [Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR): the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aristizabal, Urko; Sanz-Victoria, Silvia; Sahonero-Daza, Milton; Ledesma-Ocampo, Sandra; Cachimuel-Vinueza, Mesías; Torrico, Marisabel

    2012-01-01

    Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labor Office (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP) in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio-cultural context may determine whether CBR programs succeed or fail.

  17. A laboratory approach to the control of cocaine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Vaca, M

    1984-01-01

    Of the 4,196 samples of drugs seized and analysed at the Toxicology Laboratory of the National Bureau for the Control of Dangerous Substances during the period 1975-1982, 3,768 samples (89.8 per cent) contained coca paste, cocaine hydrochloride or related substances. Most of the samples analysed contained coca paste and came from La Paz, Santa Cruz and Cochabamba. With a slight exception in 1980, the number of samples increased steadily over an eight-year period. The increase in the number of seizures of cocaine-related substances was a result of the growth in the illicit production of these substances, which began to assume larger dimensions in 1976. In many areas, coca-paste and cocaine-related problems are growing out of all proportion. The smoking of cigarettes that contain a mixture of tobacco and coca paste, popularly known as pitillos, is the most common form of drug abuse.

  18. [The royal philanthropic expedition of the vaccine (Xavier de Balmis/Josep Salvany). 1803-1806].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botet, Francesc Asensi

    2009-12-01

    Six years after Jenner discovered the anti-smallpox vaccine, King Charles IV mandated the initiation of vaccination campaigns throughout his kingdom. The overseas campaign was coordinated by the Valencian military doctor Xavier de Balmis with the aid of the Catalan Josep Salvany. The vaccine was transported to America "in vivo" in 22 children. The expedition departed from La Coruña on November 1806 and arrived to the Venezuelan port of La Guayra where it was split in two: One sub expedition under the order of Josep Salvany, continued by land to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Salvany died in the Bolivian city of Cochabamba. The other sub expedition, leaded by Balmis himself, continued by sea to Cuba and Mexico. From Acapulco it arrived to Manila and from there to Macau followed by inland penetration into China.

  19. Between crisis, agency and return: the vulnerability of Bolivian migrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Yépez del Castillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the interrelationships between the economic crisis, international migration and the labour market, and their impact on female migration agency, both in the decision to migrate and in the subsequent possibility of return to Bolivia. Based on information collected in a large survey conducted in the city of Cochabamba and the tracing of multiple female migration trajectories, the extreme vulnerability of these women, who are the heads of single-parent households, working in elderly care in Bergamo, is shown. Despite their deteriorating working conditions in the context of current Italian economic crisis and the competition of immigrant care workers from countries of Eastern Europe, they choose to remain in Italy instead of returning to Bolivia.

  20. Capital social y políticas de Atención Primaria de la Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Pablo BÁSCOLO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la influencia de la configuración del capital social de las políticas de atención primaria de la salud (APS sobre las condiciones de acceso a los servicios de salud. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos múltiples (Cochabamba-Bolivia, Rosario y Vicente López-Argentina retrospectivo (1990-2008. El concepto de capital social fue entendido como el resultado de la relación entre Estado y sociedad. En Rosario se lograron mejoras sustantivas en las condiciones de acceso a partir de la creación de nuevas estructuras en donde profesionales de APS establecieron vínculos de cooperación con actores del Estado municipal, movimientos sociales y gestores y médicos especialistas de hospitales. En Vicente López, las mejoras en las condiciones de acceso a los servicios de salud fueron más limitadas debido a que los cambios en la relación Estado y sociedad solo involucraron a profesionales del primer nivel de atención sin mecanismos de cooperación estables con actores claves de los hospitales, el nivel municipal y los movimientos sociales. Por último, en Cochabamba, las mejoras en las condiciones de acceso fueron marginales debido a que los profesionales del sistema de servicios de salud se opusieron a la alianza establecida entre los movimientos sociales y los actores del Estado municipal para generar cambios en el sistema de salud. Este estudio permite reconocer la influencia de la configuración entre Estado y sociedad para modelar las relaciones de poder que subyacen al proceso de implementación de las reformas del sector salud y sus resultados.

  1. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    whistling thrush (Myophonus caeruleus turcestanicus, paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi leucogaster and several species of highland finches, including Eurasian crimson-winged finch (Rhodopechys sanguinea, white-winged snowfinch (Montifringilla nivalis alpicola and Brandt's mountain finch (Leucosticte brandti; reptiles – Ophisaurus apodus, Elape dione and Coluber rhodorhachis. 18 Vertebrate and 26 invertebrate species are listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan. In the 90 years of its existence a huge research was carried out and the scientific staff of field biologists, botanists and zoologists were prepared (N.K. Karmysheva, V.V. Shevchenko, F.D. Shaposhnikov, V.D. Utekhin, A.F. Kovshar, A.A. Ivaschenko, B.M. Gubin, Yu.A. Grachyov, etc.. At the same time dozens of expeditions were working on this territory from several scientific institutions – institutes of botany and zoology (Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Leningrad, Kiev, botanical gardens (Moscow, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, All-Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow, All-Union Institute of Pharmacology (Moscow, Institute of Plant Protection (Alma-Ata, Zoological Museum of Moscow State University (Moscow, Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of USSR and many others. As a result from the material collected on the territory of the nature reserve, more than 900 scientific works were published, including 11 issues of Proceedings of the nature reserve, published since 1948 till 2016.

  2. Reflexiones sobre la estrategia de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (RBC: la experiencia de un programa de RBC en Bolivia Reflections on community-based rehabilitation strategy (CBR: the experience of a CBR program in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urko Díaz-Aristizabal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad (RBC es una estrategia de desarrollo comunitario avalada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO, que persigue la rehabilitación, la igualdad de oportunidades y la integración social de las Personas con Discapacidad (PD en sus entornos. Con este objetivo promueve la colaboración entre las PD, sus familias y los diferentes actores de la comunidad involucrados, así como el liderazgo comunitario y la participación de las PD mediante el impulso de la colaboración multisectorial. Este artículo expone los antecedentes históricos y las características fundamentales de la estrategia de RBC a partir de un programa llevado a cabo por una fundación del departamento de Cochabamba (Bolivia, para después incidir en algunos aspectos referentes al contexto sociocultural, que especialmente en situaciones de interculturalidad, pueden determinar que un programa de RBC tenga éxito o esté abocado al fracaso.Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR is a strategy for community development endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO, the International Labor Office (ILO and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO. It is designed to promote rehabilitation, equal opportunity and social inclusion of Disabled Persons (DP in their home communities by fostering cooperation among disabled individuals, their families, and other concerned social actors, it encourages community leadership and full social participation by DP through multi-sector cooperation. This article explores the historical antecedents and basic features of CBR strategy through an analysis of a directed culture change initiative developed by a foundation in the Cochabamba administrative region of Bolivia. Especially in intercultural environments, certain aspects of the socio

  3. The herpetological collection from Bolivia in the “Estación Biológica de Doñana” (Spain

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    Padial, J. M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection consists of 822 specimens, of which 529 are amphibians, all of them anurans (5 families, 17 genera and 51 species and 293 specimens are reptiles (10 families, 28 genera and 49 species. The collection has around 25% of the amphibians species known to occur in Bolivia and about 19% of the reptile species. They come from 55 localities of the Bolivian Departments of Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Potosí and Santa Cruz and represent the following bioregions: Puna, Chaco, Chiquitanian Forest, Wet Savannas, Ceja de Montaña, Yungas, Interandean Dry Valleys and Humid Lowland Forest. The specimens of Scinax chiquitanus and Phrynopus kempffi are paratypes. The record of Pleurodema borelli is the first for the Santa Cruz Department and second for Bolivia. Liolaemus dorbignyi also constitutes the second report for the country and Tropidurus melanopleurus is cited for the first time for the Beni Department.

    La colección se compone de 822 ejemplares, 529 anfibios y 293 reptiles. Los anfibios son todos anuros, pertenecientes a 51 especies de 17 géneros y cinco familias. Los reptiles estan representados por 49 especies, incluidas en 28 géneros de 10 familias. Los ejemplares provienen de 55 localidades repartidas en los Departamentos bolivianos de Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Potosí y Santa Cruz, y representan las siguientes bioregiones: Puna, Chaco, Bosque Chiquitano, Sabanas Húmedas, Ceja de Montaña, Yungas, Valles Secos Interandinos y Bosque Húmedo de Llanura. Los ejemplares de Scinax chiquitanus y Phrynopus kempffi son paratipos. Pleurodema borelli es citada por primera vez para el Departamento de Santa Cruz y por segunda vez para Bolivia; también el registro de Liolaemus dorbignyi constituye el segundo para el país y el de Tropidurus melanopleurus el primero para el Departamento Beni.

  4. La divergencia genética entre poblaciones del Área Andina Centro Meridional evaluada mediante rasgos no métricos del cráneo

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    Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante más de 10.000 años el Area Andina Centro Meridional proporcionó un escenario ideal para el desarrollo de distintas poblaciones y entidades culturales, interactuando a través de una amplia red de intercambio y distribución de productos. A pesar de este nivel de interacción, la información métrica disponible (Bolivia, Norte de Chile y Noroeste Argentino, reveló un fuerte proceso de divergencia genética (FST = 0.195 entre subregiones (Varela et al., 2008. Esta evidencia es contrastada en el presente trabajo a partir del análisis de una muestra integrada por 1416 individuos de ambos sexos, cubriendo un intervalo de 4.500 años. Se emplearon 12 atributos (rasgos no métricos del cráneo registrados como presencia-ausencia. Las diferencias entre subáreas fueron evaluadas mediante la estadística MMDS y D2 de Mahalanobis calculada a partir de componentes principales. Ambas matrices de distancias fenotípicas presentaron una alta correlación, destacando una significativa diferenciación a nivel regional. La mayor distancia se registra entre el Noroeste Argentino y el Norte de Chile, ocupando Bolivia una posición equidistante entre ambas regiones. Dentro de cada región las muestras están más relacionadas entre si ((Cochabamba, (Puna, Quebrada, Valliserrana y Pampa Grande, (Arica, Pisagua, Norte Semiárido. Hay mayor vinculación entre Cochabamba y el Noroeste Argentino y mayor divergencia entre los grupos de Chile. Se confi rma un modelo de poblamiento a partir de la subdivisión de una población ancestral en dos ramas que ocuparon: una el Norte de Chile y otra el Noroeste Argentino. En cada una de ellas el proceso dispersivo originó varias líneas que se diferenciaron gradualmente hacia el sur, durante la exploración de nuevos ambientes cuya conquista y colonización garantizó la subsistencia de la población.

  5. Phlébotomes de Bolivie: VII. Répartition des deux morphotypes du phlébotome lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae dans le piémont andin de Bolivie

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    Francois Le Pont

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Deux morphotypes de Lytzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 ont été décrits au Brésil, l'un avec une seule paire de taches tergales, l'autre avec deux paires de taches. Ce caractère est propre aux mâles. En Bolivie, la forme à une tache existe seule dans le foyer de leishmaniose viscérale des Yungas (alt. 1000-2000 m dans l'envirionnement péridomicilliaire; c'est le vecteur confirmé de cette maladie. Le second morphotype à deux taches a été récemment découvert sous le porche de grottes dans le région de Cochabamba (alt. 2700 m; il était absent dans et autour des habitations de cette région, où la leishmaniose vicérale est inconnue. Les deux morphotypes de Lu. longipalpis ont, en Bolivie, une distribution allopatrique, et leurs écologies respectives sont très différentes.

  6. Emergence and clonal dissemination of carbapenem-hydrolysing OXA-58-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Bolivia.

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    Sevillano, Elena; Fernández, Elena; Bustamante, Zulema; Zabalaga, Silvia; Rosales, Ikerne; Umaran, Adelaida; Gallego, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen and very little information is available regarding its imipenem resistance in Latin American countries such as Bolivia. This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile of 46 clinical strains from different hospitals in Cochabamba, Bolivia, from March 2008 to July 2009, and the presence of carbapenemases as a mechanism of resistance to imipenem. Isolates were obtained from 46 patients (one isolate per patient; 30 males,16 females) with an age range of 1 day to 84 years, and were collected from different sample types, the majority from respiratory tract infections (17) and wounds (13). Resistance to imipenem was detected in 15 isolates collected from different hospitals of the city. These isolates grouped into the same genotype, named A, and were resistant to all antibiotics tested including imipenem, with susceptibility only to colistin. Experiments to detect carbapenemases revealed the presence of the OXA-58 carbapenemase. Further analysis revealed the location of the bla(OXA-58) gene on a 40 kb plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii isolates from Bolivia that is conferred by the OXA-58 carbapenemase. The presence of this gene in a multidrug-resistant clone and its location within a plasmid is of great concern with regard to the spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in the hospital environment in Bolivia.

  7. Sphaerionini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae: novos taxons, sinonímia, chaves e nova combinação

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    Ubirajara R Martins

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available New taxa described: Neomallocera, gen. n., type-species, Mallocera opulenta Newman, 1841; Protomallocera, gen. n., type-species, Mallocera hilairei Gounelle, 1908; Championa chemsaki, sp. n. (Mexico: Chiapas; Parasphaerion, gen. n., type-species, P. granulosum, sp. n. (Suriname; Mephritus quadrimaculatus, sp. n. (Bolivia: Cochabamba. M. castaneus, sp. n. (Peru: Pasco; M. fraterculus, sp. n. (Peru: Cajamarca; Nesostizocera suturalis. sp. n. (Peru and Ecuador; Morphaneflus, gen. n., type-species, M. prolixus, sp. n. (Argentina: Salta, Jujuy; Amethysphaerion eximium, sp. n. (Ecuador; A. jocosum, sp. n. (Brazil: Espírito Santo; A. submetallicum, sp. n. (Brazil: Minas Gerais; A. guarani, sp. n. (Paraguay; Aposphaerion punctulatum, sp. n. (Brazil: Amazonas; Pilisphaerion, gen. n., type-species, P. exoticum, sp. n. (Brazil: Pará; Adiposphaerion, gen n., type-species. A. rubrum, sp. n. (Brazil: Amazonas; Minipsyrassa guanabarina, sp. n. (Brazil: Rio de Janeiro; Sphaerioeme, gen. n., type-species, S. rubristerna, sp. n. (Suriname, Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná; Apoclausirion. gen. n., type-species, A. nigricorne (Brazil: Mato Grosso. Mallocera pickeli Melzer, 1931 is considered a synonym of M. simplex White, 1853. Psyrassa trinidadensis Gilmour, 1963 is transferred to the genus Amethysphaerion. Keys to the genera related with Mallocera and to the species of Amethysphaerion are added.

  8. Zika virus epidemiology in Bolivia: A seroprevalence study in volunteer blood donors.

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    Saba Villarroel, Paola Mariela; Nurtop, Elif; Pastorino, Boris; Roca, Yelin; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gallian, Pierre; Jaenisch, Thomas; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Priet, Stéphane; Ninove, Laetitia; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), was widely reported in Latin America and has been associated with neuropathologies, as microcephaly, but only few seroprevalence studies have been published to date. Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence amongst Bolivian blood donors and estimate the future potential circulation of the virus. A ZIKV seroprevalence study was conducted between December 2016 and April 2017 in 814 asymptomatic Bolivian volunteer blood donors residing in various eco-environments corresponding to contrasting entomological activities. It was based on detection of IgG to ZIKV using NS1 ELISA screening, followed by a seroneutralisation test in case of positive or equivocal ELISA result. Analysis revealed that ZIKV circulation occurred in tropical areas (Beni: 39%; Santa Cruz de la Sierra: 21.5%) but not in highlands (~0% in Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija). It was modulated by Aedes aegypti activity and the virus spread was not limited by previous immunity to dengue. Cases were geo-localised in a wide range of urban areas in Santa Cruz and Trinidad. No differences in seroprevalence related to gender or age-groups could be identified. It is concluded that ZIKV has been intensely circulating in the Beni region and has still a significant potential for propagating in the area of Santa Cruz.

  9. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

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    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  10. The TIPNIS Conflict in Bolivia

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    Ana Carolina Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract Soon after the formation of the Plurinational State of Bolivia in 2009, the Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory (TIPNIS became the epicentre of a conflict over the construction of a road, initiated by Evo Morales’s administration, that would run through the park. Initially undertaken by the Brazilian company OAS, and funded by the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES, the project was justified on the grounds that it would link the departments of Beni and Cochabamba, and bring development to an isolated locality. However, indigenous peoples from the lowlands opposed the scheme, and, together with their counterparts in the Andean region, organised a march that was violently dispersed by the Bolivian armed forces. In this article, I analyse the political processes in this Andean country, notably the reconfiguration of power from 2011 onwards, in parallel with economic measures adopted by the government. I conclude with observations about the relation between the national and regional spheres, arguing that indigenous repression forms part of a new developmentalist agenda.

  11. Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis.

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    Nina, Nélida; Quispe, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Giménez, Alberto; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) and NMR analysis. TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic-rich and triterpene-rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic-rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene-rich propolis were weakly active. High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Perception and Interpretation of Climate Change among Quechua Farmers of Bolivia: Indigenous Knowledge as a Resource for Adaptive Capacity

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    Sébastien Boillat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aim to explore how indigenous peoples observe and ascribe meaning to change. The case study involves two Quechua-speaking farmer communities from mountainous areas near Cochabamba, Bolivia. Taking climate change as a starting point, we found that, first, farmers often associate their observations of climate change with other social and environmental changes, such as value change in the community, population growth, out-migration, urbanization, and land degradation. Second, some of the people interpret change as part of a cycle, which includes a belief in the return of some characteristics of ancient or mythological times. Third, environmental change is also perceived as the expression of "extra-human intentionalities," a reaction of natural or spiritual entities that people consider living beings. On the basis of these interpretations of change and their adaptive strategies, we discuss the importance of indigenous knowledge as a component of adaptive capacity. Even in the context of living with modern science and mass media, indigenous patterns of interpreting phenomena tend to be persistent. Our results support the view that indigenous knowledge must be acknowledged as process, emphasizing ways of observing, discussing, and interpreting new information. In this case, indigenous knowledge can help address complex relationships between phenomena, and help design adaptation strategies based on experimentation and knowledge coproduction.

  13. Knodus shinahota (Characiformes: Characidae a new species from the río Shinahota, río Chapare basin (Mamoré system, Bolivia

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    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Knodus shinahota, new species, is described from río Shinahota, a tributary of the upper rio Mamoré basin, Província de Tiraque, Cochabamba State, Bolivia. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners except K. chapadae and K. geryi by having six rows of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (vs 4 or 5 rows of scales in the other species. Knodus shinahota differs from K. chapadae by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 3½ or 4, respectively and more lateral line scales (38-41 vs 36-38, respectively. It differs from K. geryi by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral-line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 4, respectively; fewer branched anal-fin rays (17-20 vs 15-17, respectively, and by lacking the two symmetric, large, dark, blotches on the basal portions of the caudal-fin lobes that characterize K. geryi.

  14. Social Movement Discourses and Conditions of Possibility in Bolivia and Mexico

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    J. Carlos Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo presenta un análisis comparativo de dos movimientos sociales en Latinoamérica. El primero es el movimiento de oposición a la privatización de los servicios de agua potable y alcantarillado en Cochabamba, Bolivia, en el año 2000; y el segundo es el movimiento en contra del proyecto para un nuevo aeropuerto en la Ciudad de México (2001-2002. Ambos casos de estudio ilustran la manera como el estudio de los discursos colectivos y los marcos de acción colectiva pueden servir para mejorar nuestro conocimiento de movimientos sociales que surgen en el contexto de grandes proyectos de infraestructura. El trabajo argumenta que un factor determinante en el desarrollo y tiempo de vida de un movimiento social es la medida en que distintas variables contextuales y organizacionales facilitan o impiden la relación dialógica entre los discursos colectivos y otros procesos de formación de identidad a nivel microsociológico.

  15. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

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    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  16. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Childhood Diarrhea Using Hollow Fiber Water Filter and/or Hygiene–Sanitation Educational Interventions

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    Lindquist, Erik D.; George, C. M.; Perin, Jamie; Neiswender de Calani, Karen J.; Norman, W. Ray; Davis, Thomas P.; Perry, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Safe domestic potable water supplies are urgently needed to reduce childhood diarrheal disease. In periurban neighborhoods in Cochabamba, Bolivia, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a household-level hollow fiber filter and/or behavior change communication (BCC) on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to reduce the diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years of age. In total, 952 households were followed for a period of 12 weeks post-distribution of the study interventions. Households using Sawyer PointONE filters had significantly less diarrheal disease compared with the control arm during the intervention period, which was shown by diarrheal prevalence ratios of 0.21 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.15–0.30) for the filter arm and 0.27 (95% CI = 0.22–0.34) for the filter and WASH BCC arm. A non-significant reduction in diarrhea prevalence was reported in the WASH BCC study arm households (0.71, 95% CI = 0.59–0.86). PMID:24865680

  17. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

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    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  18. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

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    Aguilar, Patricia V; Adams, A Paige; Suárez, Victor; Beingolea, Luis; Vargas, Jorge; Manock, Stephen; Freire, Juan; Espinoza, Willan R; Felices, Vidal; Diaz, Ana; Liang, Xiaodong; Roca, Yelin; Weaver, Scott C; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2009-09-15

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of Peru, and more recently (2005), in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  19. Anti-Neoliberal Struggles in the 21st Century: Gramsci Revised

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    Rebeca Jasso-Aguilar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of neoliberalism in the past three decades suggests the capacity of capitalism to adapt and restructure itself in periods of crisis and to curb progressive movements that threaten its hegemony. Yet social movements that challenge neoliberalism continue to emerge, sending hopeful signs of its potential demise by ushering in progressive governments that often appear to fall short of expectations. Building off the growing body of research that utilizes Gramscian theory to categorize neoliberalism as a passive revolution, I examine the concept of anti-passive revolution with empirical data to propose a theory of resistance against neoliberalism. The empirical data comes from two movements against neoliberalism: the coalition that challenged the privatization of water in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2000; and, the movement that challenged the results of the Mexican presidential election in 2006. By examining the trajectories of these movements over a timespan of several years, I identify the empirical conditions for a theory of anti-passive revolution, and the potential for such processes to challenge the hegemony of the passive revolution represented by neoliberalism

  20. Notas sinonímicas sobre Hesperiidae neotropicais, com descrições de novos gêneros, espécies e subespécies (Lepidoptera

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    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. de La Mercede e Rio Colorado, Peru e Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Artines tobiasi sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. do Maranhão, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. do Espirito Santo, Brasil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. de Minas Geras, Brasil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. de Minas Gerais e Espirito Santo, Brasil; Vettius ploetzii morretesi, ssp. n. do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Propapias, gen. n., tipo: Rhinthon proximus Bell, 1934, única espécie incluída. Celaenorrhinus songoensis saroma Evans, 1952, comb. n.; Celaenorrhinus songoensis tonio Evans, 1952, comb. n. Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883, comb. n. e sp. rev. Lerema duroca lenta Evans, 1955, stat. n. Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937, comb. n. e stat. n., Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936, comb. n. e stat. n., Phocides zancleius 1932 syn. n. de Phocides pialia (Hewitson, 1857; Dalla eburones elna Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937; Staphylus holaphegges Dyar, 1913 syn. n. de Eprius veleda veleda (Godman, 1901; Eprius veleda palta Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936; Lerema elgina Schaus, 1902 syn. n. de Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883. Dalla Mabille, 1904 syn. n. de Eumesia Felder &. Felder, 1867, n. rev, Eumesiinae Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev.Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. from La Merced and Rio Colorado, Peru, and Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Artines tobiasi, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. from Maranhão, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. from Espírito Santo, Brazil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. from

  1. Diabetes in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Alberto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension, obesity, and related risk factors in major cities in Bolivia Methods. A population-based survey was conducted in four Bolivian cities: La Paz, El Alto, Santa Cruz, and Cochabamba. The total sample size was chosen to be 2 948 persons. The overall response rate was 86%, with the rate varying somewhat among the four cities. DM was diagnosed through an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT 2 hours after an overload of 75 grams of glucose, using World Health Organization criteria. Results. The overall prevalence of DM in the four urban areas combined was 7.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 6.2%-8.3% and of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 7.8%. A total of 73.1% (95% CI: 65.0%-81.0% of those previously diagnosed with DM and 73.7% (95% CI: 61.0%-86.4% of newly diagnosed cases were overweight, according to measurements of body mass index. Hypertension was found in 36.5% (95% CI: 27.6%-45.5% of known diabetics and in 36.6% (95% CI: 23.0%-50.1% of newly diagnosed cases, compared to only 15.9% (95% CI: 14.3%-17.5% among people without DM. The disease was most common among older persons and those with little education. Conclusions. Diabetes is a genuine public health problem in Bolivia. Further, the high prevalence of IGT that was found suggests that diabetes prevalence will increase in the near future in the country unless prevention strategies are implemented.

  2. The peanut landraces from Bolivia

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is reagarded as the probable place of origin of the domesticated peanut, and an important world center of unique peanut diversity. As the first published study of its kind or peanut, this paper identifies and describes the infraspecific diversity of the crop in its country of origin and center of diverstity. 62 distinct landraces of Bolivian peanut were identified and systematically described. 42 landraces belong to Arachis hypogaea L. ssp. hypogaea var. hypogaea; 17 to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata; one to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var.vulgaris; and two to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. peruviana. With very few exceptions, the landraces encountered in Bolivia are almost entirely endemic to that country. The most typical peanuts from Bolivia pertain to the landraces “Crema”, “Colorado San Simón”, “Bayo americano”, “Overo”, and “Overo carenado”, which are widely cultivated throughout the country. A few regions of unusually high peanut diversity can be identified. In the Yungas region of La Paz, 11 landraces were collected, of which three are endemic. In the mountainous regions of Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, 18 landraces were collected, of which six are endemic. The Department of Tarija yielded 14 landraces , of which two are endemic. All of the aforementioned landraces pertain to the botanical  variety hypogaea. In contrast, the subspecies fastigiata has a remarkable center or diversity  in the watershed of the Rio Beni, where 10 landraces were collected in a fairly small area, nine of which  are endemic to that region. This monograph is intended to enhance the knowledge and appreciation of peanut diversity, and facilitate the conservation and use of peanut landraces by scientistis, plant breeders, and farmers

  3. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaruseviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to

  4. Evaluation of a residential nutrition rehabilitation center in rural Bolivia: short-term effectiveness and follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Kristen M; Polansky, Lauren S; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Huamani, Katherine Foy; Mues, Katherine E; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Leon, Juan S

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) have shown mixed results in reducing morbidity and mortality among undernourished children in the developing world. Follow-up on children after leaving these programs remains undocumented. To assess the nutritional improvement of children attending the Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Nutricional (CRIN), a residential NRC in rural Bolivia, from entrance to exit and to a household follow-up visit 1 month to 6 years later, and to identify factors associated with nutritional improvement. A retrospective analysis was conducted of clinical records collected by CRIN staff from 135 children under 3 years of age attending CRIN in rural Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 2003 to 2009, and of clinical records of household follow-up measurements on a subset of 26 children that were taken between 1 month and 6 years postexit. Nutritional status was evaluated by calculating z-scores for weight-for-height (WHZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and height-for-age (HAZ). Children with z-scores < -2 were considered to be wasted, underweight, or stunted, respectively. The prevalence of wasting decreased significantly, while the prevalence of stunting did not change significantly between entrance and exit from the program. From entrance to exit, the mean changes in WHZ (0.79) and WAZ (1.08) were statistically significant, while the mean change in HAZ (-0.02) was not significant. Linear regression analysis suggested that nutritional status and diarrhea at entrance had the greatest effect on WHZ and HAZ changes between entrance and exit. Children maintained their nutritional gains from the program between exit and follow-up and showed statistically significant improvement in WAZ (but not HAZ). CRIN is effective at rehabilitating nutritional deficits associated with wasting, but not those associated with stunting.

  5. Deep sequencing of the Trypanosoma cruzi GP63 surface proteases reveals diversity and diversifying selection among chronic and congenital Chagas disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Martin S; Messenger, Louisa A; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Garcia, Lineth; Torrico, Faustino; Tavares, Suelene B N; Cheaib, Bachar; Derome, Nicolas; Delepine, Marc; Baulard, Céline; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Sauer, Sascha; Miles, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Chagas disease results from infection with the diploid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi is highly genetically diverse, and multiclonal infections in individual hosts are common, but little studied. In this study, we explore T. cruzi infection multiclonality in the context of age, sex and clinical profile among a cohort of chronic patients, as well as paired congenital cases from Cochabamba, Bolivia and Goias, Brazil using amplicon deep sequencing technology. A 450bp fragment of the trypomastigote TcGP63I surface protease gene was amplified and sequenced across 70 chronic and 22 congenital cases on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In addition, a second, mitochondrial target--ND5--was sequenced across the same cohort of cases. Several million reads were generated, and sequencing read depths were normalized within patient cohorts (Goias chronic, n = 43, Goias congenital n = 2, Bolivia chronic, n = 27; Bolivia congenital, n = 20), Among chronic cases, analyses of variance indicated no clear correlation between intra-host sequence diversity and age, sex or symptoms, while principal coordinate analyses showed no clustering by symptoms between patients. Between congenital pairs, we found evidence for the transmission of multiple sequence types from mother to infant, as well as widespread instances of novel genotypes in infants. Finally, non-synonymous to synonymous (dn:ds) nucleotide substitution ratios among sequences of TcGP63Ia and TcGP63Ib subfamilies within each cohort provided powerful evidence of strong diversifying selection at this locus. Our results shed light on the diversity of parasite DTUs within each patient, as well as the extent to which parasite strains pass between mother and foetus in congenital cases. Although we were unable to find any evidence that parasite diversity accumulates with age in our study cohorts, putative diversifying selection within members of the TcGP63I gene family suggests a link between genetic diversity within this gene

  6. Resilience of Andean urban ethnobotanies: a comparison of medicinal plant use among Bolivian and Peruvian migrants in the United Kingdom and in their countries of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Pieroni, Andrea

    2011-06-14

    Analysing why and how ethnobotanical traditions 'survive' is important for a better understanding of migrants' health care behaviour. This study investigates the use of traditional medicinal plants among first generation migrants from Bolivia and Peru in London, in relation to practices among their peers in their respective home countries in order to assess changes in traditional health care among newcomer communities. A total of 98 semi-structured interviews were conducted in London (UK), Cochabamba (Bolivia) and Lima (Peru). Voucher specimens of all reported species were collected and identified. By comparing data on active plant uses and their applications, overlap and differences between health care practices before and after migration could be outlined. In London, people can rely on more biomedical alternatives and have access to less traditional herbal remedies as compared to their countries of origin. In general, Peruvians and Bolivians in London continued to use traditional medicine for common, self-limiting ailments that were also widespread in their countries of origin. The same widely used (either readily available cosmopolitan or culturally relevant) plant species appeared in the post-migration group. In general, less freshly available medicinal species were used in London and more edible, primary food species were consumed for medicinal purposes after migration. Bolivian and Peruvian migrants in London clearly proved to be resilient in their use of home-remedies when faced with the changes that come with migration. The observed ethnobotanical coping strategies are characterised by: (1) the preservation of culturally salient species (cultural key stone species); (2) a positive influence of the presence of cultural diversity (cultural edge effect), (3) a creative blending of different kinds of knowledge and resources, noticeable in an increased use of dried, processed alternatives and food species; and (4) a reliance on social networks for the exchange

  7. [Endemic level of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the areas of maternal residence and the development of congenital Chagas disease in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Faustino; Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Suarez, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Patricia; Torrico, Mary-Cruz; Dramaix, Michele; Truyens, Carine; Carlier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    In Bolivia, the prevalence of infection by T. cruzi in women in fertile age can vary between 20 and 60%. The present study made in the Maternity Germin Urquidi of Cochabamba - Bolivia, it has demonstrated, that 19.9% of the mothers who go to this hospitable center to be taken care of in the childbirth, they are carrying of the infection and that 4,6% of them, they are going to transmit, by transplacentaria route, the infection to its babies. Of the 71 children born with congenital Chagas, only 47,8 % present/display some type of alteration or of development(Apgar to 1 minute low, BPN, prematuridad, pathological dismadurez) or signs (SDR, hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia, neurological signs, cardiomegalia, anasarca, petequias). When investigating the effect of the differences in the vectorial density (low, medium and high) of the zone of maternal residence, on the transmission of the infection of the mother infected to the fetus, we concluded that the rate of transmission of the congenital infection of T. cruzi is not modified by the level of endemicidad of the zone of maternal residence. By another infected new born sides whose mothers reside in zones of high endemicidad present/display, most frequently and of significant way, Apgar to 1 minute prematuridad or an association of these alterations with respiratory syndrome of distress or anasarca, when one compares them with new born of resident mothers in the zones of loss or medium endemicidad, mortality in this group is greater. These results suggest calls to account it of the mothers, in areas of high endemicidad, she is associate with a serious increase in the risk of Disease of newborn severe and mortal congenital Chagas in.

  8. DESARROLLO DE UN SISTEMA DE MONITOREO DE RADIACIÓN SOLAR BASADO EN UN ESPECTRÓMETRO DE AMPLIO ESPECTRO

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    Faviola Romero

    2011-01-01

    Para la construcción mecánica del sistema, se utilizaron perfiles de aluminio de 60x30 mm. Esta estructura metálica sujeta a una fibra óptica de cuarzo lleva la radiación solar al espectrómetro Ocean Optics USB4000 (200-900 nm. La electrónica del sistema de control, está gobernada por un microcontrolador Arduino UNO, el cual se encarga de sincronizar el movimiento de dos motores PAP bipolares y la toma de datos en el espectrómetro que se activa con un trigger externo. La característica principal del sistema es permitir la medición del espectro de los componentes global y difuso de la radiación solar en diferentes ángulos de incidencia. El sistema mecánico ajusta un extremo de una fibra óptica de 0 a 90 grados en dirección norte, cada nueve grados, midiendo la radiación global y mediante una banda mecánica que produce sombra sobre la fibra óptica, mide la radiación difusa. Las medidas son tomadas cada hora y el rango espectral abarcado es del UVA, VIS y parte del IR cercano. Se realizaron pruebas preliminares en dos ciudades de Bolivia y se demostró que la cantidad de radiación UVA es mayor en el El Alto (4062 msnm, la ciudad con mayor elevación, en comparación con Cochabamba que se encuentra a 2570 msnm.

  9. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of Climatic Shifts on the Production and Processing of Native and Traditional Crops in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleman Saxena, Alder; Cadima Fuentes, Ximena; Gonzales Herbas, Rhimer; Humphries, Debbie L

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes (a) the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia and (b) the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis), papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus), and charke (llama or sheep jerky). Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, and the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Furthermore, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. Although these findings are drawn from a single case study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, "indigenous food systems." Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  10. Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of climatic shifts on the production and processing of native and traditional crops in the Bolivian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alder eKeleman Saxena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data was collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed-methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes a the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia; and b the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp., oca (Oxalis tuberosa, tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis, papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus, and charkay (llama or sheep jerky. Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Further, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. While these findings are drawn from a single case-study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, indigenous food systems. Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture, and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat

  11. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Arnold Hagens, Salazar; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents' sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14-18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future

  12. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH

  13. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual

  14. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender

  15. SEGUROS AGRÍCOLAS BASADOS EN ÍNDICES CLIMÁTICOS: UN ESTUDIO DE CASO EN BOLIVIA

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    Ricardo Nogales Carvajal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los seguros agrícolas basados en índices climáticos son instrumentos financieros novedosos para la gestión de riesgos de agricultores. A diferencia de los seguros tradicionales, éstos pueden mitigar e incluso anular el riesgo moral y la selección adversa, permitiendo abaratar sus primas. Esta característica hace de este tipo de seguros un mecanismo atractivo para economías en vías de desarrollo con gran parte de población rural sumida en severas condiciones de precariedad y, simultáneamente, se promueve el desarrollo de un mercado de seguros agrícolas. Este tipo de seguros no es aún empleado en Bolivia, pero su promoción por parte del aparato público tiene gran potencial de coadyuvar a la seguridad alimentaria y promover el desarrollo económico. El documento presenta algunas experiencias exitosas en el desarrollo de seguros basados en índices climáticos a nivel mundial y analiza el estado actual de desarrollo de este mercado en Bolivia. Se revisan en detalle los fundamentos técnicos de la creación de este tipo de seguros, a partir de los cuales, se presentan propuestas de esquemas paramétricos de seguros agrícolas basados en índices climáticos para la protección de cultivos de trigo y papa, ambos de ciclo intermedio, en el municipio de Anzaldo (sur-oeste de Cochabamba.

  16. Prevalencia de las infecciones por virus de las hepatitis B, C, D y E en Bolivia Prevalence of viral hepatitis B, C, D, and E in Bolivia

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    Pilar León

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available En Bolivia no se han realizado estudios específicos sobre los virus de la hepatitis, por lo que su prevalencia y patrones de circulación son prácticamente desconocidos. De 1992 a 1996 se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico con el fin de adquirir una primera visión de conjunto sobre las prevalencias de las infecciones por virus de la hepatitis B (VHB, C (VHC, D (VHD y E (VHE en distintas poblaciones de Bolivia. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en otros lugares de América Latina, se prestó atención especial al estudio de las comunidades autóctonas de la región amazónica. En las zonas rurales del altiplano andino, la infección por VHB presentó una prevalencia general que correspondería a una situación de endemia media o baja (11,2% y no se encontró ningún portador de anticuerpos contra VHC o VHD. En dos poblaciones de alto riesgo de la ciudad de Cochabamba (niños sin hogar y trabajadoras del sexo, la prevalencia de infección por VHB fue similar (11,6% y podría considerarse baja en comparación con la de otras poblaciones análogas de núcleos urbanos en América Latina. La correspondiente al VHC (un caso positivo, 0,5% sería parecida a la descrita en esas mismas poblaciones, si bien el escaso número de muestras estudiadas no permite extraer conclusiones más firmes. En concordancia con observaciones anteriores de comunidades similares de zonas tropicales de Suramérica, en las poblaciones autóctonas de la Amazonia boliviana la infección por VHB es sumamente endémica (prevalencia general de 74,0%, pero no se ha detectado la circulación de VHC. Se sabe que la transmisión de VHB es horizontal y tiene lugar desde edades muy tempranas, pero se desconocen los mecanismos de esa actividad. A los 10 años de edad, más de la mitad de la población ya ha experimentado la infección natural que, 10 años más tarde, se habrá difundido a prácticamente toda la población. La tasa muy baja de individuos positivos al HbsAg (1

  17. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

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    Patricia V Aguilar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of <7 days duration were enrolled in the study and blood samples were obtained from each patient and assayed by virus isolation. Demographic and clinical information from each patient was also obtained at the time of voluntary enrollment. In 2005-2007, cases of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE were diagnosed for the first time in residents of Bolivia; the patients did not report traveling, suggesting endemic circulation of VEEV in Bolivia. In 2001 and 2003, VEE cases were also identified in Ecuador. Since 1993, VEEV has been continuously isolated from patients in Loreto, Peru, and more recently (2005, in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  18. Technical assistance in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteiza-Quirno, A.

    1976-01-01

    As in the other regions, nuclear technology development in Latin America reflects mainly the degree of technological development already existing in each country. It is quite significant that in nearly all countries in Latin America the medical profession has been the first to show interest in using nuclear techniques. As a result, a country such as Uruguay has become a source of recruitment for technical assistance experts in nuclear medicine to other developing countries, while at the same time it continues to receive assistance for new sophisticated techniques from the IAEA. Part of this assistance, in turn, comes from the neighbouring countries, Argentina and Brazil. For example, an expert from Uruguay is currently assigned under an Agency programme to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and experts from Argentina and Brazil have been sent to Uruguay. This is an example of 'horizontal' development, meaning mutual assistance between developing countries under programmes supported by the United Nations Agencies, which is now being emphasized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Still in the field of nuclear medicine, another significant model is provided by Bolivia. With assistance from the IAEA, and thanks to the availability of a good professional infrastructure in that country, a net of nuclear medicine services has been started, consisting of a well-developed nuclear medicine centre in La Paz and regional centres in Cochabamba, Sucre and Santa Cruz. Because of its great variations in altitude, Bolivia is in the position of being able to conduct research on the adaptation of man to diverse environmental conditions. The Agency has contributed, and continues to do so, to these programmes by sending experts, providing for training abroad of Bolivian doctors under its fellowship programmes, and providing basic equipment for all four centres. Independently of the cases described above, the IAEA has implemented or is implementing a considerable

  19. Prevalencia del VIH en niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y explotación sexual comercial: una revisión sistemática

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    Camilo Noreña-Herrera

    Full Text Available Resumen: Describir la prevalencia de infección por el VIH en los niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y de explotación sexual comercial y las características de lugar, tiempo, población y tipo de muestreo de los estudios. Revisión sistemática, no metaanálisis, con búsqueda en 10 bases de datos electrónicas: Science Direct, MEDLINE, OVID, LILACS, Wiley InterScience, MD Consult, Springer Link, Embase, Web of Science, Ebsco. También, existe búsqueda complementada en dos bibliotecas de escuelas de salud pública y páginas de Internet de Organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas y lista de referencias de los artículos incluidos. Seleccionamos estudios observacionales con niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y explotación sexual comercial en edades entre diez y veinte años, con resultados de las prevalencias del VIH. Fueron recuperadas 9.829 referencias, 15 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y componen esta síntesis descriptiva. De este conjunto, doce fueron realizados en niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y tres en población en explotación sexual comercial. Todos fueron estudios transversales. La prevalencia del VIH en la población en situación de calle va desde 0% en Dallas, Estados Unidos y Cochabamba, Bolivia hasta 37,4% en San Petersburgo, Rusia. En la población en explotación sexual comercial, va desde 2% en Toronto, Canadá hasta 20% en Calcuta, India. Concluimos que la infección por VIH está presente en los niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de calle y de explotación sexual. Siendo necesarias acciones de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento como un asunto prioritario de la salud pública y una responsabilidad ética de los gobiernos y la sociedad.

  20. PRESENCIA DE ARSENICO EN AGUAS DE POZOS PROFUNDOS Y SU REMOCIÓN USANDO UN PROTOTIPO PILOTO BASADO EN COLECTORES SOLARES DE BAJO COSTO

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    Ramiro Escalera Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha realizado un relevamiento de la calidad físico-química y presencia de arsénico en aguas de pozos con profundidad mayor a 50 m, ubicados en la zona periurbana oeste de la ciudad de Cochabamba, mediante muestreos llevados a cabo durante dos periodos diferentes (húmedo y seco. Por otra parte, se ejecutó un estudio de desempeño de una planta piloto de tratamiento para la remoción de arsénico (As basado en la aplicación de colectores solares de bajo costo, construidos con materiales reciclables de fácil accesibilidad. Las aguas subterráneas son del tipo calcio-bicarbonato (Ca-HCO3 por su  predominancia sobre otros cationes y aniones, son ligeramente alcalinas (pH 7,4 – 8,3 y sus concentraciones de hierro Fe (II y manganeso Mn (II disueltos son relativamente altas, variando entre <0,1 y 2,1 mg/L y <0,1 y 1,2 mg/L, respectivamente. Son moderadamente reductoras, con potencial óxido-reducción (ORP entre -12,5 y 69 mV. Existe una significativa presencia natural de As. Cerca de la mitad de las muestras presentan valores superiores al valor requerido por la Norma Boliviana de Agua Potable (NB 512 de 10 g/L. En el periodo seco (8 meses cerca del 40% de las muestras la superan en más de 10 veces. El desempeño del sistema de tratamiento piloto, mediante el proceso de Remoción Asistida por Oxidación Solar (RAOS, fue satisfactorio incluso en días nublados con remociones mayores al 80%, logrando reducir la concentración de As hasta valores muy por debajo de lo requerido en la Norma Boliviana de agua potable. Existe una remoción muy significativa de As (cerca del 75% en la trayectoria  que va desde la boca de pozo hasta la entrada al sistema de tratamiento. La remoción puede explicarse por la presencia de incrustaciones de óxidos de hierro (III y manganeso (IV depositadas en la superficie de la línea de distribución, que incluye tuberías y tanques de almacenamiento, que pueden adsorber los arseniatos formados por la aireaci

  1. Asynchronous Glacial Chronologies in the Central Andes (15-40°S) and Paleoclimatic Implications

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    Zech, R.; Kull, C.; Kubik, P. W.; Veit, H.

    2006-12-01

    We have established glacial chronologies along a N-S transect over the Central Andes using 10Be surface exposure dating. Our results show that maximum glacial advances occurred asynchronously and reflect the varying influence and shifts of the major atmospheric circulation systems during the Late Quaternary: the tropical circulation in the north and the westerlies in the south. In Bolivia (three research areas in the Cordillera Real and the Cordillera Cochabamba, ~15°S) glacial advances could be dated to ~20 and 12 ka BP. This is in good agreement with published exposure age data from moraines in Bolivia and Peru (provided that all ages are calculated following the same scaling system). Accordingly, the maximum glaciation there probably occurred roughly synchronous to the temperature minimum of the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the lateglacial cold reversals. Strict correlation with neither the Younger Dryas in the northern hemisphere, nor the Antarctic Cold Reversal is possible due to the current systematic exposure age uncertainties (~10%). Glacier-Climate-Modelling corroborates the sensitivity of the reconstructed glaciers to temperature changes, rather than precipitation. On the contrary, there is good evidence for the dominant role of precipitation changes on the glacial chronologies in the lee of the Cordillera Occidental, i.e. on the Altiplano and further south. The pronounced lateglacial wet phase, which is well documented in lake transgression phases as far south as 28°S (-> tropical moisture source), seems to have caused glacial advances even at ~30°S. In two research areas in Chile at that latitude, we were able to date several lateglacial moraines. Besides, the maximum datable glaciation there occurred at ~30 ka BP. That is significantly earlier than the LGM (sensu strictu) and points to favourable climate conditions for glaciation at that time (particularly increased precipitation). We conclude that the westerlies were more intensive or

  2. Self-sampling for human papillomavirus DNA detection: a preliminary study of compliance and feasibility in BOLIVIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surriabre, Pedro; Allende, Gustavo; Prado, Marcela; Cáceres, Leyddy; Bellot, Diego; Torrico, Andrea; Ustariz, Karina; Rojas, Shirley; Barriga, Jaime; Calle, Pamela; Villarroel, Ligia; Yañez, Rosse Mary; Baay, Marc; Rodriguez, Patricia; Fontaine, Véronique

    2017-12-22

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Bolivia are among the highest in Latin America. This investigation aims to evaluate the possibility of using simple devices, e.g. a cotton swab and a glass slide, for self-sampling in order to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by PCR in cervico-vaginal cells. In the first phase of our study we evaluated the use of a glass slide as a transport medium for cervical cells. A physician took paired-cervical samples from 235 women. One sample was transported in Easyfix® solution and the other sample was smeared over a glass slide. Both were further analyzed and compared for human DNA recovery and HPV detection. A kappa value was determined to evaluate the agreement between the HPV DNA detection rates. In the second phase of the study, 222 women from the urban, peri-urban and rural regions of Cochabamba were requested to perform self-sampling using the following devices: a cotton swab combined with a glass slide, and a vaginal tampon. Women gave their opinion about the self-sampling technique. Finally, the agreement for high risk-HPV detection between self- and physician-collected samples was performed in 201 samples in order to evaluate the self-sampling technique. Firstly, the comparison between Easyfix® solution and the glass slide to transport clinical samples gave a good agreement for HPV DNA detection (κ = 0.71, 95% CI 0.60-0.81). Secondly, self-sampling, especially with cotton swab combined with glass slide, would generally be preferred over clinician sampling for a screening program based on HPV detection. Finally, we showed a good agreement between self- and physician collected samples for high risk-HPV detection (κ = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.88). Simple devices such as a cotton swab and a glass slide can be used to perform self-sampling and HPV DNA detection. Furthermore, most Bolivian women preferred self-sampling over clinician-sampling for cervical cancer screening.

  3. Probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial using two different probiotic preparations in Bolivian children

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    Grandy Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that probiotics reduce rotavirus diarrhoea duration. Although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, daily practice is often limited by the type and number of products locally available. In general, information about combined products is scarce. In this study we compare the effect of two probiotic products in the treatment of diarrhoea in children less than 2 years of age. Methods A Randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial in children hospitalized for acute rotavirus diarrhoea, in the Paediatric Centre Albina Patino, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Participants were children aged 1 - 23 months, who were randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: Oral rehydration therapy plus placebo; Oral rehydration solution plus Saccharomyces boulardii; or Oral rehydration solution plus a compound containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii. Sample size was 20 per group and the outcomes were duration of diarrhoea, of fever, of vomiting and of hospitalization. Results 64 cases finished the protocol. On admission, patients' characteristics were similar. Median duration of diarrhoea (p = 0.04 in children who received the single species product (58 hours was shorter than in controls (84.5 hrs. Comparing children that received the single probiotic product and controls showed shorter duration of fever (18 vs 67 hrs (p = 0.0042 and the mixed probiotic of vomiting (0 vs 42.5 hrs (p = 0.041. There was no effect on duration of hospitalization (p = 0.31. When experimental groups were merged, statistical significance of changes increased (total duration of diarrhoea, fever and vomiting P = 0.025, P = 0.025 and P = 0.014, respectively. Conclusions Both products decreased the duration of diarrhoea compared to oral rehydration solution alone. This decrease was significant only for the single species product which also decreased the duration of

  4. Water privatization and public health in Latin America La privatización del abastecimiento de agua y la salud pública en América Latina

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    John P. Mulreany

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study had two objectives: (1 to determine what the public health and development literature has found regarding the public health outcomes of water privatization in Latin America and (2 to evaluate whether the benefits of water privatization, if any, outweigh the equity and justice concerns that privatization raises. METHODS: Using a standard set of terms to search several databases, the authors identified and reviewed articles and other materials from public health and development sources that were published between 1995 and 2005 and that evaluated the public health effects of water privatizations in Latin America from 1989 to 2000, based on (1 access to water by the poor and/or (2 improvements in public health. Next, the authors examined the experiences of three cities in Bolivia (Cochabamba, El Alto, and La Paz in order to illuminate further the challenges of water privatization. Finally, the authors considered the equity and justice issues raised by the privatization of water. RESULTS: The literature review raised persistent concerns regarding access to water by the poor under privatization. The review also suggested that the public sector could deliver public health outcomes comparable to those of the private sector, as measured by access rates and decreasing child mortality rates. In terms of social equity and justice, privatization marked a troubling shift away from the conception of water as a "social good" and toward the conception of water-and water management services-as commodities. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated there is no compelling case for privatizing existing public water utilities based on public health grounds. From the perspective of equity and justice, water privatization may encourage a minimalist conception of social responsibility for public health that may hinder the development of public health capacities in the long run.OBJETIVOS: Este estudio tuvo dos objetivos: 1 determinar lo que dicen las

  5. Herencia del número de vainas por nudo y su relación con características afines en arveja (Pisum sativum L.

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    Castillo Edgar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2010-2011 en el Centro de Investigaciones Fitoecogenéticas de Pairumani (CIFP en Cochabamba-Bolivia, se cruzaron ocho líneas parentales de arveja bajo el diseño dialélico Griffing IV, con el objetivo de determinar las bases genéticas que condicionan el número de vainas por nudo, la relaciones genéticas con caracteres afines y las líneas que posean genes favorables para incrementar el número de vainas por nudo. Las progenies F1 evaluadas de acuerdo al diseño experimental de filas y columnas incompletas con cuatro repeticiones, indican que el número de vainas/nudo está condicionado por efectos aditivos y de dominancia; sin embargo, los efectos aditivos fueron de mayor importancia con una heredabilidad en sentido estrecho moderado (0.49. Por otro lado, el número de vainas/nudo está alta y positivamente correlacionada con el número de vainas/planta y densidad de grano, en las cuales los efectos aditivos fueron de mayor importancia y heredabilidades en sentido estrecho de 0.72 y 0.36, respectivamente. El número de vainas/nudo está alta y negativamente correlacionada con días a floración, días a madurez en verde, largo de vaina, ancho de vaina, peso de grano, altura de planta y altura a la primera vaina, en las cuales excepto en altura de planta y altura a la primera vaina, los efectos aditivos fueron de mayor importancia, con una heredabilidad en sentido estrecho entre 0.19 y 0.81. Para desarrollar variedades con mayor número de vainas por nudo se puede optar por desarrollar variedades con vainas a menor altura, de granos más pequeños y con vainas más delgadas; o variedades con más días a madurez en verde, de granos menos densos, pedúnculo corto y vainas cortas. Las líneas M-2, calle-calle, Pairumani-1, PH-91-3 poseen genes favorables para desarrollar variedades con mayor número de vainas por nudo y por ende mayor cantidad de vainas por planta, pero con vainas pequeñas y delgadas, y de ciclo corto, además de

  6. Retos y perspectivas de la gobernanza del agua y gestión integral de recursos hídricos en Bolivia

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    Sergio Antonio Ruiz

    2008-10-01

    Ministerio del Agua en el año 2006, que surgió de movimientos sociales como la ‘guerra por el agua’ en Cochabamba en el 2000, abrió una nueva perspectiva para las políticas hídricas en Bolivia. No obstante, a dos años de gestión, la nueva política hídrica boliviana se encuentra estancada, entre otros motivos, debido al debilitamiento político y técnico del propio Ministerio del Agua, que no permite coordinar acciones con las instancias públicas de los gobiernos departamentales y municipales, y la escasa coherencia entre las normas que regulan las actividades del sector. El presente documento expone los retos y las perspectivas del proceso de formulación e implementación de la política nacional de agua en Bolivia, sobre la base de reflexiones respecto del marco regulatorio existente y la estrategia de implementación sectorial de riego, agua potable y cuencas. El objetivo final es delinear las brechas entre el discurso oficial en el agua y las realidades y dificultades locales y regionales en el agua e indicar algunos métodos alternativos para una acción cívico- pública más coherente en la gobernanza del agua y la gestión integrada de recursos hídricos.

  7. Presentación - Minga-Mutirão de Revistas de Teología latinoamericanas - A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro

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    José Maria Vigil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available KOINONIA/ASETTMINGA/MUTIRÃO DE REVISTAS DE TEOLOGIA LATINO-AMERICANASÍndice del número colectivo Minga-Mutirão de Revistas Latinoamericanas de Teología 2013, «A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro»VIGIL, José Maria. Presentación. BARROS, Marcelo; VIGIL, José Maria. Anunciaron su muerte, ¡pero está bien viva! Teología de la Liberación 40 años: balance y perspectivas. SUSIN, Luiz Carlos, Secretario Executivo do Foro Mundial de Teologia e Libertação, Porto Alegre, Brasil, Teologia da Libertação: de onde viemos, para onde vamos? ALMEIDA, Antonio José de, Teologia da Libertação e transições eclesiasis pendentes para o futuro. ARAGÃO, Gilbraz, Recife, Brasil, A Libertação se desdobra em diálogo. Teologia da Libertação e pluralismo religioso. BARROS, Marcelo, Recife, Brasil, Para una teología bolivariana de la Liberación. Teología de la Liberación y Patria Grande hoy. SCHIAVO, Luigi, San José, Costa Rica, Tiempos oscuros, tiempos de monstruos. Teología de la Liberación y nuevos desafíos culturales. OSORIO, Sergio, Bogotá, Colombia, Una nueva dimensión epistemológica para la teología. La Teología de la Liberación y el desafío epistemológico. RODRIGUES SILVA Marcos, Coordenador da Comissão de Teologia Afro da ASETT, Teologia Afro (ou Negra da Libertação: balanço e perspectivas. TOMICHÁ, Roberto, Cochabamba, Bolivia, Teologías de la liberación indígenas. VÉLEZ, Consuelo, Coordinadora de la Comisión de Teología Feminista de la ASETT, Universidad Xaveriana, Bogotá, Colombia, Teología feminista latinoamericana de la Liberación: balance y futuro. KERBER, Guillermo: Teología de la liberación y movimiento ecuménico. CASTILLO, Jorge, panameño profesor de teología en la Universidad de Nijmegen, Holanda, Teología de la liberación y «cristianismo mundial». VIGIL, José María, Panamá, Panamá, Teología de la Liberación en camino hacia nuevos paradigmas.

  8. Utilisation de la teledetection, des SIG et de l'intelligence artificielle pour determiner le niveau de susceptibilite aux mouvements de terrain: Application dans les Andes de la Bolivie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, Stephane

    1999-11-01

    The socio-economic impact of mass movements for our society is getting more and more serious. The loss of lives and economic losses are now ten times greater than they were at the beginning of the decade. In the hope of reducing these impacts, it is essential to adopt a preventive policy that will encourage mapping of mass movement susceptibility level (MMSL) in critical zones. However, this task is complex and only experts using present techniques can provide satisfactory results. To make possible the production of these maps by a larger number of individuals, we have developed an expert system called EXPERIM that uses remote sensing data and geographic information systems to facilitate the complex tasks without requiring the user to be highly competent in this field of study. This thesis presents the results obtained from a complete strategy developed for a region surrounding Cochabamba, Bolivia. The operational expert system prototype will soon be integrated within the watershed management program directed by the local executing organisation PROMIC. The knowledge acquisition and its expression in concrete terms constitute the principal axis of this research, while the results obtained are the heart of the EXPERIM expert system. These strategic steps aim to establish a knowledge base of data and rules that describe field conditions for each MMSL. We have been able to extract this information by using binary discriminant analysis of a MMSL map produced by an expert for a pilot zone called Cuenca Taquina, which is geoecologically representative of the 38 neighbouring watersheds. Using this technique, we were able to establish a sensitivity model that recreates the expert's map with a success rate of 89% and 78% when two or three MMS levels are used. Based on a detailed analysis of the susceptibility model it was evident that stability conditions are the result of the topographic, geologic and geomorphologic environments. The level of susceptibility was found to be

  9. Glacial evolution of the Ampato Volcanic Complex (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Vázquez, L.

    2009-04-01

    .O. (1990): Recent glacial history and paleoclimate of the Peruvian - Bolivian Andes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 9: 137-152. Seltzer, G. O.; Rodbell, D. T; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Tapia, P. M.; Rowe, H.D.; y Dunbar, R. B. (2002): Early warming of Tropical South America at the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition. Science, 296: 1.685-1.686. Smith, J. A.; Seltzer, G.O.; Rodbell, R.T.; y Klein, A.R. (2005): Regional synthesis of last glacial maximum snowlines in the tropical Andes, South America. Quaternary International, 138: 145 -167. Zech, R.; Kull, CH.; Kubik, P. W. y Veit, H. (2007): Exposure dating of Late Glacial and pre-LGM moraines in the Cordon de Doña Rosa, Northern/Central Chile (31° S). Climate of the Past, 3: 1-14. Zech, R.; Kull, CH.; Kubik, P. W. y Veit, H. (2007): LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia) deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating. Climate of the Past, 3: 623-635. Zreda, M., J. England, F. Phillips, D. Elmore, and P. Sharma, (1999): Unblocking the Nares Strait by Greenland and Ellesmere ice-sheet retreat 10,000 years ago, Nature, 398: 139-142.