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Sample records for cobe trima blood

  1. Comparison of plateletpheresis on the Fenwal Amicus, Fresenius COM.TEC, and Trima Accel Cell separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklik, Muzaffer; Eser, Bulent; Kaynar, Leylagul; Sivgin, Serdar; Keklik, Ertugrul; Solmaz, Musa; Ozturk, Ahmet; Buyukoglan, Ruksan; Yay, Mehmet; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Blood component donations by apheresis have become more common in modern blood transfusion practices. We compared three apheresis instruments (Fenwal Amicus, Fresenius COM.TEC, and Trima Accel) with regard to platelet (PLT) yield, collection efficiency (CE), and collection rate (CR). The single-needle or double-needle plateletpheresis procedures of the three instruments were compared in a retrospective, randomized study in 270 donors. The blood volume processed was higher in the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. Also there was a significantly higher median volume of ACD used in collections on the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. The PLT yield was significantly lower with the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. Additionally, the CE was significantly lower with the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. There was no significant difference in median separation time and CR between the three groups. When procedures were compared regarding CE by using Amicus device, it was significantly higher in single-needle than double-needle plateletpheresis. When double-needle Amicus system was compared with double-needle COM.TEC system, CE and PLT yield were significantly higher with Amicus system. When single-needle Amicus system was compared with single-needle Trima system, CE and PLT yield were significantly higher with Trima system. All instruments collected PLTs efficiently. However, the CE was lower with the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. Also, we found Amicus single-needle system collected PLTs more efficiently compared with the double-needle system. CE and PLT yields were significantly higher with the single-needle Trima instrument compared with the single-needle Amicus device.

  2. Comparison of performance of Trima and Amicus blood cell separators%Trima与Amicus两种血细胞分离机的性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 陈麟凤; 师红梅; 李卉; 汪德清

    2015-01-01

    Objective To contrastively analyze the performance of two kinds of blood cell separators for apheresis platelets . Methods 80 blood donors were selected from 4 234 healthy apheresis platelet donors and their data before and after apheresis platelets were respectively collected by using two kinds of different blood cell separators Trima and Amicus .The product quality during the collection process ,residual WBC and RBC count ,acquisition time ,collection efficiency ,scrapping situation and safety were performed the comparative analysis between the two kinds of blood cell separator .Results In the case of the difference of the basic parameters before apheresis platelet having no statistical significance ,the two kinds of blood cell separator had no differences in the aspects of product quality ,processing blood amount and the use amount of anticoagulants(P>0 .05);but there were statisti‐cal differences in the aspects of acquisition time ,collection efficiency and pipeline residual blood amount (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Two kinds of blood cell separators have their own advantages and disadvantages during the use process ,so the blood cell separator should be selected according to the physical quality and their own characteristics of blood donors .%目的:对比分析两种血细胞分离机单采血小板的性能。方法从健康机采血小板献血员4234名中,选取80名献血员前后使用两种不同血细胞分离机T rima和Amicus采集数据,比较分析两种不同的血细胞分离机采集过程中的产品质量、残余白细胞和红细胞计数、采集时间、采集效率、报废情况及安全性等方面。结果在两种血细胞分离机的献血员采集前基本参数差异无统计学意义的情况下,两种血细胞分离机采集的产品质量方面、处理血量和抗凝剂使用量方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);但是两种血细胞分离机在采集时间、采集效率和管道残余血量方面进行比

  3. Collection of peripheral progenitor cells: a comparison between Amicus and Cobe-Spectra blood cell separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Gaspare; Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Palombi, Francesca; Bruno, Antonio; Ballatore, Giovanna; Postorino, Massimiliano; Tendas, Andrea; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Isacchi, Giancarlo; Amadori, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    The authors compared the efficiency of two different blood cell separators (Amicus and Cobe-Spectra) in collecting peripheral blood progenitor cells for autologous or homologous transplantation. A total number of 129 procedures were performed, 36 with Spectra, 93 with Amicus. There was no difference between Spectra and Amicus efficiencies for CD34+ cell collection (46.685% vs 46.235%; p=n.s) but the platelet efficiencies were 17.31% and 12.54% respectively (p=0.04) and, if autologous and allogeneic collections were considered separately, a marked difference resulted in allogeneic platelet efficiency between 6 Spectra and 23 Amicus procedures (26.83% vs 8.68%, p=0.0004). The authors were able to demonstrate that in 70 Amicus autologous collections there was a different platelet efficiency, if peripheral count was considered: 12 procedures performed with a platelet count > 100 x 10(9)/l had a very low efficiency (6.86%), but this value increased if platelet count lowered (13.02% if between 100 and 50 x 10(9)/l, 22.63% if between 50 and 0 x 10(9)/l, 23 and 35 procedures respectively). The study is preliminary and the number of collections is little, but the overall data suggest that Spectra (AutoPBSC, V 6.0) and Amicus separators have the same efficiency for collecting CD34+ cells while Amicus procedures have a very low platelet contamination, especially with donors.

  4. Trapasato remote u trima redakcijama maconijevog Romana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilo Savić

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Zadržavajuci se na trapasatu remotu, jednom vremenu koga je u italijanskom jeziku iz veka u vek sve manje, u trima redakcijama Manconijevog romana, autor beleži sve pojedinačne slučajeve i izlaže ih tabelarno i procentualno prema vrsti rečenica u kojima se nalaze (nezavisnim ili pojedinim vrstama zavisnih. Konstatujući da se ovo vreme do danas održalo jedino u temporalnim rečenicama, autor podvlači da je ono u ranijim vekovima bilo prilično često i u ostalim vrstama zavisnih rečenica kao i u nezavisnim (u poslednjima se povremeno sreće i u Manconijevom delu. Što se tiče njegove funkcije, autor je sklon da u njemu vidi apsolutno vreme, naglašavajući da mu funkciju relativnog vremena obično daju same temporalne rečenice u kojima se najčešce nalazi. Naposletku, on u njemu vidi istu funkciju koju nosi i pasato remoto, samo nešto snažnije izraženu složenim oblikom. Svoje tvrdjenje potkrepljuje i tirne što konstatuje da ovo vreme ne može imati pasiva, pa navodi primere u kojima se na istom vremenskom stepenu nalazi aktiv trapasata remota i pasiv pasata remota.

  5. COBE Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The COBE-SST is a gridded 1x1 resolution SST monitoring dataset. It is used as input for the JMA Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS) and the Japanese 25-year...

  6. Scientific results from COBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) carries three scientific instruments to make precise measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales greater than 7 deg and to conduct a search for a diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation with 0.7 deg angular resolution. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the CMB is that of a blackbody of temperature T = 2.73 +/- 0.06 K, with no deviation from a blackbody spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The first year of data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant CMB anisotropy. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Infrared sky brightness measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservative upper limits to the CIB. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the CIB limits.

  7. Cosmology/COBE

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E L

    1993-01-01

    Abbreviated abstract of an invited talk at the International Cosmic Ray Conference in Calgary, July 1993: The results from the COBE satellite are in close agreement with the predictions of the standard hot Big Bang model, suggesting that the Universe was once hot, dense and isothermal, giving a background radiation spectrum that is close to a perfect blackbody. The spectrum observed by the FIRAS instrument places strong limits on events and scenarios occurring later than 1 year after the Big Bang. The observation of intrinsic anisotropy of the microwave background by the DMR instrument provides a measurement of the magnitude of the gravitational potential fluctuations that existed at decoupling. These potential perturbations were either produced in an inflationary epoch, or else they are initial conditions dating from t = 0. The angular power spectrum of dT is compatible with the inflationary scenario. The observed amplitude of dT can be used to restrict theories of the fundamental structure of matter on micr...

  8. Scientific results from COBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) carries three scientific instruments to make precise measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales greater than 7 deg and to conduct a search for a diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation with 0.7 deg angular resolution. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the CMB is that of a blackbody of temperature T = 2.73 +/- 0.06 K, with no deviation from a blackbody spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The first year of data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant CMB anisotropy. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Infrared sky brightness measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservative upper limits to the CIB. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the CIB limits.

  9. COBE: A Radiological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The COBE Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS operated from ~30 to ~3,000 GHz (1-95 cm$^{-1}$ and monitored, from polar orbit (~900 km, the ~3 K microwave background. Data released from FIRAS has been met with nearly universal admiration. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals significant problems with this instrument. FIRAS was designed to function as a differential radiometer, wherein the sky signal could be nulled by the reference horn, Ical. The null point occurred at an Ical temperature of 2.759 K. This was 34 mK above the reported sky temperature, 2.725$pm$0.001 K, a value where the null should ideally have formed. In addition, an 18 mK error existed between the thermometers in Ical, along with a drift in temperature of ~3 mK. A 5 mK error could be attributed to Xcal; while a 4 mK error was found in the frequency scale. A direct treatment of all these systematic errors would lead to a ~64 mK error bar in the microwave background temperature. The FIRAS team reported ~1 mK, despite the presence of such systematic errors. But a 1 mK error does not properly reflect the experimental state of this spectrophotometer. In the end, all errors were essentially transferred into the calibration files, giving the appearance of better performance than actually obtained. The use of calibration procedures resulted in calculated Ical emissivities exceeding 1.3 at the higher frequencies, whereas an emissivity of 1 constitutes the theoretical limit. While data from 30-60 GHz was once presented, these critical points are later dropped, without appropriate discussion, presumably because they reflect too much microwave power. Data obtained while the Earth was directly illuminating the sky antenna, was also discarded. From 300-660 GHz, initial FIRAS data had systematically growing residuals as frequencies increased. This suggested that the signal was falling too quickly in the Wien region of the spectrum. In later data releases, the

  10. COBE: A Radiological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The COBE Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS operated from 30 to 3,000 GHz (1–95 cm -1 and monitored, from polar orbit ( 900 km, the 3 K mi- crowave background. Data released from FIRAS has been met with nearly universal ad- miration. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals significant problems with this instrument. FIRAS was designed to function as a differential radiometer, wherein the sky signal could be nulled by the reference horn, Ical. The null point occurred at an Ical temperature of 2.759 K. This was 34 mK above the reported sky temperature, 2.725 0.001 K, a value where the null should ideally have formed. In addition, an 18 mK error existed between the thermometers in Ical, along with a drift in temper- ature of 3 mK. A 5 mK error could be attributed to Xcal; while a 4 mK error was found in the frequency scale. A direct treatment of all these systematic errors would lead to a 64 mK error bar in the microwave background temperature. The FIRAS team reported 1 mK, despite the presence of such systematic errors. But a 1 mK er- ror does not properly reflect the experimental state of this spectrophotometer. In the end, all errors were essentially transferred into the calibration files, giving the appear- ance of better performance than actually obtained. The use of calibration procedures resulted in calculated Ical emissivities exceeding 1.3 at the higher frequencies, whereas an emissivity of 1 constitutes the theoretical limit. While data from 30–60 GHz was once presented, these critical points are later dropped, without appropriate discussion, presumably because they reflect too much microwave power. Data obtained while the Earth was directly illuminating the sky antenna, was also discarded. From 300–660 GHz, initial FIRAS data had systematically growing residuals as frequencies increased. This suggested that the signal was falling too quickly in the Wien region of the spec- trum. In later data

  11. COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

  12. COBE looks back to the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA-Goddard's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first NASA satellite designed to observe the primeval explosion of the universe. The spacecraft carries three extremely sensitive IR and microwave instruments designed to measure the faint residual radiation from the Big Bang and to search for the formation of the first galaxies. COBE's far IR absolute spectrophotometer has shown that the Big Bang radiation has a blackbody spectrum, proving that there was no large energy release after the explosion.

  13. Testing cosmological models with COBE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, S. [Observatorio Astronomico, Bogota` (Colombia)]|[Centro Internacional de Fisica, Bogota` (Colombia); Cayon, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Center for Particle Astrophysics, Berkeley (United States); Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J. L. [Santander, Univ. de Cantabria (Spain). Instituto de Fisica. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas

    1997-02-01

    The authors test cosmological models with {Omega} < 1 using the COBE two-year cross-correlation function by means of a maximum-likelihood test with Monte Carlo realizations of several {Omega} models. Assuming a Harrison-Zel`dovich primordial power spectrum with amplitude {proportional_to} Q, it is found that there is a large region in the ({Omega}, Q), parameter space that fits the data equally well. They find that the flatness of the universe is not implied by the data. A summary of other analyses of COBE data to constrain the shape of the primordial spectrum is presented.

  14. On the bispectrum of COBE and WMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Magueijo, Jo\\~{a}o; Medeiros, Jo\\~{a}o

    2003-01-01

    The COBE-DMR 4-year maps displayed a strong non-Gaussian signal in the ``inter-scale'' components of the bispectrum: their observed values did not display the scatter expected from Gaussian maps. We re-examine this and other suggested non-Gaussian features in the light of WMAP. We find that they all disappear. Given that it was proved that COBE-DMR high noise levels and documented systematics could at most {\\it dilute} the observed non-Gaussian features, we conclude that this dataset must have contained non-negligible undocumented systematic errors. It turns out that the culprit is a combination of QuadCube pixelization and data collected during the ``eclipse season''.

  15. The effect of reionization on the COBE normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Louise M; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2001-01-01

    We point out that the effect of reionization on the microwave anisotropy power spectrum is not necessarily negligible on the scales probed by COBE. It can lead to an upward shift of the COBE normalization by more than the one-sigma error quoted ignoring reionization. We provide a fitting function to incorporate reionization into the normalization of the matter power spectrum.

  16. Constraints from microlensing on the COBE bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. S.

    Since the first review of converging evidences for a bar in the center of the Galaxy by de Zeeuw (1992) at the IAU Sym. 153 in Gent five years ago, the Galactic bar idea has been put on a solid footing by an influx of new data (COBE/DIRBE maps, star count data of bulge red clump giants, microlensing optical depth, and bulge stellar proper motions, etc.) and a burst of increasingly sophisticated theoretical models (triaxial luminosity models of Dwek et al. 1994, and Binney, Gerhard & Spergel 1997, steady state stellar bar dynamical model of Zhao 1996, combined luminosity, microlensing and gas kinematics models of Zhao, Rich & Spergel 1996, and Bissantz et al. 1997, etc.), which fit new data and improve upon earlier simple bulge/bar models (Kent 1992, Binney et al. 1991, Blitz & Spergel 1991). While research in this field shifts more and more to constraining the exact phase space and parameter space of the bar, both the non-uniqueness of and the mismatches among bars from different datasets start to show up. I compare the bar from microlensing data with the COBE bar and point out the effects the non-uniqueness.

  17. COBE Observations of the Cosmic Infrared Background

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E L

    2004-01-01

    The Diffuse InfraRed Background Experiment on COBE measured the total infrared signal seen from space at a distance of 1 astronomical unit from the Sun. Using time variations as the Earth orbits the Sun, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by the interplanetary dust cloud [zodiacal light]. By correlating the DIRBE signal with the column density of atomic hydrogen measured using the 21 cm line, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by interstellar dust, although one must still be concerned by dust associated with H_2 (molecular gas) and H II (the warm ionized medium). DIRBE was not able to determine the CIRB in the 5-60 micron wavelength range, but did detect both a far infrared background and a near infrared background. The far infrared background has an integrated intensity of about 34 nW/m^2/sr, while the near infrared and optical extragalactic background has about 59 nW/m^2/sr. The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on COBE has been used to...

  18. Inflation after COBE: Lectures on inflationary cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    In these lectures I review the standard hot big-bang cosmology, emphasizing its successes, its shortcomings, and its major challenge-a detailed understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe. I then discuss the motivations for and the fundamentals of inflationary cosmology, particularly emphasizing the quantum origin of metric (density and gravity-wave) perturbations. Inflation addresses the shortcomings of the standard cosmology and provides the initial data'' for structure formation. I conclude by addressing the implications of inflation for structure formation, evaluating the various cold dark matter models in the light of the recent detection of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation by COBE. In the near term, the study of structure formation offers a powerful probe of inflation, as well as specific inflationary models.

  19. Inflation after COBE: Lectures on inflationary cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In these lectures I review the standard hot big-bang cosmology, emphasizing its successes, its shortcomings, and its major challenge-a detailed understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe. I then discuss the motivations for and the fundamentals of inflationary cosmology, particularly emphasizing the quantum origin of metric (density and gravity-wave) perturbations. Inflation addresses the shortcomings of the standard cosmology and provides the ``initial data`` for structure formation. I conclude by addressing the implications of inflation for structure formation, evaluating the various cold dark matter models in the light of the recent detection of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation by COBE. In the near term, the study of structure formation offers a powerful probe of inflation, as well as specific inflationary models.

  20. Interpretation of the COBE FIRAS CMBR spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.; Mather, J. C.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Shafer, R. A.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Silverberg, R. F.; Smoot, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum measured by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is indistinguishable from a blackbody, implying stringent limits on energy release in the early universe later than the time t = 1 yr after the big bang. We compare the FIRAS data to previous precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background spectrum and find a reasonable agreement. We discuss the implications of the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) 95% confidence limits found by Mather et al. (1994) on many processes occurring after t = 1 yr, such as explosive structure formation, reionization, and dissipation of small-scale density perturbations. We place limits on models with dust plus Population III stars, or evolving populations of IR galaxies, by directly comparing the Mather et al. spectrum to the model predictions.

  1. Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Mather, J. C.; Massa, D. L.; Meyer, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite was designed to accurately measure the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) in the frequency range 1-95/cm with an angular resolution of 7 deg. We describe the calibration of this instrument, including the method of obtaining calibration data, reduction of data, the instrument model, fitting the model to the calibration data, and application of the resulting model solution to sky observations. The instrument model fits well for calibration data that resemble sky condition. The method of propagating detector noise through the calibration process to yield a covariance matrix of the calibrated sky data is described. The final uncertainties are variable both in frequency and position, but for a typical calibrated sky 2.6 deg square pixel and 0.7/cm spectral element the random detector noise limit is of order of a few times 10(exp -7) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm for 2-20/cm, and the difference between the sky and the best-fit cosmic blackbody can be measured with a gain uncertainty of less than 3%.

  2. COBE-FIRAS Observations of Galactic Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fixsen, D J; Mather, J C

    1998-01-01

    The COBE Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) observations constitute an unbiased survey over the wavelength range from 100 um to 1 cm over 99% of the sky. Improved calibration of the FIRAS instrument and the inclusion of all of the FIRAS data allow an improved signal to noise determination of the spectral lines by a factor of ~2 over our previous results. The resolution is low (0.45 cm^{-1}) so only the strongest lines are observable. The CO chain from J=1-0 to J=8-7 is observed towards the Galactic center. The line ratios are roughly consistent with a 40 K excitation temperature. The 157.7 um C II and 205.3 um N II lines are observable over most of the sky. In addition the 370.4 um and 609.1 um lines of C I, and the 121.9 um line of N II are observed in the Galactic plane. The line ratios at the Galactic center are consistent with a density of n_0 ~30 cm^{-3} and a UV flux of G_0 ~ 15 uW m^{-2} sr^{-1} (10 Habing units). The 269 um H2O line is observed toward the Galactic center in absorption.

  3. Where is the COBE maps' non-Gaussianity?

    OpenAIRE

    Magueijo, Joao; Ferreira, Pedro G; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    1999-01-01

    We review our recent claim that there is evidence of non-Gaussianity in the 4 Year COBE DMR data. We present some new results concerning the effect of the galactic cut upon the non-Gaussian signal. These findings imply a localization of the non-Gaussian signal on the Northern galactic hemisphere.

  4. COBE's search for structure in the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Guerny, Gene (Editor); Keating, Thomas (Editor); Moe, Karen (Editor); Sullivan, Walter (Editor); Truszkowski, Walt (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The launch of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the definition of Earth Observing System (EOS) are two of the major events at NASA-Goddard. The three experiments contained in COBE (Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE)) are very important in measuring the big bang. DMR measures the isotropy of the cosmic background (direction of the radiation). FIRAS looks at the spectrum over the whole sky, searching for deviations, and DIRBE operates in the infrared part of the spectrum gathering evidence of the earliest galaxy formation. By special techniques, the radiation coming from the solar system will be distinguished from that of extragalactic origin. Unique graphics will be used to represent the temperature of the emitting material. A cosmic event will be modeled of such importance that it will affect cosmological theory for generations to come. EOS will monitor changes in the Earth's geophysics during a whole solar color cycle.

  5. Early results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Hauser, M. G.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Kelsall, T.; Gulkis, S.

    1991-01-01

    Data obtained with the FIR Absolute Spectrophotometer, Differential Microwave Radiometers, and Diffuse IR Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the COBE satellite since its launch in November 1989 are briefly characterized. The COBE spacecraft and its 900-km 99-deg orbit are described; the scientific goals and capabilities of the instruments are reviewed; and sample DIRBE data are presented in a map and graph. Upper limits on the Comptonization parameter (y less than 0.001) and the chemical potential (mu less than 0.01 at the 3sigma level) are determined, and the spectrum of the dipole anisotropy is shown to be that of a Doppler-shifted blackbody. The DIRBE 100-micron sky brightness values at the ecliptic poles are found to be significantly lower than those measured by IRAS.

  6. Comparing and combining the Saskatoon, QMAP, and COBE CMB maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica; Devlin, Mark J.; Herbig, Thomas; Miller, Amber D.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Page, Lyman

    2001-05-15

    We present a method for comparing and combining maps with different resolutions and beam shapes, and apply it to the Saskatoon, QMAP, and COBE-DMR data sets. Although the Saskatoon and QMAP maps detect signals at the 21{sigma} and 40{sigma} levels, respectively, their difference is consistent with pure noise, placing strong limits on possible systematic errors. In particular, we obtain quantitative upper limits on relative calibration and pointing errors. Splitting the combined data by frequency shows similar consistency between the Ka and Q bands, placing limits on foreground contamination. The visual agreement between the maps is equally striking. Our combined QMAP+Saskatoon map, nicknamed QMASK, is publicly available on the web together with its 6495x6495 noise covariance matrix. This thoroughly tested data set covers a large enough area (648 square degrees -- currently the largest degree-scale map available) to allow a statistical comparison with COBE-DMR, showing good agreement.

  7. Early results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Hauser, M. G.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Kelsall, T.; Gulkis, S.

    1991-01-01

    Data obtained with the FIR Absolute Spectrophotometer, Differential Microwave Radiometers, and Diffuse IR Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the COBE satellite since its launch in November 1989 are briefly characterized. The COBE spacecraft and its 900-km 99-deg orbit are described; the scientific goals and capabilities of the instruments are reviewed; and sample DIRBE data are presented in a map and graph. Upper limits on the Comptonization parameter (y less than 0.001) and the chemical potential (mu less than 0.01 at the 3sigma level) are determined, and the spectrum of the dipole anisotropy is shown to be that of a Doppler-shifted blackbody. The DIRBE 100-micron sky brightness values at the ecliptic poles are found to be significantly lower than those measured by IRAS.

  8. The Spectral Results of the FIRAS Instrument on COBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, Dale J.; Mather, John C.

    2002-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) spectral results of the FIRAS instrument are summarized. Some questions that have been raised about the calibration accuracy are also addressed. Finally we comment on the potential for major improvements with new measurement approaches. The measurement of the deviation of the CMB spectrum from a 2.725 plus or minus 0.001 K blackbody form made by the COBE-FIRAS could be improved by two orders of magnitude.

  9. Assessment of Models of Galactic Thermal Dust Emission Using COBE/FIRAS and COBE/DIRBE Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Odegard, N; Chuss, D T; Miller, N J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the spectrum of thermal dust emission at millimeter wavelengths is important for improving the accuracy of foreground subtraction for CMB measurements, for improving the accuracy with which the contributions of different foreground emission components can be determined, and for improving our understanding of dust composition and dust physics. We fit four models of dust emission to high Galactic latitude COBE/FIRAS and COBE/DIRBE observations from 3 millimeters to 100 microns and compare the quality of the fits. We consider the two-level systems model because it provides a physically motivated explanation for the observed long wavelength flattening of the dust spectrum and the anticorrelation between emissivity index and dust temperature. We consider the model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlegel because it has been widely used for CMB studies, and the generalized version of this model recently applied to Planck data by Meisner and Finkbeiner. For comparison we have also fit a phenomenologic...

  10. The COBE mission - Its design and performance two years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, N. W.; Mather, J. C.; Weiss, R.; Bennett, C. L.; Cheng, E. S.; Dwek, E.; Gulkis, S.; Hauser, M. G.; Janssen, M. A.; Kelsall, T.

    1992-01-01

    The COBE mission, NASA's first space mission devoted primarily to cosmology, is described and the spacecraft concepts central to enabling the mission to achieve its scientific objectives are examined. The major components of the COBE instrument and spacecraft modules are shown and their characteristics are given. Early scientific results are summarized and plans for continuing satellite operations and data analysis are addressed.

  11. Bone marrow processing for transplantation using Cobe Spectra cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljković, Dobrila; Nonković, Olivera Šerbić; Radonjić, Zorica; Kuzmanović, Miloš; Zečević, Zeljko

    2013-06-01

    Concentration of bone marrow aspirates is an important prerequisite prior to infusion of ABO incompatible allogeneic marrow and prior to cryopreservation and storage of autologous marrow. In this paper we present our experience in processing 15 harvested bone marrow for ABO incompatible allogeneic and autologous bone marrow (BM) transplantation using Cobe Spectra® cell separator. BM processing resulted in the median recovery of 91.5% CD34+ cells, erythrocyte depletion of 91% and volume reduction of 81%. BM processing using cell separator is safe and effective technique providing high rate of erythrocyte depletion and volume reduction, and acceptable recovery of the CD34+ cells.

  12. Maximum-likelihood analysis of the COBE angular correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, Uros; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1993-01-01

    We have used maximum-likelihood estimation to determine the quadrupole amplitude Q(sub rms-PS) and the spectral index n of the density fluctuation power spectrum at recombination from the COBE DMR data. We find a strong correlation between the two parameters of the form Q(sub rms-PS) = (15.7 +/- 2.6) exp (0.46(1 - n)) microK for fixed n. Our result is slightly smaller than and has a smaller statistical uncertainty than the 1992 estimate of Smoot et al.

  13. Correlated noise in the COBE DMR sky maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, C. H.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Wright, E. L.; Tenorio, L.; Kogut, A.; Keegstra, P. B.; Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite Differential Radiometer (COBE DMR) sky maps contain low-level correlated noise. We obtain estimates of the amplitude and pattern of the correlated noise from three techniques: angular averages of the covariance matrix, Monte Carlo simulations of two-point correlation functions and direct analysis of the DMR maps. The results from the three methods are mutually consistent. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky maps is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occure with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60 deg due to the 60 deg separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance at 60 deg is 0.45%((sup +0.18)(sub -0.14)) of the mean variance. Additionally, the variance in a given pixel is 0.7% greater than would be expected from a single beam experiment with the same noise properties. Autocorrelation functions suffer from a approximately 1.5 sigma positive bias at 60 deg while cross-correlations have no bias. Published COBE DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

  14. COBE Constraints on a Local group X-ray Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, A J

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a putative X-ray emitting halo surrounding the Local Group of galaxies, and specifically the possible temperature anisotropies induced in the COBE-DMR four-year sky maps by an associated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. By fitting the isothermal spherical halo model proposed by Suto et.al. (1996) to the coadded four-year COBE-DMR 53 and 90 GHz sky maps in Galactic coordinates, we find no significant evidence of a contribution. We therefore reject the claim that such a halo can affect the estimation of the primordial spectral index and amplitude of density perturbations as inferred from the DMR data. We find that correlation with the DMR data imposes constraints on the plausible contribution of such an X-ray emitting halo to a distortion in the CMB spectrum (as specified by the Compton-y parameter), up to a value for R -- the ratio of the core radius of the isothermal halo gas distribution to the distance to the Local Group centroid -- of 0.68. For larger values of R, the recent cosmolog...

  15. Assessment of Models of Galactic Thermal Dust Emission Using COBE/FIRAS and COBE/DIRBE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, N.; Kogut, A.; Chuss, D. T.; Miller, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate modeling of the spectrum of thermal dust emission at millimeter wavelengths is important for improving the accuracy of foreground subtraction for cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements, for improving the accuracy with which the contributions of different foreground emission components can be determined, and for improving our understanding of dust composition and dust physics. We fit four models of dust emission to high Galactic latitude COBE/FIRAS and COBE/DIRBE observations from 3 mm to 100 μm and compare the quality of the fits. We consider the two-level systems (TLS) model because it provides a physically motivated explanation for the observed long wavelength flattening of the dust spectrum and the anti-correlation between emissivity index and dust temperature. We consider the model of Finkbeiner et al. because it has been widely used for CMB studies, and the generalized version of this model that was recently applied to Planck data by Meisner and Finkbeiner. For comparison we have also fit a phenomenological model consisting of the sum of two graybody components. We find that the two-graybody model gives the best fit and the FDS model gives a significantly poorer fit than the other models. The Meisner and Finkbeiner model and the TLS model remain viable for use in Galactic foreground subtraction, but the FIRAS data do not have a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to provide a strong test of the predicted spectrum at millimeter wavelengths.

  16. Reconstructing the inflaton potential for an almost flat cobe spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W; Mielke, Eckehard W; Schunck, Franz E

    1995-01-01

    Using the Hubble parameter as new `inverse time' coordinate (H-formalism), a new method of reconstructing the inflaton potential is developed also using older results which, in principle, is applicable to any order of the slow-roll approximation. In first and second order, we need three observational data as inputs: the scalar spectral index n_s and the amplitudes of the scalar and the tensor spectrum. We find constraints between the values of n_s and the corresponding values for the wavelength \\lambda . By imposing a dependence \\lambda (n_s), we were able to reconstruct and visualize inflationary potentials which are compatible with recent COBE and other astrophysical observations. >From the reconstructed potentials, it becomes clear that one cannot find only one special value of the scalar spectral index n_s.

  17. COBE diffuse infrared background experiment observations of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, J. L.; Arendt, R. G.; Berriman, G. B.; Dwek, E.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C. M.; Mitra, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    Low angular resolution maps of the Galactic bulge at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 micrometers obtained by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) onboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) are presented. After correction for extinction and subtraction of an empirical model for the Galactic disk, the surface brightness distribution of the bulge resembles a flattened ellipse with a minor-to-major axis ratio of approximately 0.6. The bulge minor axis scale height is found to be 2.1 deg +/- 0.2 deg for all four near-infrared wavelengths. Asymmetries in the longitudinal distribution of bulge brightness contours are qualitatively consistent with those expected for a triaxial bar with its near end in the first Galactic quadrant (0 deg less than l less than 90 deg). There is no evidence for an out-of-plane tilt of such a bar.

  18. Omega from the COBE-DMR anisotropy maps

    CERN Document Server

    Cayon, L; Sanz, J L; Sugiyama, N; Torres, S

    1994-01-01

    We have made a likelihood statistical analysis of the angular correlations in the {\\it COBE}-DMR two-year sky maps by Monte Carlo simulation of the temperature fluctuations. We assume an open universe and consider as primordial power spectrum the Harrison-Zeldovich one, P(k)=Ak. We find that the flatness of the universe is not implied by the data. The quadrupole normalization amplitude, Q_{rms-PS}, is related to the density parameter, \\Omega, by Q_{rms-PS} = 10.67 + 55.81 \\Omega - 128.59 \\Omega^2 + 81.26 \\Omega^3\\ \\muK. We have determined the p.d.f. of \\Omega due to cosmic plus sampling (i.e. 20^\\circ galactic cut) variance which generically shows a bimodal shape. The uncertainty as given by the r.m.s. is \\approx 0.35, therefore to better constrain \\Omega experiments sensitive to higher multipoles (l>20) should be considered.

  19. COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers - Instrument design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, G.; Bennett, Charles; Weber, R.; Maruschak, John; Ratliff, Roger; Janssen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMRs) at frequencies of 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz have been designed and built to map the large angular scale variations in the brightness temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The instrument is being flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, launched on November 18, 1989. Each receiver input is switched between two antennas pointing 60 deg apart on the sky. The satellite is in near-polar orbit with the orbital plane precessing at 1 deg per day, causing the beams to scan the entire sky in 6 months. In 1 year of observation, the instruments are capable of mapping the sky to an rms sensitivity of 0.1 mK per 7 deg field of view. The mission and the instrument have been carefully designed to minimize the need for systematic corrections to the data.

  20. Calibrator Design for the COBE Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer ($FIRAS$)

    CERN Document Server

    Mather, J C; Shafer, R A; Mosier, C; Wilkinson, D T

    1999-01-01

    The photometric errors of the external calibrator for the FIRAS instrument on the COBE are smaller than the measurement errors on the cosmic microwave background (CMBR) spectrum (typically 0.02 MJy/sr, 1 sigma), and smaller than 0.01% of the peak brightness of the CMBR. The calibrator is a re-entrant cone, shaped like a trumpet mute, made of Eccosorb iron-loaded epoxy. It fills the entire beam of the instrument and is the source of its accuracy. Its known errors are caused by reflections, temperature gradients, and leakage through the material and around the edge. Estimates and limits are given for all known error sources. Improvements in understanding the temperature measurements of the calibrator allow an improved CMBR temperature determination of 2.725 +/- 0.002 K.

  1. The COBE normalization for standard cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Emory F.; Scott, Douglas; White, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) detection of microwave anisotropies provides the best way of fixing the amplitude of cosmological fluctuations on the largest scales. This normalization is usually given for an n = 1 spectrum, including only the anisotropy caused by the Sachs-Wolfe effect. This is certainly not a good approximation for a model containing any reasonable amount of baryonic matter. In fact, even tilted Sachs-Wolfe spectra are not a good fit to models like cold dark matter (CDM). Here, we normalize standard CDM (sCDM) to the two-year COBE data and quote the best amplitude in terms of the conventionally used measures of power. We also give normalizations for some specific variants of this standard model, and we indicate how the normalization depends on the assumed values on n, Omega(sub B) and H(sub 0). For sCDM we find the mean value of Q = 19.9 +/- 1.5 micro-K, corresponding to sigma(sub 8) = 1.34 +/- 0.10, with the normalization at large scales being B = (8.16 +/- 1.04) x 10(exp 5)(Mpc/h)(exp 4), and other numbers given in the table. The measured rms temperature fluctuation smoothed on 10 deg is a little low relative to this normalization. This is mainly due to the low quadrupole in the data: when the quadrupole is removed, the measured value of sigma(10 deg) is quite consistent with the best-fitting the mean value of Q. The use of the mean value of Q should be preferred over sigma(10 deg), when its value can be determined for a particular theory, since it makes full use of the data.

  2. The COBE mission - its design and performance two years after launch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggess, N.W.; Mather, J.C.; Weiss, R.; Bennett, C.L.; Cheng, E.S.; Dwek, E.; Gulkis, S.; Hauser, M.G.; Janssen, M.A.; Kelsall, T. (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States) JPL, Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The COBE mission, NASA's first space mission devoted primarily to cosmology, is described and the spacecraft concepts central to enabling the mission to achieve its scientific objectives are examined. The major components of the COBE instrument and spacecraft modules are shown and their characteristics are given. Early scientific results are summarized and plans for continuing satellite operations and data analysis are addressed. 40 refs.

  3. The diffuse infrared background - COBE and other observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Silverberg, R. F.; Murdock, T.; Toller, G.; Spiesman, W.; Weiland, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite is designed to conduct a sensitive search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background radiation over the spectral range from 1 to 300 micrometers. The cumulative emissions of pregalactic, protogalactic, and evolving galactic systems are expected to be recorded in this background. The DIRBE instrument, a 10 spectral band absolute photometer with an 0.7 deg field of view, maps the full sky with high redundancy at solar elongation angles ranging from 64 to 124 degrees to facilitate separation of interplanetary, Galactic, and extragalactic sources of emission. Initial sky maps show the expected character of the foreground emissions, with relative minima at wavelengths of 3.4 micrometers and longward of 100 micrometers. Extensive modelling of the foregrounds, just beginning, will be required to isolate the extragalactic component. In this paper, we summarize the status of diffuse infrared background observations from the DIRBE, and compare preliminary results with those of recent rocket and satellite instruments.

  4. Morphology of the Interstellar Cooling Lines Detected by COBE

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, C L; Hinshaw, G; Mather, J C; Moseley, S H; Wright, E L; Eplee, R E; Gales, J; Hewagama, T; Isaacman, R B; Turpie, K; Shafer, R A

    1994-01-01

    The FIRAS instrument on the COBE satellite has conducted an unbiased survey of the far-infrared emission from our Galaxy. The first results of this survey were reported by Wright et al. (1991). We report the results of new analyses of this spectral survey, which includes emission lines from 158 um C+, 122 um and 205 um N+, 370 um and 609 um C, and CO J=2-1 through 5-4. We report the morphological distribution along the galactic plane (b=0) of the spectral line emission, and the high galactic latitude intensities of the C+ and 205 um N+ emission. The high galactic latitude intensity cosecant of the 158 um fine structure transition from C+ is presented, and C+ is seen to decrease more rapidly than the far infrared intensity with increasing galactic latitude. C+ and H I emission are closely correlated with a C+ cooling rate of (2.65 +/- 0.15)x10^{-26} erg/s/H-atom. We conclude that this emission arises almost entirely from the Cold Neutral Medium. The high galactic latitude intensity of the 205 um fine structure...

  5. Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hinshaw, G.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H.; Wright, E. L.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Gales, J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the COBE satellite has conducted an unbiased survey of the far-infrared emission from our Galaxy. The first results of this survey were reported by Wright et al. (1991). We report the results of new analyses of this spectral survey, which includes emission lines from 158 micrometer C(+), 122 and 205 micrometer N(+), 370 and 609 micrometer C(0), and CO J = 2 goes to 1 through J = 5 goes to 4. We report the morphological distribution along the Galactic plane (b = 0 deg) of the spectral line emission, and the high Galactic latitude intensities of the C(+) and 205 micrometer N(+) emission. In the Galactic plane the 205 micrometer line of N(+) generally follows the 158 micrometer C(+) line distribution, but the intensities scale as I(N(+) 205 micrometer) varies as I(C(+) 158 micrometer)(exp 1.5) toward the inner Galaxy. The high Galactic latitude intensity of the 158 micrometer fine-structure transition from C(+) is I(C(+) 158 micrometer) = (1.43 +/- 0.12) x 10(exp -6) csc (absolute value of b) ergs/sq cm s sr for absolute value of b greater than 15 deg, and it decreases more rapidly than the far-infrared intensity with increasing Galactic latitude. C(+) and neutral atomic hydrogen emission are closely correlated with a C(+) cooling rate of (2.65 +/- 0.15) x 10(exp -26) ergs/s. We conclude that this emission arises almost entirely from the cold neutral medium. The high Galactic latitude intensity of the 205 micrometer fine-structure transition from N(+) is I(N(+) 205 micrometer) = (4 +/- 1) x 10(exp -8) csc (absolute value of b) ergs/((sq cm)(s)(sr)) arising entirely from the warm ionized medium. We estimate the total ionizing photon rate in the Galaxy to be phi = 3.5 x 10(exp 53) ionizing photons per second, based on the 205 micrometer N(+) transition.

  6. The Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy from the Combined COBE FIRAS and WMAP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, D. J.

    2003-09-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data from the COBE Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) is reanalyzed in light of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. The frequency spectrum of the FIRAS signal that has the spatial distribution seen by WMAP is shown to be consistent with CMB temperature fluctuations well into the Wien region of the spectrum. The consistency of these data, from very different instruments with very different observing strategies, provides compelling support for the interpretation that the signal seen by WMAP is temperature anisotropy of cosmological origin. The data also limit rms fluctuations in the Compton y parameter, observable via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, to Δy<3×10-6 (95% confidence level) on ~5° angular scales. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) was responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE).

  7. Comparison of plasma exchange performances between Spectra Optia and COBE Spectra apheresis systems in repeated procedures considering variability and using specific statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequet, O; Stocco, V; Assari, S; Drillat, P; Le, Q H; Kassir, A; Rigal, D; Bouzgarrou, R

    2014-08-01

    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) procedures using centrifugation techniques became a standard therapy in some diseases. As the new device Spectra Optia (SPO; Terumo BCT) was available, we studied its performances in repeated procedures in 20 patients in three apheresis units. First we analysed the performance results obtained by SPO. Second we compared the performances of the SPO device to a standard device, COBE Spectra (CSP; Terumo BCT) in the same patients using statistical method of mixed effects linear regression that considers variability between patients, centres and apheresis procedures. The performances analysed were classified according to plasma removal performances and their consequences on patients whose blood disturbances were assessed. Primary outcome was plasma removal efficiency (PRE) and PRE-anticoagulant corrected which was a more accurate parameter. Secondary outcomes corresponded to the volume of ACD-A consumed, platelets content in waste bag, procedure duration and status of coagulation system observed after TPE sessions. Before comparing the performances of both devices we compared the plasma volumes (PVs) processed in both techniques which showed that the PVs processed in SPO procedures were lower than in CSP procedures. In these conditions the statistical analysis revealed similar performances in both apheresis devices in PRE (p = ns) but better performances with SPO when considering higher PRE corrected by anticoagulant volume used (p apheresis patients' coagulation blood levels were identical before SPO and CSP, we showed identical haemostasis disturbances after SPO and CSP but lower platelet losses and higher fibrinogen post-apheresis blood levels after SPO (p < 0.05). No side effects or technical complications occurred during and after SPO and CSP. This study demonstrated that the Spectra Optia device is an alternative device to today's standard, the COBE Spectra device.

  8. Cosmological-constant cold dark matter models and the cobe two-year Sky maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bunn, E F; Emory F Bunn; Naoshi Sugiyama

    1994-01-01

    Abstract. We compare the two-year COBE DMR sky maps with the predictions of cosmological-constant cold dark matter models. Using a Bayesian analysis, we find that the most likely value of the cosmological constant in such a model is Lambda = 0. The data set an upper limit on Lambda of 0.71 (0.78) at 90% confidence, and 0.78 (0.86) at 95% confidence with (without) the quadrupole anisotropy.

  9. On the Origins of the CMB: Insight from the COBE, WMAP, and Relikt-1 Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The powerful “Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB” signal currently associated with the origins of the Universe is examined from a historical perspective and relative to the experimental context in which it was measured. Results from the COBE satellite are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the systematic error observed in determining the CMB temperature. The nature of the microwave signal emanating from the oceans is also discussed. From this analysis, it is demonstrated that it is improper for the COBE team to model the Earth as a 285 K blackbody source. The assignment of temperatures to objects that fail to meet the requirements set forth in Kirchhoff’s law constitutes a serious overextension of the laws of thermal emission. Using this evidence, and the general rule that powerful signals are associated with proximal sources, the CMB monopole signal is reassigned to the oceans. In turn, through the analysis of COBE, WMAP, and Relikt-1 data, the dipole signal is attributed to motion through a much weaker microwave field present both at the position of the Earth and at the second Lagrange point.

  10. COBE and the Absolute Assignment of the CMB to the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie; Rabounski, Dmitri

    2007-03-01

    The FIRAS instrument on COBE initially reported a CMB temperature of 2.730+/-0.001 K (1σ). At the same time, using the 1st derivative, FIRAS reported a CMB temperature of 2.717+/-0.003 K (1σ). These two values are significantly different at the 99% confidence interval. In order to remove this significance, NASA lowered the absolute value of the CMB by changing the calibration on the external calibrator long after launch. It also raised the error bars on the second value. However, the observed difference in the CMB temperature measured by these two methods may well constitute evidence that the CMB monopole arises from the Earth. It should be assumed that a second, much weaker, microwave field exists both at L2 (the WMAP position) and at the COBE position. Motion through this much weaker field is responsible for the dipole observed. The value of the CMB temperature obtained by the 1st derivative is sensitive to motion. It is also sensitive to the complicating effect of the weak field also present at L2 when sampling the CMB temperature using FIRAS. The presence of a second weak field at L2 and the Earth is required in order for COBE to be able to resolve this situation. The PLANCK satellite should soon reveal that that CMB monopole does not exist at L2.

  11. CMB Anisotropies Two Years after Cobe: Observations, Theory and the Future - Proceedings of the 1994 Cwru Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence M.

    1995-01-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * I. The Experimental Situation Two Years After COBE: Anisotropies, and the CMB Power Spectrum * COBE DMR Data, Signal and Noise: Color Plates * CMB Two Years After the COBE Discovery of Anisotropies * Comparison of Spectral Index Determinations * Two-Point Correlations in the COBE-DMR Two-Year Anisotropy Maps * A Preliminary Analysis of UCSB's South Pole 1993-94 Results * CMB Anisotropy Measurements During the Fourth Flight of MAX * Observations of the Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background by the Firs, SK93, and MSAM-I Experiments * The Python Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiment * II. Theoretical Implications and Cosmology: The Early Universe, Large Scale Structure and Dark Matter * Testing Inflationary Cosmology and Measuring Cosmological Parameters Using the Cosmic Microwave Background * Inflation Confronts the CMB: An Analysis Including the Effects of Foreground * Testing Inflation with MSAM, MAX Tenerife and COBE * CMBR Anisotropy Due to Gravitational Radiation in Inflationary Cosmologies * Black Holes From Blue Spectra * Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies and the Geometry of the Universe * Ω and Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies * CDM Cosmogony in an Open Universe * Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Anisotropy Induced by Cosmic Strings * Temperature Anisotropies in a Universe with Global Defects * The Nature Versus Nurture of Anisotropies * The Existence of Baryons at z = 1000 * Polarization-Temperature Correlations in the Microwave Background * III. Related Issues: BBN Limits on ΩB, and Comparing Theoretical Predictions and Observations * Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and ΩB: A Guide for CMB Interpreters * Quoting Experimental Information

  12. COBE and the Galactic Interstellar Medium: Geometry of the Spiral Arms from FIR Cooling Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Wolfire, Mark; Hollenbach, David

    2010-10-01

    We present a new model for the spiral structure of the Milky Way based upon the essentially all-sky intensity maps of the [C II] 158 μm and [N II] 205 μm lines of the interstellar medium (ISM) obtained by the FIRAS instrument of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), with ancillary data from the Balloon-borne Infrared Carbon Explorer, and Infrared Space Observatory. These lines are important coolants of the ISM and strong tracers of the spiral structure. The model provides the volume emissivity of these species as a function of position within the Galaxy. Two-, three-, and four-arm models are examined, using a number of spiral functional forms. Two-arm models are found to be inconsistent with the COBE/FIRAS data. A three-arm model can be constructed that reproduces the [C II] and [N II] intensity profiles along the Galactic plane. This model, however, is discounted by historical observations of the Perseus and Cygnus ("Outer") arms. A four-arm model, with arms defined by logarithmic spiral forms, reproduce the observations extremely well. Models of the Milky Way's spiral geometry proposed from ~1980 to the present are examined in light of the COBE data and compared with the model presented herein. The preponderance of the evidence supports the existence of four well-defined logarithmic spiral arms in the gaseous component of the ISM. We note that essentially all two-arm models proposed since the mid-1980s are based upon observations of older evolved stars. We address the question of why studies based upon observations of stellar densities yield two-arm models while models based upon observations of more traditional tracers of spiral arms, i.e., enhanced gas and dust densities, star formation, and young stellar populations, yield four-arm models.

  13. Limits on the cosmic infrared background from clustering in COBE/DIRBE maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kashlinsky, A; Odenwald, S

    1997-01-01

    We discuss a new method of estimating the cosmic infrared background (CIB) from the spatial properties of infrared maps and give the limits on the CIB from applying it to the COBE/DIRBE maps. The strongest limits are obtained at mid- to far-IR where foregrounds are bright, but smooth. If the CIB comes from matter clustered like galaxies, the smoothness of the maps implies CIB levels less than $\\sim$(10-15) nW/m$^2$/sr over this wavelength range.

  14. A new blackbody radiation law based on fractional calculus and its application to NASA COBE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyajima, Minoru; Mizoguchi, Takuya; Suzuki, Naomichi

    2015-12-01

    By applying fractional calculus to the equation proposed by M. Planck in 1900, we obtain a new blackbody radiation law described by a Mittag-Leffler (ML) function. We have analyzed NASA COBE data by means of a non-extensive formula with a parameter (q - 1) , a formula proposed by Ertik et al. with a fractional parameter (α - 1) , and our new formula including a parameter (p - 1) , as well as the Bose-Einstein distribution with a dimensionless chemical potential μ. It can be said that one role of the fractional parameter (p - 1) is almost the same as that of chemical potential (μ) as well as that of the parameter (q - 1) in the non-extensive approach.

  15. Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Murdock, T.L. (General Research Corp., Danvers, MA (United States)); Smoot, G.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Weiss, R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Wright, E.L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

  16. COBE DIRBE near-infrared polarimetry of the zodiacal light: Initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G. B.; Boggess, N. W.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Reach, W. T.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    This Letter describes near-infrared polarimetry of the zodiacal light at 2.2 micrometers, measured with the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. The polarization is due to scattering of sunlight. The polarization vector is perpendicular to the scattering plane, and its observed amplitude on the ecliptic equator at an elongation of 90 deg and ecliptic longitude of 10 deg declines from 12.0 +/- 0.4% at 1.25 micrometers to 8.0 +/- 0.6% at 3.5 micrometers (cf. 16% in the visible); the principal source of uncertainty is photometric noise due to stars. The observed near-infrared colors at this location are redder than Solar, but at 3.5 micrometers this is due at least in part to the thermal emission contribution from the interplanetary dust. Mie theory calculations show that both polarizations and colors are important in constraining models of interplanetary dust.

  17. A preliminary measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, J.C.; Cheng, E.S.; Shafer, R.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Silverberg, R.F. (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A preliminary spectrum is presented of the background radiation between 1 and 20/cm from regions near the north Galactic pole, as observed by the FIRAS instrument on the COBE satellite. The spectral resolution is 1/cm. The spectrum is well fitted by a blackbody with a temperature of 2.735 + or - 0.06 K, and the deviation from a blackbody is less than 1 percent of the peak intensity over the range 1-20/cm. These new data show no evidence for the submillimeter excess previously reported by Matsumoto et al. (1988) in the cosmic microwave background. Further analysis and additional data are expected to improve the sensitivity to deviations from a blackbody spectrum by an order of magnitude. 31 refs.

  18. A preliminary measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary spectrum is presented of the background radiation between 1 and 20/cm from regions near the north Galactic pole, as observed by the FIRAS instrument on the COBE satellite. The spectral resolution is 1/cm. The spectrum is well fitted by a blackbody with a temperature of 2.735 + or - 0.06 K, and the deviation from a blackbody is less than 1 percent of the peak intensity over the range 1-20/cm. These new data show no evidence for the submillimeter excess previously reported by Matsumoto et al. (1988) in the cosmic microwave background. Further analysis and additional data are expected to improve the sensitivity to deviations from a blackbody spectrum by an order of magnitude.

  19. Large-scale structure in COBE-normalized cold dark matter cosmogonies

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, S; Frenk, C S; Ratra, B; Cole, Shaun; Weinberg, David H.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Ratra, Bharat

    1997-01-01

    We study the clustering of the mass distribution in COBE-normalized open and flat CDM models using large N-body simulations. With an age of the universe of 14 Gyr (12 Gyr) for the flat (open) models and a baryon density fixed by nucleosynthesis constraints, the observed abundance of rich galaxy clusters leads to tight constraints on the density parameter; 0.250.2, implies that galaxies are overabundant in clusters relative to the field. The tilted Omega_0=1 model, on the other hand, does require that galaxies be positively biased on all scales. We also compute the topology of isodensity contours in these models, obtaining theoretical predictions that are less sensitive to galaxy bias.

  20. New non-Gaussian feature in COBE-DMR Four Year Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    2000-01-01

    We extend a previous bispectrum analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature anisotropy, allowing for the presence of correlations between different angular scales. We find a strong non-Gaussian signal in the ``inter-scale'' components of the bispectrum: their observed values concentrate close to zero instead of displaying the scatter expected from Gaussian maps. This signal is present over the range of multipoles $\\ell=6 -18$, in contrast with previous detections. We attempt to attribute this effect to galactic foreground contamination, pixelization effects, possible anomalies in the noise, documented systematic errors studied by the COBE team, and the effect of assumptions used in our Monte Carlo simulations. Within this class of systematic errors the confidence level for rejecting Gaussianity varies between 97% and 99.8%.

  1. Cosmic microwave background dipole spectrum measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Isaacman, R. B.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.; Shafer, R. A.; Weiss, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has determined the dipole spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) from 2 to 20/cm. For each frequency the signal is decomposed by fitting to a monopole, a dipole, and a Galactic template for approximately 60% of the sky. The overall dipole spectrum fits the derivative of a Planck function with an amplitude of 3.343 +/- 0.016 mK (95% confidence level), a temperature of 2.714 +/- 0.022 K (95% confidence level), and an rms deviation of 6 x 10(exp -9) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm limited by a detector and cosmic-ray noise. The monopole temperature is consistent with that determined by direct measurement in the accompanying article by Mather et al.

  2. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

  3. A preliminary measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary spectrum is presented of the background radiation between 1 and 20/cm from regions near the north Galactic pole, as observed by the FIRAS instrument on the COBE satellite. The spectral resolution is 1/cm. The spectrum is well fitted by a blackbody with a temperature of 2.735 + or - 0.06 K, and the deviation from a blackbody is less than 1 percent of the peak intensity over the range 1-20/cm. These new data show no evidence for the submillimeter excess previously reported by Matsumoto et al. (1988) in the cosmic microwave background. Further analysis and additional data are expected to improve the sensitivity to deviations from a blackbody spectrum by an order of magnitude.

  4. 献血者血小板数量及血容量对机采血小板采集量的影响%The Influence on Apheresis Platelets Collection Quantity of Platelets Counts and Blood Volume of Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋靓; 曹维娟; 王明元

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析献血员血小板数量及处理血量对机采血小板采集量的影响。方法应用Trima血细胞分离机采集100名献血者的双份血小板。结果通过多元回归分析发现,献血者采前的血小板计数(Plt)和血容量(BV)与血小板采集量之间存在回归关系,其标准偏回归系数β值分别为-0.370和-0.201,P<0.01。结论对采前的Plt和BV水平较低的献血者,可采用Trima血细胞分离机进行采集。%Objective To analyze the influence on apheresis platelets collection quantity of platelets count (Plt) and blood volume (BV) of donors. Methods Double platelets were collected from 100 donors using the Trima blood separator. Results By multivariate linear regression analysis, it was found that there were regression relationships between donors' Plt and BV before donation and platelets collection quantity (β=-0.370 and-0.201, P<0.01). Conclusion For donors with low level Plt or BV, Trima blood separator can be used.

  5. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  6. Infrared observations of Comet Austin (1990 V) by the COBE/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Reach, W. T.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Comet Austin was observed by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) with broadband photometry at 1-240 micrometers during the comet's close passage by Earth in 1990 May. A 6 deg long (6 x 10(exp 6) km) dust tail was found at 12 and 25 micrometers, with detailed structure due to variations in particle properties and mass-loss rate. The spectrum of the central 42 x 42 sq arcmin pixel was found to agree with that of a graybody of temperature 309 +/- 5 K and optical depth 7.3 +/- 10(exp -8). Comparison with IUE and ground-based obervations indicates that particles of radius greater than 20 micrometers predominate by surface area. A mass-loss rate of 510 (+510/-205) kg/s and a total tail mass of 7 +/- 2 x 10(exp 10) kg was found for a model dust tail composed of Mie spheres with a differential particle mass distribution dn/d log m approx. m(exp -0.63) and 2:1 silicate:amorphous carbon composition by mass.

  7. COBE diffuse infrared background experiment observations of Galactic reddening and stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, R. G.; Berriman, G. B.; Boggess, N.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Murdock, T. L.; Odegard, N.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    This Letter describes the results of an initial study of Galactic extinction and the colors of Galactic stellar populations in the near-IR using the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. The near-IR reddening observed by DIRBE is consistent with the extinction law tabulated by Rieke & Lebofsky (1985). The distribution of dust and stars in most of the first and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane (0 deg less than l less than 90 deg, and 270 deg less than l less than 360 deg, respectively) can be modeled as a stellar background source seen through up to approximately 4 mag of extinction at 1.25 micrometers. The unreddened near-IR colors of the Galactic disk are similar to those of late-K and M giants. The Galactic bulge exhibits slightly bluer colors in the 2.2-3.5 micrometers range, as noted by Terndrup et al. (1991). Star-forming regions exhibit colors that indicate the presence of a approximately 900 K continuum produced by hot dust or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contributing at wavelengths as short as 3.5 micrometers.

  8. On the Non-Gaussianity Observed in the COBE-DMR Sky Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, A J; Górski, K M

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we pursue the origin of the non-Gaussianity determined by a bispectrum analysis of the COBE-DMR 4-year sky maps. The robustness of the statistic is demonstrated by the rebinning of the data into 12 coordinate systems. By computing the bispectrum statistic as a function of various data partitions - by channel, frequency, and time interval, we show that the observed non-Gaussian signal is driven by the 53 GHz data. This frequency dependence strongly rejects the hypothesis that the signal is cosmological in origin. A jack-knife analysis of the coadded 53 and 90 GHz sky maps reveals those sky pixels to which the bispectrum statistic is particularly sensitive. We find that by removing data from the 53 GHz sky maps for periods of time during which a known systematic effect perturbs the 31 GHz channels, the amplitudes of the bispectrum coefficients become completely consistent with that expected for a Gaussian sky. We conclude that the non-Gaussian signal detected by the normalised bispectrum statistic...

  9. The Relativistic Effect of the Deviation between the CMB Temperatures Obtained by the COBE Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS on the COBE satellite, gives different temperatures of the Cosmic Microwave Background. This deviation has a theoretical explanation in the Doppler effect on the dipole (weak component of the radiation, the true microwave background of the Universe that moves at 365 km/sec, if the monopole (strong component of the radiation is due to the Earth. Owing to the Doppler effect, the dipole radiation temperature (determined by the 1st derivative of the monopole is lower than the monopole radiation temperature, with a value equal to the observed deviation. By this theory, the WMAP and PLANCK satellites, targeting the L2 point in the Sun-Earth-Moon system, should be insensitive to the monopole radiation. In contrast to the launched WMAP satellite, the PLANCK satellite will have on board absolute instruments which will not be able to detect the measured temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background. That the monopole (strong component of the observed Cosmic Microwave Background is generated by the Earth is given a complete theoretical proof herein.

  10. Testing the COBE/IRAS All-Sky Reddening Map Using the Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, K Z

    1998-01-01

    We live in a dusty Universe, and correcting for the dust extinction and reddening affects almost all aspects of the optical astronomy. Recently Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis published an all-sky reddening map based on the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA infrared sky surveys. Their map is intended to supersede the older Burstein & Heiles reddening estimates. In this paper I test this new reddening map by comparing the reddening values for a sample of 110 $|b|>5\\deg$ Galactic globular clusters selected from compilation of Harris. I find a good agreement for globular clusters with galactic latitude $|b|>20\\deg$ and fair overall agreement for globular clusters with $20>|b|>5\\deg$, but with several significant deviations. I discuss four individual clusters with largest deviations, NGC 6144, Terzan 3, NGC 6355 and IC 1276, in order to investigate the reasons for these large deviations. It seems that the new reddening map overestimates the reddening in some large extinction regions. However, with its high spatial re...

  11. Correlation function analysis of the COBE differential microwave radiometer sky maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineweaver, Charles Howe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.

    1994-08-01

    The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite has detected anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A two-point correlation function analysis which helped lead to this discovery is presented in detail. The results of a correlation function analysis of the two year DMR data set is presented. The first and second year data sets are compared and found to be reasonably consistent. The positive correlation for separation angles less than ~20° is robust to Galactic latitude cuts and is very stable from year to year. The Galactic latitude cut independence of the correlation function is strong evidence that the signal is not Galactic in origin. The statistical significance of the structure seen in the correlation function of the first, second and two year maps is respectively > 9σ, > 10σ and > 18σ above the noise. The noise in the DMR sky maps is correlated at a low level. The structure of the pixel temperature covariance matrix is given. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky map is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occurs with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60° due to the 60° separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance of 60° is 0.45%$+0.18\\atop{-0.14}$ of the mean variance. The noise properties of the DMR maps are thus well approximated by the noise properties of maps made by a single-beam experiment. Previously published DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

  12. On the calibration of the COBE/IRAS dust emission reddening maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, C. M.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Barbuy, B.

    2003-09-01

    In this work we study the spectral properties (3600-6800 Å) of the nuclear region of early-type galaxies at low (|b|B-V) reddening values of the galaxies by matching their continuum distribution with respect to those of reddening-free spectral galaxy templates with similar stellar populations. We also compare the spectroscopic reddening value of each galaxy with that derived from 100 mu m dust emission (E(B-V)FIR) in its line of sight, and we find that there is agreement up to E(B-V)=0.25. Beyond this limit E(B-V)FIR values are higher. Taking into account the data up to E(B-V) ~ 0.7, we derive a calibration factor of 0.016 between the spectroscopic E(B-V) values and Schlegel et al.'s (\\cite{Schlegel1998}) opacities. By combining this result with an AK extinction map built within ten degrees of the Galactic centre using Bulge giants as probes (Dutra et al. \\cite{Dutra2003}), we extended the calibration of dust emission reddening maps to low Galactic latitudes down to |b|=4deg and E(B-V)= 1.6 (AV ~ 5). According to this new calibration, a multiplicative factor of ~0.75 must be applied to the COBE/IRAS dust emission reddening maps. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Pata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  13. Statistics and topology of the COBE differential microwave radiometer first-year sky maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, G. F.; Tenorio, L.; Banday, A. J.; Kogut, A.; Wright, E. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    We use statistical and topological quantities to test the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) first-year sky maps against the hypothesis that the observed temperature fluctuations reflect Gaussian initial density perturbations with random phases. Recent papers discuss specific quantities as discriminators between Gaussian and non-Gaussian behavior, but the treatment of instrumental noise on the data is largely ignored. The presence of noise in the data biases many statistical quantities in a manner dependent on both the noise properties and the unknown cosmic microwave background temperature field. Appropriate weighting schemes can minimize this effect, but it cannot be completely eliminated. Analytic expressions are presented for these biases, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the best strategy for determining cosmologically interesting information from noisy data. The genus is a robust discriminator that can be used to estimate the power-law quadrupole-normalized amplitude, Q(sub rms-PS), independently of the two-point correlation function. The genus of the DMR data is consistent with Gaussian initial fluctuations with Q(sub rms-PS) = (15.7 +/- 2.2) - (6.6 +/- 0.3)(n - 1) micro-K, where n is the power-law index. Fitting the rms temperature variations at various smoothing angles gives Q(sub rms-PS) = 13.2 +/- 2.5 micro-K and n = 1.7(sup (+0.3) sub (-0.6)). While consistent with Gaussian fluctuations, the first year data are only sufficient to rule out strongly non-Gaussian distributions of fluctuations.

  14. On the rms anisotropy at 7 deg and 10 deg observed in the COBE-DMR two year sky maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Tenorio, L.; Wright, E. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Lineweaver, C. H.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency-independent rms temperature fluctuations determined from the Cosmic Background Explorer-Differential Microwave Radiometer (COBE-DMR) two-year sky maps are used to infer the parameter Q(sub rms-PS), which characterizes the normalization of power-law models of primordial cosmological temperature anisotropy, for a forced fit to a scale-invariant Harrison-Zel'dovich (n = 1) spectral model. Using a joint analysis of the 7 deg and 10 deg 'cross'-rms derived from both the 53 and 90 GHz sky maps, we find Q(sub rms-PS) = 17.0(sub -2.1 sup +2.5) micro Kelvin when the low quadrupole is included, and Q(sub rms-PS) = 19.4(sub -2.1 sup +2.3) micro Kelvin excluding the quadrupole. These results are consistent with the n = 1 fits from more sensitive methods. The effect of the low quadrupole derived from the COBE-DMR data on the inferred Q(sub rms-PS) normalization is investigated. A bias to lower Q(sub rms-PS) is found when the quadrupole is included. The higher normalization for a forced n = 1 fit is then favored by the cross-rms technique.

  15. Large-scale characteristics of interstellar dust from COBE DIRBE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodroski, T. J.; Bennett, C.; Boggers, N.; Dwek, E.; Franz, B. A.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Odegard, N.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Observations from the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment of the 140 and 240 micrometer emissions from the Galatic plane region (absolute value of b less than 10 deg) are combined with radio surveys that trace the molecular (H2), neutral atomic (H I), and extended low-density (n(sub e) approximately 10 to 100/cm(exp 3)) ionized (H II) gas phases of the interstellar medium to derive physical conditions such as the dust temperature, dust-to-gas mass ratio, and far-infrared emissivity (1) averaged over these gas phases along each line of sight and (2) within each of these three gas phases. This analysis shows large-scale longitudinal and latitudinal gradients in the dust temperature and a decrease in dust temperature with increasing Galactocentric distance. The derived dust temperatures are significantly different from those derived in similar analyses using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 60 and 100 micrometer data, suggesting that small (5 A approximately less than radius approximately less than 200 A) transiently heated dust particles contribute significantly o the Galactic 60 micrometer emission. It is found that 60% to 75% of the far-infrared luminosity arises from cold (approximately 17 to 22 K) dust associated with diffuse H I clouds, 15% to 30% from cold (approximately 19 K) dust associated with molecular gas, and less than 10% from warm (approximately 29 K) dust in extended low-density H II regions, consistent with the results of the IRAS analyses of the Galactic 60 and 100 micrometer emission. Within 2 deg of longitude of the Galactic center, the derived gas-to-dust mass ratio along the line of sight, G(sub d), reverses its general trend of decreasing G(sub d) toward the inner Galaxy and increases by a factor of approximately 2 to 3 toward the Galactic center. One possible explanation for this result is that the ratio of H2 column density to (12)CO intensity is lower in the Galactic center region than in the Galactic disk.

  16. The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment search for thecosmic infrared background. I. Limits and detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot,G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-01-06

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mu m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 mu m(nu l nu<64 nW m-2 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level) and at 240 mu m (nu l nu < 28 nW m-1 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 mum data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 mu m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 mu m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of nu l nu = 25 +- 7 and 14 +- 3 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 and 240 mu m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 mu m, 10.3 nW m-2sr-1, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter.

  17. Determination of the Cosmic Infrared Background from COBE/FIRAS and Planck HFI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan

    Current determinations of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at far-infrared to millimeter wavelengths have large uncertainties, on the order of 30%. We propose to make new, more accurate determinations of the CIB at these wavelengths using COBE /FIRAS and Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) Data. This work will enable a factor of two improvement in our understanding of the CIB. Planck was not designed to measure the monopole component of sky brightness, so the FIRAS data will be used to recalibrate the zero level of the HFI maps. Correlation of the recalibrated HFI maps with Galactic H I 21-cm line emission will be used to separate the Galactic foreground emission and determine the CIB in the HFI bands from 217 to 857 GHz, or 1380 to 350 microns. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the HFI data will allow the correlations with H I to be established more accurately and to lower H I column density than is possible with the 7± resolution FIRAS data, resulting in significant improvement in the accuracy of the derived CIB. Correlations of the CIB-subtracted 857 GHz map with FIRAS maps averaged over broad frequency bins will then be used to determine CIB values at frequencies not observed by Planck. Uncertainties in the CIB results are expected to be as low as 14% for the HFI 857 GHz band. Our results will allow more accurate determination of the fraction of the CIB that is resolved by deep source surveys, and a tighter limit to be placed on the contribution to the CIB of any diffuse emission such as emission from intergalactic dust. Possible gray extinction by intergalactic dust may produce significant systematic error in determinations of dark energy parameters from type Ia supernova measurements, and our results will be important for placing a tighter upper limit on such extinction. Our CIB results will also provide tighter constraints on models of the evolution of star-forming galaxies, and will be important in constraining the evolution in

  18. Large-scale characteristics of interstellar dust from COBE DIRBE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodroski, T. J.; Bennett, C.; Boggers, N.; Dwek, E.; Franz, B. A.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Odegard, N.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Observations from the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment of the 140 and 240 micrometer emissions from the Galatic plane region (absolute value of b less than 10 deg) are combined with radio surveys that trace the molecular (H2), neutral atomic (H I), and extended low-density (n(sub e) approximately 10 to 100/cm(exp 3)) ionized (H II) gas phases of the interstellar medium to derive physical conditions such as the dust temperature, dust-to-gas mass ratio, and far-infrared emissivity (1) averaged over these gas phases along each line of sight and (2) within each of these three gas phases. This analysis shows large-scale longitudinal and latitudinal gradients in the dust temperature and a decrease in dust temperature with increasing Galactocentric distance. The derived dust temperatures are significantly different from those derived in similar analyses using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 60 and 100 micrometer data, suggesting that small (5 A approximately less than radius approximately less than 200 A) transiently heated dust particles contribute significantly o the Galactic 60 micrometer emission. It is found that 60% to 75% of the far-infrared luminosity arises from cold (approximately 17 to 22 K) dust associated with diffuse H I clouds, 15% to 30% from cold (approximately 19 K) dust associated with molecular gas, and less than 10% from warm (approximately 29 K) dust in extended low-density H II regions, consistent with the results of the IRAS analyses of the Galactic 60 and 100 micrometer emission. Within 2 deg of longitude of the Galactic center, the derived gas-to-dust mass ratio along the line of sight, G(sub d), reverses its general trend of decreasing G(sub d) toward the inner Galaxy and increases by a factor of approximately 2 to 3 toward the Galactic center. One possible explanation for this result is that the ratio of H2 column density to (12)CO intensity is lower in the Galactic center region than in the Galactic disk.

  19. Morphology, near-infrared luminosity, and mass of the Galactic bulge from COBE DIRBE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.; Sodroski, T. J.; Weiland, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Near-infrared images of the Galactic bulge at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns obtained by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) onboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite are used to characterize its morphology and to determine its infrared luminosity and mass. Earlier analysis of the DIRBE observations (Weiland et al. 1994) provided supporting evidence for the claim made by Blitz & Spergel (1991) that the bulge is bar-shaped with its near end in the first Galactic quadrant. Adopting various triaxial analytical functions to represent the volume emissivity of the source, we confirm the barlike nature of the bulge and show that triaxial Gaussian-type functions provide a better fit to the data than other classes of functions, including an axisymmetric spheroid. The introduction of a `boxy' geometry, such as the one used by Kent, Dame, & Fazio (1991) improves the fit to the data. Our results show that the bar is rotated in the plane with its near side in the first Galactic quadrant creating an angle of 20 deg +/- 10 deg between its major axis and the line of sight to the Galactic center. Typical axis ratios of the bar are (1:0.33 +/- 0.11:0.23 +/- 0.08), resembling the geometry of prolate spheroids. There is no statistically significant evidence for an out-of-plane tilt of the bar at 2.2 microns, and marginal evidence for a tilt of approximately equal 2 deg at 4.9 microns. The introduction of a roll around the intrinsic major axis of the bulge improves the `boxy' appearance of some functions. A simple integration of the observed projected intensity of the bulge gives a bulge luminosity of 1.2 x 10(exp 9), 4.1 x 10(exp 8), 2.3 x 10(exp 8), and 4.3 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity, respectively, at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns wavelength for a Galactocentric distance of 8.5 kpc. The 2.2 microns luminosity function of the bulge population in the direction of Baade's window yields a bolometric luminosity of L(sub bol) = 5.3 x 10(exp 9) solar

  20. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the extragalactic far infrared background radiation using COBE FIRAS instrument data

    CERN Document Server

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I

    2014-01-01

    Using the explicit form of the function to describe the average spectrum of the extragalactic far infrared background (FIRB) radiation measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument in the 0.15 - 2.4 THz frequency interval, the radiative and thermodynamic properties, such as the total emissivity, total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, pressure, enthalpy density, and internal energy density are calculated. The calculated value of the total intensity received in the 0.15 - 2.4 THz frequency interval is 13.6 nW m^-2 sr^-1, and comprises about 19.4 % of the total intensity expected from the energy released by stellar nucleosynthesis over cosmic history. The radiative and thermodynamic functions of the extragalactic far infrared background (FIRB) radiation are calculated at redshift z = 1.5.

  1. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation using COBE FIRAS instrument data

    CERN Document Server

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I

    2014-01-01

    Use formulas to describe the monopole and dipole spectra of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the exact expressions for the temperature dependences of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, pressure, enthalpy density, and internal energy density in the finite range of frequencies are obtained. Since the dependence of temperature upon the redshift z is known, the obtained expressions can be simply presented in z representation. Utilizing experimental data for the monopole and dipole spectra measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument in the 60 - 600 GHz frequency interval at the temperature T = 2.728 K, the values of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, as well as the radiation density constant a and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant are calculated. In the case of the dipole spectrum, the constants a and the Stefan-Bol...

  2. Preliminary spectral observations of the Galaxy with a 7 deg beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.; Mather, J. C.; Bennett, C. L.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Boggess, N. W.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    The FIR absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has carried out the first all-sky spectral line survey in the FIR region, as well as mapping spectra of the Galactic dust distribution at below 100 microns. Lines of forbidden C I, C II, and N II, as well as of CO are all clearly detected. The mean line intensities are interpreted in terms of the heating and cooling of the multiple phases of the interstellar gas. In addition, an average spectrum of the galaxy is constructed and searched for weak lines. The spectrum of the galaxy observed by FIRAS has two major components: a continuous spectrum due to interstellar dust heated by starlight, and a line spectrum dominated by the strong 158-micron line from singly ionized carbon, with a spatial distribution similar to the dust distribution, and a luminosity of 0.3 percent of the dust luminosity. There are in addition moderately strong 122- and 205.3-micron lines, identified as coming from singly-ionized nitrogen. Maps of the emission by dust and forbidden C II and N II are presented.

  3. Cross-correlation between the 170 GHz survey map and the COBE differential microwave radiometer first-year maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga, Ken; Cheng, ED; Meyer, Stephan; Page, Lyman

    1993-01-01

    This letter describes results of a cross-correlation between the 170 GHz partial-sky survey, made with a 3.8 deg beam balloon-borne instrument, and the COBE DMR 'Fit Technique' reduced galaxy all-sky map with a beam of 7 deg. The strong correlation between the data sets implies that the observed structure is consistent with thermal variations in a 2.7 K emitter. A chi-square analysis applied to the correlation function rules out the assumption that there is no structure in either of the two maps. A second test shows that if the DMR map has structure but the 170 GHz map does not, the probability of obtaining the observed correlation is small. Further analyses support the assumption that both maps have structure and that the 170 GHz-DMR cross-correlation is consistent with the analogous DMR correlation function. Maps containing various combinations of noise and Harrison-Zel'dovich power spectra are simulated and correlated to reinforce the result. The correlation provides compelling evidence that both instruments have observed fluctuations consistent with anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background.

  4. Preliminary spectral observations of the Galaxy with a 7 deg beam by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.; Mather, J. C.; Bennett, C. L.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Boggess, N. W.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    The FIR absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has carried out the first all-sky spectral line survey in the FIR region, as well as mapping spectra of the Galactic dust distribution at below 100 microns. Lines of forbidden C I, C II, and N II, as well as of CO are all clearly detected. The mean line intensities are interpreted in terms of the heating and cooling of the multiple phases of the interstellar gas. In addition, an average spectrum of the galaxy is constructed and searched for weak lines. The spectrum of the galaxy observed by FIRAS has two major components: a continuous spectrum due to interstellar dust heated by starlight, and a line spectrum dominated by the strong 158-micron line from singly ionized carbon, with a spatial distribution similar to the dust distribution, and a luminosity of 0.3 percent of the dust luminosity. There are in addition moderately strong 122- and 205.3-micron lines, identified as coming from singly-ionized nitrogen. Maps of the emission by dust and forbidden C II and N II are presented.

  5. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the cosmic radiations using COBE FIRAS instrument data: I. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    Using the explicit form of the functions to describe the monopole and dipole spectra of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the exact expressions for the temperature dependences of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, and pressure in the finite range of frequencies v 1≤ v≤ v 2 are obtained. Since the dependence of temperature upon the redshift z is known, the obtained expressions can be simply presented in z representation. Utilizing experimental data for the monopole and dipole spectra measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument in the 60-600 GHz frequency interval at the temperature T=2.72548 K, the values of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, as well as the radiation density constant a and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ are calculated. In the case of the dipole spectrum, the constants a and σ, and the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the CMB radiation are obtained using the mean amplitude T amp=3.358 mK. It is shown that the Doppler shift leads to a renormalization of the radiation density constant a, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ, and the corresponding constants for the thermodynamic functions. The expressions for new astrophysical parameters, such as the entropy density/Boltzmann constant, and number density of CMB photons are obtained. The radiative and thermodynamic properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation for the monopole and dipole spectra at redshift z≈1089 are calculated.

  6. The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, M.G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Arendt, R.G. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reach, W.T. [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pei, Y.C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lubin, P. [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Smoot, G.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weiss, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wilkinson, D.T. [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wright, E.L. [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust

  7. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the cosmic radiations using COBE FIRAS instrument data: II. Extragalactic far infrared background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    Using formula to describe the average spectrum of the extragalactic far infrared background (FIRB) radiation measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument in the 0.15-2.4 THz frequency interval at mean temperature T=18.5 K, the radiative and thermodynamic properties, such as the total emissivity, total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, and pressure are calculated. The value for the total intensity received in the 0.15-2.4 THz frequency interval is equal to 13.6 nW m-2 sr-1. This value is about 19.4 % of the total intensity expected from the energy released by stellar nucleosynthesis over cosmic history. The radiative and thermodynamic functions of the extragalactic far infrared background (FIRB) radiation are calculated at redshift z=1.5.

  8. Evaluation of storage performance of special plastic blood bags for apheresis platelets%血小板保存专用塑料血袋的储存性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王捷熙; 韩颖; 周倩; 刘敏霞; 王艳; 柴丽娜; 卓海龙; 易晓阳; 周建伟; 王建卫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the storage performance of storage bags for apheresis platelets produced by Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Co .,Ltd ( experimental bags ) with Trima set platelet storage bags produced by the U .S. Gambro BCT as the control .Method One unit of apheresis platelets was divided into two equal parts , added to control blood bags and experimental blood bags respectively .All samples were stored at ( 22 ±2 )℃ with consecutive oscillation . The platelets′count, mean volume, aggregate activity (ADP, THR), pH, glucose, lactate concentration, lactate dehydro-genase concentration , hypotonic shock reaction , expression of CD62P and phosphatidyl serine on surface of cell membrane were detected at 0,3,5 and 7 d respectively.Results There was no significant difference in platelet quality after five days of storage between the experimental group and the control group (t-test, P>0.05).Conclusion Two types of platelet stor-age blood bags have similar storage performance for apheresis platelets .%目的:以美国Gambro BCT公司生产的Trima set血小板保存袋为对照,评价山东威高集团医用高分子制品股份有限公司生产的血小板保存袋对单采血小板的储存性能。方法将1U单采血小板平分成两份,分别加入实验血袋和对照血袋中,于血小板恒温振荡保存箱中保存。分别于保存0、3、5、7d取样,比较分析两组的血小板含量和血小板平均体积、pH值、体外聚集活性、氧分压和二氧化碳分压、葡萄糖、乳酸和乳酸脱氢酶浓度、低渗休克反应、血小板活化和凋亡、血小板形态结构及细菌培养试验。结果两种保存袋保存的血小板在保存期内,相同保存时间实验组与对照组之间各项检测结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);无菌试验均为阴性。结论国产血小板专用塑料血袋与美国Trima set血小板保存袋对该实验使用的15份单采血小板具有相似的储存性能。

  9. Hemopoietic stem cell processing: comparison of progenitor cell recovery using the Cobe 2991 cell washer and the Haemonetics V50 apheresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, R A; Ahmed, T; Ayello, J; Helson, L; Argani, I; Wuest, D; Ciavarella, D

    1992-05-01

    Using 24 bone marrow (BM) harvests intended for cryopreservation and transplantation, we compared the use of the Cobe 2991 cell washer (2991) and the Haemonetics V50 apheresis system (HV50) for automated BM processing. Our in vitro data indicate that while the mononuclear cell (MNC) concentration of the HV50 product was significantly greater than that of the 2991, the overall MNC recovery of the two products was equivalent. In addition, although the concentration of CFU-GM and BFU-E in the products was equivalent, recovery of these progenitors in the 2991 product was significantly greater than those of the HV50 product. There was no significant difference in either the final product concentration or the overall recovery of cells bearing the primitive myeloid antigens, CD33 or CD34, between the two methods. The HV50 product volume, the red cell and the granulocyte mass were significantly lower than those of the 2991. We conclude that the advantages gained through the use of each machine should be evaluated within the context of the specific intention for the graft. Future advances in the identification and understanding of the primitive stem cell will aid in attempts to evaluate the methods used to isolate these cells.

  10. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the cosmic radiations using COBE FIRAS instrument data: III. Galactic far-infrared radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I

    2014-01-01

    Using the three-component spectral model describing the FIRAS average continuum spectra, the analytical expressions for the temperature dependence of the thermodynamic and radiative functions of the galactic far-infrared radiation are obtained. The COBE FIRAS instrument data in the 0.15 - 2.88 THz frequency interval at the mean temperatures T = 17.72 K, T = 14 K, and T =6.73 K are used for calculating the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, total emissivity, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume and pressure for the warm, intermediate-temperature and very cold components of the Galactic continuum spectra. The generalized Stefan-Boltzmann laws for the warm, intermediate-temperature and very cold components are constructed. This result is important when we construct the cosmological models of radiative transfer in the inner Galaxy. Within the framework of the three- com...

  11. Clustering of the Diffuse Infrared Light from the COBE DIRBE maps; 3, Power spectrum analysis and excess isotropic component of fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Kashlinsky, A; Odenwald, S

    1999-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation is the cosmic repository for energy release throughout the history of the universe. Using the all-sky data from the COBE DIRBE instrument at wavelengths 1.25 - 100 mic we attempt to measure the CIB fluctuations. In the near-IR, foreground emission is dominated by small scale structure due to stars in the Galaxy. There we find a strong correlation between the amplitude of the fluctuations and Galactic latitude after removing bright foreground stars. Using data outside the Galactic plane ($|b| > 20\\deg$) and away from the center ($90\\deg< l <270\\deg$) we extrapolate the amplitude of the fluctuations to cosec$|b|=0$. We find a positive intercept of $\\delta F_{\\rm rms} = 15.5^{+3.7}_{-7.0},5.9^{+1.6}_{-3.7}, 2.4^{+0.5}_{-0.9}, 2.0^{+0.25}_{-0.5}$ nW/m2/sr at 1.25, 2.2,3.5 and 4.9 mic respectively, where the errors are the range of 92% confidence limits. For color subtracted maps between band 1 and 2 we find the isotropic part of the fluctuations at $7.6^{+1.2}_...

  12. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  13. WINNICOTT Y HEIDEGGER: LA APERTURA DEL MUNDO Y EL CO-ESTAR // WINNICOTT AND HEIDEGGER: OPENING UP OF WORLD AND CO-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bareiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo integra la investigación de la tesis doctoral defendida en la Facultad de Psicología (UBA y tiene por propósito establecer un diálogo entre Winnicott y Heidegger respecto de la apertura del mundo y los otros. En efecto, ambos pensadores desde sus respectivas disciplinas han reflexionado sobre la experiencia del ser y el existir. Winnicott desde el ámbito de la clínica psicoanalítica y Heidegger desde la fenomenología hermenéutica. El hecho de que la apertura del mundo en el filósofo alemán sea compartida, permite una mayor comprensión del rol materno en el proceso del desarrollo del niño winnicottiano. A partir de la afirmación de que el Dasein es esencialmente ser con otros, co-estar, (Mitsein y que los otros son ahí con el Dasein, es posible pensar que el desarrollo de la subjetividad winnicottiana tiene el rasgo de la co-existencia. // This work integrates the research of the doctoral thesis defended at the Faculty of Psychology (UBA and aims to establish a dialogue between Winnicott and Heidegger regarding the opening up of world and the others. Indeed, both thinkers, from their respective disciplines, have thought about the experience of being and existing. Winnicott from the field of psychoanalytic clinic and Heidegger from the hermeneutic phenomenology. The fact that opening up of world in the German philosopher is shared allows a better understanding of the maternal role in the Winnicottian child development process. From the statement that Dasein is essentially being with others, co-being, (Mitsein and that others are there with the Dasein, it is conceivable that the development of the Winnicottian subjectivity has the trait of coexistence.

  14. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the cosmic radiations using COBE FIRAS instrument data: III. Galactic far-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    Using the three-component spectral model describing the FIRAS average continuum spectra, the exact analytical expressions for thermodynamic and radiative functions of Galactic far-infrared radiation are obtained. The COBE FIRAS instrument data in the 0.15-2.88 THz frequency interval at the mean temperatures of T1 = 17.72 K, T2 = 14 K and T3 = 6.73 K are used for calculating the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, total emissivity, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume and pressure for the warm, intermediate-temperature and very cold components of the Galactic continuum spectra. The generalized Stefan-Boltzmann law for warm, intermediate-temperature and very cold components is constructed. The temperature dependence of each component is determined by the formula IS-B(T) = σ‧T6. This result is important when we construct the cosmological models of radiative transfer that can be applied inside the Galaxy. Within the framework of the three-component spectral model, the total number of photons in our Galaxy and the total radiation power (total luminosity) emitted from a surface of the Galaxy are calculated. Their values are NGtotal = 1.3780 × 1068 and IGtotal(T) = 1.0482 × 1036 W. Other radiative and thermodynamic properties of the Galactic far-infrared radiation (photon gas) of the Galaxy are calculated. The expressions for astrophysical parameters, such as the entropy density/Boltzmann constant and number density of the Galactic far-infrared photons are obtained. We assume that the obtained analytical expressions for thermodynamic and radiative functions may be useful for describing the continuum spectra of the far-infrared radiation for other galaxies.

  15. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. The ABO Blood Group System ... that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient ...

  16. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  17. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  18. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  19. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  20. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  1. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  2. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  3. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Donating ... Red Cross, there's a 97% chance that someone you know will need a blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always ...

  4. Innovative design to prevent reversal of roller blood pump rotation in the event of electromechanical failure: an easy solution to a devastating problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoletsky, Jennifer S; White, Brian T; Austin, Jon W

    2007-06-01

    Despite the advanced technologies of battery back-up for heart-lung consoles and the availability of system-wide generators, electromechanical failure is still occurring. Several heart-lung machine manufacturers still provide unsafe handcranking devices to use in the case of an emergency while using a roller blood pump. A new design has been engineered to eliminate safety and quality issues for the perfusionist and the patient when the need for handcranking presents itself. A ratchet-style handcranking device was fabricated by means of a steel plate with adjustable pins. The adjustable pins allow for use with different models of the Cobe, Stockert, and Jostra heart-lung consoles, which contain roller pumps with 1800 roller heads. Additional modifications such as a 1:2 transmission and fluorescent markers are also used in the design. This innovative design is an improvement in safety compared with the current handcrank provided by Cobe, Stockert, and Jostra. With this modified handcranking device, accidental reverse rotation of the roller pump head cannot occur. Fluorescent markers will improve visualization of the pump head in low-light situations. The ergonomic design improves efficiency by reducing fatigue. Most importantly, a "safe" safety device will replace the current design provided by these manufacturers, thus improving the quality of care by health care providers.

  5. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  6. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  7. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  8. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for blood clots? Do You Know About Thalassemia? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... become hard, sticky, and shaped like a C. Thalassemia Red blood cell disorder that affects hemoglobin. Von ...

  9. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  10. Artifical Blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goorha, Y K; Deb, Prabal; Chatterjee, T; Dhot, P S; Prasad, R S

    2003-01-01

    .... The problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood and the pending world-wide shortages are the other driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes...

  11. Artificial Blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Umit Yasar; Pinar Yilgor Huri; Nurten Dikmen

    2012-01-01

    The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes...

  12. Blood Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Ferraris, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Patient blood management requires multi-modality and multidisciplinary collaboration to identify patients who are at increased risk of requiring blood transfusion and therefore decrease exposure to blood products. Transfusion is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, and guidelines exist to minimize transfusion requirements. This review highlights recent studies and efforts to apply patient blood management across disease processes and health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  14. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  15. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  16. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  17. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  18. Artificial Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yasar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  19. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  20. Blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) from the tissues back toward the heart. From there, it passes to the lungs to receive more oxygen. This cycle repeats itself when oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs, which ...

  1. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  2. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  3. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  4. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  5. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia Bleeding during or after surgery Injury or trauma Excessive blood loss Cancer and the effects of chemotherapy Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia Testing is ordered when ...

  6. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  7. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  8. Artifical Blood

    OpenAIRE

    GOORHA, YK; Deb, Prabal; Chatterjee, T; Dhot, PS; Prasad, RS

    2003-01-01

    Elimination of unwanted side-effects, especially transfusion-transmitted diseases (HIV and hepatitis) and leucocyte-mediated allosensitisation, is an important goal of modern transfusion medicine. The problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood and the pending world-wide shortages are the other driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes. Two major areas of research in this endeavour are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) an...

  9. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood > Blood Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  12. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  13. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  14. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  15. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Clots and Travel Blood Clotting and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  17. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) ...

  18. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  19. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  20. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  2. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... improve the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 2018 Highlights of ASH Attend a meeting ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  4. Artifical Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorha, Y K; Deb, Prabal; Chatterjee, T; Dhot, P S; Prasad, R S

    2003-01-01

    Elimination of unwanted side-effects, especially transfusion-transmitted diseases (HIV and hepatitis) and leucocyte-mediated allosensitisation, is an important goal of modern transfusion medicine. The problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood and the pending world-wide shortages are the other driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes. Two major areas of research in this endeavour are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorochemicals. Even though they do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes, these 'oxygen carrying solutions' have many potential clinical and non clinical usages. These can reach tissues more easily than normal red cells and can deliver oxygen directly. These are not without adverse effects, and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. New understandings on the mode of action of these products will help to define their utility and application. Only after successful clinical trials can they be used for patient management, after approval by the FDA.

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  6. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when ...

  7. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  8. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Cord-Blood Banking KidsHealth > For Parents > Cord-Blood Banking Print A ... for you and your family. About Cord-Blood Banking Cord-blood banking basically means collecting and storing ...

  9. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Initiative Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer- ... Get email updates View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer- ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated ... history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. ...

  12. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  13. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  14. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  15. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions A A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  16. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  17. Closed system generation of dendritic cells from a single blood volume for clinical application in immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M; van Zanten, J; Hospers, G A P; Setroikromo, A; de Jong, M A; de Leij, L F M H; Mulder, N H

    2005-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) used for clinical trials should be processed on a large scale conforming to current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) guidelines. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for clinical grade generation of immature DC in a closed-system. Aphereses were performed with the Cobe Spectra continuous flow cell separator and material was derived from one volume of blood processed. Optimisation of a 3-phase collection autoPBSC technique significantly improved the quality of the initial mononuclear cell (MNC) product. Monocytes were then enriched from MNC by immunomagnetic depletion of CD19+ B cells and CD2+ T cells and partial depletion of NK cells using the Isolex 300I Magnetic cell selector. The quality of the initial mononuclear cell product was found to determine the outcome of monocyte enrichment. Enriched monocytes were cultured in Opticyte gas-permeable containers using CellGro serum-free medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4 to generate immature DC. A seeding concentration of 1 x 10(6) was found optimal in terms of DC phenotype expression, monocyte percentage in culture, and cell viability. The differentiation pattern favours day 7 for harvest of immature DC. DC recovery, viability, as well as phenotype expression after cryopreservation of immature DC was considered in this study. DC were induced to maturation and evaluated in FACS analysis for phenotype expression and proliferation assays. Mature DC were able to generate an allogeneic T-cell response as well as an anti-CMV response as detected by proliferation assays. These data indicate that the described large-scale GMP-compatible system results in the generation of stable DC derived from one volume of blood processed, which are qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient for clinical application in immunotherapeutic protocols.

  18. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  19. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  20. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low blood pressure ... even life-threatening disorders. Conditions that can cause low blood pressure Some medical conditions can cause low ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2016 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  4. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  5. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation for America's Blood Centers ADRP What is blood? PUBLICATIONS EDUCATION PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  6. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  7. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  8. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  9. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  10. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double red blood cell ... can be cured with apheresis. Directed or designated donation Family members or friends can donate blood specifically ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are a few other resources ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  13. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as: Arterial Blood Gases; ABGs Formal name: Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Related tests: Electrolytes , Bicarbonate , BUN , Creatinine , Emergency and ... lives higher than sea level. Results from an arterial blood gas analysis are not diagnostic; they should be used in ...

  14. Coughing up blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other resources that may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles ...

  16. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  17. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  18. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient diversity. For example, U-negative and Duffy-negative blood types are unique to the African-American community. ... most common blood type and because type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for ...

  19. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  1. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  2. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ...

  4. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low blood pressure (hypotension) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Low blood pressure might seem desirable, and for some people, it causes no problems. However, for many people, abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension) can cause dizziness and fainting. In severe ...

  5. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  6. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  7. Comment on: "Cobeñas, G., Thouret, J.-C., Bonadonna, C., Boivin, P., 2012. The c.2030 yr BP Plinian eruption of El Misti volcano, Peru: Eruption dynamics and hazard implications. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 241-242, 105-120."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpel, Christopher J.; de Silva, S.; Salas, G.

    2013-09-01

    Cobeñas et al. (2012) describe deposits from the 2-ka eruption of Misti volcano, southern Peru. They propose a tephra-fall deposit overlain by voluminous pyroclastic-flow and surge deposits, which are overlain by proportionally minor lahar deposits and a debris-avalanche deposit of limited distribution. Some of their data corroborate our earlier work (Harpel et al., 2011), but three of their primary interpretations differ dramatically from ours and have important hazard implications. Voluminous flowage deposits crop out, and we present evidence that the majority contain diagnostic features suggesting that they are lahar deposits rather than pyroclastic-flow deposits. Their pyroclastic-flow deposit volume is also unrealistically large and not consistent with the extant deposits. The purported debris-avalanche deposit is texturally identical to the lahar deposits and has none of the features typically associated with debris-avalanche deposits. Associating such a unit with collapse and formation of a notch in the south crater rim lacks supporting data and disregards the myriad other reasons such notches can form. They divide the tephra-fall deposit into three beds, suggest that it underlies the pyroclastic-flow deposits, and infer that the eruption ceased after pyroclastic flow formation. We delineate six beds and present evidence that the upper beds persistently crop out between the pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits. We infer from our eruption sequence that the eruption continued vigorously after pyroclastic-flow formation.

  8. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  10. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: ...

  12. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  13. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  14. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game About this game Embed the Blood Typing ...

  15. Blood doping : infusions, erythropoietin and artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, E Randy

    2007-01-01

    As science marches on, athletes and coaches march close behind. Researchers have long been interested in how red cell mass and blood volume affect exercise capacity. Interest in blood doping soared after the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. Studies in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that transfusing red cells could speed endurance performance. Diverse athletes of the time were accused of blood doping. In the late 1980s, recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) began to supplant transfusion for doping. EPO use is a suspect in nearly 20 deaths in 4 years in European cyclists. In the 1998 Tour de France, a team was ejected for using EPO and six other teams quit the race. The beat goes on; in recent years, diverse endurance and sprint athletes have been caught or accused of using EPO. Tests to detect EPO are improving but are not yet foolproof. As EPO tests improve, blood transfusion is back in vogue and some athletes may have infused artificial blood. Tests for detecting artificial blood also exist, but it seems it will take widespread, year-round, unannounced, out-of-competition testing and stern penalties to deter blood doping.

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Roadmap Moonshot Initiative Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... Abstracts 2017 Abstract Review Categories Abstracts Archive View all Education ASH Academy The eLearning platform for hematologists ...

  20. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  1. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  2. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body ...

  5. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and harming ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ...

  8. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Antidiuretic hormone blood test Gastric suction Heart failure - overview Hyperventilation Ions Metabolic acidosis Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Proximal renal tubular acidosis Respiratory acidosis Sodium blood test Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  9. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mmHg People read "118 over 76" millimeters of mercury. Normal Blood Pressure Normal blood pressure for adults ... health. Share your story with other women on Facebook . The Heart Truth campaign offers a variety of ...

  10. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Porphyrins, quantitative - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory ... Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  11. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  12. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a type ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  14. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many precautions to confirm a patient's and donor's blood are compatible before giving a transfusion. In almost every situation, the benefits of having a blood transfusion far outweigh the risks. The Red Cross ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and ...

  16. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum ferritin level; Iron deficiency anemia - ferritin ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron is needed to make healthy red blood cells. These ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meeting in one of eight cities around the world. Get a synopsis of the top hematology research ... Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ...

  2. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  6. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  7. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain tumors Inherited conditions (problems that run in families) Thyroid problems Blood pressure rises as the baby grows. The average blood ... vomiting constantly Prevention Some causes of high blood pressure run in families. Talk to your provider before you get pregnant ...

  8. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with ... doctor about your risks and prevention. Depending on your condition, your OB- ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  11. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Blood and Lymph Diseases. PDF version of this page ( ... On Blood and Lymph Diseases - Genes and Disease Blood and Lymph Diseases - Genes and Disease Your browsing ... Biotechnology Information , U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville ...

  12. Cancer and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, C; Medico, E

    2006-05-01

    In human patients, blood coagulation disorders often associate with cancer, even in its early stages. Recently, in vitro and in vivo experimental models have shown that oncogene expression, or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, upregulate genes that control blood coagulation. These studies suggest that activation of blood clotting, leading to peritumoral fibrin deposition, is instrumental in cancer development. Fibrin can indeed build up a provisional matrix, supporting the invasive growth of neoplastic tissues and blood vessels. Interference with blood coagulation can thus be considered as part of a multifaceted therapeutic approach to cancer.

  13. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  14. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  15. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  16. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  17. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  18. Nursing of Allogeneic Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection%异基因外周血造血干细胞供者采集术的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕翠侠; 陈美珠; 黄爱勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To probe nursing of donor peripheral blood stem cell collection, to provide sufficient peripheral blood stem cells,and to ensure successful transplantation of peripheral blood stem cell of providers. Methods Data from recipients during 2006 -2010 were analyzed. The peripheral blood stem cell mobilization regimen for recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor( rhG-CSF) 300 μg.sc, 1 day,4 d,or continuously 5 d,as a result,white blood cells rose to 30 × 109/L. Then by COBE Spectra apheresis unit of whole blood cell the patient' s peripheral blood stem cells were collected and separated,and then input into the providers with leukemia. Throughout the entire process,a full range of care was conducted. Results 128 peripheral blood stem cells were collected from 107 donors. In the total cycle 9000-12 000 ml cases,80% or more WBC of peripheral blood stem cells were collected,and CD34 concentration more than 5 times than before collection. The cells were in security input into 107 recipients,and transplantation success rate was 99%. Conclusion Psychological,diet,basic care and a full range of professional care were provided for providers from the beginning to the end of the collection was a prerequisite for success, and was the key to success in transplantation of a peripheral blood stem cell.%目的 探讨供者外周造血干细胞采集术的护理,提供足够细胞数量的外周造血干细胞数,确保受者外周造血干细胞移植的成功.方法 分析2006~ 2010年供者资料,其外周血干细胞动员方案为粒系集落刺激因子或加用粒单核系集落刺激因皮下注射,1次/d,连续4d或5d,白细胞水平升至30×109/L,应用COBE Spectra全血细胞单采机采集和分离供者的外周血干细胞,输给白血病受者,整过程实行全方位的护理.结果 107例供者共采集了128次外周造血干细胞,在总循环9000~12 000 ml情况下,采集的外周血干细胞中的WBC 80%以上,CD34

  19. How Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... Process How Blood Clots Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This Article ... of the Blood (News) Is Binge-Watching Hazardous to Your Health? (News) ...

  20. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... events, such as eating breakfast, take on exaggerated importance. It's a world where a person needs a ... Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia ( ...

  2. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  3. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  5. Virtual blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or in the pelvic area. This condition is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening ...

  7. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Bilirubin A A A What's in this article? What ... Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What It Is A bilirubin test measures the level of bilirubin (a byproduct ...

  8. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  9. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  10. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  14. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number is the diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure ... Medical Professional Call your child's provider if home monitoring shows that your child's blood pressure is still high. Prevention Your child's provider will ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2016 A collection of articles from the 2016 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I ... e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to ...

  16. Blood-type distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  17. Advances in Blood Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  18. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  19. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  20. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How ... you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are a few other resources ...

  2. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving Gift and estate planning Circle of Champions Corporate sponsorship Join us at an event The Hope ... blood pressure is the #2 cause of kidney failure. It accounts for about one-fourth of all ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... how to handle this condition. Medical IDs Many people with diabetes, particularly those who use insulin, should ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  7. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 112. Miller RD. Patient blood management: transfusion therapy. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia . ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute Policy Statements Testimony & Correspondence Addressing Sickle Cell ... a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT and PE, collectively known as venous thromboembolism, ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can I ... and help move hematology forward. Learn more Find a Hematologist Search a database of practicing hematologists in ...

  10. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  12. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is born. The umbilical cord is the cord connecting the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during ... Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  16. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J. S

    2015-01-01

    Pober and colleagues present an overview of the various roles played by graft blood vessels in transplantation, including how they function to maintain graft health, how they participate in and are...

  17. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find a Hematologist Clinical Trials Talking with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients ... factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history of blood clots or ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ... Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ... On Demand ASH Image Bank Advocacy Action Alerts Policy News Advocacy Leadership Institute Policy Statements Testimony & Correspondence ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ... Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ...

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  5. Nitroblue tetrazolium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical called nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) into a deep blue color. ... Normally, the white blood cells turn blue when NBT is added. This means that the cells should be able to kill bacteria and protect the person ...

  6. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood' every 56 days. Back to Top Platelet Apheresis Platelet donations are collected at select American Red ... about Platelet Apheresis Donations » Back to Top Plasma Apheresis Plasma is collected simultaneously with a platelet donation ...

  7. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types, such as platelets, red cells or plasma ( apheresis donations ) can take up to 2 hours. When ... Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App HS Leadership Program SleevesUp ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... education program designed to improve the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 2017 ASH Meeting ... and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous to your ...

  10. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood banks may capitalize on the fears of vulnerable new parents by providing misleading information about the statistics of stem cell transplants. Parents of children of ethnic or racial minorities, adopted children, or ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and webinars ASH Image Bank Educational Web-based library of hematologic imagery In This Section: Resources for ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Policy News Advocacy Leadership ... General has issued a Call to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can I ... and help move hematology forward. Learn more Find a Hematologist Search a database of practicing hematologists in ...

  15. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Practice healthy coping techniques, such as muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation. Getting regular physical activity ... you monitor your blood pressure at home. Practice relaxation or slow, deep breathing. Practice taking deep, slow ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ... Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Grant Money is Divided Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: ... they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  20. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) ... español Sangre en la orina (hematuria) What Is Hematuria? When blood gets into a person's urine (pee), ...

  1. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  3. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  4. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office ... severity of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood ...

  7. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

  9. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  10. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on th

  11. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on

  12. Blood and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2010-09-01

    In 1894 Ulsterman and pathologist Almroth Wright described the citation of blood. Twenty-one years later it was introduced into wartime and clinical practice. Harvard Medical School had a large part in providing Colonel Andrew Fullerton, later Professor of Surgery, Queen's Belfast, with the intellectual and practical help for the Allies to deploy blood on the post-Somme Western Front and in Salonika. The key investigators and clinicians were Americans and Canadians who with Fullerton and Wright instructed the Allies. The key enablers were two Harvard-trained surgeons surnamed Robertson-Oswald H. ("Robby") and L. Bruce (no relation). Physician Roger I. Lee of Harvard, surgeon George W Crile of Cleveland, Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute and Richard Lewisohn of Mount Sinai Hospital, both located in the Upper East Side of New York City, played key roles.By Armistice in 1918, indirect citrated nutrient-enhanced blood transfusion was widely used by the Allies. Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele. Professor "Robby" Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking.

  13. Blood flow and microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Lionel; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Duperray, Alain; Farutin, Alexander; Minetti, Christophe; Misbah, Chaouqi; Podgorski, Thomas; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vysokikh, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    The absence of gravity during space flight can alter cardio-vascular functions partially due to reduced physical activity. This affects the overall hemodynamics, and in particular the level of shear stresses to which blood vessels are submitted. Long-term exposure to space environment is thus susceptible to induce vascular remodeling through a mechanotransduction cascade that couples vessel shape and function with the mechanical cues exerted by the circulating cells on the vessel walls. Central to such processes, the glycocalyx - i.e. the micron-thick layer of biomacromolecules that lines the lumen of blood vessels and is directly exposed to blood flow - is a major actor in the regulation of biochemical and mechanical interactions. We discuss in this article several experiments performed under microgravity, such as the determination of lift force and collective motion in blood flow, and some preliminary results obtained in artificial microfluidic circuits functionalized with endothelium that offer interesting perspectives for the study of the interactions between blood and endothelium in healthy condition as well as by mimicking the degradation of glycocalyx caused by long space missions. A direct comparison between experiments and simulations is discussed. xml:lang="fr"

  14. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  15. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  16. Storing Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  17. Laboratory blood group examination of proteolysis degradation human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Beta Ahlam Gizela, Beta Ahlam Gizela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood group examination has many purposes and one of them is identification. In several forensic cases there is incompatibility of blood group in corpse and in other evidences usually used blood group examination is serum agglutination method. From the previous study, it was found that there was increasing osmotic fragility of red cell. For that reason, we need to know how the result of blood group tests in degradation human blood.Objective: The purpose of this study is to know bl...

  18. [Blood culture update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Serieys, C; Bergogne-Bérézin, E

    2002-01-12

    Blood culture is one of the most important bacteriological examinations with important clinical and therapeutic consequences. Blood cultures should be ordered in all patients with signs suggesting septicemia, endocarditis or severe infection (pneumococcal pneumonia, bacterial meningitis with bloodstream dissemination). Blood culture methods have evolved considerably over the last twenty years. After using manual methods for many years, read by non-standardized visual methods, the development of media with defined compositions and supplemented to allow growth of bacteria difficult to culture has been associated with the development of automatic blood culture devices. These devices have undergone rapid improvement. Semi-automatic devices (Bactec NR-660) were rapidly followed by completely automatic techniques, including four devices currently available: since 1989 Bio-Argos (Rio-Rad) and Bact/Alert (Organon-Teknika) and in 1993, Bactec 9240 (Becton-Dickinson) and Vital (BioMérieux). All these devices allow automatic detection of CO2 produced during bacterial growth. Automatic reading systems provide continuous output avoiding the need for invasive methods and thus the risk of contamination in addition to saving time. Potential application to achieve quantitative blood cultures for intensive care units is in the development stage. The reliability of these devices is well recognized and their contribution to severe bacterial infection is undeniable. There are certain limitations however related to material cost and the non-identification of the pathogen involved. Molecular biology techniques open new perspectives in this field. The evolution of techniques, definitions, and pathogenic approach to septicemia must be revisited as new infectious situations have been identified at the same time as new investigation tools resulting from considerable technological progress. New methods of blood culture have largely contributed to this progress.

  19. Blood: bone equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The conundrum of blood undersaturation with respect to bone mineralization and its supersaturation with respect to bone's homeostatic function has acquired a new equation. On the supply side, Ca/sup 2 +/ is pumped in across bone cells to provide the needed Ca/sup 2 +/ x P/sub i/ for brushite precipitation. On the demand side, blood is in equilibrium with bone fluid, which is in equilibrium with a mineral more soluble than apatite. The function of potassium in this equation is yet to be found.

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living ... Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in ...

  1. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  2. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  3. Early results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, J.C.; Hauser, M.G.; Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Eplee, R.E. Jr.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Isaacman, R.B.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C.M.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F.; Spiesman, W.J.; Toller, G.N.; Weiland, J.L. (Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)); Gulkis, S.; Jansssen, M. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-506, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)); Lubin, P.M. (UCSB Department of Physics, Goleta, California 93106 (United States)); Meyer, S.S.; Weiss, R. (Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)); Murdock, T.L. (General Research Corporation, 5 Cherry Hill Drive, Suite 220, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923 (United States)); Smoot, G.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 50-232, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Wilkinson, D.T. (Dep

    1992-01-10

    The Cosmic Background Explorer, launched November 18, 1989, has nearly completed its first full mapping of the sky with all three of its instruments: a Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 0.1 to 10 mm, a set of Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) operating at 3.3, 5.7, and 9.6 mm, and a Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) spanning 1 to 300 {mu}m in ten bands. A preliminary map of the sky derived from DIRBE data is presented. Initial cosmological implications include: a limit on the Comptonization {ital y} parameter of 10{sup {minus}3}, on the chemical potential {mu} parameter of 10{sup {minus}2}, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy has the spectrum expected from a Doppler shift of a blackbody. There are no significant anisotropies in the microwave sky detected, other than from our own galaxy and a cos {theta} dipole anisotropy whose amplitude and direction agree with previous data. At shorter wavelengths, the sky spectrum and anisotropies are dominated by emission from local' sources of emission within our Galaxy and Solar System. Preliminary comparison of {ital IRAS} and {ital DIRBE} sky brightnesses toward the ecliptic poles shows the {ital IRAS} values to be significantly higher than found by {ital DIRBE} at 100 {mu}m. We suggest the presence of gain and zero-point errors in the {ital IRAS} total brightness data. The spacecraft, instrument designs, and data reduction methods are described.

  4. COBE-SST2 Sea Surface Temperature and Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A new sea surface temperature (SST) analysis on a centennial time scale is presented. The dataset starts in 1850 with monthly 1x1 means and is periodically updated....

  5. AN OVERVIEW ON BLOOD PURIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabia Chauhan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood is a connective tissue which protects us from different problems. Without blood body cannot functions at all and blood doesn’t purify itself. When blood does not purifies itself that times kidney, liver and lymphatic system work together that they help’s to purifiers the blood. Causes which are included in blood impurities are modern life style, junk food, alcohol etc. If the blood becomes impure it causes different problems e.g. acne, rashes, allergic etc. There is not any proper synthetic medication for blood impurities. Only herbal formulations are used for the blood purifier. In this review article we discussed about the market formulations and the different plants which are used in them with their different activities which are helpful in purifies the blood and also protects from other problems.

  6. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...... corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters...

  7. Peripheral blood collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franken, Carmen; Remy, Sylvie; Lambrechts, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of mRNA in the prese......A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of m......RNA in the presence of different stabilization buffers (TempusTM Blood RNA tube and RNAlater® Stabilization Reagent). Microarray analyzes showed significant changes over short periods of time in expression of a considerate part of the transcriptome (2356 genes) with a prominent role for NFкB-, cancer......- and glucocorticoid-mediated networks, and specifically interleukin-8 (IL-8). These findings suggest that even short bench times affect gene expression, requiring to carry out blood collection in a strictly standardized way. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  8. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  12. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one…

  13. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    and ward nurses in scenarios using fake blood, iv trainer hands and original transfusion-documents. Subsequently a debriefing session concluded the workshop. Learning outcomes were evaluated using an anonymous self-assessment questionnaire based on a 1-5 Likert scale and open-ended questions (response rate...

  14. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...

  15. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific pro

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  17. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? While it is rare, it is possible for patients to have a negative antibody test results and still have celiac disease. ...

  18. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  19. Impact of blood droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Laan

    2015-01-01

    Within Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, forensic experts commonly use the stringing method, based on a straight line approximation of the blood droplets trajectories to determine where the source of a bloodstain pattern was. However, by ignoring gravity, large errors may arise when inferring the 3D-loca

  20. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure • Know Your Numbers • Understand Symptoms and Risks • Learn How HBP Can Harm Your Health • Make Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Watch, Learn and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you ...

  1. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  4. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia ( ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate ... Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  6. Blood in the semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... semen URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003163.htm Blood in the semen To use ... and look for signs of: Discharge from the urethra Enlarged or tender ... Saunders; 2016:chap 129. Small EJ. Prostate cancer. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  8. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  9. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  10. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... given washed red blood cells. Washing the red blood cells removes components of the donor blood that may cause allergic ... cross-matching of blood, mismatches due to subtle differences between donor and recipient blood (and, very rarely, ...

  11. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...... active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families....

  12. Military walking blood bank and the civilian blood service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2012-06-01

    In most countries whole blood transfusions have been replaced by component therapy. This has allowed for both better usage of the blood donations and better quality during storage. While this strategy was initially motivated by the commercial need for plasma the plasma reduction also reduced the levels of low grade proteases and sialidase, hence minimizing the cellular storage lesion/microvesiculation during prolonged storage. Plasma reduction also reduces transfusion reactions associated with plasma. During special military conditions, however, blood transfusion is urgently needed without corresponding access to blood components, in particular platelets. Accordingly, new focus on whole blood has aroused and added a new challenge to the blood transfusion services. This special issue of "what is happening" highlights the planed efforts by Swedish and Norwegian groups in the developments of military walking blood bank, which is applicable to civil blood services.

  13. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  14. Blood rheology and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz K. Başkurt; Simmonds, Michael J. ; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (2013) 10: 291301 ©2013 JGC All rights reserved; www.jgc301.com http://www.jgc301.com; | Journal of Geriatric Cardiology Review  Open Access  Blood rheology and aging Michael J. Simmonds1, Herbert J. Meiselman2, Oguz K. Baskurt3 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of S...

  15. Fluorescent blood cell angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-nun, Joshua; Constable, Ian J.

    1994-06-01

    Fluorescein angiography is currently the main method for evaluation of the retinal vascular patency. Ashton noted that capillary patency to the small fluorescein molecule may differ from that of the larger red blood cells. He concluded that fluorescein angiography is not able to demonstrate a developing stenosis, that might be the precipitating cause of a later capillary closure in various microvasculopathies. Sarelius et al have shown, in hamster cheek pouch and cremaster muscle, that fluorescently labeled erythrocytes in known concentrations can be used for the direct measurement of capillary flow parameters. The only assumption that this method relies on, is that the labeled cells are rheologically normal and therefore reflect the behavior of the total cell population. We have developed a new method for an in-vivo, real-time demonstration of the blood cell flow in the retinal capillary net. Based on the assumption presented by Sarelius et al, measurement and analysis of the retinal capillary blood cell flow is also possible from the results achieved by the new method.

  16. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  17. Pig and goat blood as substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented agar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, C; Gordon, R; Shaw, H; Fonseca, K; Olsen, M

    2000-02-01

    In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO(2), but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available.

  18. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... blood pressure is due to other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. ...

  1. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to keep a written log of all your results. Whenever you have an appointment with the health ... appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care ...

  3. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  4. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  5. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Sep 15,2017 ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  6. Blood pressure monitors for home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007482.htm Blood pressure monitors for home To use the sharing features ... ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need ...

  7. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  8. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  9. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood transfusion ... of the game 2012 Winner of the Best Game Category by Swedish Learning Awards " The winner has ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  14. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  17. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  18. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure during a previous pregnancy, have a family history of high blood pressure or mild kidney disease. The combination of birth ... Print (PDF) | Online How to Measure Your Blood Pressure (PDF) Questions To Ask ... FREE digital-only, quarterly magazine for patients, families, and caregivers, which focuses on the prevention and ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  1. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of blood clots. Heparin is recommended to treat DVT and PE for the first five to ten days, as well as for preventing blood clots ... risk of bleeding. For patients who develop a deep vein thrombosis, and/or a ... blood clot prevention will be included in your overall treatment plan, ...

  2. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  4. [Blood coagulation in hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzina, W D; Herold, M; Günther, R; Kunz, F

    1980-01-01

    Young healthy volunteers were treated with physical hyperthermia (baths) in order to investigate changes in blood coagulation. Such therapy is used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Single hot baths (mean body temperature 38,2-39,9 degrees C) resulted in a rise of fibrinogen, factors IX and XII, maximal amplitude of the thrombelastogram and hemoglobin and in a decrease of plasminogen. In a series of hypothermic baths no additional changes of coagulation or fibrinolysis could be found. The results suggest that hyperthermia causes a tendency to thrombosis.

  5. Resting cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  6. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  7. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  8. [Blood donation: a marketing perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Silvia Terra; Rodrigues, Alziro César de Morais

    2005-01-01

    This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  9. Umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hong Hoe; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2012-07-01

    Since the first umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) in 1998, cord blood (CB) has now become one of the most commonly used sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. CBT has advantages of easy procurement, no risk to donor, low risk of transmitting infections, immediate availability and immune tolerance allowing successful transplantation despite human leukocyte antigen disparity. Several studies have shown that the number of cells transplanted is the most important factor for engraftment in CBT, and it limits the wide use of CB in adult patients. New strategies for facilitating engraftment and reducing transplantation-related mortality are ongoing in the field of CBT and include the use of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, double-unit CBT, ex vivo expansion of CB, and co-transplantation of CB and mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, the results of two international studies with large sample sizes showed that CB is an acceptable alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for adult recipients who lack human leukocyte antigen-matched adult donors. Along with the intensive researches, development in banking process of CB will amplify the use of CB and offer the chance for cure in more patients.

  10. Umbilical cord blood transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hoe Koo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the first umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT in 1998, cord blood (CB has now become one of the most commonly used sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. CBT has advantages of easy procurement, no risk to donor, low risk of transmitting infections, immediate availability and immune tolerance allowing successful transplantation despite human leukocyte antigen disparity. Several studies have shown that the number of cells transplanted is the most important factor for engraftment in CBT, and it limits the wide use of CB in adult patients. New strategies for facilitating engraftment and reducing transplantation-related mortality are ongoing in the field of CBT and include the use of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, double-unit CBT, ex vivo expansion of CB, and co-transplantation of CB and mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, the results of two international studies with large sample sizes showed that CB is an acceptable alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for adult recipients who lack human leukocyte antigen-matched adult donors. Along with the intensive researches, development in banking process of CB will amplify the use of CB and offer the chance for cure in more patients.

  11. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis.

  12. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  13. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia

  14. What is Wise Blood?-Wise Blood in Hazel Motes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; NANGONG Mei-fang

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most popular novels in O’Connor’s works, Wise Blood is heated discussed by critics home and abroad. Wise blood, as the major image in the novel, flows in the body of both Hazel Motes and Enoch Emery who are the main protag⁃onists. This thesis aims to analyzes the overtone behind wise blood so as to present a different angel of understanding this novel.

  15. How much blood is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention.

  16. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  17. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  18. Distribution of blood groups in blood donors in the blood bank of Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The incidence of ABO and rhesus (Rh groups varies markedly in different races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups in different parts of the world. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups vary from one population to another and time to time in the same region. The present study was carried out to find the distribution of blood group in rural and tribal populations of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at late Shri Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital blood bank, Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India, during the 2-year period from January 2014 to December 2015. The blood collections were taken from the voluntary donors at outdoor blood donation camp and in-house blood bank as well as from replacement donors at blood bank. Totally 12,852 donors were considered medically fit and accepted for blood donation during the study period. Results: Out of the total 12,852 donors, most of the donors, i.e., 3996 (31.09% were with blood Group O followed by B (30.44%, A (24.95%, and AB (13.52%. Out of the 12,852 blood donors, majority, i.e., 12,779 (99.43% were male and 73 (0.57% were female. Maximum blood donors, i.e., 12,777 (99.42% were Rh positive while only 75 (0.58% were Rh negative. Conclusion: The knowledge of distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups at local and regional levels is helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services.

  19. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930082 Clinical administration of atrial natri-uretic factor in reno-vascular hypertension.ZHANG Weiguo(张卫国),et al.Cardiovasc In-stit & Fuwai Hosp,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J1992;7(5):450-452.In order to evaluate the effects of atrial natri-uretic factor(ANF)on patients with reno-vas-cular hypertension,α-hANF(0.025μg/kg/min×60min)was administered to 7 patients byi.v.drip..The renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem,plasma catecholamine and arginine va-sopressin were suppressed with diuresis and na-triuresis and lowering of blood pressure.The

  20. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  1. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  2. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  3. Blood Flow in the Microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Timothy W.

    2017-01-01

    The microcirculation is an extensive network of microvessels that distributes blood flow throughout living tissues. Reynolds numbers are much less than 1, and the equations of Stokes flow apply. Blood is a suspension of cells with dimensions comparable to microvessel diameters. Highly deformable red blood cells, which transport oxygen, have a volume concentration (hematocrit) of 40–45% in humans. In the narrowest capillaries, these cells move in single file with a surrounding lubricating layer of plasma. In larger vessels, the red blood cells migrate toward the centerline, reducing the resistance to blood flow. Vessel walls are coated with a layer of macromolecules that restricts flow. At diverging bifurcations, hematocrit is not evenly distributed in the downstream vessels. Other particles are driven toward the walls by interactions with red blood cells. These physiologically important phenomena are discussed here from a fluid mechanical perspective.

  4. 12. Animals and Blood Transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard

    2016-01-01

    Doctors misled for over 200 years:History shows that a dependence on animal research delayed the introduction of blood transfusion by over 200 years.NAVS Leaflet, Ever had a blood transfusion? The assertion that animal experiments delayed the development of blood transfusion derives from the superficial and inaccurate accounts found in animal rights literature (see for example Ref. 1, page 157; Ref. 2 page 220). A brief review of primary sources reveals that animal experiments were crucial to...

  5. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder View All Content High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... million filtering units called nephrons. How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can ...

  6. How to measure blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Pickering

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of glucose in the blood can be measured by applying a drop of blood to a chemically treated, disposable ‘test-strip’, which is then inserted into an electronic blood glucose meter. The reaction between the test strip and the blood is detected by the meter and displayed in units of mg/dL or mmol/L. There are a number of different types of meters available, and all are slightly different. Take care when applying the general principles described in this article to the specific glucose meter you are using.

  7. [Relationship between occupational stress and blood glucose, blood lipid, blood pressure of video display terminal operators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Song, Hui; Chen, Nan; Liu, He-rong; Zhu, Ling-qin; Zhang, Zhen-xiang; Wang, Ling

    2007-03-01

    To explore the relationship between occupational stress and blood glucose, Blood lipid and blood pressure. 108 video display terminals(VDT) operators who had the working experience were recruited to the study. The occupational stress indicator (OSI), the lever of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein of high density and lipoprotein of low density in serum were measured by using GOD-PAP, CHOD-PAP, GPO-PAP and PVS. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the score of occupational stress. The contents of blood glucose of low, middle and high level of stress groups were (3.39 +/- 1.24), (3.59 +/- 1.26), (2.54 +/- 0.94) mmol/L respectively (F = 7.324, P stress, the content of blood glucose decreased significantly (r = -0.376, P occupational stress, among video display terminals and it can be used as the index for estimating occupational stress.

  8. Investigation on artificial blood or substitute blood replace the natural blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhanian, Sh; Ebrahimifard, M; Zandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a liquid tissue in which dissolved with abundant chemical factors and millions of different cells The reduction of unwanted side effects, especially diseases that emerge through blood such as HIV and hepatitis, has a significant role for modern medicine of transfusion and transplantation. The issues and costs of human blood collection and storage, direct this procedure towards the use of alternatives blood. Two important research fields of this area were oxygen carriers based on hemoglobin and perfluoro chemicals. While they do not have the same quality as the blood cell products, the oxygen carrier solutions have potential clinical and non-clinical applications. The result showed that these products can reach to the body tissues easier than normal red blood cells, and can control the oxygen directly. The final aim of transfusion is to establish a transfusion system with no side effects, and the fact that oxygen carrier artificial blood has this property. The article attempts to step towards solving some problems of blood transfusion through describing the properties of artificial blood alternatives.

  9. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    1995-01-01

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the biocompati

  10. Blood Biomarkers of Ischemic Stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    .... Though many candidate blood based biomarkers for ischemic stroke have been identified, none are currently used in clinical practice. With further well designed study and careful validation, the development of blood biomarkers to improve the care of patients with ischemic stroke may be achieved.

  11. Patient Blood Management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, M T; Pendry, K; Georgsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient Blood Management (PBM) in Europe is a working group of the European Blood Alliance with the initial objective to identify the starting position of the participating hospitals regarding PBM for benchmarking purposes, and to derive good practices in PBM from...

  12. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  13. Local Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  14. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. A. J ournal of Child He alth. ARTICLE. Blood gas sampling is part of everyday practice in the care of ... 100 g. He had been ventilated since the first few hours of life, initially ..... Arch Dis Child 1988;63(7):743-747. 3. .... Kim EH, Cohen RS, Ramachandran P. Effect of vascular puncture on blood ... Williamson D, Holt PJ.

  15. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  16. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  17. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  18. Classification of positive blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arpi, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Information from blood cultures is utilized for infection control, public health surveillance, and clinical outcome research. This information can be enriched by physicians assessments of positive blood cultures, which are, however, often available from selected patient groups...... or pathogens only. The aim of this work was to determine whether patients with positive blood cultures can be classified effectively for outcome research in epidemiological studies by the use of administrative data and computer algorithms, taking physicians assessments as reference. METHODS: Physicians...... assessments of positive blood cultures were routinely recorded at two Danish hospitals from 2006 through 2008. The physicians assessments classified positive blood cultures as: a) contamination or bloodstream infection; b) bloodstream infection as mono- or polymicrobial; c) bloodstream infection as community...

  19. Safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, A

    1988-01-01

    The safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today is high. An absolutely safe blood supply is, however, an unattainable goal. The dominating risk is transmission of non-A, non-B virus (NANBV). The calculated per blood unit risk is 1:200. The incidence of cirrhosis due to post-transfusion hepatitis NANB is calculated to at most 0.1% among recipients of blood components from about 5 donors. Other risk factors are transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The prevalence of HBsAg among first time donors is about 0.05% (Sweden). In Scandinavia, anti-HIV-1 has been found in 0.001% of donations from start of screening in 1985 to December 1987. The prevalence was higher in Denmark, lower in Finland (and perhaps Iceland). The prevalence has declined during the last years. As of June 1988, 117 patients in the Scandinavian countries have been infected by blood components, all but 2 before screening was introduced. Besides these, 226 haemophiliacs have been infected by, in almost all cases, imported clotting factor concentrates before heat treatment was introduced. Most of the infected patients are still asymptomatic. About 70% of blood donors have anti-CMV, a few percent of which will transmit CMV-infection, with severe symptoms, to immunosuppressed patients without anti-CMV.

  20. Safe Reduction of Blood Volume in the Blood Gas Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Phillip R; Markewitz, Boaz A

    2016-11-01

    Phlebotomy is a significant cause of iatrogenic anemia in the critical care environment. It is estimated that one-third of all transfusions of packed red blood cells in intensive care units (ICU) result from phlebotomy. The aims of this study were to determine if utilizing the 1mL blood gas syringe for an adult population would impact the rate at which specimens were acceptable for testing and result reporting based on lab specimen rejection criteria; and to compare blood utilization between the 2 different syringes. This study was conducted in 1 of the adult ICUs at the University of Utah Hospital. Over a baseline period a standard adult 3 mL blood gas syringe was utilized. Subsequently the standard adult syringe was replaced by a 1 mL syringe produced by the same manufacturer with the same heparin concentration. The change to the 1 mL syringe had no effect on specimen integrity in regards to laboratory's ability to process the specimen. With use of the 1 mL syringe there was a 60% reduction in the volume of blood drawn compared with the baseline period. Standardizing the 1 mL syringe for Blood Gas Laboratory tests will reduce patient blood loss without appreciably affecting specimen rejection relative to current rates. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Aderemi O. Adewumi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessi...

  2. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  3. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  4. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwee Teck Lim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity, purity (selectivity, and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC devices and provide future perspectives.

  5. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  6. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eugenio Gaudio; Antonio Franchitto; Luigi Pannarale; Guido Carpino; Gianfranco Alpini; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Domenico Alvaro; Paolo Onori

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree.In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a threedimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A,VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand,the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between cholangiocytes

  7. Compact NMR relaxometry of human blood and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cistola, David P; Robinson, Michelle D

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry is a uniquely practical and versatile implementation of NMR technology. Because it does not depend on chemical shift resolution, it can be performed using low-field compact instruments deployed in atypical settings. Early relaxometry studies of human blood were focused on developing a diagnostic test for cancer. Those efforts were misplaced, as the measurements were not specific to cancer. However, important lessons were learned about the factors that drive the water longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times. One key factor is the overall distribution of proteins and lipoproteins. Plasma water T2 can detect shifts in the blood proteome resulting from inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In whole blood, T2 is sensitive to hemoglobin content and oxygenation, although the latter can be suppressed by manipulating the static and applied magnetic fields. Current applications of compact NMR relaxometry include blood tests for candidiasis, hemostasis, malaria and insulin resistance.

  8. Transfusion of blood and blood products: indications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sharma, Poonam; Tyler, Lisa N

    2011-03-15

    Red blood cell transfusions are used to treat hemorrhage and to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells should be based on the patient's clinical condition. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anemia (causing shortness of breath, dizziness, congestive heart failure, and decreased exercise tolerance), acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30 percent of blood volume. Fresh frozen plasma infusion can be used for reversal of anticoagulant effects. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet function defects. Cryoprecipitate is used in cases of hypofibrinogenemia, which most often occurs in the setting of massive hemorrhage or consumptive coagulopathy. Transfusion-related infections are less common than noninfectious complications. All noninfectious complications of transfusion are classified as noninfectious serious hazards of transfusion. Acute complications occur within minutes to 24 hours of the transfusion, whereas delayed complications may develop days, months, or even years later.

  9. Chaotic advection in blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, A B; Károlyi, Gy; de Moura, A P S; Booth, N A; Grebogi, C

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we argue that the effects of irregular chaotic motion of particles transported by blood can play a major role in the development of serious circulatory diseases. Vessel wall irregularities modify the flow field, changing in a nontrivial way the transport and activation of biochemically active particles. We argue that blood particle transport is often chaotic in realistic physiological conditions. We also argue that this chaotic behavior of the flow has crucial consequences for the dynamics of important processes in the blood, such as the activation of platelets which are involved in the thrombus formation.

  10. Interpreting Arterial Blood Gases Successfully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Brenda G; Zimmanck, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is a crucial skill for perioperative nurses, in particular the RN circulator. This article provides the physiological basis for assessing ABGs perioperatively and presents a systematic approach to blood gas analysis using the Romanski method. Blood gas sample data allow the reader to practice ABG interpretation. In addition, four case studies are presented that give the reader the opportunity to analyze ABGs within the context of surgical patient scenarios. The ability to accurately assess ABGs allows the perioperative nurse to assist surgical team members in restoring a patient's acid-base balance. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood Loss Estimation Using Gauze Visual Analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Algadiem; Aleisa; Alsubaie; Buhlaiqah; Algadeeb; Alsneini

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating intraoperative blood loss can be a difficult task, especially when blood is mostly absorbed by gauze. In this study, we have provided an improved method for estimating blood absorbed by gauze. Objectives To develop a guide to estimate blood absorbed by surgical gauze. Materials and Methods A clinical experiment was conducted using aspirated blood and common su...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  13. Impedance Spectroscopy of Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Francisco; Bernal, José J.; Sosa, Modesto A.; Villagómez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual

    2004-09-01

    The blood is one of the corporal fluids more used with analytical purposes. When the blood is extracted, immediately it is affected by agents that act on it, producing transformations in its elements. Among the effects of these transformations the hemolysis phenomenon stands out, which consists of the membrane rupture and possible death of the red blood cells. The main purpose of this investigation was the quantification of this phenomenon. A Solartron SI-1260 Impedance Spectrometer was used, which covers a frequency range of work from 1 μHz to 10 MHz, and its accuracy has been tested in the accomplishment of several applications. Measurements were performed on 3 mL human blood samples, from healthy donors. Reactive strips for sugar test of 2 μL, from Bayer, were used as electrodes, which allow gathering a portion of the sample, to be analyzed by the spectrometer. Preliminary results of these measurements are presented.

  14. Neuromodulation of cerebral blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift behandelt de modulatie van de cerebrale doorbloeding (cerebral blood flow, CBF) door cervicale elektrische stimulatie en de aanname dat het sympathisch zenuwstelsel hierin een specifieke rol speelt. Enkele resultaten met cervicale ruggenmergsstimulatie (spinal cord stimulation, SCS)

  15. Handheld Microfluidic Blood Ananlyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanohmics proposes to develop a handheld blood analyzer for micro- and hypo-gravity missions. The prototype instrument will combine impedance analysis with optical...

  16. Blood purification and hemo- perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The method of blood purification is a new overlapping frontierdiscipline which develops quickly in recent years. It helps overcoming many serious and complicated diseases, even including some incurable illnesses.

  17. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. ... The Heart Truth ® —a national heart disease awareness campaign for ...

  20. [Blood--a special resource].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Christof; Schmidt, Michael; Klarmann, Dieter; Schüttrumpf, Jörg; Müller, Markus M; Seifried, Erhard

    2012-06-01

    Haemotherapy is an integral part of modern high-tech medicine. Without supportive care including red blood cell (RBC), platelet concentrate (PC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion, invasive therapies such as high-dose chemotherapy regimens for haematological and solid malignancies, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and solid organ transplantation as well as major surgery and modern trauma management would not be possible. In this article we describe the current state of haemotherapy, the risk of adverse effects and risk minimization measures, specifically focussing on haemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR), transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI). Aided by the introduction of NAT technology for blood component screening, the residual risk of transfusion transmitted infections was reduced to 1:10.8 million for HCV, to 1:4.3 million for HIV-1, and to 1:360,000 for HBV for blood products of the German Red Cross Blood Service.

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep ... office compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high ...

  2. Market study: Whole blood analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A market survey was conducted to develop findings relative to the commercialization potential and key market factors of the whole blood analyzer which is being developed in conjunction with NASA's Space Shuttle Medical System.

  3. Blood transfusion practices in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TVSP Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome characterised by systemic inflammation due to infection. There is a spectrum with severity ranging from sepsis to severe sepsis and septic shock. Even with optimal treatment, mortality due to severe sepsis or septic shock is significant and poses a challenge to management. Antibiotics, source control, resuscitation with fluids, vasopressor and inotropic agents are the main-stay of treatment for septic shock. These may be supplemented with transfusion of red blood cells and or blood products, in the case of anaemia to sustain sufficient oxygen delivery [1] or to manage associated haematological issues. Transfusion in sepsis has always been a debatable issue, especially in relation to choice of the fluid and the role of blood or blood product transfusion.

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ... Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: ...

  6. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  7. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influence Blood Pressure Gene Linked to Optimism and Self-Esteem Designing New Diabetes Drugs Connect with Us Subscribe to get NIH Research Matters by email RSS Feed Facebook Email us Mailing Address: NIH Research Matters Bldg. ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  9. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  10. Blood pressure and contraceptive use

    OpenAIRE

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Peart, W S

    1982-01-01

    In a survey of 461 women routinely attending family planning clinics those taking oral contraceptives had significantly higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those using non-hormonal contraception. There appeared to be a dose-response relation of blood pressure to the progestogen component of two oral contraceptives with an identical 30 μg ethinyloestradiol component. This supports the idea that the progestogen as well as the oestrogen component has an aetiological role in t...

  11. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  12. Discolored blood and blood components: a dilemma for transfusion specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Tanvi; Bedi, Ravneet Kaur; Mittal, Kshitija

    2014-04-01

    It is not uncommon in transfusion practice to see blood/components with abnormal colored plasma. The present study was conducted to identify and determine the etiology of blood and/or blood components showing altered color. The present study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh over a period of seven months. All the blood units/components having an abnormal appearance were segregated as: 1. Green discoloration. 2. Yellow discoloration. 3. Bright cherry red color. 4. Lipemic plasma. The donor's history was carefully evaluated and relevant investigations were done depending on discoloration. Seventeen units out of 7370 (0.23%) donations showed discoloration. In 3 units the plasma was green, 5 units were yellow, in 3 units PRBC/WB unit was bright cherry red and in the remaining 6 units the plasma was lipemic. Total bilirubin of all the 5 donors with yellowish plasma ranged from 1.6 to 2.3mg/dl. The hemoglobin and hematocrit of two out of three donors with cherry red discoloration of PRBC/WB was low. All the donors with lipemic plasma gave history of intake of fatty meal prior to donating blood. The existing rules prohibit issue of blood and blood components if the plasma is abnormal in color. Our study showed that many of the discolored units could have been safely transfused but further larger studies are required to confirm the safety of recipients receiving such units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  14. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  15. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  16. FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... giving blood, you should tell your blood center. Donation centers try to ensure that donors who recently ...

  17. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  18. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162996.html High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated Half of mobile clinic patients ... that's often referred to as a "silent killer" -- high blood pressure, a new Canadian study reveals. High blood pressure, ...

  19. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  20. Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100196.htm Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... or blood disorder, your doctor may recommend percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS), which is performed at 18 ...

  1. Blood transfusion exposure in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Although essential for the evaluation of blood transfusion safety, the prevalence of blood transfusion in the general population is not presently known. This study estimated the exposure to blood transfusion in the general Scandinavian population....

  2. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  3. Bedside Blood Glucose Monitoring in Hospitals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    American Diabetes Association

    2004-01-01

    Bedside Blood Glucose Monitoring in Hospitals American Diabetes Association The modern management of hospitalized patients with diabetes includes capillary blood glucose determinations at the bedside...

  4. Glycerol monooleate-blood interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Emma M; Faxälv, Lars; Weissenrieder, Anna; Askendal, Agneta; Lindahl, Tomas L; Tengvall, Pentti

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the initial blood compatibility of glycerol monooleate (GMO)-coated surfaces was evaluated after deposition to surfaces and in bulk. The model surface was silica onto which multiple layers of fibrinogen or human serum albumin (HSA) was immobilized. The protein-coated surfaces were subsequently dip-coated in GMO in ethanol and used for blood plasma and whole blood experiments. The characterization methods included null ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, imaging of coagulation, hemolysis test and whole blood coagulation time by free oscillation rheometry. The results showed a GMO film thickness of approximately 350 A (approximately 4 microg/cm(2)) upon dip-coating in ethanolic solution. A major part of the deposited layer detached in aqueous solutions, especially during shear conditions. The coagulation time on GMO was significantly prolonged compared to that on HSA coated silica. Whole blood tests showed that GMO is a very weak hemolytic agent. Deposited GMO detached easily from surfaces upon rinsing or shearing, although a stable layer with undefined phase structure and a thickness of 50-70 A remained on HSA and fibrinogen precoated surfaces. This indicates that GMO has stronger adhesive forces to its substrate compared to the cohesive forces acting within the bulk GMO. The ability of GMO to detach from itself and tentatively form micelles or lipid bilayers when subjected to flowing blood may be of use in extravascular applications. It is concluded that GMO results in weak blood activation, and the material may in spite of this be suitable in selected biomaterial applications, especially as a biosealant and in colloidal dispersions.

  5. [Blood components and good practices in transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Georges

    2015-02-01

    Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered.

  6. Blood rheology in marine mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Castellini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals.

  7. Blood cultures in ambulatory outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laupland Kevin B

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood cultures are a gold standard specific test for diagnosing many infections. However, the low yield may limit their usefulness, particularly in low-risk populations. This study was conducted to assess the utility of blood cultures drawn from ambulatory outpatients. Methods Blood cultures drawn at community-based collection sites in the Calgary Health Region (population 1 million in 2001 and 2002 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed by linkages to acute care health care databases for utilization of acute care facilities within 2 weeks of blood culture draw. Results 3102 sets of cultures were drawn from 1732 ambulatory outpatients (annual rate = 89.4 per 100,000 population. Significant isolates were identified from 73 (2.4% sets of cultures from 51 patients, including Escherichia coli in 18 (35% and seven (14% each of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Compared to patients with negative cultures, those with positive cultures were older (mean 49.6 vs. 40.1 years, p Conclusion Blood cultures drawn in outpatient settings are uncommonly positive, but may define patients for increased intensity of therapy. Strategies to reduce utilization without excluding patients with positive cultures need to be developed for this patient population.

  8. Blood microcirculation of ischemic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Irina V.; Arakelian, Sergei M.; Antonov, Olga V.

    1998-06-01

    Blood Microcirculation includes many of different components, which are joined by unique multiple system. Capillaries are one of the main link in this morpho-functional chain. Changes in any components of blood microcirculation are revealed by many of pathological processes in different organs and systems of the whole organism. We investigated 250 patients from 30 to 77 ages. Men included 149, women -- 101. The main diagnosis of all patients was the ischaemic pancreatitis. For verification of this diagnosis we used the whole spectrum of clinical, laboratorial and instrumental methods. These were the following: the definition of amylase of blood and urine, sonography and computer's tomography of pancreas, angiography of vessels of pancreas and Doppler's sonography of abdominal aorta and her branches: arteria mesenterica superior (AMS), truncus coeliacus (TC), arteria hepatica communis (AHC) and arteria lienalis (AL). We investigated the blood microcirculation of the mucous of the inferior lip, using Laser Dopplerography. The equipment for this research was LACC-01 with modified computer's program. The normal levels of blood microcirculation were from 120 to 180 Units. But patients with ischaemic pancreatitis had more lower level than in normal situation. This method are suggested as express diagnostic in the cases of abdominal ischaemic pathology. It can used as singel method or in combined with ultrasound Dopplerography.

  9. Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika M. K.; Koo, Tae-Woong; Oh, Jeankun; Hunter, Martin; Sasic, Slobodan; Feld, Michael S.; Horowitz, Gary L.

    2002-11-01

    Concentrations of multiple analytes were simultaneously measured in whole blood with clinical accuracy, without sample processing, using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired with an instrument employing nonimaging optics, designed using Monte Carlo simulations of the influence of light-scattering-absorbing blood cells on the excitation and emission of Raman light in turbid medium. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 31 individuals. Quantitative predictions of glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were made by means of partial least-squares (PLS) analysis with clinically relevant precision (r2 values >0.93). The similarity of the features of the PLS calibration spectra to those of the respective analyte spectra illustrates that the predictions are based on molecular information carried by the Raman light. This demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of biomolecular contents in highly light-scattering and absorbing media.

  10. Blood donor: nursing care plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested according to the NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification taxonomy. Also, certain potential complications, which are infrequent, must be observed and controlled in the blood donation process. Our main aim with this article has been to offer to professionals resources that grant to the caring activity scientific rigor, professional recognition and an unique and valid tool to evaluate the assistance with the best levels of quality for the blood donor.

  11. Screening for autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M

    2009-01-01

    The ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the mature erythrocyte population and the reticulocytes (RBCHb:RetHb ratio) has previously been suggested as a marker to screen for EPO-abuse. We speculated that the reinfusion of blood would lead to a marked increase in this ratio, making it a valuab...... doping after reinfusion, and the parameter could be used in a testing setting, once stability validation has been performed....... parameter in the screening for autologous blood doping. Three bags of blood (approximately 201+/-11 g of Hb) were withdrawn from 16 males and stored at either -80 degrees C (-80 T, n=8) or +4 degrees C (+4 T, n=8) and reinfused 10 weeks or 4 weeks later, respectively. Seven subjects served as controls...

  12. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  13. B→O blood conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To maintain a constant supply of "universal blood type", or group O red blood cells, has benefit in specialized transfusion condition. In this study, α-galactosidase cDNA was cloned from Catimor coffee bean grown in Hainan island, China, by the RT-PCR method. We have constructed a vector for α-galactosidase cDNA expression and transferred α-galactosidase cDNA into Pichia pastoris GS115 cells by electroporation. The recombinant α-galactosidase (r-α-GalE) was purified by cation ion exchange chromatography. After studying the biochemical characters of r-α-GalE, we have succeeded in converting human erythrocytes from group B to group O. The animal experiment showed that transfusion of enzymetically converted group O red blood cells (ECORBC) was perfectly safe.

  14. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  15. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  16. [Blood eosinophilia in the tropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, H; Simon, F

    2013-05-01

    Blood eosinophilia is an abnormal laboratory finding defined by the presence of more than 0.5 G/L of eosinophils. The most common causes for it in tropical zones are various forms of helminthic infections. Medication side effects and atopic phenomena are less frequent than in the industrialized countries. It can also result from a systemic condition. Its discovery requires a pragmatic etiological investigation, trial treatments, and follow-up based on screening for chronic blood diseases and for serious visceral injuries linked to chronic tissue eosinophil toxicity.

  17. Laryngospasm after autologous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung; Grecu, Loreta

    2006-07-01

    Although perioperative autologous blood transfusions are associated with few side effects, transfusion reactions can occur and can be life-threatening. We report the occurrence of postoperative laryngospasm in a patient who underwent spinal anesthesia for hip surgery. The laryngospasm could not be attributed to any cause other than the autologous blood transfusion and recurred when the transfusion was restarted. Laryngospasm was successfully treated both times with positive pressure ventilation. Autologous transfusions can trigger febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, which may result in airway compromise.

  18. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    donated blood, the country would be self-sufficient. 1 ... States of America (USA) the risk for acquiring HIV ..... Database on Blood safety Summary report 2011. ... among blood donors in a blood bank in Curitiba. (Brazil).Braz J Infect Dis.

  19. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and increa

  20. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... checked out by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But there are several factors that increase your risk: Being overweight or obese Not ... if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent ...

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  3. Processing, testing and selecting blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alister; Heyes, Jennifer

    Transfusion of blood components can be an essential and lifesaving treatment for many patients. However, components must comply with a number of national requirements to ensure they are safe and fit for use. Transfusion of incorrect blood components can lead to mortality and morbidity in patients, which is why patient testing and blood selection are important. This second article in our five-part series on blood transfusion outlines the requirements for different blood components, the importance of the ABO and RhD blood group systems and the processes that ensure the correct blood component is issued to each patient.

  4. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Luo; Yu-meng Shen; Meng-nan Jiang; Xiang-feng Lou; Yin Shen

    2015-01-01

    The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and va...

  5. Laboratory Aspects of Blood Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, F. M.

    1970-01-01

    Classification of blood hyperlipemias by electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation according to density fraction is described and therapeutic measures for humans with hyperlipoproteinemia are outlined. The statistically significant relationship between high serum cholesterol levels and incidence of coronary disease prescribes restricted caloric intake or physical exercise to burn excess calories as preventive measures.

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  7. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  8. Blood Thinners and Dental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at any time you have a concern regarding bleeding after surgery, you should feel free to contact your dentist. If all the local precautions described above are taken and there is significant blood loss; meaning non-stop bleeding for more than several hours, or the formation ...

  9. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  10. Blood Lead and Reading Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of Maryland School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and Department of Health, Providence, Rhode Island, evaluated the relationship between reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, RI, and state health department records of blood lead levels (BLLs.

  11. Cerebral blood-flow tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Henriksen, L; Holm, S

    1983-01-01

    Tomographic maps of local cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained with xenon-133 and with isopropyl-amphetamine-iodine-123 (IMP) in 11 subjects: one normal, two tumor cases, and eight cerebrovascular cases. A highly sensitive four-face, rapidly rotating, single-photon emission tomograph was used....

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  14. How safe is blood, really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harvey G

    2010-01-01

    Blood is safer than it has ever been, however the progression of transfusion from dangerous intervention to reliable supportive care been non-linear. Disparities resulting from geography, economy, and social class persist. Some risks are known, others are unknown but predictable, and still others may be totally unpredictable. Among the known risks are infectious and immunologic events that can be calculated per unit of blood transfused. These risks vary by component. Among the unknown risks are the potential for emerging pathogens transmitted by blood and for processing or storage lesions to result in short or long-term toxicity. National registries provide some reassurance that transfusion may not affect mortality significantly beyond the first few weeks after administration. Nevertheless, transmission of novel pathogens, repeated allogeneic stimulation, and infusion of cytokines or chemokines may have unrecognized consequences. Blood safety can be effected dramatically with small investment in developing countries. In the developed world, technologies such as pathogen inactivation, antigen camouflage, component substitutes, or cell expansion promise relatively small advances in safety at substantial cost. No strategy guarantees zero-risk.

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...

  16. Detecting autologous blood transfusions: a comparison of three passport approaches and four blood markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Sharpe, K; Belhage, B

    2011-01-01

    Blood passport has been suggested as an indirect tool to detect various kinds of blood manipulations. Autologous blood transfusions are currently undetectable, and the objective of this study was to examine the sensitivities of different blood markers and blood passport approaches in order to det...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and...

  18. US Army blood program: 2025 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Richard; Taylor, Audra L; Atkinson, Andrew J; Malloy, Wilbur W; Macdonald, Victor W; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    In preparing to support the Army in 2025 and beyond, the Army Blood Program remains actively engaged with the research and advanced development of blood products and medical technology to improve blood safety and efficacy in conjunction with the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. National and International Blood Bank authorities have noted that the US Army research and development efforts in providing new blood products and improving blood safety operate on the cutting edge of technology and are transformational for the global blood industry. Over the past 14 years, the Army has transformed how blood support is provided and improved the survival rate of casualties. Almost every product or process developed by or for the military has found an application in treating civilian patients. Conflicts have many unwanted consequences; however, in times of conflict, one positive aspect is the identification of novel solutions to improve the safety and efficacy of the blood supply.

  19. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and varied metabolic demand. In addition, ocular blood flow dysregulation has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor to many ocular diseases. For instance, ocular perfusion pressure plays key role in the progression of retinopathy such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, different direct and indirect techniques to measure ocular blood flow and the effect of myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms on ocular blood flow are discussed. Moreover, ocular blood flow regulation in ocular disease will be described.

  20. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease.