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Sample records for coccidia

  1. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue sampl...

  2. Redescription of Neospora caninum and its differentiation from related coccidia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubey, J. P.; Barr, B. C.; Barta, J. R.; Bjerkas, I.; Bjorkman, C.; Blagburn, B. L.; Bowman, D. D.; Buxton, D.; Ellis, J. T.; Gottstein, B.; Hemphill, A.; Hill, D. E.; Howe, D. K.; Jenkins, M. C.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koudela, Břetislav; Marsh, A. E.; Mattsson, J. G.; McAllister, M. M.; Modrý, David; Omata, Y.; Sibley, L. D.; Speer, C. A.; Trees, A. J.; Uggla, A.; Upton, S. J.; Wlliams, D. J. L.; Lindsay, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2002), s. 929-946 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Neospora caninum * coccidia * tachyzoizes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2002

  3. Coccidia infections in Danish farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    day (April-October 2016) from bitches and cups on 30 farms (n=335 mink) from South- or North Jutland, or Zealand. Minimum once, 60.9% (n=204) mink excreted Eimeria, 56.7% (n=190) Isospora and 20.9% (n=70) excreted both coccidia. Positive mink were identified on all farms. Eimeria prevalence was higher...... on the Zealand farms (25.4±2.2%, PEimeria prevalence peaked in June-July (12.6%-24.9%), while Isospora prevalence peaked in July-August (12.......1%-27.6%). More cups (19.5%) than bitches (4.6%) were Isospora positive, while Eimeria prevalence was similar for cups (15.7%) and bitches (10.5%). For cups, Eimeria prevalence peaked when cups were 7-11 weeks old and again when 18-24 weeks old. Isospora prevalence peaked in cups 13-15 weeks old. Three Eimeria...

  4. Description and taxonomic discussion of eimerian coccidia from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two new genera are proposed to accomodate new and previously described species of eimerian coccidia from reptiles which undergo endogenous development either in the bile epithelium — Choloœimoria n. gen., or in the microvillous zone of the intestinal epithelium — Acroeimeria n. gen. Endogenous development is ...

  5. Coccidia in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juan P; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla P; Mejía-García, Cristian J; Janczur, Mariusz K; Gomes Lopes, Carlos W; Berto, Bruno P; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. We captured birds and took samples of their droppings during three field visits. We examined a total of 72 fecal samples and found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 10 samples from five passerine species: Atlapetes pileatus (3), Cardelina ruber (1), Mniotilta varia (1), Oreothlypis celata (2) and Regulus calendula (3). This appears to be the first recorded study of unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerine species from Mexico.

  6. Intestinal coccidia in Cuban pediatric patients with diarrhea

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    Núñez FA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From May to August 1999, we evaluated 401 patients from a pediatric hospital of Havana City. One group was composed of 113 patients with diarrhea admitted to the Gastroenterology ward and a second consisted of 288 patients without diarrhea, admitted for other reasons, and hospitalized within the same time period. Three stool samples were collected from each child and were examined using three parasitological techniques. When we compared the frequency of parasite species between both groups, we found Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis, only in the group of children with diarrhea (P 0.05. In addition, in those children infected with Cryptosporidium, the diarrhea had a more prolonged duration (P < 0.01, while those infected with Cyclospora, the abdominal cramps or pain, and acute diarrhea were more frequently detected (P < 0.01. Our results showed that emerging intestinal coccidia are pathogens strongly associated in this group of children with diarrhea.

  7. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of coccidia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmatz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    New approaches to the in vitro cultivation of coccidian parasites are described here, specifically for avian coccidia of the genus Eimeria. Firstly, an improved method of purifying the infectious stage of these parasites, known as sporozoites, over a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column to eliminate toxic debris generated during excystation is described. The cultured cells used to support the intracellular development of these parasites, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK), were cloned and it was demonstrated that some clones were more susceptible than others to infection with sporozoites. The use of sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation to pre-treat host cell monolayers prior to infecting has been found to prevent host cell overgrowth and subsequent peeling of the monolayers while not interfering with parasite development. Utilizing in vitro culture techniques developed here in conjunction with radiolabeling studies, an assay has been development using the parasite-specific incorporation of 3 H-uracil to assess the intracellular development of E. tenella and E. acervulina in vitro. As shown by both scintillation counts and autoradiography, 3 H-uracil was incorporated specifically into the intracellular parasites from the onset of infection and continued throughout the development of the first generation schizonts. Based on these findings, a semi-automated microscale incorporation assay was developed to determine parasite viability. The assay system is used in this study to investigate the effects of known anticoccidials, sporozoite antiserum, and varying the composition of the cell culture medium on parasite development

  8. The phylogeny of Goussia and Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa; Eimeriorina) and the evolution of excystation structures in coccidia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Milan; Modrý, David; Šlapeta, Jan Roger; Koudela, Břetislav; Lukeš, Julius

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 153, č. 4 (2002), s. 379-390 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA524/00/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : SSU rDNA * coccidia * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.617, year: 2002

  9. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

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    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  10. Strategies to reduce severity of coccidia infections in organic poultry systems by the use of plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was performed in a commercial farm in Brazil to investigate potential candidates for botanical coccidiostats to pullets (Isa Brown breed) naturally infected with coccidia (Eimeria spp.). Infection dynamics and performance were investigated in 1400 pullets allocated randomly to six...

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria innocua (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mian Abdul; Vrba, Vladimir; Barta, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eimeria innocua KR strain (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa) was sequenced. This coccidium infects turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), Bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus), and Grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Genome organization and gene contents were comparable with other Eimeria spp. infecting galliform birds. The circular-mapping mt genome of E. innocua is 6247 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cytb), 19 gene fragments encoding large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 14 gene fragments encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA. Like other Apicomplexa, no tRNA was encoded. The mitochondrial genome of E. innocua confirms its close phylogenetic affinities to Eimeria dispersa.

  12. Prevalence and genetic characterization of eimeriid coccidia from feces of black-necked cranes, Grus nigricollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhao, ZiJiao; Hu, JunJie; Esch, Gerald W; Peng, MingChun; Liu, Qiong; Chen, JinQing

    2018-03-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) is a widely distributed intestinal and extraintestinal disease of cranes caused by eimeriid coccidia and has lethal pathogenicity to several crane species. Here, feces of 164 black-necked cranes collected in Dashanbao Black-necked Crane National Nature Reserve, China, were examined to determine the prevalence of coccidial oocysts. Of the 164 fecal samples, 76 (46.3%) were positive for oocysts of Eimeria, including E. gruis in 59 (35.9%), E. reichenowi in 52 (31.7%), and E. bosquei in 47 (28.7%) by microscopic observation. Sixty-eight (89.5%) of these positive samples included two or more morphologically identifiable species of Eimeria. The nearly full length 18S rRNA gene (18S rRNA; about 1.8 kb) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COX1; about 1.3 kb) from oocysts of each morphologically distinct species of Eimeria were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. BLAST searches using these new 18S rRNA sequences for E. gruis, E. reichenowi, or E. bosquei showed the most similar sequences were those of E. gruis (98.7-99.7% identity), E. reichenowi (97.9-100% identity), or E. gruis (98.6-99.6% identity) isolated from different species of Grus. BLAST searches using the new COX1 sequences for the three species of Eimeria showed that no nucleotide sequences of Eimeria and Isospora coccidia in GenBank have more than 83.0% identity with these species. Identities among the new COX1 sequences were 91.8% for E. gruis and E. reichenowi, 94.5% for E. gruis and E. bosquei, and 91.3% for E. reichenowi and E. bosquei. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA or COX1 sequences indicated that Eimeria spp. in black-necked cranes were clustered together with other previously identified Eimeria species from different cranes.

  13. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to strongyles and coccidia in the free-living Soay sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldi, Dario; McRae, Allan F; Gratten, Jacob; Pilkington, Jill G; Slate, Jon; Visscher, Peter M; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2007-01-01

    A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole genome at average spacing of 15cM. The traits here investigated were the strongyle faecal egg count (FEC), the coccidia faecal oocyst count (FOC) and a count of keds (Melophagus ovinus). QTL mapping was performed by means of variance component analysis so that the genetic parameters of the study traits were also estimated and compared with previous studies in Soay and domestic sheep. Strongyle FEC and coccidia FOC showed moderate heritability (h(2)=0.26 and 0.22, respectively) in lambs but low heritability in adults (h(2)<0.10). Ked count appeared to have very low h(2) in both lambs and adults. Genome scans were performed for the traits with moderate heritability and two genomic regions reached the level of suggestive linkage for coccidia FOC in lambs (logarithm of the odds=2.68 and 2.21 on chromosomes 3 and X, respectively). We believe this is the first study to report a QTL search for parasite resistance in a free-living animal population and therefore may represent a useful reference for similar studies aimed at understanding the genetics of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild.

  14. Three new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Austin, Christopher C.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 18.6 × 16.9 μm, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 × 17.5 μm, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 × 15.7 μm, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu.

  15. Description of Eimeria arabukosokokensis sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Telescopus semiannulatus (Serpentes: Colubridae) with notes on eimerian coccidia from snakes of Eastern Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlapeta, Jan Roger; Modrý, David; Ashe, J.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2003), s. 23-30 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Coccidia * Caryospora * Eimeria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2003

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; El-Sherry, Shiem; Whale, Julia; Barta, John R

    2014-07-17

    via host switching from another avian host. Phylogenetic analyses suggest E. necatrix and E. tenella are related distantly to other Eimeria of chickens. Mitochondrial genomes of Eimeria species sequenced to date are highly conserved with regard to gene content and structure. Nonetheless, complete mitochondrial genome sequences and, particularly the three CDS, possess sufficient sequence variability for differentiating Eimeria species of poultry. The mitochondrial genome sequences are highly suited for molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics of coccidia and, potentially, genetic markers for molecular epidemiology.

  17. Evolutionary relationships among cyst-forming coccidia Sarcocystis spp. (Alveolata: Apicomplexa: Coccidea) in endemic African tree vipers and perspective for evolution of heteroxenous life cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlapeta, Jan Roger; Modrý, David; Votýpka, Jan; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius; Koudela, Břetislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2003), s. 464-475 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/P015; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(CZ) 1268/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : coccidia * Sarcocystis * evolution Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2003

  18. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  19. New species of Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), with taxonomic rvision of eimerian coccidia from chameleons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 91-97 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Choleoeimeria * Apicomplexa * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006

  20. Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Reid, Adam James

    2012-03-22

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.

  1. A linear mitochondrial genome of Cyclospora cayetanensis (Eimeriidae, Eucoccidiorida, Coccidiasina, Apicomplexa) suggests the ancestral start position within mitochondrial genomes of eimeriid coccidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; da Silva, Alexandre J; Arrowood, Michael J; Barta, John R

    2015-05-01

    The near complete mitochondrial genome for Cyclospora cayetanensis is 6184 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (Cox1, Cox3, CytB) and numerous lsrDNA and ssrDNA fragments. Gene arrangements were conserved with other coccidia in the Eimeriidae, but the C. cayetanensis mitochondrial genome is not circular-mapping. Terminal transferase tailing and nested PCR completed the 5'-terminus of the genome starting with a 21 bp A/T-only region that forms a potential stem-loop. Regions homologous to the C. cayetanensis mitochondrial genome 5'-terminus are found in all eimeriid mitochondrial genomes available and suggest this may be the ancestral start of eimeriid mitochondrial genomes. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coccidia and other Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are important to the economy of the US. Control of infectious diseases is necessary for the success of swine industry. In the present book chapter the authors review current information on protozoan infections of pigs. The coccidium Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhea in newborn pigs. Public hea...

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Lacher, David W; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. A total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of Sarcocystidae were included in the analyses with clonal isolates of two opossum and two horse S. neurona. Phylogenies obtained by the four tree-building methods were consistent with the classical taxonomy based on morphological criteria. The "isosporid" coccidia Neospora, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Isospora lacking stieda bodies, and Hyaloklossia formed a sister group to the Sarcocystis spp. Sarcocystis species were divided into three main lineages; S. neurona isolates were located in the second lineage and clustered with S. mucosa, S. dispersa, S. lacertae, S. rodentifelis, S. muris, and Frenkelia spp. Alignment of S. neurona SSU rRNA gene sequences of Michigan opossum isolates (MIOP5, MIOP20) and a S. neurona Michigan horse isolate (MIH8) showed 100% identity. These Michigan isolates differed in 2/1085 bp (0.2%) from a Kentucky S. neurona horse isolate (SN5). Additionally, S. neurona isolates from horses and opossums were identical based on the ultrastructural features and PCR-RFLP analyses thus forming a phylogenetically indistinct group in these regions. These findings revealed the concordance between the morphological and molecular data and confirmed that S. neurona from opossums and horses originated from the same phylogenetic origin.

  4. Intestinal Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of Brazilian Lizards. Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., from Kentropyx calcarata and Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. from Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus (Lacertilia: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., is described in the teiid lizard Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from north Brazil. Oocysts subspherical to spherical, averaging 21.25 x 20.15 µm. Oocyst wall smooth, colourless and devoid of striae or micropyle. No polar body or conspicuous oocystic residuum, but frequently a small number of fine granules in Brownian movement. Sporocysts, averaging 10.1 x 9 µm, are without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages characteristic of the genus: intra-cytoplasmic, within the epithelial cells of the ileum and above the host cell nucleus. A re-description is given of a parasite previously described as Eimeria cnemidophori, in the teiid lizard Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus. A study of the endogenous stages in the ileum necessitates renaming this coccidian as Acroeimeria cnemidophori (Carini, 1941 nov.comb., and suggests that Acroeimeria pintoi Lainson & Paperna, 1999 in the teiid Ameiva ameiva is a synonym of A. cnemidophori. A further intestinal coccidian, Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. is described in C. l. lemniscatus, frequently as a mixed infection with A. cnemidophori. Mature oocysts, averaging 24.4 x 21.8 µm, have a single-layered, smooth, colourless wall with no micropyle or striae. No polar body, but the frequent presence of a small number of fine granules exhibiting Brownian movements. Sporocysts 9 x 8, without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages epicytoplasmic, characteristic of the genus, in the upper ileum. The importance of a study of the endogenous stages of eimeriid coccidia is discussed.

  5. Two COWP-like cysteine rich proteins from Eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) are expressed during sporulation and involved in the sporocyst wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonscher, Ernst; Erdbeer, Alexander; Günther, Marie; Kurth, Michael

    2015-07-25

    The family of cysteine rich proteins of the oocyst wall (COWPs) originally described in Cryptosporidium can also be found in Toxoplasma gondii (TgOWPs) localised to the oocyst wall as well. Genome sequence analysis of Eimeria suggests that these proteins may also exist in this genus and led us to the assumption that these proteins may also play a role in oocyst wall formation. In this study, COWP-like encoding sequences had been identified in Eimeria nieschulzi. The predicted gene sequences were subsequently utilized in reporter gene assays to observe time of expression and localisation of the reporter protein in vivo. Both investigated proteins, EnOWP2 and EnOWP6, were expressed during sporulation. The EnOWP2-promoter driven mCherry was found in the cytoplasm and the EnOWP2, respectively EnOWP6, fused to mCherry was initially observed in the extracytoplasmatic space between sporoblast and oocyst wall. This, so far unnamed compartment was designated as circumplasm. Later, the mCherry reporter co-localised with the sporocyst wall of the sporulated oocysts. This observation had been confirmed by confocal microscopy, excystation experiments and IFA. Transcript analysis revealed the intron-exon structure of these genes and confirmed the expression of EnOWP2 and EnOWP6 during sporogony. Our results allow us to assume a role, of both investigated EnOWP proteins, in the sporocyst wall formation of E. nieschulzi. Data mining and sequence comparisons to T. gondii and other Eimeria species allow us to hypothesise a conserved process within the coccidia. A role in oocyst wall formation had not been observed in E. nieschulzi.

  6. Identification and analysis of Eimeria nieschulzi gametocyte genes reveal splicing events of gam genes and conserved motifs in the wall-forming proteins within the genus Eimeria (Coccidia, Apicomplexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedmer Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Coccidia provides a wide range of different species with different hosts to study common and variable features within the genus and its species. A common characteristic of all known Eimeria species is the oocyst, the infectious stage where its life cycle starts and ends. In our study, we utilized Eimeria nieschulzi as a model organism. This rat-specific parasite has complex oocyst morphology and can be transfected and even cultivated in vitro up to the oocyst stage. We wanted to elucidate how the known oocyst wall-forming proteins are preserved in this rodent Eimeria species compared to other Eimeria. In newly obtained genomics data, we were able to identify different gametocyte genes that are orthologous to already known gam genes involved in the oocyst wall formation of avian Eimeria species. These genes appeared putatively as single exon genes, but cDNA analysis showed alternative splicing events in the transcripts. The analysis of the translated sequence revealed different conserved motifs but also dissimilar regions in GAM proteins, as well as polymorphic regions. The occurrence of an underrepresented gam56 gene version suggests the existence of a second distinct E. nieschulzi genotype within the E. nieschulzi Landers isolate that we maintain.

  7. Identification and analysis of Eimeria nieschulzi gametocyte genes reveal splicing events of gam genes and conserved motifs in the wall-forming proteins within the genus Eimeria (Coccidia, Apicomplexa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Stefanie; Erdbeer, Alexander; Volke, Beate; Randel, Stephanie; Kapplusch, Franz; Hanig, Sacha; Kurth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Coccidia) provides a wide range of different species with different hosts to study common and variable features within the genus and its species. A common characteristic of all known Eimeria species is the oocyst, the infectious stage where its life cycle starts and ends. In our study, we utilized Eimeria nieschulzi as a model organism. This rat-specific parasite has complex oocyst morphology and can be transfected and even cultivated in vitro up to the oocyst stage. We wanted to elucidate how the known oocyst wall-forming proteins are preserved in this rodent Eimeria species compared to other Eimeria. In newly obtained genomics data, we were able to identify different gametocyte genes that are orthologous to already known gam genes involved in the oocyst wall formation of avian Eimeria species. These genes appeared putatively as single exon genes, but cDNA analysis showed alternative splicing events in the transcripts. The analysis of the translated sequence revealed different conserved motifs but also dissimilar regions in GAM proteins, as well as polymorphic regions. The occurrence of an underrepresented gam56 gene version suggests the existence of a second distinct E. nieschulzi genotype within the E. nieschulzi Landers isolate that we maintain. PMID:29210668

  8. Description and taxonomic discussion of eimerian coccidia from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-08-02

    Aug 2, 1988 ... distinct type 1 and type 2 wall-fonning bodies (WFI &. WF2) (Figures 5,7, ...... Mag. (Tokyo) 53: 312-314. MCALLISTER, C.T. & UPTON, S.J. 1989. Redescription of Eimeria ... Edition, Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin, Hamburg. 659pp.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249 bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A + T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis.

  10. Evolutionary plasticity in coccidia – Striking morphological similarity of unrelated coccidia (Apicomplexa) from related hosts: Eimeria spp. from African and Asian pangolins (Mammalia: Pholidota)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Kvičerová, Jana; Modrý, David; Hypša, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2013), s. 470-481 ISSN 1434-4610 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/1019 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : COI * endogenous development * ORF * phylogeny * SEM * 18S rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.558, year: 2013

  11. Coccidia from bats (Chiroptera) of the world: a new Eimeria species in Pipistrellus javanicus from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszynski, D W

    1997-04-01

    Fecal samples from 56 Japanese bats representing 6 species in 2 families were examined for coccidian oocysts. Two of the 56 (Rhinolophidae), but only 2 sporulated oocysts were seen, which is not enough to describe a new species.

  12. Molecular characterization of crane Coccidia, Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi, found in feces of migratory cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Takami, Kazutoshi; Abe, Niichiro; Kimata, Isao; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2005-08-01

    Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi have lethal pathogenicity to a number of species of cranes. These parasites develop at multiple organs or tissues in infected cranes, thus lacking the specificity of infection sites shown by other Eimeria spp. in spite of morphologic similarity. To date, there have been many reports of crane Eimeria infections, however, genetic examinations of these parasites have never been published. In the present study, we isolated oocysts of E. gruis and E. reichenowi from crane feces at a wintering area in Japan. By phylogenic analysis, we first demonstrated that partial sequences of the isolates formed their own cluster, located separately from other Eimeria spp.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) suggests a snake as its probable definitive host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis nesbitti was first described by Mandour in 1969 from rhesus monkey muscle. Its definitive host remains unknown. 18SrRNA gene of Sarcocystis nesbitti was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Among those congeners available for comparison, it shares closest affinit...

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; El-Sherry, Shiem; Whale, Julia; Barta, John R

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical and subclinical coccidiosis is cosmopolitan and inflicts significant losses to the poultry industry globally. Seven named Eimeria species are responsible for coccidiosis in turkeys: Eimeria dispersa; Eimeria meleagrimitis; Eimeria gallopavonis; Eimeria meleagridis; Eimeria adenoeides; Eimeria innocua; and, Eimeria subrotunda. Although attempts have been made to characterize these parasites molecularly at the nuclear 18S rDNA and ITS loci, the maternally-derived and mitotic...

  15. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  16. Eimeriid coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Geoemydid Turtles (Testudines: Geoemydidae) with a Description of Six New Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Modrý, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2010), s. 301-310 ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Chelonians * oocysts * parasite diversity * Southeast Asia * Systematics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2010

  17. Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species.

  18. Diversity and host specificity of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in native and introduced squirrel specie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmannová, L.; Romeo, C.; Štohanzlová, L.; Jirsová, D.; Mazzamuto, M.V.; Wauters, L.A.; Ferrari, N.; Modrý, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, OCT (2016), s. 1-14 ISSN 0932-4739 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Competition * Eimeria * Sciurus carolinensis * Sciurus vulgaris * Squirrels Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  19. Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.

  20. Pathogenic characteristics of a novel intranuclear coccidia in Japanese black calves and its genetic identification as Eimeria subspherica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreeda, Terunori; Kawakami, Tomo; Okada, Ayako; Hirashima, Yoshimasa; Imai, Naoto; Sasai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Shogo; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2017-11-01

    Bovine intranuclear coccidiosis is caused by the protozoans Eimeria alabamensis and Cyclospora spp. Here, we characterized the disease and genetically identified the causative species in Japanese black calves with chronic and refractory watery diarrhea. Histologic examinations revealed atrophy of the jejunal villi and numerous parasites in the nucleus of epithelial cells in the jejunum. Based on molecular analyses using 18S ribosomal RNA gene-specific primers that we designed, the parasites were found to be formed in the same cluster as Eimeria subspherica in the phylogenetic tree, which was separated from those of other related Eimeria spp. These results constitute the first report of E. subspherica as a cause of bovine intranuclear coccidiosis.

  1. Helminthes and Coccidia Infection of Wild Sheep (Ovis Ammon Orintalis in Kabodan Island of National Park of Urmia Lake, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Khoshvaghti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one wild sheep (Ovis ammon orintalis from Kabodan Island of National Park of UrmiaLake (North-West of Iran, were examined during a period of six months from October 2002 toMarch 2003, for helminthes and coccidian infection. The numbers of oocyst and eggs per gram offaeces (OPG & EPG were determined by the centrifuge flotation technique using saturated sugarsolution. The rate of infection for Strongylid form, Marshalagia, Trichuris eggs, and lung wormlarvae were 8 (19.5%, 12 (29.5%, 17 (41.5% and 14 (34.1%, respectively. Thirty-three(80.48% of the examined wild animals were infected to one or more Eimeria species including E.parva, E. ahsata, E. ovinoidalis and E. faurei. This study suggested that the rate of parasiticinfection in wild sheep were very low but it would seem that in unsuitable condition such asdrought and starvation, parasitic infection can be cause a serious problem in wild sheep population.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe A Chapman

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  3. Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Reid, Adam James; Vermont, Sarah J.; Cotton, James A.; Harris, David; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Kö nen-Waisman, Stephanie; Latham, Sophia M.; Mourier, Tobias; Norton, Rebecca; Quail, Michael A.; Sanders, Mandy; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Sohal, Amandeep; Wasmuth, James D.; Brunk, Brian; Grigg, Michael E.; Howard, Jonathan C.; Parkinson, John; Roos, David S.; Trees, Alexander J.; Berriman, Matthew; Pain, Arnab; Wastling, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion

  4. Coccidia, X-cell pseudotumors and Ichthyophonus sp. infections in walleye pollock (Theregra chalcogramma) from Auke Bay, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, W D; Kent, M L; Meyers, T R

    1991-01-01

    One hundred twenty-five walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) were collected from Auke Bay, Alaska (USA) in 1985 and examined for histologic evidence of disease-causing infectious agents in 1987. A Goussia sp.-like coccidium was found in the kidney tubules of 75% and an Eimeria sp.-like coccidium was found in the intestine of 18% of the fish examined. The kidney coccidium was associated with sloughing of the tubular epithelium, peritubular fibrosis and granuloma formation. The intestinal coccidium was associated with severe tissue displacement and inflammation. In addition, X-cell pseudotumors were observed in the pseudobranchs (4%), and the fungus Ichthyophonus sp. was observed in the kidney, intestine or brain of 2% of the pollock.

  5. Two Eimerian Coccidia (Apicomplexa : Eimeriidae) from the critically endangered Arakan forest turtle Heosemys depressa (Testudines: Geoemydidae), with description of Eimeria arakanensis n. sp.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2006), s. 183-189 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Apicomplexa * Heosemys Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  6. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus spp. (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar, including a new host of Eimeria brygooi Upton & Barnard, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Scott Seville, R; Hartdegen, Ruston

    2016-10-01

    During May and June 2015, four common leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus fimbriatus (Schneider), five satanic leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus phantasticus (Boulenger), and four mossy leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus sikorae Boettger originally collected from Madagascar and housed at the Dallas Zoo, USA, had their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Eight (62%) geckos were found to be passing oöcysts, including a new eimerian, a new isosporan and a previously described eimerian. Three of four (75%) U. fimbratus (type-host) and one of five (20%) U. phantasticus were infected with Eimeria schneideri n. sp.; oöcysts were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (mean length × width, L × W) 15.1 × 13.5 µm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but one to many polar granules were present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 6.9 × 5.3 µm, L/W = 1.3. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present as dispersed granules. Four of five (80%) U. phantasticus harboured Isospora boulengeri n. sp.; oöcysts were subpheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured 17.3 × 16.0 µm, L/W = 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.5 × 6.9 µm, L/W = 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present but a para-Stieda body was absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present with dispersed granules. In addition, one of four (25%) U. sikorae was infected with an eimerian indistinguishable from Eimeria brygooi Upton & Barnard, 1987, previously reported from Madagascar day gecko, Phelsuma grandis Gray and golddust day gecko, Phelsuma laticauda (Boettger) from Madagascar. These are the first coccidians described from Uroplatus spp.

  7. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated wi...

  8. A Model for Taxonomic Work on Homoxenous Coccidia: Redescription, Host Specificity, and Molecular Phylogeny of Eimeria ranae Dobell, 1909, with a Review of Anuran-Host Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 39-51 ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * experimental infections * metamorphosis * morphotypes * SSU rDNA sequence * tadpoles * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2009

  9. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus spp. (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar, including a new host of Eimeria brygooi Upton and Barnard, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Hartdegen, Ruston

    2016-01-01

    During May and June 2015, four common leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus fimbriatus (Schneider), five satanic leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus phantasticus (Boulenger), and four mossy leaf-tailed geckos, Uroplatus sikorae Boettger originally collected from Madagascar and housed at the Dallas Zoo, USA, had their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Eight (62%) geckos were found to be passing oöcysts, including a new eimerian, a new isosporan and a previously described eimerian. Three of four (75%) U. fimbratus (type host) and one of five (20%) U. phantasticus were infected with Eimeria schneideri n. sp.; oöcysts were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (length × width, L × W) 15.1 × 13.5 µm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but 1–many polar granules were present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 6.9 × 5.3 µm, L/W 1.3. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present as dispersed granules. Four of five (80%) U. phantasticus harbored Isospora boulengeri n. sp.; oöcysts were subpheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured 17.3 × 16.0 µm, L/W 1.1. A micropyle and oöcyst residuum were absent but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.5 × 6.9 µm, L/W 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present but a para-Stieda body was absent. A globular sporocyst residuum was present with dispersed granules. In addition, one of four (25%) U. sikorae was infected with an eimerian indistinguishable from Eimeria brygooi Upton and Barnard, 1987, previously reported from Madagascar day gecko, Phelsuma grandis Gray and golddust day gecko, Phelsuma laticauda (Boettger) from Madagascar. These are the first coccidians described from Uroplatus spp. PMID:27638735

  10. Freqüência de oocistos de coccídios do gênero "Cryptosporidium" em ovinos no estado do Rio de Janeiro Frequency of gender of “Cryptosporidium” coccidia in sheep in the Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ricardo da Silva Fiúza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A freqüência de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foi investigada em 10 rebanhos ovinos no estado do Rio de Janeiro em 2007. Amostras fecais de 130 ovinos foram coletadas para identificar oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. pela técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Verificou-se que 41% dos animais estavam infectados pelo protozoário, não sendo observadas diferenças significativas (P=0,1728, P=0,7082 e P=0,2850 e P=0,4997 com relação a sexo, idades dentro do sexo e classes zootécnicas, respectivamente. Distintos tamanhos e formas dos oocistos revelaram a existência de espécies diferentes de Cryptosporidium spp. parasitando estes ovinos, de modo que o adensamento dos animais observados nas criações intensivas foi determinante fator de risco na infecção.The frequency of Cryptosporidium spp. oocists was evaluated in 10 sheep herds in the Rio de Janeiro state in 2007. Faecal samples from 130 sheep were collected for the identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocists by using the Ziehl–Neelsen modified technique. Statistical analysis showed that 41% of the animals were infected with this protozoa and no significant differences (P = 0,1728, P = 0.7082 and P=0.2850 and P=0.4997 were observed for sex, age between gender sex and animal class, respectively. Different sizes and shapes of Cryptosporidium oocists indicated the probable existence of different species of Cryptosporidium in these animals, and the big number of the animals in the intensive creation is the determinant risk factor for the infection.

  11. Three new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina) from the Marble-throated skink, Marmorosphax tricolor Bavay, 1869 (Reptilia: Scincidae), endemic to New Caledonia with a taxonomic revision of Eimeria spp. from scincid hosts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Jirků, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2006), s. 419-428 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GA524/00/P015; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Coccdia * Reptilia * Eimeria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  12. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  13. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  14. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A. Girard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA. Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near

  15. Strategic management of pastures to control helminths and coccidia of calves in organic systemAvaliação da carga parasitária de helmintos e protozoários em bezerros manejados em sistema orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of helminths eggs and protozoan oocysts elimination in calves’ feces kept in organic system production. The study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2009. Coproparasitological examinations were carried biweekly of 18 calves in pastures rotating system on Embrapa Agrobiology.The egg counting average data had been submitted to the Kruskal Willis test and the larvae counting percentile values to the qui-square test. The average counting of eggs per gram of faces (EGF varied of 250 the 800, characterizing low and moderate infection. Animals with inferior age the six months had presented superior results of EGF (P O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da eliminação de ovos de helmintos e protozoários nas fezes de bezerros mantidos em sistema orgânico de produção. De janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2009, foram realizados quinzenalmente exames coproparasitológicos de 18 bezerros manejados em sistema rotativo de pastagens na Embrapa Agrobiologia. Os dados médios de contagem de ovos foram submetidos ao teste de Kruskal Willis e os valores percentuais da contagem de larvas ao teste de qui-quadrado. A contagem média de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG variou de 250 a 800, caracterizando infecção leve a moderada. Animais com idade inferior a seis meses apresentaram OPG significativamente superiores (p<0,005 aos de faixa etária entre seis e doze meses. Os maiores graus de infecção foram observados no final da primavera e verão. Nos exames coprológicos foram identificados os seguintes gêneros: Haemonchus (73%, Trichostrongylus (24% e Oesophagostomum (3%. As práticas de manejo adotadas em sistema orgânico de produção foram capazes de manter os animais em níveis moderados de infecção por helmintos e protozoários, indicando que há controle parasitário pelo uso do sistema rotativo de pastos.

  16. Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Johnson, Christine K; Miller, Robin H; Gulland, Frances M D; Conrad, Patricia A; Wasmuth, James D; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Grigg, Michael E

    2012-04-01

    Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst-forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal.

  17. Parasites diversity in carnivorous animals in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Boyko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Dnipropetrovsk sity (Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk region in carnivorous animals 10 species of parasites (helminths and coccidia were found: Uncinaria sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dictyocaulus immitis (Nematoda, Strongylata, Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda, Rhabditata, Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurata, Toxocara canis (Nematoda, Ascaridata, Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichurata, Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata, Cystoisospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii (Sporozoa, Coccidia. In soil S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp. weredominanted. In most carnivorous animals registered in L. Globa park and T. Shevchenko park the S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp., Cystoisosporasp. and T. gondii were found.

  18. A coprological investigation of gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary parasites in hunting dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Johansson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    andexamined using the Baermann method. Parasites were recovered from 22.1% of the huntingdogs: Angiostrongylus vasorum (2.2%), Toxocara canis (12.4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7.3%),Taenia spp. (1.7%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Coccidia (0.6%) and unidentified trematode eggs(1.1%). Infection with only one...

  19. original article the prevalence of intestinal coccidian parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences,. University of Bamenda. Email: henrikamga2002@yahoo.fr Tel: (+237)99721972. ABSTRACT. Background: Intestinal coccidia are group of protozoa which parasitize the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract of their hosts. Most infections usually produce ...

  20. Anticoccidial activity of lasalocid (avatec)r and other anticoccidial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Lasalocid AvetecR at a concentration of 75ppm in the feed ration and other currently marketed anticoccidial drugs in Nigerian was studied by monitoring the coccidia, oocyst production in broiler chicken. Five anticoccidial drugs: Lasalocid, halofuginone, monensin, salinomycin, and amprolium were tested ...

  1. Gastrointestinal and haemo parasitism of sheep and goats at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The faecal samples were examined by simple floatation technique for the presence of helminthes eggs and Coccidia oocysts while the blood samples were examined using the thin blood smear, wet mount, haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and mice inoculation test for the presence of both intra and extracellular ...

  2. Phylogeny, Morphology, and Metabolic and Invasive Capabilities of Epicellular Fish Coccidium Goussia janae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dogga, S.K.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Lukeš, Julius; Soldati-Favre, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 6 (2015), s. 659-676 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Coccidia * Goussia janae * phylogeny * ultrastructure * invasion * central carbon metabolism. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.898, year: 2015

  3. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Alvarez, A.; Modrý, David; Foronda, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 5 (2016), s. 1817-1825 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeria barbarae n. sp * Alectoris barbara * Canary Island Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  4. Goussia Labbé , 1896 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriorina) in Amphibia: Diversity, Biology, Molecular Phylogeny and Comments on theStatus of the Genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2009), s. 123-136 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Anura * coccidia * cryptic species * Goussia * phylogeny * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.853, year: 2009

  5. One Year Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 Succinate in Dogs. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-18

    coccidia in their fecal samples will only be treated if they concurrently exhibit diarrhea. All dogs will have been vaccinated against canine distemper...Fine Granular TRANS = Transitional CG = Course Granular NA = Not Applicable HY = Hyaline TP = Triple Phosphate GR = Granular QNS = Quantity Not...infectious canine hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, parvo, oral papilloma, and rabies by the animal supplier. In addition, the animal supplier

  6. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza pellets on internal parasite infection and nutritional status of grazing goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding supplemental Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) leaf meal pellets has been shown to reduce the effects of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and coccidia (Eimeria spp.) in sheep and goats, but effects on nutritional status of parasitized small ruminants are unclear. A 14...

  7. Quantitative characterization, classification and reconstruction of oocyst shapes of Eimeria species from cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.

    1998-01-01

    by multivariate statistical techniques. The morphology of 810 Eimeria specimens was defined in binary (b/w) digital images by pixels of their oocyst outline. A Fourier transform of pixel positions yielded size and shape features. To classify coccidia, the quantitative data were employed in an agglomerative...

  8. The rabbit coccidium Eimeria flavescens Marotel and Guilhon, 1941: an electron microscopic study of its life cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakandl, Michal; Černík, F.; Coudert, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 4 (2003), s. 304-311 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6022002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Coccidia * life cycle * Eimeria flavescens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003

  9. Invasion of the intestinal tract by sporozoites of Eimeria coecicola and Eimeria intestinalis in naive and immune rabbits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakandl, Michal; Sewald, B.; Drouet-Viard, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 4 (2006), s. 310-316 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/2328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : rabbit coccidia * sporozoites * intra- and extraintestinal migration Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  10. Metazoan-protozoan parasite co-infections and host body weight in St Kilda Soay sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, B H; Tempest, L J; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M

    2008-04-01

    For hundreds of years, the unmanaged Soay sheep population on St Kilda has survived despite enduring presumably deleterious co-infections of helminth, protozoan and arthropod parasites and intermittent periods of starvation. Important parasite taxa in young Soay sheep are strongyles (Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta), coccidia (11 Eimeria species) and keds (Melophagus ovinus) and in older animals, Teladorsagia circumcincta. In this research, associations between the intensity of different parasite taxa were investigated. Secondly, the intensities of different parasite taxa were tested for associations with variation in host weight, which is itself a determinant of over-winter survival in the host population. In lambs, the intensity of strongyle eggs was positively correlated with that of Nematodirus spp. eggs, while in yearlings and adults strongyle eggs and coccidia oocysts were positively correlated. In lambs and yearlings, of the parasite taxa tested, only strongyle eggs were significantly and negatively associated with host weight. However, in adult hosts, strongyles and coccidia were independently and negatively associated with host weight. These results are consistent with the idea that strongyles and coccidia are exerting independent selection on Soay sheep.

  11. Eimeria terraepokotorum sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Anura: Ranidae) from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 443-447 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * coccidia * Anura Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  12. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 237-241 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goussia * Rana * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  13. Hemolivia mauritanica (Haemogregarinidae: Apicomplexa infection in the tortoise Testudo graeca in the Near East with data on sporogonous development in the tick vector Hyalomna aegyptium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna I.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Testudo graeca tortoises were collected in the northern and southern Golan Heights (Israeli occupied territory of south Syria, and various locations in Israel and Palestine. Hyalomma aegyptium ticks were found only on Golan Height tortoises, and only the tortoises and ticks from the northern Golan Heights were infected with Hemolivia mauritanica. Tortoises became infected after ingesting infected ticks. Male ticks carrying sporocysts, which remain attached to tortoises for extended durations, apparently served as the source for dissemination of new infections among tortoises. Sporogenesis followed the pattern observed in the two other known species of Hemolivia, though there was some evident variation in fine-structural detail. The sutural slit detected in the H. mauritanica mature sporocyst wall was reminiscent of the suture characteristic of Coccidia of heterothermic vertebrate hosts; it could be a common ancestral character for both hemogregarines and Coccidia.

  14. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.

  15. Experimental reproduction of necrotic enteritis in chickens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John F; Smyth, Joan A; Shojadoost, Bahram; Vince, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This review discusses key factors important in successful experimental reproduction of necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, and how these factors can be adjusted to affect the severity of the lesions induced. The critical bacterial factor is the need to use virulent, netB-positive, strains of Clostridium perfringens; disease severity can be enhanced by using netB-positive C. perfringens strains that are also tpeL-positive, by the use of young rather than old broth cultures, and by the number of days of inoculation and the number of bacteria used. Use of cereals rich in non-starch polysaccharides can enhance disease, as does use of animal proteins. Administration of coccidia, including coccidial vaccines, combined with netB-positive C. perfringens, increases the severity of experimentally-induced NE. Dietary manipulation may be less important in coccidia-based models since the latter are so effective. Disease scoring systems and welfare considerations are discussed.

  16. Outbreak of Eimeria kofoidi and E. legionensis coccidiosis in redlegged partridges (Alectoris rufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Bolognesi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis occurred in red-legged partridges is reported. At the post-mortem examination the birds showed a mucous haemorrhagic enteritis, mostly in the duodenal intestinal tract. Direct microscopic examination of intestinal content revealed the presence of a high number of oocysts. After incubation, on the basis of the morphological features, two species of coccidia were identified: Eimeria kofoidi and E. legionensis.

  17. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Gerbilliscus guineae Thomas (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků, Miloslav; Koubek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2008), s. 223-228 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA524/03/1548; GA AV ČR IAA6093403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeriidae * rodent Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2008

  18. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model

    OpenAIRE

    Lanckriet , Anouk; Timbermont , Leen; De Gussem , Maarten; Marien , Maja; Vancraeynest , Dieter; Haesebrouck , Freddy; Ducatelle , Richard; Van Immerseel , Filip

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curat...

  19. Mice serve as paratenic hosts for the transmission of Caryospora duszynskii (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) between snakes of the genus Elaphe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Šlapeta, Jan Roger; Koudela, Břetislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2005), s. 205-208 ISSN 0015-5683 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP524/03/D104; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/00/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeriidae * Caryospora duszynskii * transmission * paratenic host Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  20. Validation of a new technique to detect Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in bovine feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Sandra Valéria; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Suzuki, Celso Tetsuo Nagase; Dos Santos, Bianca Martins; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; de Paula Ribeiro, Rafaela Silva; de Assunção, Danilla Mendes; Casemiro, Pamella Almeida Freire; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-11-01

    Due to its important zoonotic potential, cryptosporidiosis arouses strong interest in the scientific community, because, it was initially considered a rare and opportunistic disease. The parasitological diagnosis of the causative agent of this disease, the protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., requires the use of specific techniques of concentration and permanent staining, which are laborious and costly, and are difficult to use in routine laboratory tests. In view of the above, we conducted the feasibility, development, evaluation and intralaboratory validation of a new parasitological technique for analysis in optical microscopy of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, called TF-Test Coccidia, using fecal samples from calves from the city of Araçatuba, São Paulo. To confirm the aforementioned parasite and prove the diagnostic efficiency of the new technique, we used two established methodologies in the scientific literature: parasite concentration by centrifugal sedimentation and negative staining with malachite green (CSN-Malachite) and Nested-PCR. We observed good effectiveness of the TF-Test Coccidia technique, being statistically equivalent to CSN-Malachite. Thus, we verified the effectiveness of the TF-Test Coccidia parasitological technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and observed good concentration and morphology of the parasite, with a low amount of debris in the fecal smear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites of Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Owusu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal (GIT parasites of Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi from January 2015 to July 2015. Materials and Methods: The presence of nematodal eggs and coccidial oocysts in fecal samples were analyzed using the saturated sodium chloride floatation technique. Identification of eggs or oocysts was done on the basis of morphology and size of the eggs or oocysts. Results: Out of 110 fecal samples of sheep examined, 108 were infected with GIT parasites, representing a prevalence rate of 98.2%. The total infection rate of GIT nematodes and coccidia oocysts were 94.5% and 51.8%, respectively. Strongyle nematode (94.5% was the most prevalent GIT nematode detected, followed by strongyloides (27.3%. The average nematodal burden in g/feces was significantly higher (p0.05 from each other. The average coccidia oocysts count in g/feces was significantly higher (p0.05 in the coccidia oocysts count of rams under 1 year, gimmers, ewes, and rams over 1 year. From the studied animals, 40%, 6.36%, 48.18%, and 5.45% had heavy, moderate, light, and no infestation, respectively, with GIT nematodes. Conclusion: Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi, were infested with varying amounts of GIT parasites. The infestation of Djallonke sheep by GIT parasites also varies among different age groups and sexes.

  2. The endoparasites of sheep and goats, and shepherd in North Sinai Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazyad, Said A M; el-Nemr, Hossam I

    2002-04-01

    Examination of sheep and goats in four areas in North Sinai revealed an overall infection of 12.70% with Fasciola species, 11.8% with Paramphistomum cerve, 12.80% with Moniezia expansa, 47.11% with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, 4.59% Trichuris ovis and 44.85% Coccidia. The highly infected sheep and goats were diagnosed in El Hassanah center (90.49%), followed by Al Arish city (87.31%), then Rafah city (74.39%), and lastly Bir Al Abd (54.71%). The elevation of the overall percent of infection in the four areas was due to Coccidia infection. This parasite was a concomitant infection in nearly all animals. On the other hand, examination of fifteen of the shepherds revealed Ascaris lumbricoides in four, T. colubriformis in three, Fasciala in one, Giardia lamblia in ten and Coccidia in three. Double and rarely, triple infection was seen. The correlation between parasitic infections in sheep and goats, and their shepherd was discussed.

  3. Enhancement of resistance to coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens by dietary muscadine pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougald, L R; Hofacre, C; Mathis, G; Fuller, L; Hargrove, J L; Greenspan, P; Hartle, D K

    2008-12-01

    Muscadine pomace (MP), a by-product of the production of wine and juice from Vitis rotundifolia, was dried and tested in chickens for effects on primary resistance to coccidiosis, development of protective immunity after vaccination with live coccidia, and resistance to necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by the joint action of Clostridium perfringens and coccidia. To test primary resistance to coccidiosis, 2-wk-old chicks were given 2% or 5% MP in the diet and inoculated with Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima. Birds given MP at either level had significantly (P chickens were given 2% or 5% MP and grown to 42 days to test the palatability of MP. Birds given 2% MP in feed grew similarly to untreated controls, but birds given 5% had poorer average live weight. This suggested a negative effect on feed intake at the higher level. The effects of dietary 0.5% or 2.0% MP on immune protection were tested after live coccidiosis vaccination in the hatchery. Chicks were removed from each pen at 21 days of age and challenged with E acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella. Resistance to infection was improved by MP as suggested by significantly (P chickens. Chicks were inoculated with live coccidia at 14 days of age and dosed orally with live cultures of C perfringens on day 19, day 20, and day 21. Enteritis caused 48% mortality in the first study and 67% mortality in the second study. Dietary MP at 0.5-2.0% significantly (P chickens.

  4. Determinación de la prevalencia parasitaria de larvas pulmonares en bovinos del municipio de Aguachica y la zona rural de Río de Oro, Cesar mediante la técnica de Baermann

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ríos; Marisol Rueda; María Cristina Vázquez; Elsa Morales Ramírez; Manuel Calle; Raúl Fernando Sierra Barcarcel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: En la zona Rural de Rio de Oro y el municipio de Aguachica, Cesar la principal fuente de economía es la ganadería, por esto es de gran importancia realizar controles de parásitos gastrointestinales como las Coccidias, ya que esta es una enfermedad costosa. Objetivo: Para determinar la prevalencia de larvas pulmonares en los bovinos se empleó la técnica de Baermann. Materiales y métodos: Para ello, se recolectaron 905 muestras de materia fecal bovina, provenientes de 31 fincas ub...

  5. Determinación de la carga parasitaria gastrointestinal en Bovinos de la zona rural de Rio de Oro y el Municipio de Aguachica, Cesar por la técnica de McMaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, Marly; Flórez, Paola; Morales Ramírez, Elsa; Vásquez, María Cristina; Calle, Manuel; Sierra Barcarcel, Raúl Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Los parásitos gastrointestinales afectan principalmente a animales jóvenes entre 3 semanas y 1 año de vida aunque también a mayores de 1 año, sus manifestaciones clínicas son diarrea, anorexia, deshidratación cuando se encuentran parasitados por coccidias y en caso severo puede llevar a la muerte, los nemátodos presentan similitud en los síntomas y la mayor morbilidad está dada por Haemonchus spp (larva), la muerte puede ser repentina en casos de hiperinfestación y los bovinos p...

  6. Endoparasitic infections in Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) of Veterinary College Campus, Mathura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    A survey was made to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in free range blue peacocks living in and around the premises of College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Mathura. Faecal samples of peacocks were collected randomly and brought to the divisional laboratory for faecal sample examination. During the coprological examination, eggs and oocysts of cestodes and coccidia belonging to Eimeria and Isospora species were identified, respectively based on the morphology and micrometry of these parasitic stages. The present study has generated an important data regarding the else while parasitologically neglected national bird of India.

  7. Zoonotic parasites associated with felines from the Patagonian Holocene

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    Martín Horacio Fugassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Feline coprolites were examined for parasites with the aim of studying ancient infections that occurred in the Patagonian region during the Holocene period. Eggs compatible to Trichuris sp., Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Nematodirus sp., Oesophagostomum sp. (Nematoda, Monoecocestus sp. (Cestoda and Eimeria macusaniensis (Coccidia were recovered from faecal samples. The results obtained from the analysis provide evidence of consumption by felids of the viscera of both rodents and camelids. This knowledge allows for improved explanations as to the distribution of parasitism and its significance to the health of humans and animals inhabiting the area under study during the Middle Holocene.

  8. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as “seeders” were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35...... and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment...

  9. Coprological study of gastrointestinal parasites of captive animals at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh

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    M.M. Khatun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different groups of mammals housed at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh. A total of 45 fecal samples of different animals (11 carnivores, 26 herbivores and 8 primates were examined from April to September 2011 for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 60% (27/45 of which 35.6% (16/45 were helminth infections and 24% (11/45 were protozoic infections. The identified parasites included protozoa (Balantidium coli and Coccidia sp., nematodes (Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Strongyloides sp., Dictyocaulus sp., Trichuris sp. and stomach worm, cestodes (Spirometra sp. and Moniezia benedeni and trematodes (Fasciola sp.. At least one parasite was identified in the fecal samples of all animals except of the samples from bear, python, water buck and olive baboon. Mixed infections were observed in Rhesus monkey (Trichuris sp. and Balantidium coli, in deer (Strongyloides sp. and Coccidia sp. and in lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp.. Helminth infections were more common than protozoic infections in carnivores and herbivores, whereas in primates, protozoic infections were more common than helminth infections. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found in zoo animals in this study emphasizes the importance of controlling these parasitic infections in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals and of the humans working with these animals.

  10. Stable transfection of Eimeria intestinalis and investigation of its life cycle, reproduction and immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanyuan eShi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit coccidiosis, caused by infection of Eimeria spp. is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in rabbits. E. intestinalis is one of the most immunogenic species in rabbit coccidia. Due to the lack of genomic information and unsuccessful in vitro cultivation, genetic manipulation of rabbit coccidia lagged behind other apicomplexan parasites. Using regulatory sequences from E. tenella, we obtained a transgenic line of E. intestinalis expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. YFP was continuously expressed throughout the whole life cycle. Morphological features of E. intestinalis in the different developmental stages were dynamically observed with the transgenic line. Some important features in the endogenous development stages were observed. Trophozoites were found as early as 4 h post inoculation. Two-types of schizonts and merozoites were observed in first three of the four schizogonies. Beside jejunum and ileum, gametogony stage and oocysts were also found in the duodenum and vermiform appendix. In addition, the transgenic strain was highly immunogenic but less pathogenic than the wild type. Considering the high immunogenicity of E. intestinalis and amenability to transfection with foreign genes, transgenic E. intestinalis could be a promising oral eukaryotic vaccine vector.

  11. High pathogenicity and strong immunogenicity of a Chinese isolate of Eimeria magna Pérard, 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Geru; Wang, Yunzhou; Li, Chao; Gu, Xiaolong; Cui, Ping; Fang, Sufang; Suo, Xun; Liu, Xianyong

    2017-06-01

    Coccidia infection of rabbits with one or several species of parasites of the genus Eimeria causes coccidiosis, a disease leading to huge economic losses in the rabbit industry. Eimeria magna, one of the causal agents of rabbit coccidiosis, was characterized as mildly pathogenic and moderately immunogenic in previous studies. In this study, we identified a Chinese isolate of E. magna by testing its biological features (oocyst morphology and size, prepatent time) and sequencing its internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) DNA fragment. This isolate is highly pathogenic; infection of rabbits with only 1×10 2 oocysts caused a 55% reduction in weight gain in 14days. In addition, immunization with 1×10 2 oocysts prevented body weight loss against re-infection with 5×10 4 oocysts, indicating the high immunogenicity of this isolate. Our study described the distinctive phenotype of the Chinese isolate of E. magna and contributed to the research of geographic variation of rabbit coccidia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 μm, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

  13. Effect of Artemisia absinthium essential oil on antioxidative systems of broiler's liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Ljiljana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Artemisia absinthium essential oil (AAEO on enzymatic activity of super-oxide-dismutase (SOD, glutathione-peroxidase (GSHPx, glutathione-reductase (GR, peroxidase (POD, xantine-oxidase (XOD and non-enzymatic (content of lipid peroxides (LPx and gluthathione (GSH antioxidative status of broilers infected with mixture of oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis and Eimeria necatrix in comparison to coccidiostat salinomycin was investigated. The in vivo investigation were carried out on 120 Arbor acres broilers of both sexes. Broilers were randomly distributed into four groups. Group A was uninfected and untreated; group B was infected and was kept untreated; group C preventively received coccidiostatic salinomycin in quantity of 60 mg/kg of feed and was inoculated with coccidia species at 21st day-of-age and group D received in feed AAEO in quantity of 3 g/kg and was infected with Eimeria oocysts at 21st day-of-age. Livers were collected for the subsequent evaluation of antioxidative status. It was concluded that AAEO added in feed for broilers prevented the development of coccidia oocysts and therefore it can be used as prophylactic feed additive.

  14. The genome of Eimeria falciformis--reduction and specialization in a single host apicomplexan parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitlinger, Emanuel; Spork, Simone; Lucius, Richard; Dieterich, Christoph

    2014-08-20

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises important unicellular human parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Eimeria is the largest and most diverse genus of apicomplexan parasites and some species of the genus are the causative agent of coccidiosis, a disease economically devastating in poultry. We report a complete genome sequence of the mouse parasite Eimeria falciformis. We assembled and annotated the genome sequence to study host-parasite interactions in this understudied genus in a model organism host. The genome of E. falciformis is 44 Mb in size and contains 5,879 predicted protein coding genes. Comparative analysis of E. falciformis with Toxoplasma gondii shows an emergence and diversification of gene families associated with motility and invasion mainly at the level of the Coccidia. Many rhoptry kinases, among them important virulence factors in T. gondii, are absent from the E. falciformis genome. Surface antigens are divergent between Eimeria species. Comparisons with T. gondii showed differences between genes involved in metabolism, N-glycan and GPI-anchor synthesis. E. falciformis possesses a reduced set of transmembrane transporters and we suggest an altered mode of iron uptake in the genus Eimeria. Reduced diversity of genes required for host-parasite interaction and transmembrane transport allow hypotheses on host adaptation and specialization of a single host parasite. The E. falciformis genome sequence sheds light on the evolution of the Coccidia and helps to identify determinants of host-parasite interaction critical for drug and vaccine development.

  15. Coccidiosis in the Chukar Partridge ( Alectoris chukar ): A Survey of Coccidiosis Outbreaks and a Test of Anticoccidial Drugs Against Eimeria kofoidi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2016-12-01

    Field isolates of coccidia from 20 natural outbreaks in the chukar partridge ( Alectoris chukar ) were received from gamebird farms in 10 U.S. states. These were propagated in the laboratory and identified by microscopy and PCR. Of 20 samples, 18 were Eimeria kofoidi, two were Eimeria legionensis only, and one was a mixture of the two species. One isolate of E. kofoidi also contained an unidentified species detected only by PCR, nucleotide sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against chukar coccidia was tested with experimental infections in battery cages. Isolates of E. kofoidi were used to infect 2-wk-old chukars. Anticoccidial products were given in the feed at levels approved for other poultry or for chukars. Tests were terminated at 6 days postinoculation with measurement of weight gains, fecal diarrhea scores, and necropsy to observe for lesion severity. Lasalocid (120 ppm) was moderately effective in one test. When tested against four field isolates, other ionophores (monensin, salinomycin, semduramicin) showed moderate effectiveness in reducing lesions and improving weight gains. Rofenaid (a potentiated sulfa mixture), robenidine (30 ppm), diclazuril (2 ppm), and decoquinate (80 ppm) were highly effective. In a test of nine products against a highly virulent field isolate, only diclazuril (2 ppm) and clopidol (125 ppm) reduced the severity of lesions and improved weight gain relative to infected controls, suggesting the extent to which previous drug usage had selected for drug resistance.

  16. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efecto de diferentes niveles de aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides kunth en pollos de engorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Betancourt L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de inclusión de aceite esencial de Lippia origanoides Kunth (AEO que maximice el peso corporal y la eficiencia económica. Materiales y métodos. Los AEO se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se analizaron por GC/MS. Se evaluaron cuatro niveles, 0, 100, 200 y 300 ppm de AEO en dos grupos de pollos; un grupo retado con ooquistes atenuados de coccidia y otro no retado. El nivel óptimo de inclusión fue estimado mediante una función sinusoidal. Resultados. La suplementación con 100 ppm de AEO redujo el impacto negativo del reto con ooquistes atenuados de coccidia sobre el peso corporal, 1.799, 1.889 y 1.995 g en los grupos retado sin AEO, retado + AEO y control, respectivamente (p<0.001. Se encontró una interacción significativa entre la suplementación con AEO y reto sobre el peso corporal y la conversión de alimento (p<0.05. El nivel de AEO que maximiza el peso corporal en los grupos de pollos no retados fue 65 ppm; mientras que para los grupos retados fue 147 ppm. Conclusiones. Se demostró que los AEO ricos en timol pueden ser un aditivo natural viable para la producción de carne de pollo.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of endoparasitic infections at an organic goat farm and the impact of detected infections on milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriánová, Iveta A; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Kopecký, Oldřich; Langrová, Iva

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated patterns and species composition of parasitic infections detected over a 1-year period at an organic goat farm. As a result of coprological examination, the overall prevalence of observed strongylids (99%), coccidia of the genus Eimeria (98%), and Muellerius capillaris lungworms (93%) was calculated. The most prevalent strongylids recovered from incubated fecal samples were Haemonchus contortus (42%), genera Trichostrongylus (23%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (13%), and Teladorsagia circumcincta (11%). A maximum intensity of coccidia infection 5150 oocysts per gram, strongylids infection 9900 eggs per gram and lungworm infection 867.26 larvae per gram were detected. The various effects (including environment, host, and parasites) on milk yield, lactose, protein, and fat were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Milk yield (P goat. With the intensity of infection detected in our study, only protein content was affected (P goat itself can substantially decrease protein content but has much less of an effect on fat, milk yield, and lactose. Based on our results, we can conclude that a low intensity of parasitic infections does not significantly affect milk yield and the qualitative parameters of milk.

  19. Coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in carnivores and small mammals at Dhaka zoo, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.R.U. Raja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites using 94 faecal samples from different carnivores (n=32 and small mammals (n=15 was undertaken from January to May 2012 at Dhaka Zoo. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 78.72%, with a prevalence of 51.06% for helminths and 27.66% for protozoa. The identified parasites included—Toxascaris leonina (9.57%, Balantidium coli (25.53% Spirometra sp. (10.64%, Toxocara cati (12.76%, Hook worm (4.26%, unidentified strongyles (3.19%, Trichuris sp. (7.45%, Coccidia sp. (2.12%, Capillaria sp. (1.06%, Trichostrongylus sp. (1.06%, and Physaloptera sp. (1.06%. Mixed infection was observed in Indian Lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp., Royal Bengal Tiger (Balantidium coli and Toxocara cati, Spotted Hyena (Balantidium coli and hook worm, Leopard (Balantidium coli and Spirometra/I> sp., Rhesus Macaque (Trichuris sp. and Coccidia sp., Pig-tailed Macaque (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Hamadryas Baboon (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Golden Mangabey (Trichuris sp., Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Large Indian Civet (Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Torior Dog (Balantidium coli and Physaloptera, Rabbit (Balantidium coli and Hook worm, Hanuman Langur (Balantidium coli and Capillaria sp.. Due to the high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, the present study suggests to apply control measures against these parasites in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals, especially in case of threatened species.

  20. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-04-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  1. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Baines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%, and nematode (77% and trematode (24% eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685 than in all-male groups (529, sd 468. Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  2. A clinical trial to evaluate the effects of flumethrin or ivermectin treatment on hemoparasites, gastrointestinal parasites, conception and daily weight gain in a dairy farm in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, I; Arai, S; Nakamura, Y; Hisashi, M; Fukazawa, Y; Onuki, T

    2000-02-01

    A clinical trial was performed to compare the effects of flumethrin and ivermectin treatments of grazing heifers at one farm in central Japan. 64 heifers were randomly allocated into two groups. Flumethrin (1 mg/kg pour on) was applied approximately once every 3 weeks to heifers in one group and heifers in the second group were injected approximately once every month with ivermectin (200 microg/kg; id). Between groups, no significant differences were detected in the proportions of animals that showed parasitemia of Theileria sergenti and conception risks. Significantly lower average log-transformed nematode-egg counts and higher average daily weight gain were observed in the ivermectin-treated group. Animals with higher body weight at the start of grazing and lower log-transformed total nematode-egg and coccidia-oocyst counts had higher odds of conceiving. Animals with ivermectin treatment, lower body weight at the start of grazing and lower log-transformed coccidia-oocyst count had higher daily weight gain. Ivermectin may be more useful in this farm because of the higher productivity for cattle and lower cost for its usage.

  3. Evidence for a structural role for acid-fast lipids in oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkin, G Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P; Costello, Catherine E; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2013-09-03

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of β-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). Oocysts, which are essential for the fecal-oral spread of coccidia, have a wall that is thought responsible for their survival in the environment and for their transit through the stomach and small intestine. While oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria are strengthened by a porous scaffold of fibrils of β-1,3-glucan and by proteins cross

  4. Systems-based analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona genome identifies pathways that contribute to a heteroxenous life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazejewski, Tomasz; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Pszenny, Viviana; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Namasivayam, Sivaranjani; Chiasson, Melissa A; Chessman, Kyle; Tonkin, Michelle; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S; Hung, Stacy S; Bridgers, Joshua; Ricklefs, Stacy M; Boulanger, Martin J; Dubey, Jitender P; Porcella, Stephen F; Kissinger, Jessica C; Howe, Daniel K; Grigg, Michael E; Parkinson, John

    2015-02-10

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single-host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma are two-host parasites that infect and produce infectious tissue cysts in a wide range of intermediate hosts. As a genus, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful protozoan parasites; all vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, fish, and mammals are hosts to at least one Sarcocystis species. Here we sequenced Sarcocystis neurona, the causal agent of fatal equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The S. neurona genome is 127 Mbp, more than twice the size of other sequenced coccidian genomes. Comparative analyses identified conservation of the invasion machinery among the coccidia. However, many dense-granule and rhoptry kinase genes, responsible for altering host effector pathways in Toxoplasma and Neospora, are absent from S. neurona. Further, S. neurona has a divergent repertoire of SRS proteins, previously implicated in tissue cyst formation in Toxoplasma. Systems-based analyses identified a series of metabolic innovations, including the ability to exploit alternative sources of energy. Finally, we present an S. neurona model detailing conserved molecular innovations that promote the transition from a purely enteric lifestyle (Eimeria) to a heteroxenous parasite capable of infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts. Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled apicomplexan parasites responsible for major economic and health care burdens worldwide. A cousin of Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, and Eimeria, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful parasite genera; it is capable of infecting all vertebrates (fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals-including humans). The past decade has witnessed an increasing number of human outbreaks of clinical significance associated with

  5. Encuesta de parásitos intestinales en 615 escolares del Rímac

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    Luis Gonzales-Mugaburu

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen microscópico de una sola muestra de heces de cada uno de 615 escolares del Rímac, ha mostrado: 1. El elevado porcentaje de protozoarios intestinales encontrados, sugiere una alta contaminación fecal. 2. La alta frecuencia de H. nana 166 (27.0% constituye un problema al que hay que prestar atención. 3. El hallazgo de Strongyloides stercoralis y Ancylostoma o Necator sólo en sujetos que habían estado algún tiempo en la Selva del Perú, sugiere una vez más, que dichos parásitos no son transmitidos en esta parte de la Costa. 4. La presencia de tres casos de Isospora belli nos indica que esta coccidia es más frecuente de lo que se suponía.

  6. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser

    1999-01-01

    Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

  7. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: new characteristic features and diagnostic tools

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    Bruno P. Berto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

  8. Thomas K. Jeffers: pioneer of coccidiosis research.

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    Chapman, H D

    2012-01-01

    Thomas K. Jeffers has made many significant contributions to our understanding of the biology of the parasite Eimeria, the cause of coccidiosis in poultry. His work has had direct practical application for the control of this widespread disease. Topics discussed include Jeffers' pioneering work concerned with genetics of the host response to infection, the nature of biological and immunological intraspecific variation, drug resistance and discovery, field surveys of resistance, and his most recognized achievement-the demonstration that the lifecycle of coccidia may be altered by artificial selection. Parasites so modified are attenuated but retain their immunogenicity, a discovery that has led to the development of live vaccines that are inherently non-pathogenic. This article provides a brief biography and describes the contributions that Jeffers has made to our knowledge of coccidiosis.

  9. Coccidiosis hepática en el conejo: aspectos ambientales y clínico-patológicos

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    Mario Pérez Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La cunicultura es una industria creciente en México. De las 13 especies de coccidias que afectan a los conejos, la Eimeria stiedae es el principal agente causal de la coccidiosis hepática en el conejo. En la presente revisión se aborda la importancia del medio ambiente y aspectos clínico- patológicos de la coccidiosis hepática en conejos. Como resultado de la revisión de la literatura disponible se observa la necesidad de abordar el estudio de la coccidiosis hepática del conejo de manera integral, y avanzar en la comprensión de los mecanismos celulares y moleculares involucrados en su patogenia.

  10. Haemoprotozoa: Making biological sense of molecular phylogenies

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    Peter O'Donoghue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of protistan parasites occur in the blood of vertebrates and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Some 48 genera are recognized in bood primarily on the basis of parasite morphology and host specificity; including extracellular kinetoplastids (trypanosomatids and intracellular apicomplexa (haemogregarines, haemococcidia, haemosporidia and piroplasms. Gene sequences are available for a growing number of species and molecular phylogenies often link parasite and host or vector evolution. This review endeavours to reconcile molecular clades with biological characters. Four major trypanosomatid clades have been associated with site of development in the vector: salivarian or stercorarian for Trypanosoma, and supra- or peri-pylorian for Leishmania. Four haemogregarine clades have been associated with acarine vectors (Hepatozoon A and B, Karyolysus, Hemolivia and another two with leeches (Dactylosoma, Haemogregarina sensu stricto. Two haemococcidian clades (Lankesterella, Schellackia using leeches and mosquitoes (as paratenic hosts! were paraphyletic with monoxenous enteric coccidia. Two major haemosporidian clades have been associated with mosquito vectors (Plasmodium from mammals, Plasmodium from birds and lizards, two with midges (Hepatocystis from bats, Parahaemoproteus from birds and two with louse-flies and black-flies (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon from birds. Three major piroplasm clades were recognized: one associated with transovarian transmission in ticks (Babesia sensu stricto; one with pre-erythrocytic schizogony in vertebrates (Theileria/Cytauxzoon; and one with neither (Babesia sensu lato. Broad comparative studies with allied groups suggest that trypanosomatids and haemogregarines evolved first in aquatic and then terrestrial environments, as evidenced by extant lineages in invertebrates and their radiation in vertebrates. In contrast, haemosporidia and haemococcidia are thought to have evolved first in

  11. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 μm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 μm, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 μm, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 μm, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 μm, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

  12. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

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    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  13. Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastián A.; Marini, M. Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with

  14. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Jered M Wendte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause

  15. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendte, Jered M; Miller, Melissa A; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Magargal, Spencer L; Jessup, David A; Grigg, Michael E

    2010-12-23

    Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease

  16. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks, Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17-20 × 14-16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10-11 × 7-8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28-35 × 18-24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14-16 × 10-12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  17. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites of swine raised in different management systems in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Alynne S. Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: From 2012 to 2013 were surveyed gastrointestinal parasites from pig farms located in different municpaliyies in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fecal samples from 790 pigs were collected from the rectum on 88 family farms and 702 farms with industrial production. The samples were subjected to Faust et al., Sheather, Ritchie, Lutz and direct examination faecal techniques. The estimated parasite prevalence was 93.1% in family farms and 59.1% in industrial farms. Balantidium coli, coccidia and Entamoeba sp. were the parasites with the highest frequencies, and the male and female reproductive categories and fatteners pigs the most infected (p<0.05. Trophozoites of B. coli were most evident in stool samples from semi-solid followed by solid and diarrheal consistencies. Strongyles eggs and Trichuris suis have been detected exclusively in family farms. Ascaris suum eggs and Strongyloides ransomi showed low frequency. The high degree of parasitism, especially protozoa, indicates the need to reassess the management of pigs in both types of production.

  19. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  20. Accurate analysis of prevalence of coccidiosis in individually identified wild cranes in inhabiting and migrating populations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Hajime; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Yuki; Matsumoto, Fumio; Nakai, Yutaka

    2011-11-01

    Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi cause coccidiosis, a major parasitic disease of cranes. By non-invasive molecular approaches, we investigated the prevalence and genetic characterization of pathogens in two Japanese crane habitats; one is Hokkaido inhabited by the endangered red-crowned crane, and the other is Izumi in Kyushu where populations that consist mainly of vulnerable hooded and white-naped cranes migrate in winter. The non-invasively collected faecal samples from each wintering population were first subjected to host genomic DNA-targeted analyses to determine the sample origin and avoid sample redundancy. Extremely high prevalence was observed in the Izumi populations (> 90%) compared with the Hokkaido population (18-30%) by examining 470 specimens by microscopy and PCR-based capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE), using genetic markers in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). Correspondence analysis of PCR-CE data revealed differences in community composition of coccidia between hooded and white-naped cranes. 18S rRNA and ITS2 sequences were determined from single oocysts excreted by red-crowned and hooded cranes. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA suggested that E. reichenowi was polyphyletic while E. gruis was monophyletic. Together with PCR-CE data, these results indicate different host specificity among the E. reichenowi type. Our data suggest that E. reichenowi comprises multiple species. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Concurrent presence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts, Besnoitia darlingi tissue cysts, and Sarcocystis inghami sarcocysts in naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, H M; Fitzgerald, S D; Rosenthal, B M; Mansfield, L S

    2004-07-01

    Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) are exposed to a wide range of coccidia through feeding on a variety of foods, including, but not limited to, carrion, insects, and nestling birds. Abundant D. virginiana populations in urban and suburban areas can be important reservoirs of parasitic infection because of their profuse and prolonged excretion of the sporocysts of several species of Sarcocystis, their omnivorous diet, and their relatively long life span. This report describes 2 adult female opossums found to be simultaneously infected with the tissue cysts of Besnoitia darlingi, sarcocysts of Sarcocystis inghami, as well as with the intestinal sporocysts of S. neurona. Cysts typical of B. darlingi based on gross, histological, and ultrastructural characteristics were disseminated throughout the visceral organs, musculature, ears, and skin. The S. neurona and B. darlingi infections were confirmed by comparative sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified diagnostic genetic loci. Sarcocysts of S. inghami are also described. Such examples of multiple parasitic infections show that concurrent infections occur naturally. The propensity for species to coexist should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa and may have important epidemiological and evolutionary implications.

  2. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y

    1983-07-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunities for organism recovery. Human clinical specimens were examined from 45 patients with confirmed cryptosporidiosis or suspected of having the infection. Tissue biopsy sections, fecal wet preparations, and permanent stained smears were examined. Stool specimens were submitted in 10% Formalin, 2.5% potassium dichromate, and polyvinyl alcohol and were examined for oocysts by using 15 different methods: phase-contrast and light microscopy; Sheather's sugar flotation; Formalin concentration techniques; 10% potassium hydroxide; Giemsa; trichrome; periodic acid-Schiff; modified periodic acid-Schiff; silver methenamine; acridine orange; auramine-rhodamine; Kinyoun acid-fast; Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin; and a modified acid-fast procedure. Each technique or combination of techniques was assessed by organism quantitation, organism morphology, and ease of visual recognition. Based on these comparative studies, the modified Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin stain on 10% Formalin-preserved stool is recommended for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium.

  3. Etude comparative de la charge parasitaire des petits ruminants et du guib harnaché dans quatre campements riverains à la forêt classée de Wari-Maro au Nord-Est du Bénin

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    Faihun, AML.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Study of the Parasitic Load of Small Ruminants and Bushbuck in Four Camps Bordering the Wari-Maro Reserve in the North East of Benin. A comparative survey of the gastro-intestinal parasitical burden of small ruminants (sheep, goat and one species of wild ruminants (bushbuck has been conducted in four camps around the classified forest of Wari-Maro located in the North-East of Benin. The flotation and sedimentation methods, and a semi-quantitative method associated to the flotation method were used to analyze the different samples. Feces samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons with 100 samples for sheep, 75 for goat and 25 for bushbuck. The small domestic ruminants presented six types of parasites (strongyles, Strongyloides, coccidia, tapeworm, Capillaria, trematodes. The bushbuck presented strongyles and Strongyloides only during the rainy season. The burden of different types of parasites was low in the majority of cases. The wild or domestic nature of the animal influenced its parasitical state (p<0.05. For this study it appeared that no relation exists between the infestation intensity of small ruminants and bushbuck.

  4. Diseases and parasites in wolves of the Riding Mountain National Park region, Manitoba, Canada.

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    Stronen, Astrid V; Sallows, Tim; Forbes, Graham J; Wagner, Brent; Paquet, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    We examined wolf (Canis lupus) blood and fecal samples from the Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) region of Manitoba, Canada. In 601 fecal samples collected during two study periods in RMNP and the Duck Mountain Provincial Park and Forest (DMPPF) we found gastrointestinal helminth eggs from Alaria sp. (15.5%), Capillaria sp. (1.0%), taeniid tapeworms (30.8%), Toxascaris sp. (1.7%), Toxocara sp. (0.2%), Trichuris sp. (2.2%), and Moniezia sp. (0.5%). In addition, we found Demodex sp. (0.2%) and the protozoal cysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (37.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (1.2%), coccidia (Isospora sp. or Eimeria sp.) (1.7%), and Giardia sp. (29.5%). No fecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV, n=387) was detected. All 18 blood samples collected in RMNP showed CPV exposure and eight of 18 blood samples indicated canine distemper virus (CDV) exposure. One wolf died from CDV. Our results are consistent with previous findings on pathogens affecting wolves and with high Giardia sp. prevalence in wolves inhabiting agricultural regions.

  5. Use of Plant Extracts as an Effective Manner to Control Clostridium perfringens Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry

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    Dominguez, J. E.; Chacana, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important concern in poultry industry since it causes economic losses, increased mortality, reduction of bird welfare, and contamination of chicken products for human consumption. For decades, the use of in-feed antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) has been the main strategy to control intestinal pathogens including Clostridium perfringens (CP), the causative agent of NE. However, the use of AGPs in animal diet has been linked to the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance through food-borne microorganisms, which has led to the ban of AGPs in many countries. This scenario has challenged the poultry industry to search for safer alternative products in order to prevent NE. In this context, the utilization of natural plant extracts with antimicrobial properties appears as a promising and feasible tool to control NE in chicken. In this paper, we review the scientific studies analyzing the potential of plant extracts as alternative feed additives to reduce NE in poultry, with focus on two types of plant products that arise as promising candidates: tannins and essential oils. Some of these products showed antimicrobial activity against CP and coccidia in vitro and in vivo and are able to increase productive performance, emulating the bioactive properties of AGPs. PMID:27747227

  6. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

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    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity.

  7. A Novel Vaccine Delivery Model of the Apicomplexan Eimeria tenella Expressing Eimeria maxima Antigen Protects Chickens against Infection of the Two Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinming; Liu, Xianyong; Yin, Guangwen; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Zhang, Sixin; Suo, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine delivery is critical in antigen discovery and vaccine efficacy and safety. The diversity of infectious diseases in humans and livestock has required the development of varied delivery vehicles to target different pathogens. In livestock animals, previous strategies for the development of coccidiosis vaccines have encountered several hurdles, limiting the development of multiple species vaccine formulations. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system using transgenic Eimeria tenella expressing immunodominant antigens of Eimeria maxima . In this delivery system, the immune mapped protein 1 of E. maxima (EmIMP1) was delivered by the closely related species of E. tenella to the host immune system during the whole endogenous life cycle. The overexpression of the exogenous antigen did not interfere with the reproduction and immunogenicity of transgenic Eimeria . After immunization with the transgenic parasite, we detected EmIMP1's and E. maxima oocyst antigens' specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In particular, we observed partial protection of chickens immunized with transgenic E. tenella against subsequent E. maxima infections. Our results demonstrate that the transgenic Eimeria parasite is an ideal coccidia antigen delivery vehicle and represents a new type of coccidiosis vaccines. In addition, this model could potentially be used in the development of malaria live sporozoite vaccines, in which antigens from different strains can be expressed in the vaccine strain.

  8. [Frequency of intestinal microsporidian infections in HIV-positive patients, as diagnosis by quick hot Gram chromotrope staining and PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Jorge H; Montoya, Martha Nelly; Vanegas, Adriana Lucía; Díaz, Abel; Navarro-i-Martínez, Luis; Bornay, Fernando Jorge; Izquierdo, Fernando; del Aguila, Carmen; Agudelo, Sonia del Pilar

    2004-12-01

    Microsporidia are intracellular obligate parasites, today mainly associated with diarrhea in AIDS patients. Microsporidia prevalence ranges from 8% to 52% in different countries, as evaluated by several diagnostic methods, such as the stain test and PCR. In Medellín, Colombia, its frequency is unknown, and hence, a study was undertaken to determine the frequency of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV patients, by means of the quick-hot Gram chromotrope test and the PCR. A prospective and descriptive study of an intentional population of all HIV-positive patients was sent to the Grupo Interdisciplinario para el Estudio de las Parasitosis Intestinales laboratory by institutions treating the HIV-positive patients of Medellín between August 2001 and September 2002. The clinical-epidemiological survey included a serial stool test with direct concentration and special stains for coccidiae and intestinal microsporidia. In addition, counts of lymphocytes TCD4+ and viral load were requested. One hundred and three patients with ages ranging from 2-74 years were evaluated. Seventy percent presented with diarrhea--mostly in men (83.5%). The overall frequency of intestinal microsporidiosis was 3.9% and that of other intestinal parasitic infections was 39.8%. Three of the four patients positive for microsporida were infected with Enterocytozoon bieneusi and one with Encephalitozoon intestinalis. The microsporidiosis frequency was relatively low with 3 of the 4 cases associated with protracted diarrhea, counts of LTCD4+ below 100 cel/microl and viral loads up to 100,000 copies.

  9. Prevalencia de enteroparásitos en individuos de centros de rehabilitacion a drogas del estado Zulia, Venezuela | Prevalence of enteroparasites in individuals of drug rehabilitation centers in Zulia state–Venezuela

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    Ángela Bracho Mora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in drug-addicted individuals that have been detained in two rehabilitation centers in Zulia state, a cross-sectional descriptive study was accomplished in which 98 fecal samples from persons of both sexes, aged between 15 and 65 years, were collected. The samples were analyzed by direct and concentrated examination with the coproparasitological Formalin-ether (Ritchie method; likewise, the staining technique Kinyoun was used to search for intestinal coccidia. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 70.41%; among them, 56.52% of individuals were monoparasitized and 43.48% polyparasitized. Up to three parasitic associations were found in each individual. With respect to the parasite species found, Blastocystis spp. (62.24% was the most frequent in terms of chromist/protozoas and within helminths, Hookworms were found in 6.12% of individuals and occupied the first place in prevalence. The highest percentage of parasitized individuals was observed in young adults (20-39 years with 63.77%, but no significant difference was observed with other age groups. Significant differences (p < 0.001 were observed amongst individuals that were parasitized with respect to the drug consumed, with a higher prevalence among individuals that had consumed cocaine. It has been concluded that the drug situation does not seem to be an important variable that promotes or limits the acquisition of common intestinal parasites, as sanitary conditions remain to be critical in acquiring them.

  10. Seasonal fluctuation of parasitic infestation in donkeys (Equus asinus in Oodi village, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication

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    E.Z. Mushi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available During the period March to September 2000, a study was conducted in Oodi village, Kgatleng District, Botswana, to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of internal, external and blood parasites of donkeys. Twelve adult donkeys were randomly selected from a farmer with a herd of 15 donkeys. Monthly visits were made to the farmer when the donkeys were examined for parasites. The only ectoparasites recovered from the donkeys were instars of various tick species. The most prevalent tick was Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (98.4 %, followed by Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma species. The only haemoparasite seen on microscopy was Babesia equi at low parasitaemia in 26.8% of the donkeys. However, no clinical babesiosis was evident. Coprological examination showed the presence of strongyle eggs in moderate numbers. Very low numbers of coccidia oocysts were found in the faecal samples. High tick numbers and worm egg counts coincided with the warm, wet months in contrast to the low numbers recovered during the cold, dry months. An interview conducted by the authors indicated that donkeys were nutritionally marginalised by owners. Supplementary feeding was therefore recommended, especially during the winter months when grazing is poor.

  11. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute

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    Janaína Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardiasp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  12. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

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    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  13. Eimeria Species and Genetic Background Influence the Serum Protein Profile of Broilers with Coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Cox, Chasity M.; Williams, Patricia M.; McElroy, Audrey P.; Dalloul, Rami A.; Ray, W. Keith; Barri, Adriana; Emmerson, Derek A.; Wong, Eric A.; Webb, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by protozoal parasites of the genus Eimeria. Despite the advent of anti-coccidial drugs and vaccines, the disease continues to result in substantial annual economic losses to the poultry industry. There is still much unknown about the host response to infection and to date there are no reports of protein profiles in the blood of Eimeria-infected animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum proteome of two genetic lines of broiler chickens after infection with one of three species of Eimeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Birds from lines A and B were either not infected or inoculated with sporulated oocysts from one of the three Eimeria strains at 15 d post-hatch. At 21 d (6 d post-infection), whole blood was collected and lesion scoring was performed. Serum was harvested and used for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,266 spots were quantitatively assessed by densitometry. Protein spots showing a significant effect of coccidia strain and/or broiler genetic line on density at PEimeria infection and in identifying molecular targets for diagnostic screening and development of alternative preventative and therapeutic methods. PMID:21297942

  14. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

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    Nava Gerardo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A Control diet (no YCW plus anticoccidial vaccine; B Control diet plus coccidiostat; C YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

  15. The endogenous development and pathogenicity of Eimeria anseris (Kotlan, 1932) in domestic goslings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongqin; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Jinjun; Wu, Lili; Dai, Yabin; Liu, Mei; Tao, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10 4 , 1 × 10 4 , or 100 × 10 4 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E. anseris. The first generation of meronts developed at 24-96 HPI and the second generation at 90-128 HPI. Each meront contained 4-10 merozoites. Development of gamonts began at 128 HPI and mature oocysts appeared at 168 HPI. Developmental stages presented mainly in the epithelial cells of crypts and lamina propria in the posterior parts of the jejunum and ileum. Parasites localized mostly in the cytoplasm and occasionally in the nuclei of host cells. Histological lesions were pronounced in the jejunum and ileum. Desquamation and necrosis of the epithelium of intestine and crypts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and hemorrhage and mucosal edema were associated with aggregates of endogenous stages. The infected goslings mainly showed severe diarrhea, depression, anorexia, and emaciation, suggesting that E. anseris is highly pathogenic in goslings.

  16. Diseases of free-ranging chickens in the Qwa-Qwa district of the northeastern Free State province of South Africa

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    M.M.O. Thekisoe

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 177 free-ranging chickens from 19 Qwa-Qwa villages were bled from wing veins over a period of 6 months (June-November 2000. Serological tests indicated that 5 % of chickens tested had been exposed to Newcastle disease, 43 % to infectious bronchitis and 63 % to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. McMaster and Visser sieve techniques were used to determine helminth and coccidia from pooled fresh faecal samples. Helminths isolated in 37 % of the villages investigated were Heterakis, Ascaridia and Capillaria species. Eimeria species were also isolated in 32 % of the villages investigated. The red fowl mite (Dermanyssus gallinae was isolated from some of the birds and their nests. Data from a questionnaire survey indicated that all farmers interviewed had never received any technical support and that their chickens had never been vaccinated against any avian diseases. Only 10.5 % of the owners interviewed had scientific knowledge on poultry diseases. There is an urgent need for the government to support free-ranging poultry farmers by providing subsidised vaccinations and technical support in order to develop and stimulate economic development in impoverished rural areas of South Africa.

  17. New species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps (Rodentia: Echimyidae) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

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    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Viana, Lúcio André; Santos, Filipe Martins; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; de Oliveira, Michel Angelo Constantino; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano

    2017-11-01

    The echimyid rodents Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps are among the most commonly recorded small mammals in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. These species play important ecological roles since they are the basis of the food chain of some predators and are parasitized by some pathogens. Knowledge of the eimerians that parasitize echimyid rodents in Brazil is absent, and only one report is available for South America. We therefore investigated parasitism by coccidians in the echimyids T. fosteri and C. laticeps in the Pantanal. Using morphological and morphometric features and associated statistical analyses, we describe five new eimerian species parasitizing T. fosteri (Eimeria nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria jansenae n. sp., and Eimeria fosteri n. sp.) and C. laticeps (E. nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria corumbaensis n. sp., and Eimeria laticeps n. sp.) in different types of infection associations. We document the developmental forms in the tissues, and describe lesions in the enteric tract of some infected animals. We also discuss some approaches regarding epidemiological and ecological data. Our results demonstrate that echimyid rodents in the Brazilian Pantanal are important hosts for the maintenance of enteric coccidia. Moreover, in some circumstances, this parasitism may threaten the health of the hosts.

  18. Meta-analysis of the performance variation in broilers experimentally challenged by Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, Marcos; Andretta, Ines; Lehnen, Cheila Roberta; Lovatto, Paulo Alberto; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2013-09-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to (1) study the relation of the variation in feed intake and weight gain in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, or a Pool of Eimeria species, and (2) to identify and to quantify the effects involved in the infection. A database of articles addressing the experimental infection with Coccidia in broilers was developed. These publications must present results of animal performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio). The database was composed by 69 publications, totalling around 44 thousand animals. Meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The feed intake of the groups challenged by E. acervulina and E. tenella did not differ (P>0.05) to the control group. However, the feed intake in groups challenged by E. maxima and Pool showed an increase of 8% and 5% (PEimeria species, animal age, sex, and genetic line. In general the age effect is superior to the challenge effect, showing that age at the challenge is important to determine the impact of Eimeria infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Eimeria Transcript DB: an integrated resource for annotated transcripts of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Luiz Thibério; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M.; Madeira, Alda Maria B. N.; Gruber, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/ PMID:23411718

  20. Molecular Identification of Eimeria Species in Broiler Chickens in Trinidad, West Indies

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    Arianne Brown Jordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been developed to provide accurate and rapid identification of the seven known Eimeria species of chickens. The aim of this study was to use species-specific real-time PCR (qPCR to identify which of the seven Eimeria species are present in Trinidad poultry. Seventeen pooled fecal samples were collected from 6 broiler farms (2–5 pens per farm across Trinidad. Feces were also collected from birds showing clinical signs of coccidiosis in two live bird markets (pluck shops. qPCR revealed the presence of five species of Eimeria (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, and E. tenella, but not E. brunetti or E. praecox. Mixed infections were detected on all broiler farms, and DNA of two highly pathogenic Eimeria species (E. tenella and E. necatrix was detected in feces taken from clinically sick birds sampled from the two pluck shops.

  1. A Novel Vaccine Delivery Model of the Apicomplexan Eimeria tenella Expressing Eimeria maxima Antigen Protects Chickens against Infection of the Two Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinming; Liu, Xianyong; Yin, Guangwen; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Zhang, Sixin; Suo, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Vaccine delivery is critical in antigen discovery and vaccine efficacy and safety. The diversity of infectious diseases in humans and livestock has required the development of varied delivery vehicles to target different pathogens. In livestock animals, previous strategies for the development of coccidiosis vaccines have encountered several hurdles, limiting the development of multiple species vaccine formulations. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system using transgenic Eimeria tenella expressing immunodominant antigens of Eimeria maxima. In this delivery system, the immune mapped protein 1 of E. maxima (EmIMP1) was delivered by the closely related species of E. tenella to the host immune system during the whole endogenous life cycle. The overexpression of the exogenous antigen did not interfere with the reproduction and immunogenicity of transgenic Eimeria. After immunization with the transgenic parasite, we detected EmIMP1’s and E. maxima oocyst antigens’ specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In particular, we observed partial protection of chickens immunized with transgenic E. tenella against subsequent E. maxima infections. Our results demonstrate that the transgenic Eimeria parasite is an ideal coccidia antigen delivery vehicle and represents a new type of coccidiosis vaccines. In addition, this model could potentially be used in the development of malaria live sporozoite vaccines, in which antigens from different strains can be expressed in the vaccine strain. PMID:29375584

  2. Oocyst wall formation and composition in coccidian parasites

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    Kelly Mai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The oocyst wall of coccidian parasites is a robust structure that is resistant to a variety of environmental and chemical insults. This resilience allows oocysts to survive for long periods, facilitating transmission from host to host. The wall is bilayered and is formed by the sequential release of the contents of two specialized organelles - wall forming body 1 and wall forming body 2 - found in the macrogametocyte stage of Coccidia. The oocyst wall is over 90% protein but few of these proteins have been studied. One group is cysteine-rich and may be presumed to crosslink via disulphide bridges, though this is yet to be investigated. Another group of wall proteins is rich in tyrosine. These proteins, which range in size from 8-31 kDa, are derived from larger precursors of 56 and 82 kDa found in the wall forming bodies. Proteases may catalyze processing of the precursors into tyrosine-rich peptides, which are then oxidatively crosslinked in a reaction catalyzed by peroxidases. In support of this hypothesis, the oocyst wall has high levels of dityrosine bonds. These dityrosine crosslinked proteins may provide a structural matrix for assembly of the oocyst wall and contribute to its resilience.

  3. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

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    Carrie A Cizauskas

    Full Text Available Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP, Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India.

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    Velusamy, R; Rani, N; Ponnudurai, G; Anbarasi, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants (Sheep and Goats) in North Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 630 faecal samples (251-sheep, 379-goats) and 554 blood smears (242-sheep, 312-goats) were examined, for the presence of eggs of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites, respectively. The samples were received from the Veterinary college hospital and Veterinary dispensaries in North Western part of Tamil Nadu. Faecal samples were processed by sedimentation technique and examined under low power objective (×10), and blood smears were stained using Giemsa's technique and examined under oil immersion (×100). The analysis of data on the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of sheep and goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu for the period from 2004 to 2013, showed an overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 67% and 35% in sheep and goats, respectively, whereas only 11% of sheep and 3% of goats had the haemoprotozoan parasitic infection. Highly, significant difference (pTamil Nadu is highly endemic for intestinal parasites such as coccidia and strongyles and haemoprotozoans such as Anaplasma and Theileria species in small ruminants.

  5. Prevalence of parasitic contamination in fast food salads in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran

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    Anahita Razavi Piranshahi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of parasitic contamination in fast food salads in Ahvaz city, southwest of Iran, in 2016. Methods: In the current study, 150 samples were randomly collected from 150 fast food shops in Ahvaz City, southwest of Iran. The samples were collected in a clean bucket containing deionized water and detergent. After three times washing, the resultant precipitate was examined in terms of parasites using physiological saline as well as the acid fast and the trichrome staining methods. Results: Of 150 samples, 17 (11.33% positive cases were observed, among which 8 (5.34%, 4 (2.66%, 2 (1.34%, 1 (0.67% and 2 (1.34% were observed positive for Entamoeba coli (E. coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia lambelia, immature oocyst of Coccidia and mites, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high prevalence of parasitic infections especially E. coli in fast food salads in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Since the parasitic infections can cause malabsorption, severe diarrhea, intestinal obstruction, cholecystitis, liver inflammation, pulmonary and renal complications, health authorities must pay more attention to the health of fast food shops.

  6. A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles.

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    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2006-09-01

    The population genetics and systematics of most coccidians remain poorly defined despite their impact on human and veterinary health. Non-recombinant parasite clones characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenesis traits persist in the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii despite opportunities for sexual recombination. In order to determine whether this may be generally true for tissue-cyst forming coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic problems within the genus Sarcocystis, we characterized polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sarcocystis neurona, the major causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Bayesian statistical modeling, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genotypic chord distances, and analyses of linkage disequilibrium were employed to examine the population structure within S. neurona and closely related Sarcocystis falcatula isolates from North and South America. North American S. neurona were clearly differentiated from those of South America and also from isolates of S. falcatula. Although S. neurona is characterized by substantial allelic and genotypic diversity typical of interbreeding populations, one genotype occurs with significantly excessive frequency; thus, some degree of asexual propagation of S. neurona clones may naturally occur. Finally, S. neurona isolated from disparate North American localities and diverse hosts (opossums, a Southern sea otter, and horses) comprise a single genetic population. Isolates associated with clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these presumably neutral genetic markers.

  7. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model.

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    Lanckriet, A; Timbermont, L; De Gussem, M; Marien, M; Vancraeynest, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2010-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as a predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curative treatment in the same experimental model. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antibiotics and anticoccidials were determined in vitro against 51 Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broilers. The strains examined appeared uniformly susceptible to lasalocid, maduramicin, narasin, salinomycin, amoxicillin and tylosin, whereas an extended frequency distribution range of MICs for lincomycin was seen, indicating acquired resistance in 36 isolates in the higher range of MICs. Nicarbazin did not inhibit the in vitro growth of the C. perfringens strains even at a concentration of 128 microg/ml. Supplementation of the diet from day 1 onwards with lasalocid, salinomycin, narasin or maduramicin led to a reduction in birds with necrotic enteritis lesions as compared with the non-medicated infected control group. A combination product of narasin and nicarbazin had no significant protective effect. Treatment with amoxicillin, lincomycin and tylosin completely stopped the development of necrotic lesions.

  8. Deep-sequencing to resolve complex diversity of apicomplexan parasites in platypuses and echidnas: Proof of principle for wildlife disease investigation.

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    Šlapeta, Jan; Saverimuttu, Stefan; Vogelnest, Larry; Sangster, Cheryl; Hulst, Frances; Rose, Karrie; Thompson, Paul; Whittington, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) are iconic egg-laying monotremes (Mammalia: Monotremata) from Australasia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of diversity profiles in disease investigations of monotremes. Using small subunit (18S) rDNA amplicon deep-sequencing we demonstrated the presence of apicomplexan parasites and confirmed by direct and cloned amplicon gene sequencing Theileria ornithorhynchi, Theileria tachyglossi, Eimeria echidnae and Cryptosporidium fayeri. Using a combination of samples from healthy and diseased animals, we show a close evolutionary relationship between species of coccidia (Eimeria) and piroplasms (Theileria) from the echidna and platypus. The presence of E. echidnae was demonstrated in faeces and tissues affected by disseminated coccidiosis. Moreover, the presence of E. echidnae DNA in the blood of echidnas was associated with atoxoplasma-like stages in white blood cells, suggesting Hepatozoon tachyglossi blood stages are disseminated E. echidnae stages. These next-generation DNA sequencing technologies are suited to material and organisms that have not been previously characterised and for which the material is scarce. The deep sequencing approach supports traditional diagnostic methods, including microscopy, clinical pathology and histopathology, to better define the status quo. This approach is particularly suitable for wildlife disease investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Richness patterns in the parasite communities of exotic poeciliid fishes.

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    Dove, A D

    2000-06-01

    Three species of poeciliids (Gambusia holbrooki, Xiphophorus helleri and X. maculatus) and 15 species of ecologically similar native freshwater fishes (mainly eleotrids, ambassids, melanotaeniids and retropinnids) were examined for parasite richness to investigate parasite flux, qualitative differences, quantitative differences and the structuring factors in parasite communities in the 2 fish types in Queensland, Australia. Theory suggests that poeciliids would harbour depauperate parasite communities. Results supported this hypothesis; poeciliids harboured more species-poor parasite infracommunities and regional faunas than natives (P analysis of presence/absence data for poeciliids and the 6 most-sampled native fishes revealed that parasite communities of the 2 fish groups are qualitatively distinct; the proportion of parasite species with complex life-cycles was lower in poeciliids than in native species, and Myxosporea, Microspora, Coccidia and parasitic Crustacea were all absent from poeciliids. Limited exchange of parasite species has occurred between natives and poeciliids. Logistic ordinal regression analysis revealed that fish origin (exotic or native), environmental disturbance and host sex were all significant determinants of parasite community richness (P competitive advantage over native fishes because of their lack of parasites.

  10. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

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    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites of canids, a latent risk to human health in Tunisia.

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    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; M'rad, Selim; Trifa, Fatma; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2017-06-05

    Although data on the parasite environmental contamination are crucial to implement strategies for control and treatment, information about zoonotic helminths is very limited in Tunisia. Contamination of areas with canid faeces harboring infective parasite elements represents a relevant health-risk impact for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination with eggs and oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and wild canids in Tunisia with special attention to those that can be transmitted to humans. One thousand two hundred and seventy faecal samples from stray dogs and 104 from wild canids (red foxes and golden jackals) were collected from different geographical regions throughout Tunisia. The helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts were concentrated by sucrose flotation and identified by microscopic examination. The most frequently observed parasites in dog samples were Toxocara spp. (27.2%), E. granulosus (25.8%), and Coccidia (13.1%). For wild canid faeces, the most commonly encountered parasites were Toxocara spp. (16.3%) followed by Capillaria spp. (9.6%). The parasite contamination of dog faeces varied significantly from one region to another in function of the climate. To our knowledge, the study highlights for the first time in Tunisia a serious environmental contamination by numerous parasitic stages infective to humans. Efforts should be made to increase the awareness of the contamination risk of such parasites in the environment and implement a targeted educational program.

  12. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites in HIV/ AIDS patients in relation to their clinical and epidemiological status in a specialized medical service in Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Natane Barbosa; Silva, Lorena de Freitas E; Dias, Regyane Ferreira Guimarães; Menezes Filho, Hélio Ranes de; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2018-03-08

    Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often have opportunistic infections, among which strongyloidiasis and coccidiosis are the most common parasitic infections that aggravate their health status. This study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly of Strongyloides stercoralis and intestinal coccidia in patients with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who were treated at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) of Jataí, State of Goiás, Brazil, and analyzed its correlation with clinical, laboratory, and socio-epidemiological parameters. A total of 270 stool samples were analyzed by the Lutz technique, Rugai's method, Agar Plate Culture, Ritchie's method and specific staining, Ziehl-Neelsen modified technique, Kinyoun's method and the rapid safranin method. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 28.88% including 3.8% of S. stercoralis, Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora belli. There was a significant positive correlation between intestinal parasites and the clinical status and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), smoking, CD4+ lymphocyte counts and sexual orientation. In conclusion, the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and health assistance contributed to the low prevalence of S. stercoralis and coccidiosis in patients with HIV/ AIDS who were followed up at the SAE.

  13. Parasitic Infections of West African Dwarf Goats and their Saanen Crosses in a Zero-Grazing Farming System in The Gambia

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    S. Dhollander

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty West African Dwarf goats (WADs and 15 Saanen x WAD crosses were managed in an intensified, zero-grazing farming system in an area with low to moderate tsetse challenge in The Gambia. During a period of one year, monthly samples were collected to monitor the helminth egg (EPG and coccidia oocyst outputs (OPG per gram of feces, the packed cell volume (PCV, and trypanosome parasitemia in the goats. High OPGs were found from September to December, resulting in a preweaning mortality rate of 20% in both breeds. The animals were moderately infested with helminths from the middle of the rainy season until early dry season. Trypanosome infections were not detected in WADs, neither were they in the crossbred goats using the buffy coat technique. The average birth weights of crossbred and WAD kids were 2.4 and 2.0 kg, respectively. The growth rate of crossbred kids was significantly higher than that of local kids. The preweaning growth rates of crossbred and WAD kids were 114.75 and 65.57 g/day, whereas the postweaning growth rates were 58.82 and 36.41 g/day, respectively. The fast growth rate of crossbred goats compared to WAD goats indicates that rearing Saanen x WAD crosses in a zero-grazing system can increase productivity. Strict hygiene in the goat sheds, however, is essential to avoid coccidiosis outbreaks.

  14. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) beef study, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Dargatz, David A.; Rodriguez, Judith M.; Kopral, Christine A.; Zarlenga, Dante S.

    2015-01-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) 2007–2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively. PMID:26424909

  15. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively.

  16. An alternative to antibiotic-based drugs in feed for enhancing performance of broilers grown on Eimeria spp.-infected litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, V G; Gray, C; Daley, M; Krueger, W F; Sefton, A E

    2004-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of lasalocid, an anticoccidial feed additive (90.7 kg/ton); bacitracin, a growth-promoter (50 g/ton); and yeast culture residue (YCR) (1 kg/ton) on the performance of broiler chicks reared to 42 d of age on recycled litter. Recycled litter consisted of pine wood shavings containing droppings from chicks infected with 3 select strains of coccidia (Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina). Response variables (BW, intestinal tract and litter coliform counts, cecal and liver relative weights, and litter moisture content) were recorded biweekly. Mean BW of chicks fed the diet supplemented with YCR was higher than that of the controls (P litter aged and moisture content increased. The mean intestinal coliform population from YCR-treated chicks was lower (P litter coliform counts increased with increased use of the litter. Cecal and liver relative weights calculated from the chicks in trial 3 showed that only the liver was significantly affected by treatments. YCR appeared to be a viable alternative to bacitracin and lasalocid medication in enhancing growth of broiler chicks reared on recycled litter.

  17. The parasitecoenoses' influence on health status of sika-deer (Cervus nippon population in the west-Bohemia region (Czech Republic

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    Marie Borkovcová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was detection of prevalence of the parasitecoenoses of sika deer (Cervus nippon living in the wild in the area of Western Bohemia (Czech Republic and to compare roundup data with results from previous investigations.All together 560 samples of excrements and 8 grallochs were examined. The research was done from March 2005 to June 2007. The samples of excrements were collected during the whole research period in periodical monthly intervals always in the amount of 20 pieces. Grallochs were examined by partial helmintological dissection, the samples of excrements by Baermann method and flotation. Parasites were detected only in 26.8 % of examined samples. The spectrum of detected parasites included: coccidia Eimeria spp. (8.6 %, lungworms (LW Dictyocaulus sp. and Bicaulus sagittatus (23.4 %, and nematode worms from the group of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN (7.9 %. In fine we can confirm that the Sika game is quite resistant against parasitoses under our conditions, and health of Sika game in monitored localities is good.

  18. Molecular identification of protozoa causing AIDS-associated cholangiopathy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nétor Velásquez, Jorge; Marta, Edgardo; Alicia di Risio, Cecilia; Etchart, Cristina; Gancedo, Elisa; Victor Chertcoff, Agustín; Bruno Malandrini, Jorge; Germán Astudillo, Osvaldo; Carnevale, Silvana

    2012-12-01

    Several species of microsporidia and coccidia are protozoa parasites responsible for cholan-giopathy disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The goals of this work were to identift opportunistic protozoa by molecular methods and describe the clinical manifestations at the gastrointestinal tract and the biliary system in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy from Buenos Aires, Argentina. This study included 11 adult HIV-infected individuals with diagnosis ofAIDS- associated cholangiopathy. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy specimen collection and a stool analysis for parasites were performed on each patient. The ultrasound analysis revealed bile ducts compromise. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and a magnetic resonance cholangiography were carried out. The identification to the species level was performed on biopsy specimens by molecular methods. Microorganisms were identified in 10 cases. The diagnosis in patients with sclerosing cholangitis was cryptosporidiosis in 3 cases, cystoisosporosis in 1 and microsporidiosis in 1. In patients with sclerosing cholangitis and papillary stenosis the diagnosis was microsporidiosis in 2 cases, cryptosporidiosis in 2 and cryptosporidiosis associated with microsporidiosis in 1. In 3 cases with cryptosporidiosis the species was Cryptosporidium hominis, 1 of them was associated with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and the other 2 were coinfected with Cryptosporidium parvum. In the 4 cases with microsporidiosis the species was Enterocytozoon bieneusi. These results suggest that molecular methods may be useful tools to identify emerging protozoa in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy.

  19. BIO-ECOLGICAL PHENOMENON OF POLY-PARASITISM – ACTUAL MAJOR PROBLEM IN BREEDING OF SHEEP AND GOATS

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    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.

  20. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  1. A new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Viana, Lúcio André; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Santos, Filipe Martins; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; do Carmo, Jéssica Soares; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; Maltezo, Taynara Rocha; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia

    2018-05-01

    Despite the great diversity of coccidians, to our knowledge, no coccidian infections have been described in Oecomys spp. In this context, we examined Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from the Brazilian Pantanal for infections with enteric coccidia. Nine individuals were sampled, and one was found to be infected. The oöcysts were recovered through centrifugal flotation in sugar solution. Using morphological and morphometric features, we described a new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977. Sporulated oöcysts were ovoidal 20.0-29.1 × 16.4-23.2 (26.7 × 21.2) µm and contained two sporocysts, 12.9-19.1 × 9.4-13.9 (16.4 × 12.4) µm, each with four banana-shaped sporozoites. Polar granule and oöcyst residuum were both absent. We documented the developmental forms in the small intestine and described the histopathological lesions in the enteric tract. Our results indicate that the prevalence of Cystoisospora mamorae n. sp. in O. mamorae is low, and tissue damage in the enteric tract is mild, even in the presence of coccidian developmental stages.

  2. New Record of Rhinopoma microphyllum with the Invested Parasites and Microbes in the Developed Ecotourism Area of South Lombok Island NTB

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    Fajri, S. R.; NPrimawati, S.; Hadi, I.; Tresnani, G.

    2018-01-01

    Rhinopoma microphyllum is a bat species that lives in a habitat covered by grove of trees and shrubs in the primary forest vegetation. These species is included in the IUCN Red List list with Least Concern (LC) status or at the least information. This study was to describe of R. microphyllum as a new record in the southern of Lombok, and to examine the parasites and microbes that infest it. The study was carried out in the developed ecotourism area of southern Lombok Island of NTB during February-April 2017. A modified net and quadrant for cave ceiling was used to collect bat sample. Ectoparasite collection was done by combing the bat’s hair and the falling specimens were collected. The endoparasite examination was done by the flotation methods of intestinal contents, while microbial examination was done by collecting the microbes from oral cavity and feces. The results showed the discovery of R. microphyllum in two ecotourism development sites, The Buwun Cave and The Gale Gale Bangkang Cave Prabu Village, Central Lombok. The endoparasit examination found 4 species of endoparasit, 1 species of Coccidia sp, 2 species of Trematodes from Lecithodendridae Family (Prosthodendrium sp and Acanthatrium sp) and 1 unidentified Nematode specimen. The ectoparasite examination found only 1 species, Ischnopsyllus hexactenus (The long Eared Bat Flea), and the microbes found from oral cavity analysis are the Gram positive Coccus (Stphylococcus aureus) and faecal analysis are the Coccobacil Gram negative (Providensia penneri).

  3. [Estacionalidad de parásitos intestinales en suelos periurbanos de la ciudad de Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Giayetto, Alejandro Lorenzo; Manacorda, Ana Maria; Barbieri, Liliana Marta; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Veronesi, Alicia; Pezzani, Betina Cecilia; Minvielle, Marta Cecilia; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2003-03-01

    To determine the presence of eggs, larva, cysts and oocysts of intestinal parasites in the soil of a suburb of Neuquén city during 1 year in order to evaluate their seasonal fluctuations in relation to climatic data and soil characteristics in the studied area. A total of 107 soil samples were processed for parasite isolation by sedimentation and flotation methods during the four seasons of the year. Meteorological data were registered and physical, chemical and structural characteristics of the soil were analysed. About 28.9% of the soil samples were positive for at least one parasite form. Six protozoa species (cysts of Entamoeba sp., Enteromonas sp., Endolimax sp., Giardia sp., Iodamoeba sp. and coccidia oocysts) were recovered, but neither larvae nor eggs of human or animal helminths parasites were detected. The percentage of contaminated soil samples and the diversity of species showed a marked decrease in the warm and dry months of the summer. The soil was sandy, without vegetable cover, well drained, and with scarce organic matter content. The frequencies of parasite recovery and the number of species show seasonal fluctuations related to the rainfall. The importance of soil as a risk factor for the transmission of intestinal parasites in the studied area is conditioned by its structural characteristics, which prevent retaining the humidity, and by climatic variables. The interrelation of both factors determines unfavourable conditions that could explain the low level of contamination observed in soil as well as the absence of eggs and helminth larvae.

  4. Prevalência de Isospora em cães de diferentes áreas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro

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    Ana Maria Jansen Franken

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi examinado um total de 222 cães, sendo que 197 eram cães de rua apreendidos nas áreas suburbanas e rurais do Rio de Janeiro e 25 eram animais de estimação, mantidos em residências (apartamentos nas zonas Centro e Sul da cidade. Do total de 197 cães de rua, foram encontrados 49 (24,87% parasitados por coccidios do gênero Isospora, sendo que 6 deles (3,04% eram parasitados por I. canis e 43 (21,83% por I. rivolta. Nos 43 casos de parasitismo por I. rivolta foi encontrada nas fezes uma alta percentagem de esporocistos livres com 4 esporozoitos (35 casos, representando 81,4%. As fezes foram coletadas diretamente do reto e a técnica empregada para o exame do material foi a centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco. Entre os 25 cães de estimação não foi encontrado nenhum caso de parasitismo por Isospora sp. Os valores médios para os diâmetros maior e menor das formas de Isospora sp. encontradas foram de 38,63μ x 31,93μ. para oocistos de I. canis; 23μ x 18,94μ. para oocistos de I. rivolta e, 19,94μ x 10,05μ para os esporocistos de I. rivolta, encontrados livres nas fezes. Não foi diagnosticado nenhum caso de I. bigemina. Entre todos os casos positivos foram encontrados apenas 3 casos de infecção maciça nos animais. Nos 3 casos, tratavam-se de animais jovens parasitados por I. rivolta. O teste estatístico de diferença de proporções demonstrou que o sexo e a idade dos animais não tiveram influência na maior ou menor percentagem de cães positivos para Isospora sp, na presente casuística.A survey was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of coccidia of the genus Isospora in dogs in Rio de Janeiro. The collection of faecal samples was performed directly in the rectum. Stools were prepared for examination using the zinc sulphate centrifuge flotation technique. Out of 222 animais examined, 25 were pet dogs kept in apartments in the central and southem areas of the city. None of them was found to be infected by

  5. Seguimiento anual de la parasitosis gastrointestinal de venados cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en cautiverio en Yucatán, México

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    Rubén C. Montes Pérez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los géneros y estimar la cantidad de huevecillos y ooquistes de parásitos gastrointestinales (PGI excretados durante un año en heces de venados cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus yucatenensis mantenidos en cautiverio en Yucatán, México. Se recolectaron muestras fecales en tres confinamientos ubicados en la zona centro del estado de Yucatán, de enero a diciembre de 1995. Diez muestras fueron colectadas de cada confinamiento cada dos semanas. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante la técnica de Flotación Centrifugada y McMaster. Se realizaron cultivos de heces para obtener larvas infectantes L3 mediante la técnica de Corticelli-Lai. Las heces positivas a ooquistes fueron cultivados en dicromato de potasio al 2%. Se determinaron siete géneros (Haemonchus spp, Cooperia spp, Isospora spp, Eimeria spp, Trichuris spp, Strongyloides spp y Moniezia spp correspondientes a cinco órdenes. Haemonchus spp, Isospora spp y Eimeria spp fueron los géneros más frecuentes. El género Isospora se reporta por primera vez en venados de la región, aunque no fue posible explicar el origen de este hallazgo. La frecuencia y nivel de excresión de huevecillos y ooquistes de PGI fue variable durante el año, con incremento en la época de lluvia. Se encontró correlación positiva entre humedad relativa, temperatura ambiente y precipitación pluvial con los órdenes Coccidia y Strongylida. En la zona centro del estado de Yucatán, México, las condiciones meteorológicas en la época de lluvia son propicias para el desarrollo del parasitismo gastrointestinal, lo que permite mayor riesgo de infección en los venados.Gastrointestinal parasites, and egg and oocyst output in the faeces of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus yucatanensis were recorded in Yucatan, Mexico. Feces were obtained from from January through December 1995 (ten samples every two weeks per place. Samples were processed by

  6. Parasitosis intestinal y factores de riesgo en niños de los asentamientos subnormales, Florencia-Caquetá, Colombia / Intestinal parasitism and risk factors among children from the Illegal settlements of Florencia-Caquetá, Colombia

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    Tarín A. Lucero-Garzón

    2015-09-01

    Ritchie-Frick method after concentration. Coccidia were evaluated using the Kinyoun technique with modifications enabling their identification. In addition, a survey with socioepidemiological data was used. The statistical analysis was performed using spss and epidat. Results: the prevalence was 90% of infected children. The most frequent parasites were protozoa, i.e. Blastocystis spp: 49%, Giardia duodenalis: 36%, E. histolitica/dispar: 29%, the prevalence of Coccidia was 19%; Cryptosporidium sp: 7% Cystoisospora sp: 8% and Cyclospora sp: 4%; as for helminths, the prevalent organisms were Ascaris lumbricoides: 5%, Trichuris trichura: 1%, Uncinaria spp:1%. In addition, 53% of the samples were cases of multiple parasitism. Finally, 85% of the children did not have proper footwear, 47% of the homes lacked basic sanitation, 41% had greenhouse fabrics in the walls and 74% of the floors were ground and had no tiles. Pets were present in 62% of the homes. Conclusions: the socio-economic conditions of the studied population make it susceptible to the high amount of intestinal parasites that was estimated in this study; for that reason, it is important to address this issue through medical and governmental intervention to improve the quality of life of these people.

  7. Prevalence of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in Northern Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2004-08-01

    A total of 206 Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) collected from the mid-Michigan region, United States, during a period extending from 1996 to 2002 were sampled for the presence of Sarcocystis spp sporocysts. All isolates were phenotypically identified as Sarcocystis spp and genotyped to the species level by PCR-based techniques. The overall prevalence of Sarcocystis spp in opossums was 18% (37/206). The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp differed significantly with age ( P<0.001) and adult opossums were more commonly infected (14.6%; 30/206) than juveniles (3.4%; 7/206). No significant difference in the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp infection was observed between male and female ( P<0.15). The highest prevalence was recorded during summer (9.2%; 19/206). PCR-RFLP analyses demonstrated the majority of Sarcocystis isolates to be S. neurona, with some animals co-infected with sporocysts of S. falcatula. Out of the 37 Sarcocystis-infected opossums, 23 (62%) had sporocysts of S. neurona only, four (11%) had sporocysts of S. falcatula only, and eight (22%) had a mixture of S. neurona and S. falcatula sporocysts. These findings indicate that mixed Sarcocystis infections in opossums are common. The propensity for Sarcocystis spp to co-exist in the opossum gut enhances dissemination and environmental contamination with these coccidia. Additionally, this increases the chance for sexual recombination between Sarcocystis spp, given the proclivity of these species to reproduce sexually at high numbers in the intestinal cells of their definitive host.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Eimeria spp. DURING EARLY NATURAL INFECTION IN GOAT KIDS IN BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO

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    Ramón Cepeda-Palacios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the natural infection by Eimeria spp. in goat kids, and to describe some pathophysiological responses to eimerosis in kids under intensive rearing conditions in B.C.S, Mexico. Nineteen adult crossbred does naturally infected with mixed Eimeria spp. and 20 Anglo Nubian x Creole crossbred kids were used. Oocyst per gram of feces (OPG and identification of Eimeria species were determined in does (during the pre-kidding and post-kidding periods and kids. Clinical signs, hematocrit, hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood serum were evaluated. OPG (mean±SD was significantly higher (P<0.05 in pre-kidding (9,478±7,599 than in post-kidding (5,313±2,909 period. Oocyst elimination in feces began at age 59±9 days in kids. Eimerian species identified were E. arloingi, E. jolchijevi, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. hirci, E. christenseni and E. alijevi. Kids were humanely sacrificed to evaluate pathological lesions. Intestinal lesions and lesion severity showed differences in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon, being more severe in duodenum. In conclusion, OPG increased during the late pregnancy in does which favored a doe-kid transmission mechanism. Our results support the notion of Eimeria reproduction rhythms during the late pregnancy period in goats, and this reproduction contribute to vertical transmission of Eimeria to the newborn. However, coccidian outbreaks are developed and clinically observed only when stressing factors such as when weaning occur. Coccidia had devastating effects on the intestine of kids, which might cause long-term permanent malabsortion consequences. Â

  9. Health assessment of raptors in triage in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

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    D de A Andery

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Falconiformes (n=82, Strigiformes (n=84 and Cathartiformes (n=14 at a triage center (CETAS-Belo Horizonte, IBAMA, Brazil were examined between 2008 and 2010 . No bird was reactive at hemagglutination-inhibition (HI for antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg. Two Caracara plancus (2/68 had HI titers (16-32 against Newcastle disease virus. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was detected in the liver (PCR; n=95. Blood smears (Giemsa; n=89 and spleen fragments (PCR; n=82 were 13.5% and 8.5% positive, respectively, for Haemoproteus only. Necropsy of Cathartiformes (n=10, Falconiformes (n=42 and Strigiformes (n=57 showed that trauma injuries were the main cause (63.3% of admission and death, being fractures (38.5% of the thoracic limbs (57.1% the most frequent. Nematode (12.8%, cestode (1.8%, trematode (0.9%, and acanthocephalan (2.7% parasite infections were relevant. Mites (Acari were the most frequent (17.4% external parasites, particularly Ornithonyssus sylviarum in Asio clamator and Amblyomma cajennense in Tyto alba. Chewing lice (10.1% and Pseudolynchia spp. (9.2% were also found. Histomonas spp. (6.4% was found in the ceca of Bubo virginianus, Athene cunicularia, Tyto alba, and Asio clamator, but not in Falconiformes or Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. (oral cavity, pharynx and upper esophagus; 9.1% was detected in Falconiformes and Strigiformes, but not in Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. were found in A. cunicularia, Asio clamator, Glaucidium brasilianum and Tyto alba (Strigiformes, and in Rupornis magnirostris, Milvago chimachima, Falco femoralis, Falco sparverius and Caracara plancus (Falconiformes. Coccidia (9.1% (Sarcocystis spp., 6.4% and mycosis were observed in most Tyto alba (70%. The evaluated Orders may not pose risks for commercial poultry production. Habitat loss and urban adaptation may be increasingly affecting raptors.

  10. Parasitic infections of digestive tract of dogs in territory of Braničevo District

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    Đurić Boban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two-year investigations of parasitic infections of the digestive tract of dogs originating from the territories of eight municipalities of Braničevo District. Investigations were performed on 345 dogs of different breeds and age categories, originating from rural and urban environments. The investigations encompassed dogs bred in decent hygiene conditions, as well as dogs living in unhygienic conditions. Some of the dogs covered by these analyses were dewormed, but the bulk of the sampled material originated from dogs that were not treated with antihelminthics. Eight species of parasites of the digestive tract were diagnosed in the examined dogs from the territory of the Braničevo District: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, coccidiae, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp. and Alaria alata. Today, it is still necessary to keep dogs in rural environments and isolated areas, since these animals are used to guard real estate and cattle. For quite some time now, there has also been wide-spread interest in keeping dogs in urban areas as well. It is evident on the grounds of data from big towns that the number of dogs in urban environments has been increasing constantly all over the world. However, the conditions for naturally maintaining dogs in towns have become increasingly more difficult and complicated. The amount of free space and the number of yards are constantly being reduced, so that dog owners are compelled to keep their pets in apartments. These altered living and diet conditions have resulted in more complex and varied health problems of dogs.

  11. Diagnostic investigation of porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome: lack of compelling evidence linking to common porcine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Gauvreau, Henry; Harding, John

    2012-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS), an increasingly recognized syndrome in the swine industry of North America, is characterized by the anorexia of nursery pigs noticeable within 1 week of weaning, and progressive loss of body condition and lethargy during the next 1-2 weeks. Morbidity caused by PFTS is moderate, but case fatality is high. The etiology of PFTS is presently unknown and may include infectious agent(s), noninfectious factors, or both. PFTS was identified in a high health status farm with good management in early 2007. A diagnostic investigation was undertaken to identify the pathological lesions of, and infectious agents associated with, pigs demonstrating typical clinical signs. Affected (PFTS-SICK) and unaffected (PFTS-HLTHY) pigs from an affected farm, and unaffected pigs from 2 unaffected farms, were examined. The most prevalent lesions in PFTS-SICK pigs were superficial lymphocytic fundic gastritis, atrophic enteritis, superficial colitis, lymphocytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, and thymic atrophy. Rotavirus A and Betacoronavirus 1 (Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus) were identified only in PFTS-SICK pigs, but the significance of the viruses is uncertain because PFTS is not consistent with the typical presentation following infection by these pathogens. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Porcine circovirus-2, Influenza A virus, Alphacoronavirus 1 (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus), Torque teno virus 1, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and Brachyspira pilosicoli were not identified in PFTS-SICK pigs. Suid herpesvirus 2 (Porcine cytomegalovirus), Porcine enteric calicivirus, Torque teno virus 2, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and coccidia were detected in both PFTS-SICK and PFTS-HLTHY pigs. It was concluded that there is a lack of compelling evidence that PFTS is caused by any of these pathogens.

  12. Effect of inorganic and organic zinc supplementation on coccidial infections in goat kids

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    Petra Strnadová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of zinc-enriched diet fed to goats and their kids on the number of Coccidia oocysts shed by kids, on clinical signs of coccidiosis, weight gains, and kids’ blood plasma concentration of zinc. A total of 22 goat kids were divided into 4 groups of 5 or 6 animals. Goats and kids from the control group did not receive any additional zinc, the second group was supplemented with inorganic zinc (zinc oxide, the third group was given zinc lactate, and the fourth group received chelated zinc. Samples of kids’ faeces were taken weekly from 3 to 9 weeks of their age (a total of 7 samples were taken. Samples of faeces were examined by a quantitative method to detect the number of oocysts. Kids were weighed weekly and their blood was taken in order to determine zinc concentrations in blood plasma. Animals from the group supplemented with zinc chelate and zinc lactate shed a significantly (p ≤ 0.05 lower number of oocysts (13.4% and 11.9%, respectively compared to the number of oocyst shed by control and zinc oxide supplemented groups (25% and 49.7%, respectively. Shedding of oocysts was not accompanied by clinical symptoms of coccidiosis in any of the groups. Kids supplemented with zinc chelate showed significantly highest weight gains and blood plasma concentration of zinc (p ≤ 0.05 as compared to control and inorganic zinc supplemented groups. Organic zinc is to be recommended to be used as a prophylaxis against coccidiosis in goat kids.

  13. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Californian rabbits in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Liu, Hongbin; Fang, Sufang; Gu, Xiaolong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chunling; Tao, Geru; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis is caused by infection with one or usually several Eimeria species, parasitizing in hepatobiliary ducts or intestinal epithelium of rabbits. To date, 11 species of rabbit coccidia have been well documented. Here we report a new species of Eimeria from rabbits. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal to slightly ovoidal, 37.4 (32.6-41.2) μm in length, 23.5 (20.9-25.5) μm in width, with a shape index (length/width) 1.6 (1.43-1.91) and smooth, bilayered, homogeneously thick wall. The micropyle was obvious and with an inner diameter of 6.2 (5.0-7.5) μm. Both oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal to elongate, 17.2 (13.2-20.0) μm long and 8.4 (7.5-9.1) μm wide, with a shape index (length/width) of 2.1 (1.74-2.21) and the presence of Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. The prepatent period was 132h. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 18S rDNA sequence of the new species clustered together with the 11 rabbit Eimeria species into a clade. However, ITS-1 sequence of the new species shared low similarities (27.1%-30%) with those of 11 rabbit Eimeria species. As the data above supported the erection of a new species, we named it as Eimeria kongi n. sp., in honor of Fanyao Kong, a Chinese parasitologist. The finding of the new species has important implications for the diagnosis and prevention of rabbit coccidiosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Dual RNA-seq reveals no plastic transcriptional response of the coccidian parasite Eimeria falciformis to host immune defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Totta; Spork, Simone; Dieterich, Christoph; Lucius, Richard; Heitlinger, Emanuel

    2017-09-05

    Parasites can either respond to differences in immune defenses that exist between individual hosts plastically or, alternatively, follow a genetically canalized ("hard wired") program of infection. Assuming that large-scale functional plasticity would be discernible in the parasite transcriptome we have performed a dual RNA-seq study of the lifecycle of Eimeria falciformis using infected mice with different immune status as models for coccidian infections. We compared parasite and host transcriptomes (dual transcriptome) between naïve and challenge infected mice, as well as between immune competent and immune deficient ones. Mice with different immune competence show transcriptional differences as well as differences in parasite reproduction (oocyst shedding). Broad gene categories represented by differently abundant host genes indicate enrichments for immune reaction and tissue repair functions. More specifically, TGF-beta, EGF, TNF and IL-1 and IL-6 are examples of functional annotations represented differently depending on host immune status. Much in contrast, parasite transcriptomes were neither different between Coccidia isolated from immune competent and immune deficient mice, nor between those harvested from naïve and challenge infected mice. Instead, parasite transcriptomes have distinct profiles early and late in infection, characterized largely by biosynthesis or motility associated functional gene groups, respectively. Extracellular sporozoite and oocyst stages showed distinct transcriptional profiles and sporozoite transcriptomes were found enriched for species specific genes and likely pathogenicity factors. We propose that the niche and host-specific parasite E. falciformis uses a genetically canalized program of infection. This program is likely fixed in an evolutionary process rather than employing phenotypic plasticity to interact with its host. This in turn might limit the potential of the parasite to adapt to new host species or niches, forcing

  15. Divergent nuclear 18S rDNA paralogs in a turkey coccidium, Eimeria meleagrimitis, complicate molecular systematics and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, Shiem; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Hafeez, Mian A; Barta, John R

    2013-07-01

    Multiple 18S rDNA sequences were obtained from two single-oocyst-derived lines of each of Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria adenoeides. After analysing the 15 new 18S rDNA sequences from two lines of E. meleagrimitis and 17 new sequences from two lines of E. adenoeides, there were clear indications that divergent, paralogous 18S rDNA copies existed within the nuclear genome of E. meleagrimitis. In contrast, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) partial sequences from all lines of a particular Eimeria sp. were identical and, in phylogenetic analyses, COI sequences clustered unambiguously in monophyletic and highly-supported clades specific to individual Eimeria sp. Phylogenetic analysis of the new 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis showed that they formed two distinct clades: Type A with four new sequences; and Type B with nine new sequences; both Types A and B sequences were obtained from each of the single-oocyst-derived lines of E. meleagrimitis. Together these rDNA types formed a well-supported E. meleagrimitis clade. Types A and B 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis had a mean sequence identity of only 97.4% whereas mean sequence identity within types was 99.1-99.3%. The observed intraspecific sequence divergence among E. meleagrimitis 18S rDNA sequence types was even higher (approximately 2.6%) than the interspecific sequence divergence present between some well-recognized species such as Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix (1.1%). Our observations suggest that, unlike COI sequences, 18S rDNA sequences are not reliable molecular markers to be used alone for species identification with coccidia, although 18S rDNA sequences have clear utility for phylogenetic reconstruction of apicomplexan parasites at the genus and higher taxonomic ranks. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.

    2011-01-01

    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22140460

  17. Development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using X-irradiated Eimeria acervulina oocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, M.C.; Augustine, P.C.; Barta, J.R.; Castle, M.D.; Danforth, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    Sporulated oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of X-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. Irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. Insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad X-irradiation. Sporozoites exposed to 15 or 20 krad irradiation conferred significant protection against the appearance of intestinal lesions after parasite challenge. Sporozoites subjected to the highest dose level (30 krad) did not produce any significant level of protection. To investigate this phenomenon further and assess intracellular parasite development, susceptible outbred strains of chickens were administered either nonirradiated (0 krad) oocysts or oocysts that were exposed to an optimal dose (15 krad) or a high dose (30 krad) of X-irradiation. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from each treatment group at various intervals after the initial administration of irradiated parasites indicated that sporozoites exposed to 15 krad irradiation were as capable of invading the host intestinal epithelium as nonirradiated sporozoites. However, at 48, 60, 72, and 96 hr, there was a marked reduction in merogonic development in groups receiving irradiated sporozoites compared to those inoculated with nonirradiated parasites. The latter parasites underwent profuse merogonic development; in contrast, irradiated parasites demonstrated little (15 krad) or no (30 krad) merogonic development. These results suggest that induction of a protective immune response occurs during a critical period early in intracellular development of E. acervulina

  18. Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day 7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day 50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000 mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis.

  19. Investigation of SnSPR1, a novel and abundant surface protein of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deqing; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-04-15

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project has produced over 15,000 partial cDNA sequences from the equine pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. While many of the sequences are clear homologues of previously characterized genes, a significant number of the S. neurona ESTs do not exhibit similarity to anything in the extensive sequence databases that have been generated. In an effort to characterize parasite proteins that are novel to S. neurona, a seemingly unique gene was selected for further investigation based on its abundant representation in the collection of ESTs and the predicted presence of a signal peptide and glycolipid anchor addition on the encoded protein. The gene was expressed in E. coli, and monospecific polyclonal antiserum against the recombinant protein was produced by immunization of a rabbit. Characterization of the native protein in S. neurona merozoites and schizonts revealed that it is a low molecular weight surface protein that is expressed throughout intracellular development of the parasite. The protein was designated Surface Protein 1 (SPR1) to reflect its display on the outer surface of merozoites and to distinguish it from the ubiquitous SAG/SRS surface antigens of the heteroxenous Coccidia. Interestingly, infection assays in the presence of the polyclonal antiserum suggested that SnSPR1 plays some role in attachment and/or invasion of host cells by S. neurona merozoites. The work described herein represents a general template for selecting and characterizing the various unidentified gene sequences that are plentiful in the EST databases for S. neurona and other apicomplexans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the value of investigating these novel sequences since it can offer new candidates for diagnostic or vaccine development while also providing greater insight into the biology of these parasites.

  20. Disruption in the cecal microbiota of chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens and other factors was alleviated by Bacillus licheniformis supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yicen; Xu, Shuai; Zeng, Dong; Ni, Xueqin; Zhou, Mengjia; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Hesong; Zhou, Yi; Zhu, Hui; Pan, Kangcheng; Li, Guangyao

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens can induce necrotic enteritis of chickens, which causes large economic losses every year. Bacillus licheniformis, a probiotic, can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, thereby improving the health status of chickens. However, from a microbial ecology perspective, the mechanisms by which alterations to the gut microbiota improve health remain unknown. In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the cecal microbiota of a negative control group (NC), a C. perfringens and Eimeria challenge group with fishmeal supplementation (PC), a group supplemented with fishmeal and infected with coccidia (FC), and group PC with B. licheniformis supplementation (BL). We found that the health status of C. perfringens-challenged chickens was compromised, and that B. licheniformis improved the growth of the chickens challenged with pathogens. Microbial diversity analysis and taxonomic profiling of groups NC, PC, and FC revealed a disturbed cecal microflora of the birds with C. perfringens. We also characterized the microbiota of the chickens in the BL group using several methods. Principal coordinate analysis demonstrated that, compared with group PC, the bacterial community structure of group BL was more similar to that of group NC. Linear discriminant analysis with effect size revealed less differentially represented bacterial taxa between groups BL and NC than between groups PC and NC. In addition, groups BL and NC appeared to have similar overrepresented microbial taxa (such as Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Megamonas, and Akkermansia) compared with group PC. Finally, a phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states analysis indicated that large differences existed between group PC and groups NC and BL. In conclusion, pre-treatment with B. licheniformis reduced the disturbance of the cecal microbiome induced by challenge with C. perfringens and other factors in broiler

  1. Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Michael E; Barbosa, Nei A; Dowd, Scot E; Sakomura, Nilva K; Nalian, Armen G; Martynova-Van Kley, Alexandra; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O

    2011-11-01

    A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil (EO) blends were infected with a standard mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects of performance enhancers on ileal and cecal microbial communities (MCs). Eight treatment groups included four controls (uninfected-unmedicated [UU], unmedicated-infected, the antibiotic BMD plus the ionophore Coban as positive control, and the ionophore as negative control), and four treatments (probiotics BC-30 and Calsporin; and EO, Crina Poultry Plus, and Crina PoultryAF). Day-old broilers were raised to 14 days in floor pens on used litter and then were moved to Petersime batteries and inoculated at 15 days with mixed Eimeria spp. Ileal and cecal samples were collected at 14 days and 7 days postinfection. Digesta DNA was subjected to pyrosequencing for sequencing of individual cecal bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for determination of changes in ileal and cecal MC according to percentage similarity coefficient (%SC). Pyrosequencing is very sensitive detecting shifts in individual bacterial sequences, whereas DGGE is able to detect gross shifts in entire MC. These combined techniques offer versatility toward identifying feed additive and mild Eimeria infection modulation of broiler MC. Pyrosequencing detected 147 bacterial species sequences. Additionally, pyrosequencing revealed the presence of relatively low levels of the potential human enteropathogens Campylobacter sp. and four Shigella spp. as well as the potential poultry pathogen Clostridiun perfringens. Pre- and postinfection changes in ileal (56%SC) and cecal (78.5%SC) DGGE profiles resulted from the coccidia infection and with increased broiler age. Probiotics and EO changed MC from those seen in UU ilea and ceca. Results potentially reflect the performance enhancement above expectations in

  2. The rhoptry proteome of Eimeria tenella sporozoites

    KAUST Repository

    Oakes, Richard D.; Kurian, Dominic; Bromley, Elizabeth V.; Ward, Chris; Lal, Kalpana; Blake, Damer P.; Reid, Adam James; Pain, Arnab; Sinden, Robert E.; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Tomley, F. M. M Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Proteins derived from the rhoptry secretory organelles are crucial for the invasion and survival of apicomplexan parasites within host cells. The rhoptries are club-shaped organelles that contain two distinct subpopulations of proteins that localise to separate compartments of the organelle. Proteins from the neck region (rhoptry neck proteins, RON) are secreted early in invasion and a subset of these is critical for the formation and function of the moving junction between parasite and host membranes. Proteins from the bulb compartment (rhoptry protein, ROP) are released later, into the nascent parasitophorous vacuole where they have a role in modifying the vacuolar environment, and into the host cell where they act as key determinants of virulence through their ability to interact with host cell signalling pathways, causing an array of downstream effects. In this paper we present the results of an extensive proteomics analysis of the rhoptry organelles from the coccidian parasite, Eimeria tenella, which is a highly pathogenic parasite of the domestic chicken causing severe caecal coccidiosis. Several different classes of rhoptry protein have been identified. First are the RON proteins that have varying degrees of similarity to proteins of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. For some RON families, E. tenella expresses more than one gene product and many of the individual RON proteins are differentially expressed between the sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages. The E. tenella sporozoite rhoptry expresses only a limited repertoire of proteins with homology to known ROP proteins from other coccidia, including just two secreted ROP kinases, both of which appear to be equipped for catalytic activity. Finally, a large number of hitherto undescribed proteins that map to the sporozoite rhoptry are identified, many of which have orthologous proteins encoded within the genomes of T. gondii and N. caninum. © 2012 .

  3. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa (Rodentia: Aplodontiidae), from Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Two mountain beavers, Aplodontia rufa , were collected in Lincoln County, Oregon, and examined for coccidia. Both were infected with 2 new species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria chitkoae n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 24.5 × 20.2 μm, with a shape index (SI) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule of several fragments was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.5 × 7.9 μm, SI was 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies were present, but a parastieda body was absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a cluster of moderately coarse granules with many scattered fine granules. Stout sporozoites were 14.7 × 2.9 μm in situ, with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Oocysts of Eimeria lewisi n. sp. were ovoidal, with a smooth single-layered wall, and measured 13.7 × 7.8 μm, SI was 1.7. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) were present. Sporocysts were 6.6 × 4.2 μm, with SI of 1.6. A Stieda body was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a small cluster of several granules. Sporozoites were granular, 8.2 × 1.8 μm in situ, with a posterior refractile body. These are the first coccidians reported from the mountain beaver.

  4. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany.

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    Jürgen Krücken

    Full Text Available Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1 and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element in brain and ascarids (ITS-2 in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8, Toxocara cati (4 and Parascaris sp. (1 were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to

  5. Intestinal parasites among young children in the interior of Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, J F; Validum, L; Ager, A L; Campa, A; Cuadrado, R R; Cummings, R; Palmer, C J

    2002-03-01

    Intestinal parasites contribute greatly to morbidity in developing countries. While there have been several studies of the problem in the Caribbean, including the implementation of control programmes, this has not been done for Guyana. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among young children in a town located in the interior of Guyana. Eighty-five children under the age of 12 years were studied prospectively for intestinal parasites in Mahdia, Guyana. Stool samples were transported in formalin to the Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, for analysis using the formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Data on age and gender of the children were recorded on field data sheets. At least one intestinal parasite was detected in 43.5% (37/85) of the children studied and multiple parasitic infections were recorded in 21.2% (18/85). The most common intestinal helminth parasite was hookworm (28.2%; 24/85), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.8%; 16/85) and then Trichuris trichuria (14.1%; 12/85). Among the protozoan infections Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.5% (9/85) of the study population while Entamoeba histolytica appeared rarely. All stool samples were negative for Cryptosporidium and other intestinal Coccidia. There was no predilection for gender with any of the parasites. The pattern of distribution of worms in this area of Guyana was unlike that seen in other studies. Hookworm infection was the most common among the children and a large proportion had multiple infections. The study established the occurrence and prevalence of a number of intestinal parasites in the population of Guyana. This sets the stage for the design and implementation of more detailed epidemiological studies.

  6. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, Jürgen; Blümke, Julia; Maaz, Denny; Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Antolová, Daniela; Schaper, Roland; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1) and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element) in brain and ascarids (ITS-2) in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented) had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8), Toxocara cati (4) and Parascaris sp. (1) were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to estimate the health

  7. Topical concept of coccidiosis control in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petričević Saša M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is the most significant parasitic disease in poultry in contemporary systems of breeding and utilization of their production potentials. It usually inflicts substantial economic damage, regardless of whether it is exhibited in the clinical or subclinical form. In parallel with the industrialization in poultry breeding, measures for the control of coccidiosis have developed in parallel, so that the prevention of this disease today is founded on four basic principles: zoohygiene, genetics, the implementation of anticoccidial drugs, and vaccination. Hemoprophylaxis is the most represented in the prevention of coccidiosis, as a very efficient measure. In Serbia, ionoform antibiotics, amprolium, halofuginone and sulfonamides, are most often used. However, the application of medicines in coccidiosis control has as a consequence also certain undesired effects, of which the most important are toxicity, incompatibility with other drugs or chemical substances, coccidia resistence, and the presence of residue in poultry tissue. The significance of the immunization of poultry with the objective of their protection from the harmful consequences caused by this protozoozis has been known for several decades now. The implementation of a vaccine against coccidiosis has established its practical importance in the world only in the past decade, when the European Union Commission adopted a five-year plan for studies of coccidiosis and its control through vaccination. In our country, two vaccines have been registered for use in veterinary medicine, and their practical implementation has still not quite become regular practice. Each of the listed control measures also implies certain faults, however. More efficient protection can be provided by possible combinations of the coccidiosis control methods.

  8. Absorption and deposition of xanthophylls in broilers challenged with three dosages of Eimeria acervulina oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Velasco, X; Chapman, H D; Owens, C M; Kuttappan, V A; Fuente-Martínez, B; Menconi, A; Latorre, J D; Kallapura, G; Bielke, L R; Rathinam, T; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different doses of oocysts of Eimeria acervulina on intestinal absorption and skin deposition of xanthophylls (XAs) in broilers. 2. A total of 192 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups: an uninfected control group and three groups inoculated with either 1 × 10(2), 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(5) sporulated oocysts of E. acervulina by gavaging at 21 d. There were 4 replicate pens (2 male and 2 female) per group. 3. Plasma xanthophyll (PX) and skin yellowness (SY) were measured in live birds weekly. At 42 d of age, SY was measured in the breast and abdomen after chilling and in the breast 24 h post-processing on refrigerated carcasses. 4. In general, in all challenged treatments, and for the duration of the study, the average PX decreased by 0.02 μg/ml (R(2) = 61.6%) for every 1000 inoculated oocysts, whereas PX increased by 1.26 μg/ml/d in uninfected birds. 5. The average SY in live birds from 21 to 42 d of age decreased by 0.019 b*/every 1000 oocysts administered, while SY of uninfected controls increased by 0.57 b*/d. It was also noted that in all treatments females had a greater SY (6.17 b*) than males for the duration of the study. The SY of the breast and abdomen was correlated (r = 0.76) in chilled carcasses. Breast SY in 24 h refrigerated carcasses was greater in the control group and for female birds. 6. Oocyst excretion was different between inoculated treatments only on 7 d post-inoculation (PI). Coccidia lesion scores in the duodenum averaged 1+ in infected birds and 2+ in birds given the highest oocyst dose.

  9. The rhoptry proteome of Eimeria tenella sporozoites

    KAUST Repository

    Oakes, Richard D.

    2013-02-01

    Proteins derived from the rhoptry secretory organelles are crucial for the invasion and survival of apicomplexan parasites within host cells. The rhoptries are club-shaped organelles that contain two distinct subpopulations of proteins that localise to separate compartments of the organelle. Proteins from the neck region (rhoptry neck proteins, RON) are secreted early in invasion and a subset of these is critical for the formation and function of the moving junction between parasite and host membranes. Proteins from the bulb compartment (rhoptry protein, ROP) are released later, into the nascent parasitophorous vacuole where they have a role in modifying the vacuolar environment, and into the host cell where they act as key determinants of virulence through their ability to interact with host cell signalling pathways, causing an array of downstream effects. In this paper we present the results of an extensive proteomics analysis of the rhoptry organelles from the coccidian parasite, Eimeria tenella, which is a highly pathogenic parasite of the domestic chicken causing severe caecal coccidiosis. Several different classes of rhoptry protein have been identified. First are the RON proteins that have varying degrees of similarity to proteins of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. For some RON families, E. tenella expresses more than one gene product and many of the individual RON proteins are differentially expressed between the sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages. The E. tenella sporozoite rhoptry expresses only a limited repertoire of proteins with homology to known ROP proteins from other coccidia, including just two secreted ROP kinases, both of which appear to be equipped for catalytic activity. Finally, a large number of hitherto undescribed proteins that map to the sporozoite rhoptry are identified, many of which have orthologous proteins encoded within the genomes of T. gondii and N. caninum. © 2012 .

  10. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  11. Efficacy of myrrh in controlling coccidioses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmed; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Kutkat, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Myrrh was used for controlling the infection with Eimeria species in chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old native breed chickens bought from commercial hatchery were used in the experiment. Birds were feed on starter balanced ration free from anticoccidial drugs. At age of 2 weeks the chickens were divided into 4 groups (1-4), 30 chicks each. Chickens of first group were inoculated by 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed local field isolated Eimneria species and served as infected non treated control group. Birds of the second group were infected similarly and received simultaneously 10 mg Myrrh / bird by oral route. Birds of group 3 was supplied with Myrrh 10 mg / bird one day before infection by coccidia (50000 oocyst/bird). Last chicken group was left as non infected non treated control group. Measurements to evaluate the efficacy of Myrrh as anticoccidial drug included; mortality percentage; lesion score at 5 day post infection and the total oocyst output/gm of fecal dropping. The results showed that the mortality rate reached 10% and 3.33% in groups 2&3 respectively, while it reached 26.66% in infected non treated control group. High lesion score was recorded in infected non treated group followed by infected treated chicken groups regardless the time of treatment. The feed conversion rates reached 3.14 in infected non treated chicken group against 2.47 & 2.21 in treated chickens groups, 2&3 respectively. Mean oocyst count per gram faecal dropping (OPG) was reduced significantly in group 3 when compared with other infected treated or infected non treated chicken groups.

  12. Seropositive pigs to Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae sent to slaughter and destined for human consumption

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    Wanderley M. de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Almdeida W., Miranda Z.B., Flausino W., Coelho C.D., Fonseca A.B.M. & Lopes C.W.G. [Seropositive pigs to Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae sent to slaughter and destined for human consumption.] Suínos sororreagentes a Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae enviados para abate e destinados ao consumo humano. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:397-400, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária - Higiene Veterinária e Processamento Tecnológico de Produtos de Origem Animal, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brasil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: wanderleyma@yahoo.com.br This study aimed to determine the frequency of pigs seropositive to Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence assay with cutoff 1:16. Of blood samples collected at slaughter, 250 of them were from animals raised in the State of Minas Gerais; while 181 were from the State of Rio de Janeiro with a total of 431 examined samples. Of these, 19/250 (4.41% of MG and 39/181 (9.04% of RJ, determining a total of 13.45% seropositive animals. Regardless of slaughter be under the control of the inspection service, the precedence of the animals was highly significant (p = 0.0001 in the number of seropositive animals. Although the percentage of seropositive animals to T. gondii from both regions studied in this work, and from the point of view of a public health problem, pork and its frescal type products may continue to be considered as a source of infection of this coccidia for humans, if they are consumed as raw or undercooked.

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  14. Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae no cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

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    Janaina S. Rodrigues

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Esporocistos de Sarcocystis foram identificados nas amostras fecais de um cachorro-do-mato. Eles foram dados por via oral para um bezerro em aleitamento, sendo observados cistos com morfologia compatível com os de Sarcocystis cruzi na musculatura cardíaca e esquelética, três meses após a infecção. Musculatura cardíaca deste bezerro foi dada para um segundo cão doméstico livre de coccídios, que eliminou esporocistos compatíveis com os de Sarcocystis em suas fezes, tendo com períodos pré-patente e patente 11 e 12 dias após a infecção respectivamente. Para comparar a morfologia dos esporocistos e cistos, um segundo cão, também livre de coccídios, foi alimentado com musculatura cardíaca de um bovino infectando naturalmente e positivo para cistos de S. cruzi. Esporocistos compatíveis com os eliminados pelo primeiro cão foram encontrados nas fezes. Apesar dos esporocistos eliminados pelo cachorro-do-mato serem significativamente diferentes dos eliminados pelos cães infectados experimentalmente, pode se considerar com base na morfologia dos esporocistos, cistos e na transmissão biológica que a espécie encontrada nas fezes do cachorro-do-mato é Sarcocystis cruzi.Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were identified in feces samples of a crab-eating fox, and were orally given to a suckling calf; after 3 months of infection, sarcocysts morphologically similar to Sarcocystis cruzi were observed in cardiac and skeletal striated muscles. The cardiac muscles of this calf were orally given to a puppy free of coccidia, that shed sporocysts in its feces.with a prepatent and patent period of 11 and 12 days after infection, respectively. To compare the morphology of the sporocysts and cysts, a second puppy was fed on bovine cardiac muscles infected naturally, and sporocysts identical to those shed by the first dog were recovered from its feces. In spite of the significant difference between sporocysts found in the mucosa of the crab-eating fox and

  15. The effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of amino acid and sugar transporters aminopeptidase, as well as the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1, is not solely due to decreased feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miska, Katarzyna B; Fetterer, Raymond H

    2018-05-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria in poultry is endemic to poultry operations and results in decreased feed intake, diarrhea, and decreased weight gain. The goal was to determine the effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of genes that encode peptide and amino acid transporters (AATs), and also to determine whether decreased feed intake contributes to the change in gene expression by including a pair-fed group of broilers. Three groups of male Ross broilers: 1) not infected, 2) infected, and 3) not infected pair-fed groups were used. Chicks were infected with 1,000 oocysts of E. maxima at 21 d of age. Feed consumption was obtained daily, and at d 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post-infection (PI), 6 birds were euthanized, and a portion of the jejunum was removed for qRT-PCR. Infected birds had significantly decreased feed consumption between d 6 to 9 PI. At d 7 PI infected birds had a 45% reduction in weight gain, and pair-fed birds had a 32% reduction in weight gain. The feed conversion ratio at d 7 PI of infected birds was 2.2 while that of pair-fed birds was 1.7, compared to 1.5 in uninfected birds. Growth parameters were more affected in infected birds than in pair-fed birds. By measuring expression levels of nutrient uptake and processing genes via qRT-PCR, it was determined that genes encoding proteins located at the brush border of the gut epithelium were affected by infection as well as change in feed intake. The expression of AATs B°AT, b°,+AT, EAAT3, and PepT1 in infected birds decreased sharply at the height of infection; however, in birds that were pair fed, an increase in expression of b°,+AT, and PepT1 was observed, and little change was seen in expression of B°AT and EAAT3. In summary, the changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters are distinct between coccidia-infected birds compared to healthy pair-fed birds.

  16. Protective immune responses during prepatency in goat kids experimentally infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Rodríguez, F; Perez, D; Lopez, A; Ferrer, O; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A; Ruiz, A

    2017-08-15

    During the first schizogony, the goat coccidia Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae develops macroschizonts in lacteal duct endothelial cells, whose rupture leads to severe ileal damage and clinical signs during the prepatent period. The immune response elicited against early stages of the parasite development still requires to be investigated. In the present study we have evaluated immune reactions in goat kids primary- and challenged-infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, and sacrificed during prepatency (7days after challenge). The oocyst output during the primary infection, body weight and clinical condition of all the animals were examined and, at the end of the experiment, all the goat kids were euthanized and subjected to necropsy. Samples were taken from different sections of the ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of primary- and challenged E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected animals. Intestinal leukocyte subpopulations were characterized in E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected mucosa and counts of lymphocytes, eosinophils, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), globular leukocytes and mast cells were recorded. Additionally, gene expression of caprine IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and INFγ of ileal, colonic and MLN tissues were performed, as well as the immunohistochemical characterization of immune cells. The E. ninakohlyakimovae primary infection resulted in moderate to severe enteritis with different degrees of diarrhoea and was accompanied by high OPG counts and an increase of most immune cells analyzed when compared to uninfected control animals. Furthermore, eosinophil-, lymphocyte-, globular leukocyte- and mast cell-counts were significantly higher in the challenge group compared to the primary infected animals, whilst the opposite was true for PMN counts. The challenge infection was also associated with moderate increased levels of local mucosal IgA. Interestingly, the number of immature schizonts found at the ileal mucosa was statistically higher in the challenge infected

  17. Differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima strains exhibiting different levels of pathogenicity in its avian host.

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    Jenkins, Mark C; Dubey, J P; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2017-03-15

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most pathogenic species of avian coccidia, yet it is unknown why different E. maxima strains differ in the pathogenic effects they cause in chickens. The purpose of this study was to determine if a more pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU1) was also more fecund than a less pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU2). At identical doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared to E. maxima APU2. Using a dose response study, median and mean intestinal lesion scores in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens were greater by a score of 1-1.5 compared to chickens infected with E. maxima APU2. Likewise, weight gain depression in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens was 20-25% greater (equivalent to 110-130g body weight) than in E. maxima APU2-infected chickens. In order to understand the underlying cause of these observed clinical effects, 120 broiler chicks (5 oocyst levels, 6 replicates/level) were inoculated with various doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts. The dynamics of oocyst shedding was investigated by collecting fecal material every 12h from 114 to 210h post-inoculation (p.i.) and every 24h thereafter from 210 to 306h, and then processed for measuring E. maxima oocyst output. Oocysts were first observed at 138h p.i., and time of peak oocyst production was nearly identical for both E. maxima APU1 and APU2 around 150-162h. Total oocyst production was 1.1-2.6 fold higher at all dose levels for E. maxima APU1 compared to E. maxima APU2, being significantly higher (P<0.05) at the log 1.5 dose level. Other groups of chickens were infected with higher doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts, and intestinal lesions were assessed by histology at 72, 96, 120, and 144h p.i. Although schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts were observed at expected time-points, no obvious differences were noted in lesions induced by the two E. maxima strains. This study showed that the greater fecundity of E. maxima APU1 compared to E

  18. Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.

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    Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors, they showed a highly significant (P < 0.01) degree of exophagic behaviour. The present study constitutes the first effort to characterize the

  19. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites, liver flukes and lungworm in feces from dairy cattle in the high tropics of Antioquia, Colombia

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    Jenny J. Chaparro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic infections in dairy cattle in the high tropics of Colombia. A total of 1003 rectal samples were collected from dairy cows at 29 farms between May and June 2014 to represent the number of farms, age groups, and size of the 65,000-cow population in the municipality of San Pedro de los Milagros. Coprological techniques were used to detect gastrointestinal nematodes, liver flukes, coccidian oocysts, and first larval stage counts of Dictyocaulus viviparus. In order of decreasing prevalence, the following parasites were detected: coccidial oocyst (36.7%; 95% CIs, 31.6–42.7, strongyle nematodes (31.6%, 27.8–35.4, liver flukes (30.9%, 21.5–37.5, cestodes (8.4%, 7.1–9.7, and D. viviparus (5.4%, 3.4–7.5. Co-infections by all possible combinations of the three most predominant groups occurred in 11 to 15% of the animals. There were significant differences in infection rates between age groups, with higher risk of liver fluke infection in animals older than 1 year of age (odds ratio (OR = 3.2, but lower presence for coccidia and strongyles (OR = 0.19 and 0.51, respectively. For Fasciola hepatica, within-herd prevalences of >25% in 16 farms and 94 of 281 (33.5% animals with >5 eggs per gram (epg indicate that significant production losses are likely occurring. The variation in the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes, together with the level of infection among age groups, could be used in integrated management programs to establish selective anthelmintic treatments and select for heritable traits of host resistance. These results serve as a baseline for future studies to determine the success of control measures and should increase awareness that subclinical parasitism is widespread in the livestock sector.

  20. Frecuencia de microsporidiosis intestinal en pacientes positivos para VIH mediante las técnicas de Gram cromotropo rápido y PCR.

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    Jorge H. Botero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los microsporidios son protozoos intracelulares obligados, implicados en procesos de diarrea persistente en pacientes con sida, aunque no son exclusivos de este grupo de pacientes. La prevalencia de microsporidios en diferentes países varía entre 8% y 52%. En nuestro medio no se conoce su frecuencia, por lo que este trabajo se propuso determinar la frecuencia de microsporidiosis intestinal en pacientes positivos para VIH, mediante la prueba del Gram cromotropo rápido (quick hot Gram y la PCR; para esto se realizó un estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, con una población intencional de todos los pacientes positivos para VIH remitidos al Laboratorio del Grupo Interdisciplinario para el Estudio de las Parasitosis Intestinales por las diferentes instituciones de atención de pacientes positivos para VIH de Medellín en el periodo comprendido entre agosto de 2001 y septiembre de 2002. Se hizo una encuesta clínico-epidemiológica y se practicaron análisis coprológicos seriados que incluían examen directo, por concentración y tinciones especiales para coccidias y microsporidios intestinales; además, se solicitó recuento de linfocitos TCD4+ y carga viral. Se estudiaron 103 pacientes en edades comprendidas entre 2 y 74 años; el 70% (72/103 presentaba diarrea al ingreso al estudio; la mayoría (83,5% fueron hombres. La frecuencia global de microsporidiosis intestinal fue de 3,9% (4/103; se encontraron tres pacientes positivos para Enterocytozoon bieneusi y uno con Encephalitozoon intestinalis; otras parasitosis intestinales representaron el 39,8%. La frecuencia de microsporidiosis en este estudio fue relativamente baja; además, como era de esperarse, la mayoría de los casos de microsporidios estuvieron asociados con diarrea prolongada y recuentos de LTCD4+ menores de 100 cél/?l y cargas virales superiores a 100.000 copias (3/4.

  1. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  2. Epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis in Italy between 2005 and 2008: diagnostic techniques and methodologies

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    Daniele Crotti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to keep a real and actual photo relating to 2005-2008 regarding to diagnostic techniques and methodologies for intestinal parasites; so it would be possible to know specific epidemiology and suggest more rational and efficacious guide-lines. All members of AMCLI were involved in the proposal of a retrospective study regarding bowel parasites, helminths and protozoa.To engaged laboratories we asked how O&P was performed, if a specifical research for E. vermicularis and S. stercoralis was performed, if for the identification of D. fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidum spp were performed recommended specific permanent stains. 23 laboratories gave assent; but for an inferior number was possible to use the data for analysis and evaluation. Relating O&P only some laboratories performed permanent stains: Giemsa for D. fragilis, antigen and/or Trichrome stain for E. histolytica/dispar, antigen and/or acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium spp.Not all laboratories research specifically S. stercoralis. So the epidemiology is differentiated and related more to adequate or not adequate techniques than cohorts of examined populations. The overall positivity for parasites ranged from 0% to18.7%,for protozoa (pathogens or not were from 0% to 14.7%; for nematodes from 0% to 3.7%; for cestodes from 0% to 1.0%; for trematodes from 0% to 1.0%.Among helminths, E. vermicularis, followed by S. stercoralis, also in O&P, is the most frequent.The specific research of S. stercoralis gave a positivity from 0% to 33.3%; the cellophane tape test was positive for E. vermicularis from 0% fo 21.9% of cases.Among pathogen protozoa, D. fragilis, when permanent stain were applied, prevailed from 0% to 16.6%; G. duodenalis from 0.8% to 4.3%; E. histolytica/dispar, using a permanent stain or research of antigen, was identified from 0% to 20.6%. Coccidia were very rare, with Cryptosporidium spp observed from 0% to 5.2%. These are our conclusions

  3. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

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    Pooja Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38, Cystoisospora (Isospora belli (8%, 3, Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2, G. lamblia (11%, 4, Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4, Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1 and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post

  4. Gastrointestinal parasites in domiciled dogs attended at an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO., Figueiredo L.P., Lima e Silva S. & Lopes C.W.G. [Gastrointestinal parasites in domiciled dogs attended at an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Parasitos gastrintestinais em cães domiciliados atendidos em serviço de saú- de animal no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:37-44, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: pauloleal@ctiveterinario.com.br Study of gastrointestinal parasites in pet dogs is a need for veterinary services and public health, as some helminthes, ascomycetes and coccidia are responsible for disease in dogs. This survey aimed to mark the gastrointestinal parasites of pet dogs that looking for a routine of veterinary medical service in the City of Rio de Janeiro. Fecal samples were evaluated through direct examination for the diagnosis of Dipylidium caninum and Giardia intestinalis; whereas centrifugal-flotation technique with Sheater’s solution for diagnosing the presence of helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts respectively. Of 221 samples examined, 92 of them (41.62% were positive. G. intestinalis cysts were observed in 28 (30.43% while Ancylostoma caninum eggs in 28 (30.43% fecal samples were the most frequent infections, followed by Toxocara canis in 6 (6.52%, pseudohyphae of Cyniclomyces guttulatus in 5 of them (5.43%, Cystoisospora canis oocysts in 3 (3.26%, Dipylidium caninum, Sarcocystis spp. in one (1.08% sample respectively. Multiple infections were observed in stool samples from 20 dogs, where 14 of them showed infection by two etiologic agents consisted of G. intestinalis or A. caninum, following by other associations of A. caninum and D. caninum; G. intestinalis and T. canis; A. caninum and T. vulpis; C. canis and

  5. Infecção per os de gatos com formas vegetativas de Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 sem produção de oocistos Oral infections of domestic cats with vegetative forms of Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 without oocyst production

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    Felippe Nery-Guimarães

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de 6 gatos (24 gatos recém-nascidos e desmamados receberam "per os", respectivamente, suspensões de toxoplasmas de camundongos com 3-4 dias de infecção, de 4 amostras de T. gondii. Cada grupo teve um gato testemunha. Nenhum dos gatos de experiência eliminou oocistos atribuíveis a T. gondii, em períodos de observação de 6 a 20 dias; e suas fezes, conservadas 2-4 dais em bicromato de potássio a 2,5% e ministradas "per os" a camundongos, não induziram toxoplasmose nesses roedores. Com exceção dos que eram portadores de Isospora, os gatos não mostraram formas evolutivas de coccídios no epitélio intestinal. Em todos os grupos a infecção toxoplásmica foi comprovada pela positividade da reação de Sabin & Feldman (1:16 a 1:1024; e pelo isolamento de toxoplasmas pela inoculação de triturados dos seus principais órgãos em camundongos indicadores. De um modo geral, os gatos mais crescidos não mostraram sinais de doença, porém os outros, e principalmente os recém-nascidos adoeceram e vários morreram de toxoplasmose sistêmica: esplenite, hepatite, enterite, penumonia e, mais raramente, miocardite e encefalite. Os toxoplasmas foram encontrados em todos esses órgãos e, tamém, nos rins e supra-renais.Vegetative forms of 4 strains of Toxoplasma from peritoneal fluid of mice with 3-4 days of acute infection were orally administered to 4 groups of 6 newborn and wealing kittens respectivelly. Each group had a control kitten. All kittens were observed for eriods of 6-20 days ans never passed in their faeces oocysts attributabel to T. gondii. On the other hand, their faces after 2-4 days in potassium dichromate at 2.5% inoculated orally in mice didn't produce Toxoplasma infection in these animals; and with exception of the cats that have had spontaneous isosporosis (I. felis and/or I. rivolta we didn´t see evolutive forms of Coccidia in the intestinal wall of the cats. In all cat groups the toxoplasmic infection was

  6. Determinación de la prevalencia parasitaria de larvas pulmonares en bovinos del municipio de Aguachica y la zona rural de Río de Oro, Cesar mediante la técnica de Baermann

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    Laura Ríos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la zona Rural de Rio de Oro y el municipio de Aguachica, Cesar la principal fuente de economía es la ganadería, por esto es de gran importancia realizar controles de parásitos gastrointestinales como las Coccidias, ya que esta es una enfermedad costosa. Objetivo: Para determinar la prevalencia de larvas pulmonares en los bovinos se empleó la técnica de Baermann. Materiales y métodos: Para ello, se recolectaron 905 muestras de materia fecal bovina, provenientes de 31 fincas ubicadas en el Municipio de Aguachica y la Zona Rural de Rio de Oro (Cesar, Ocaña (Norte de Santander y Mesa de los Santos (Santander. Este estudio le aporta a los ganaderos un acercamiento más detallado sobre la epidemiología de estos parásitos en la  región, dato que les permitirá identificar los factores de riesgo, diseñar medidas de control, y mejorar su rendimiento en productos como leche y carne; de esta manera se aumenta la productividad y rentabilidad del sector ganadero. Para llevar a cabo el estudio, se tomaron en promedio 48 muestras por finca; 70% correspondían a hembras y 30% a machos, con edades entre los 4 meses y 13 años. Las muestras fueron tomadas y procesadas durante el periodo de verano, entre los meses de Octubre de 2015 y Enero de 2016. Las muestras de materia fecal se recolectaron directamente del recto del animal, utilizando para ello un guante tipo veterinario y de esta manera fueron transportadas a los laboratorios  de la Universidad de Santander, UDES. Se empleó la técnica de Baermann para la determinación de larvas de helmintos.  Resultados: La prevalencia encontrada fue de 11% lo que sugiere un moderado grado de infección en los bovinos de estas regiones, sin embargo, es importante seguir realizando estudios sobre estos tipos de infecciones parasitarias debido a los problemas de salud que les pueden causar como tos profunda y  respiración  rápida, tos que se incrementa con algún tipo de ejercicio

  7. Proteomic characterization of the hemolymph of Octopus vulgaris infected by the protozoan parasite Aggregata octopiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Diz, Angel P; Álvarez-Chaver, Paula; Gestal, Camino

    2014-06-13

    The immune system of cephalopods is poorly known to date. The lack of genomic information makes difficult to understand vital processes like immune defense mechanisms and their interaction with pathogens at molecular level. The common octopus Octopus vulgaris has a high economic relevance and potential for aquaculture. However, disease outbreaks provoke serious reductions in production with potentially severe economic losses. In this study, a proteomic approach is used to analyze the immune response of O. vulgaris against the coccidia Aggregata octopiana, a gastrointestinal parasite which impairs the cephalopod nutritional status. The hemocytes and plasma proteomes were compared by 2-DE between sick and healthy octopus. The identities of 12 differentially expressed spots and other 27 spots without significant alteration from hemocytes, and 5 spots from plasma, were determined by mass spectrometry analysis aided by a six reading-frame translation of an octopus hemocyte RNA-seq database and also public databases. Principal component analysis pointed to 7 proteins from hemocytes as the major contributors to the overall difference between levels of infection and so could be considered as potential biomarkers. Particularly, filamin, fascin and peroxiredoxin are highlighted because of their implication in octopus immune defense activity. From the octopus plasma, hemocyanin was identified. This work represents a first step forward in order to characterize the protein profile of O. vulgaris hemolymph, providing important information for subsequent studies of the octopus immune system at molecular level and also to the understanding of the basis of octopus tolerance-resistance to A. octopiana. The immune system of cephalopods is poorly known to date. The lack of genomic information makes difficult to understand vital processes like immune defense mechanisms and their interaction with pathogens at molecular level. The study herein presented is focused to the comprehension of