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Sample records for cobalt-doped tungsten carbide

  1. Direct Electrochemical Preparation of Cobalt, Tungsten, and Tungsten Carbide from Cemented Carbide Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangjun; Xi, Xiaoli; Nie, Zuoren; Zhang, Liwen; Ma, Liwen

    2017-02-01

    A novel process of preparing cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide powders from cemented carbide scrap by molten salt electrolysis has been investigated in this paper. In this experiment, WC-6Co and NaCl-KCl salt were used as sacrificial anode and electrolyte, respectively. The dissolution potential of cobalt and WC was determined by linear sweep voltammetry to be 0 and 0.6 V ( vs Ag/AgCl), respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of cobalt and tungsten ions was investigated by a variety of electrochemical techniques. Results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square-wave voltammetry show that the cobalt and tungsten ions existed as Co2+ and W2+ on melts, respectively. The effect of applied voltage, electrolysis current, and electrolysis times on the composition of the product was studied. Results showed that pure cobalt powder can be obtained when the electrolysis potential is lower than 0.6 V or during low current and short times. Double-cathode and two-stage electrolysis was utilized for the preparation of cobalt, tungsten carbide, and tungsten powders. Additionally, X-ray diffraction results confirm that the product collected at cathodes 1 and 2 is pure Co and WC, respectively. Pure tungsten powder was obtained after electrolysis of the second part. Scanning electron microscope results show that the diameters of tungsten, tungsten carbide, and cobalt powder are smaller than 100, 200, and 200 nm, respectively.

  2. Stress in tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon (WC-DLC) multilayer coatings have been prepared by sputter deposition from a tungsten-carbide target and periodic switching on and off of the reactive acetylene gas flow. The stress in the resulting WC-DLC multilayers has been studied by substrate curvature.

  3. Growth stress in tungsten carbide-diamond-like carbon coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Arnoldbik, W.M.; Sloof, W.G.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Growth stress in tungsten carbide-diamond-like carbon coatings, sputter deposited in a reactive argon/acetylene plasma, has been studied as a function of the acetylene partial pressure. Stress and microstructure have been investigated by wafer curvature and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  4. Effect of tempering after cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    #Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144 001, India. MS received 10 ... Tungsten carbide is the most commonly used cutting tool material in the industry and the tech- nique can also be ..... in the WC-Co inserts and was present in the form of clusters of particles ...

  5. Effect of tempering after cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cryogenic treatment is a recent advancement in the field of machining to improve the properties of cutting tool materials. Tungsten carbide is the most commonly used cutting tool material in the industry and the technique can also be extended to it. Although the importance of tempering after cryogenic treatment has been ...

  6. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  7. Development of tungsten carbide-cobalt coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Mark

    1999-09-01

    The discovery of WC, and the development of cemented carbides (WC-Co and WC-TiC-Co) have spawned advancements in higher speed machining of steel. The development of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) coatings has allowed even greater speeds to be realized. The production of titanium components, well known for their high specific strength, low density, corrosion resistance, and elevated temperature properties, would greatly benefit from a similar development allowing high speed machining processes. Currently, no known tool material exists that can effectively machine titanium at high speeds due to insufficient high temperature strength and/or chemical resistance. To address this problem an investigation into the development of a composite tool material combining toughness, high temperature strength and chemical resistance was pursued. Cemented carbide (WC-Co) is currently the most chemically resistant and commercially used tool material for machining Ti. The concept of applying a WC-Co coating on a high temperature deformation resistant substrate material was investigated. Two approaches, namely (i) laminated and (ii) co-deposited coatings, were chosen to chemically vapor deposit WC-Co. Thermodynamic and kinetic calculations were performed to aid in the development of CVD processes for deposition of WC and Co. The systems investigated were WF6-CH4-H2 and WCl6-CH4-H 2 for WC deposition and CoCl2-H2 for Co deposition. In the case of laminated structures the goal was to deposit nanometer scale alternating layers of WC and Co. However, development of a laminated structure led to the discovery that porosity always occurred in the Co layers at the WC/Co interface. Mass balance calculations, SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallographic analyses aided in determining that the porosity was due to the Kirkendall effect. It was observed that the diffusion of Co was enhanced by higher concentrations of soluble C in the Co layers. Effective diffusion barriers, such as TiC, were found to help

  8. Chitosan: a green carbon source for the synthesis of graphitic nanocarbon, tungsten carbide and graphitic nanocarbon/tungsten carbide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Baoli; Tian Chuigui; Wang Lei; Wang Ruihong; Fu Honggang, E-mail: fuhg@vip.sina.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, a simple approach was proposed to fabricate graphitic carbon nanocapsules, tungsten carbide and tungsten carbides/graphitic carbon composites by using chitosan, a green and renewable biopolymer, as a carbon source. The route includes, first, fabrication of the precursors that consist of chitosan coordinated with a certain metal ion (or metal complex anion) followed by carbonizing the precursors under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The composition of the final products could be regulated by changing the type and ratio of the metal source (cations or complex anions) combined with the chitosan in the precursors. The experimental results showed that uniform carbon nanocapsules could be obtained when Ni{sup 2+} was introducing in the precursors, while incorporating [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-} (PW{sub 12}) with chitosan led to the formation of WC nanoparticles. As the Ni{sup 2+} and PW{sub 12} are simultaneously coordinated with chitosan, the composites of tungsten carbide/graphitic carbon were successfully produced. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the graphitic carbon nanocapsules are about 45 nm in diameter; uniform WC nanoparticles with a average size of 40 nm are observed. Moreover, the particle size of WC in the tungsten carbide/graphitic carbon composite is about 10 nm, which is smaller than that of the pure WC particles. Furthermore, the performance of the sample-loaded Pt nanoparticles for methanol electro-oxidation was studied in detail. The results indicated that the samples could act as good carriers for Pt in the methanol electro-oxidation reaction with high effectivity and improved stability.

  9. Microstructures and Wear Performance of PTAW Deposited Ni-Based Coatings with Spherical Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewei Deng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-based coatings with different content of spherical tungsten carbide were deposited by plasma transfer arc welding (PTAW method on 304 austenitic stainless steel sheets in this study. The microstructure and wear property of spherical tungsten carbide particle reinforced composite coatings were investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and sliding wear test. It is shown that the fraction of spherical tungsten carbides has an important influence on microstructure of Ni-based overlay. The Ni40 overlay consists of γ-Ni dendrites with interdendritic Ni-based eutectics, borides and carbides improving the wear resistance. In the case of composite coatings with different content of tungsten carbide, many new phases are observed, such as Ni2W4C and NiW. In addition, there are a large number of irregular structures in composite coatings, such as acicular structure and irregular stripe organization. The results of sliding wear test indicate that the mass loss of coatings is influenced by the content of tungsten carbide. The mass loss decreases with the increase of tungsten carbide fraction. At high load, the abrasive resistance of composite coating with 60 wt. % tungsten carbide is improved about 50-fold compared to that of Ni40 overlay.

  10. Tribological Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Reinforced Arc Sprayed Coatings using Different Carbide Grain Size Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tillmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide reinforced coatings play an important role in the field of surface engineering to protect stressed surfaces against wear. For thermally sprayed coatings, it is already shown that the tribological properties get mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Within the scope of this study, the tribological characteristics of iron based WC-W2C reinforced arc sprayed coatings deposited using cored wires consisting of different carbide grain size fractions were examined. Microstructural characteristics of the produced coatings were scrutinized using electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. Ball-on-disk test as well as Taber Abraser and dry sand rubber wheel test were employed to analyze both the dry sliding and the abrasive wear behavior. It was shown that a reduced carbide grain size fraction as filling leads to an enhanced wear resistance against sliding. In terms of the Taber Abraser test, it is also demonstrated that a fine carbide grain size fraction results in an improved wear resistant against abrasion. As opposed to that, a poorer wear resistance was found within the dry sand rubber wheel tests. The findings show that the operating mechanisms for both abrasion tests affect the stressed surface in a different way, leading either to microcutting or microploughing.

  11. Dissimilar Brazed Joints Between Steel and Tungsten Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, I.; Geanta, V.; Binchiciu, H.; Iovanas, D.; Stefanoiu, R.

    2017-06-01

    Brazing is a joining process used to obtain heterogeneous assemblies between different materials, such as steels, irons, non-ferrous metals, ceramics etc. Some application, like asphalt cutters, require quick solutions to obtain dissimilar joints at acceptable costs, given the very short period of operation of these parts. This paper presents some results obtained during the brazing of dissimilar joints between steel and tungsten carbide by using different types of Ag-Cu system filler materials alloyed with P and Sn. The brazing techniques used were oxygen-gas flame and induction joining. The brazing behaviour was analysed in cross sections by optical and electron microscopy. The metallographic analysis enhanced the adhesion features and the length of penetration in the joining gap. The melting range of the filler materials was measured using thermal analysis.

  12. Combustion synthesis of nano-sized tungsten carbide powder and effects of sodium halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, H. I.; Nersisyan, H. H.; Won, C. W.

    2010-02-01

    The synthesis of nano-size tungsten carbide powder has been investigated with a WO3 + Mg + C + carbonate system using alkali halides. The effects of different types of alkali halides on combustion temperature and tungsten carbide formation were discussed. Sodium fluoride had a notable effect on the particle size of the product and the degree of transformation from the initial mixture. A small amount of ammonium carbonate activated the carburization of tungsten carbide by the gas phase carbon transportation. X-ray diffraction data and particle analysis showed that the final product synthesized from a WO3-Mg-C-(NH4)2CO3-NaF system contains pure-phase tungsten carbide with a particle size of 50-100 nm.

  13. EUV nanosecond laser ablation of silicon carbide, tungsten and molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav; Choukourov, Andrei; Kasuya, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present results of study interaction of nanosecond EUV laser pulses at wavelength of 46.9 nm with silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo). As a source of laser radiation was used discharge-plasma driver CAPEX (CAPillary EXperiment) based on high current capillary discharge in argon. The laser beam is focused with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer-coated mirror on samples. Experimental study has been performed with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 laser pulses ablation of SiC, W and Mo at various fluence values. Firstly, sample surface modification in the nanosecond time scale have been registered by optical microscope. And the secondly, laser beam footprints on the samples have been analyzed by atomic-force microscope (AFM). This work supported by the Czech Science Foundation under Contract GA14-29772S and by the Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under Contract LG13029.

  14. Tungsten carbide encapsulated in nitrogen-doped carbon with iron/cobalt carbides electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jinwei, E-mail: jwchen@scu.edu.cn; Jiang, Yiwu; Zhou, Feilong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ruilin, E-mail: rl.wang@scu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A hybrid catalyst was prepared via a quite green and simple method to achieve an one-pot synthesis of the N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides. It exhibited comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability and ability to methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C to ORR. - Highlights: • A novel type of hybrid Fe/Co/WC@NC catalysts have been successfully synthesized. • The hybrid catalyst also exhibited better durability and methanol tolerance. • Multiple effective active sites of Fe{sub 3}C, Co{sub 3}C, WC, and NC help to improve catalytic performance. - Abstract: This work presents a type of hybrid catalyst prepared through an environmental and simple method, combining a pyrolysis of transition metal precursors, a nitrogen-containing material, and a tungsten source to achieve a one-pot synthesis of N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides (Fe/Co/WC@NC). The obtained Fe/Co/WC@NC consists of uniform Fe{sub 3}C and Co{sub 3}C nanoparticles encapsulated in graphitized carbon with surface nitrogen doping, closely wrapped around a plate-like tungsten carbide (WC) that functions as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The introduction of WC is found to promote the ORR activity of Fe/Co-based carbide electrocatalysts, which is attributed to the synergistic catalysts of WC, Fe{sub 3}C, and Co{sub 3}C. Results suggest that the composite exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability, and ability for methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. These advantages make Fe/Co/WC@NC a promising ORR electrocatalyst and a cost-effective alternative to Pt/C for practical application as fuel cell.

  15. Tungsten carbide nanoparticles as efficient cocatalysts for photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2012-12-17

    Tungsten carbide exhibits platinum-like behavior, which makes it an interesting potential substitute for noble metals in catalytic applications. Tungsten carbide nanocrystals (≈5 nm) are directly synthesized through the reaction of tungsten precursors with mesoporous graphitic C3N 4 (mpg-C3N4) as the reactive template in a flow of inert gas at high temperatures. Systematic experiments that vary the precursor compositions and temperatures used in the synthesis selectively generate different compositions and structures for the final nanocarbide (W 2C or WC) products. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the WC phase with a high surface area exhibits both high activity and stability in hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range. The WC sample also shows excellent hydrogen oxidation activity, whereas its activity in oxygen reduction is poor. These tungsten carbides are successful cocatalysts for overall water splitting and give H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric ratio from H 2O decomposition when supported on a Na-doped SrTiO3 photocatalyst. Herein, we present tungsten carbide (on a small scale) as a promising and durable catalyst substitute for platinum and other scarce noble-metal catalysts in catalytic reaction systems used for renewable energy generation. Platinum replacement: The phase-controlled synthesis of tungsten carbide nanoparticles from the nanoconfinement of a mesoporous graphite C 3N4 (mpg-C3N4) reactive template is shown. The nanomaterials catalyze hydrogen evolution/oxidation reactions, but are inactive in the oxygen reduction reaction. Tungsten carbide is an effective cocatalyst for photocatalytic overall water splitting (see picture). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of precursor mass on product phase composition in plasma dynamic synthesis of tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatrova, K. N.; Sivkov, A. A.; Shanenkov, I. I.; Saigash, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    An interest in WC1-x cubic tungsten carbide results from its catalytic properties similar to those of platinum group metals and the synergistic effect between WC1-x and Pt in reactions of hydrogen evolution and hydrogen oxidation. However, according to the phase diagram of the W-C system, the cubic phase WC1-x only exists in a narrow range of temperature stability (about 2798-3058 K), which makes it difficult for being obtained. To date, there are different methods for synthesizing tungsten carbide powder with a low content of cubic phase that complicates the study of WC1-x properties. A direct plasma dynamic synthesis is known as one of the promising methods to produce WC1-x. The aim of this work is to find the optimal amount of tungsten precursor to obtain cubic tungsten carbide with a high purity by plasma dynamic method. The synthesized products were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD patterns showed that the main phase was cubic tungsten carbide with negligible content of hexagonal tungsten carbide W2C and pure tungsten W. According to a quantitative analysis of synthesized products, which were obtained using masses of initial tungsten equal to 1.0, 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5 gram, the yield of WC1-x phase was 84, 89, 95 and 92 wt%, respectively. The results of TEM displayed that the synthesized powders consist of crystallites, having the size less than 100 nm (WC1-x), and a carbon matrix. This carbon was not detected in XRD due to its presence as an amorphous phase.

  17. Characterization of Tungsten Carbide coatings deposited on AISI 1020 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Ramirez, Z. Y.

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the variation in the mechanical properties of AISI 1020 standardized steel, heat treated by a quenching and tempering process and with a Tungsten Carbide coating, was performed a microstructural and chemical characterization of the coating material through electron microscopy scanning and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The steel received a heat treatment of quenching performed by heating to 850°C, followed by cooling in water and tempering at a temperature of 450°C with air cooling. Tests of a) microhardness with a Wilson-Wolpert Tukon 2100B micro durometer and b) resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear following the ASTM G99-05 “Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk machine” and ASTM G65-04 “standard test method for measuring abrasion using dry sand and rubber Wheel” standards respectively. The results show that the microhardness of the steel do not vary with the load used to perform the test; in addition, the heat treatment of quenching and tempering improves by 5.5% the property while the coating increase it by 124.2%. Regarding the abrasive wear resistance, it is observed that the amount of material lost increases linearly with the distance covered. It was determined that the heat treatment decreased on average by 17.5% the volume of released material during the tests while the coating recued it by 66.7%. The amount volume of material lost during the adhesive wear tests increases linearly with the distance covered while the heat treatment decreased on average by 10.5% the volume of released material during the trial and the coating reduced it by 66.5%.

  18. Spark Plasma Sintering of high-strength ultrafine-grained tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhrin, A. V.; Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Blagoveshchenskiy, Yu V.; Boldin, M. S.; Sakharov, N. V.; Isaeva, N. V.; Popov, A. A.; Lantcev, E. A.; Belkin, O. A.; Smirnova, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    The paper dwells on the research conducted into high-rate consolidation of pure tungsten carbide nanopowders using the Spark Plasma Sintering. Studies included the effect that the original size of WC nanoparticles and their preparation modes have on density, structure parameters, and mechanical properties of tungsten carbide. It has been found that materials that show abnormal grain growth during sintering have lower values of sintering activation energy as compared to materials the structure of which is more stable during high-rate heating. A qualitative model is proposed that explains this effect through the dependence of the grain boundary diffusion coefficient on the grain boundary migration rate.

  19. Tungsten carbide nanoparticles as efficient cocatalysts for photocatalytic overall water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; Cha, Dongkyu; Ou, Yiwei; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten carbide exhibits platinum-like behavior, which makes it an interesting potential substitute for noble metals in catalytic applications. Tungsten carbide nanocrystals (≈5 nm) are directly synthesized through the reaction of tungsten precursors with mesoporous graphitic C(3)N(4) (mpg-C(3)N(4)) as the reactive template in a flow of inert gas at high temperatures. Systematic experiments that vary the precursor compositions and temperatures used in the synthesis selectively generate different compositions and structures for the final nanocarbide (W(2)C or WC) products. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the WC phase with a high surface area exhibits both high activity and stability in hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range. The WC sample also shows excellent hydrogen oxidation activity, whereas its activity in oxygen reduction is poor. These tungsten carbides are successful cocatalysts for overall water splitting and give H(2) and O(2) in a stoichiometric ratio from H(2)O decomposition when supported on a Na-doped SrTiO(3) photocatalyst. Herein, we present tungsten carbide (on a small scale) as a promising and durable catalyst substitute for platinum and other scarce noble-metal catalysts in catalytic reaction systems used for renewable energy generation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tungsten carbide promoted Pd and Pd-Co electrocatalysts for formic acid electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars N.; Bjerrum, Niels J.; Xing, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) promoted palladium (Pd) and palladium-cobalt (Pd-Co) nanocatalysts are prepared and characterized for formic acid electrooxidation. The WC as the dopant to carbon supports is found to enhance the CO tolerance and promote the activity of the Pd-based catalysts for formic acid oxidation. Alloying of Pd with Co further improves the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the WC supported catalysts, attributable to a synergistic effect of the carbide support and PdCo alloy nanoparticles.

  1. INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ALLOYED LAYER FORMATION WHEN HARDENING TUNGSTEN CARBIDE WITH COMBINED METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Anatoly D. Verkhoturov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the research aimed at improving the tungsten carbide durability with the help of spark alloying methods, arc welding and laser processing. The paper presents the formation of the alloyed layer thickness of more than 1400 mm with gradient transition properties. The parameters of the islet coating formation for durability improvement by laser processing are represented.

  2. Tungsten carbide promoted Pd and Pd–Co electrocatalysts for formic acid electrooxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) promoted palladium (Pd) and palladium–cobalt (Pd–Co) nanocatalysts are prepared and characterized for formic acid electrooxidation. The WC as the dopant to carbon supports is found to enhance the CO tolerance and promote the activity of the Pd-based catalysts for formic acid...

  3. Effect of tungsten carbide in carbon Pt catalyst support on electrochemical oxygen reduction in acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Maja D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide was synthesized by calcination of carbon cryogel with embedded tungsten in a form of metatungstate. This material was used as a support for Pt nanoparticles. XRD pattern of W-C support indicates the presence of WC, W2C, and unreacted W, as well as graphitized carbon. According to the previous TEM analysis of W-C support, it contains particles with core-shell structure, where W particle was covered with the shell of a mixture of WC and W2C. The average Pt grain size calculated from XRD pattern was about 6 nm. Cyclic voltammogram of W-C support was recorded within potential range relevant for its application as a catalyst support in fuel cells. Pair of anodic/cathodic peaks close to the negative potential limit could be ascribed to the intercalation of hydrogen within hydrous tungsten oxide, which is always present on the surface of WC in aqueous solutions. Cyclic voltammogram of Pt/W-C indicated that tungsten oxide species are present on tungsten carbide shell as well as on the surface of Pt nanoparticles. Pt surface is only partially covered by hydrous tungsten oxide. Hydrogen intercalation in hydrous tungsten oxide is enhanced in the presence of Pt nanoparticles. Also, the presence of hydrated tungsten oxide leads to the decrease of OH chemisorbed on Pt surface. Stripping of underpotentially deposited copper was used for the assessment of Pt surface area and the specific surface area of Pt was estimated to 41 m2 g-1. Electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction was examined on the synthesized Pt/W-C catalyst and compared with the results on the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It was found that the current densities at Pt/W-C are almost double as those on Pt/C. The Tafel plots for both catalysts are characterized with two Tafel slopes: -0.060 V dec-1 at low current densities, and -0.120 V dec-1 at high current densities. From the rotational dependence of the reaction rate, it was found that oxygen reduction on both Pt/W-C and Pt

  4. Wear and corrosion behaviour of tungsten carbide based coatings with different metallic binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdi, Z.; Apandi, M. N. M.; Ibrahim, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Tungsten carbide based coating has been well known as wear and corrosion resistance materials. However, less study is done on comparing the coating with different binder. Thus, in this work the wear and corrosion behaviour of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings, namely (i) tungsten carbide cobalt and (ii) tungsten carbide nickel will be evaluated. Both coatings were characterised using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The wear behaviour has been examined using the modified grinder machine by weight loss measurement. Two types of abrasive have been used that include 3 g by weight alumina and silica. While for the corrosion behaviour, it is monitored by three electrodes of electrochemical test and immersion test for 30 days in an acidic environment. The electrolyte used was 0.5 M sulphuric acids (H2SO4). It was found that the cobalt binder shows higher wear resistance compares to the nickel binder for both slurry types. The harder alumina compared to silica results in higher wear rate with removal of carbide and binder is about the same rate. For silica abrasive, due to slightly lower hardness compared to the carbide, the wear is dominated by binder removal followed by carbide detachment. For corrosion, the nickel binder shows four times higher wear resistance compared to the cobalt binder as expected due to its natural behaviour. These finding demonstrate that the selection of coating to be used in different application in this case, wear and corrosion shall be chosen carefully to maximize the usage of the coating.

  5. Electrochemical Dissolution of Tungsten Carbide in NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Nie, Zuoren; Xi, Xiaoli; Ma, Liwen; Xiao, Xiangjun; Li, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Tungsten carbide was utilized as anode to extract tungsten in a NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 molten salt, and the electrochemical dissolution was investigated. Although the molten salt electrochemical method is a short process method of tungsten extraction from tungsten carbide in one step, the dissolution efficiency and current efficiency are quite low. In order to improve the dissolution rate and current efficiency, the sodium tungstate was added as the active substance. The dissolution rate, the anode current efficiency, and the cathode current efficiency were calculated with different contents of sodium tungstate addition. The anodes prior to and following the reaction, as well as the product, were analyzed through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the sodium tungstate could improve the dissolution rate and the current efficiency, due to the addition of sodium tungstate decreasing the charge transfer resistance in the electrolysis system. Due to the fact that the addition of sodium tungstate could remove the carbon during electrolysis, pure tungsten powders with 100 nm diameter were obtained when the content of sodium tungstate was 1.0 pct.

  6. Nanosized tungsten carbide synthesized by a novel route at low temperature for high performance electrocatalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zaoxue; Cai, Mei; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is a widely used engineering material which is usually prepared at high temperature. A new mechanism for synthesizing nanoscaled WC at ultralow temperature has been discovered. This discovery opens a novel route to synthesize valuable WC and other carbides at a cost-efficient way. The novel formation mechanism is based on an ion-exchange resin as carbon source to locally anchor the W and Fe species. As an intermediate, FeWO4 can be formed at lower temperature, which can ...

  7. Mechanical and thermal properties of tungsten carbide – graphite nanoparticles nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornaus Kamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerning pure tungsten carbide polycrystalline materials revealed that nanolayers of graphite located between WC grains improve its thermal properties. What is more, pressure-induced orientation of graphene nano platelets (GNP in hot pressed silicon nitride-graphene composites results in anisotropy of thermal conductivity. Aim of this study was to investigate if addition of GNP to WC will improve its thermal properties. For this purpose, tungsten carbide with 0.5–6 wt.% of GNP(12-additive underwent hot pressing. The microstructure observations performed by SEM microscopy. The anisotropy was determined via ultrasonic measurements. The following mechanical properties were evaluated: Vickers hardness, bending strength, fracture toughness KIc. The influence of GNP(12 addition on oxidation resistance and thermal conductivity was examined. It was possible to manufacture hot-pressed WC-graphene composites with oriented GNP(12 particles, however, the addition of graphene decreased both thermal and mechanical properties of the material.

  8. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets. [friction and wear experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined, and etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the tungsten carbide (WC) and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation, and the wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation, and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  9. High-performance circular sawing of AISI 1045 steel with cermet and tungsten carbide inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrao, A. M.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Moreira, C.; Faria, P. E. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    This work investigated the influence of cutting speed and feed rate on cutting forces, surface roughness, and slot width circular sawing of AISI 1045 steel. The effects of tool material (cermet and tungsten carbide) and geometry (chip breaker flute and pre-cutting/postcutting teeth) were also investigated. Thrust and radial forces generally tended to decrease as the cutting speed increased and tended to increase with the feed rate. The lowest values of thrust and radial forces were obtained using a tungsten carbide saw ground with precutting and post-cutting teeth. With regard to the quality of the machined wall, the lowest surface roughness was obtained by applying the highest cutting speed and lowest feed rate and employing a cermet brazed saw. Under this condition, roughness values comparable to face turning and parting off operations were obtained. The cermet brazed saw was responsible for producing the narrowest slot widths.

  10. Numerical simulation and experiment on split tungsten carbide cylinder of high pressure apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfei; Li, Mingzhe; Liu, Zhiwei; Wang, Bolong

    2015-12-01

    A new high pressure device with a split cylinder was investigated on the basis of the belt-type apparatus. The belt-type die is subjected to excessive tangential tensile stress and the tungsten carbide cylinder is easily damaged in the running process. Taking into account the operating conditions and material properties of the tungsten carbide cylinder, it is divided into 6 blocks to eliminate the tangential tensile stress. We studied two forms of the split type: radial split and tangential split. Simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has more uniform stress distribution and smaller equivalent stress compared with the belt-type cylinder. The inner wall of the tangential split cylinder is in the situation that compressive stress is distributed in the axial, radial, and tangential directions. It is similar to the condition of hydrostatic pressure, and it is the best condition for tungsten carbide materials. The experimental results also verify that the tangential split die can bear the highest chamber pressure. Therefore, the tangential split structure can increase the pressure bearing capacity significantly.

  11. Optimization of the machining parameters for EDM wire cutting of Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge machining is a thermal erosion process which is based on thermoelectric energy between the work piece and electrode. Its capability of machining in hard and difficult to cut materials has made it most popular. Tungsten carbide is widely used in industry due to its unique properties combination of hardness and wear resistance. But the machining of the tungsten carbide is very difficult. In our research we tried to find optimized procedure to cut the Tungsten carbide by variation of different parameters so that process can be carried out in maximum Material Removal Rate (MRR with better surface finish. During the experimentation, Brass wire is used for cutting.. The experiment is designed with the help of Taguchi method and further analysis done with the help of ANOVA. In this experiment we find that the minimum mean of surface roughness is 2.214 achieved at Tension- 0.6 N, Feed- 10m/min, Flushing Pressure- 3kg/cm2, Current- 80A.

  12. Numerical simulation and experiment on split tungsten carbide cylinder of high pressure apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfei; Li, Mingzhe, E-mail: limz@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Bolong [Dieless Forming Technology Center, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Liu, Zhiwei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China)

    2015-12-15

    A new high pressure device with a split cylinder was investigated on the basis of the belt-type apparatus. The belt-type die is subjected to excessive tangential tensile stress and the tungsten carbide cylinder is easily damaged in the running process. Taking into account the operating conditions and material properties of the tungsten carbide cylinder, it is divided into 6 blocks to eliminate the tangential tensile stress. We studied two forms of the split type: radial split and tangential split. Simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has more uniform stress distribution and smaller equivalent stress compared with the belt-type cylinder. The inner wall of the tangential split cylinder is in the situation that compressive stress is distributed in the axial, radial, and tangential directions. It is similar to the condition of hydrostatic pressure, and it is the best condition for tungsten carbide materials. The experimental results also verify that the tangential split die can bear the highest chamber pressure. Therefore, the tangential split structure can increase the pressure bearing capacity significantly.

  13. Abrasive Wear Failure Analysis of Tungsten Carbide Hard facing on Carbon Steel Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Kamdi, Z.; Ismail, M. I.; Nagentrau, M.; Roslan, L. N. H.; Mohamad, Z.; Omar, A. S.; Latif, N. Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study investigate the abrasive wear failure of tungsten carbide hardfacing on continuous digester (CD) blade (carbon steel) in an environment of sulphuric acid and ilmenite ore mixture. Comparison being made on the hardness, thickness and microstructural of the hardfacing between unworn and 3 months old worn blade on few locations around the blade. The cross sections of the blade revealed non-uniform coverage of the hardfacing on the blade for both worn and unworn blade. The edge of the blade has the least amount of hardfacing thickness which with time acts as the point of failure during the wear process. The hardness obtained from both the unworn and worn samples are around 25% lower from the hardfacing electrode manufacturer’s hardness specification. Microstructural micrograph analysis of the hardfacing revealed non uniform size carbide with non-uniform distributed of carbide in the hardfacing layer.

  14. Investigation on the formation of tungsten carbide in tungsten-containing diamond like carbon coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strondl, C.; Carvalho, N.M.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Kolk, G.J. van der

    2003-01-01

    A series of tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (Me-DLC) coatings have been produced by unbalanced magnetron sputtering using a Hauzer HTC-1000 production PVD system. Sputtering from WC targets has been used to form W-C:H coatings. The metal to carbon ratio has been varied to study changes in

  15. Physical and Mechanical Properties of W-Ni-Fe-Co Metal Foam Modified by Titanium Tungsten Carbide Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, A. N.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Afanas'eva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Biryukov, Yu. A.; Burkin, V. V.; D'yachkovskii, A. S.; Rogaev, K. S.; Skosyrskii, A. B.; Yugov, N. T.

    2018-02-01

    The paper studies physical and mechanical properties of tungsten-nickel-iron-cobalt metal foam alloyed with titanium tungsten carbide. Test specimens are obtained by the liquid phase sintering of powder materials, including those containing tungsten nanopowders. High porosity metal foams are prepared through varying the porosity of powder specimens and the content of filling material. The penetration capability of cylinder projectiles made of new alloys is explored in this paper. It is shown that their penetration depth exceeds that of the prototype with relevant weight and size, made of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy, other factors being equal.

  16. Agglomeration of tungsten carbide nanoparticles in exposure medium does not prevent uptake and toxicity toward a rainbow trout gill cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Dana, E-mail: Dana.kuehnel@ufz.de [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Busch, Wibke [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Meissner, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Springer, Armin [Max Bergmann Centre of Biomaterials, Technical University Dresden, Budapester Strasse 27, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Potthoff, Annegret; Richter, Volkmar [Fraunhofer-Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Gelinsky, Michael [Max Bergmann Centre of Biomaterials, Technical University Dresden, Budapester Strasse 27, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Scholz, Stefan [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schirmer, Kristin [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-06-28

    Due to their increased production and use, engineered nanoparticles are expected to be released into the aquatic environment where particles may agglomerate. The aim of this study was to explore the role of agglomeration of nanoparticles in the uptake and expression of toxicity in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill cell line, RTgill-W1. This cell line was chosen as model because it is known to be amenable to culture in complete as well as greatly simplified exposure media. Nano-sized tungsten carbide (WC) with or without cobalt doping (WC-Co), two materials relevant in the heavy metal industry, were applied as model particles. These particles were suspended in culture media with decreasing complexity from L15 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to L15 to L15/ex, containing only salts, galactose and pyruvate of the complete medium L15. Whereas the serum supplement in L15 retained primary nanoparticle suspensions, agglomerates were formed quickly in L15 and L15/ex. Nevertheless, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis revealed an uptake of both WC and WC-Co nanoparticles into RTgill-W1 cells irrespective of the state of agglomeration of nanoparticles. The localisation seemed to be restricted to the cytoplasm, as no particles were observed in the nucleus of cells. Moreover, reduction in cell viability between 10 and 50% compared to controls were observed upon particle exposure in all media although the pattern of impact varied depending on the medium and exposure time. Short-term exposure of cells led to significant cytotoxicity at the highest nominal particle concentrations, irrespective of the particle type or exposure medium. In contrast, long-term exposures led to preferential toxicity in the simplest medium, L15/ex, and an enhanced toxicity by the cobalt-containing WC nanoparticles in all exposure media. The composition of the exposure media also influenced the toxicity of the cobalt ions, which may

  17. Growth and tribological properties of diamond films on silicon and tungsten carbide substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, R.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique was used to deposit microcrystalline diamond (MCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on silicon (Si) and tungsten carbide (WC-6Co) substrates. Friction coefficient of larger diamond grains deposited on WC-6Co substrate shows less value approximately 0.2 while this differs marginally on films grown on Si substrate. The study claims that for a less friction coefficient, the grain size is not necessarily smaller. However, the less friction coefficient (less than 0.1 saturated value) in MCD and NCD deposited on Si is explained by the formation of graphitized tribolayer. This layer easily forms when diamond phase is thermodynamically unstable.

  18. Single-Crystal Tungsten Carbide in High-Temperature In-Situ Additive Manufacturing Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolopus, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boatner, Lynn A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Nanoindenters are commonly used for measuring the mechanical properties of a wide variety of materials with both industrial and scientific applications. Typically, these instruments employ an indenter made of a material of suitable hardness bonded to an appropriate shaft or holder to create an indentation on the material being tested. While a variety of materials may be employed for the indenter, diamond and boron carbide are by far the most common materials used due to their hardness and other desirable properties. However, as the increasing complexity of new materials demands a broader range of testing capabilities, conventional indenter materials exhibit significant performance limitations. Among these are the inability of diamond indenters to perform in-situ measurements at temperatures above 600oC in air due to oxidation of the diamond material and subsequent degradation of the indenters mechanical properties. Similarly, boron carbide also fails at high temperature due to fracture. [1] Transition metal carbides possess a combination of hardness and mechanical properties at high temperatures that offer an attractive alternative to conventional indenter materials. Here we describe the technical aspects for the growth of single-crystal tungsten carbide (WC) for use as a high-temperature indenter material, and we examine a possible approach to brazing these crystals to a suitable mount for grinding and attachment to the indenter instrument. The use of a by-product of the recovery process is also suggested as possibly having commercial value.

  19. Formation of tungsten carbide nanoparticles on graphitized carbon to facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zaoxue; He, Guoqiang; Cai, Mei; Meng, Hui; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-11-01

    Tungsten carbide nanoparticles with the average size less than 5 nm uniformly dispersed on the graphitized carbon matrix have been successfully synthesized by a one-step ion-exchange method. This route is to locally anchor the interested species based on an ionic level exchange process using ion-exchange resin. The advantage of this method is the size control of targeted nanomaterial as well as the graphitization of resin at low temperatures catalyzed by iron salt. The Pt nanoparticles coupled with tungsten carbide nanoparticles on graphitized carbon nanoarchitecture form a stable electrocatalyst (Pt/WC-GC). The typical Pt/WC-GC electrocatalyst gives a Pt-mass activity of 247.7 mA mgPt-1, which is much higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst (107.1 mA mgPt-1) for oxygen reduction reaction due to the synergistic effect between Pt and WC. The presented method is simple and could be readily scaled up for mass production of the nanomaterials.

  20. Recent Advances in the Deposition of Diamond Coatings on Co-Cemented Tungsten Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Polini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-cemented tungsten carbides, namely, hard metals are largely used to manufacture high wear resistant components in several manufacturing segments. Coating hard metals with superhard materials like diamond is of utmost interest as it can further extend their useful lifespan. The deposition of diamond coatings onto WC-Co can be extremely complicated as a result of poor adhesion. This can be essentially ascribed to (i the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients between diamond and WC-Co, at the typical high temperatures inside the chemical vapour deposition (CVD chamber, generates large residual stresses at the interface; (ii the role of surface Co inside the WC-Co matrix during diamond CVD, which promotes carbon dissolution and diffusion. The present investigation reviews the techniques by which Co-cemented tungsten carbides can be treated to make them prone to receive diamond coatings by CVD. Further, it proposes interesting ecofriendly and sustainable alternatives to further improve the diamond deposition process as well as the overall performance of the coated hard metals.

  1. HVOF and HVAF Coatings of Agglomerated Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Powders for Water Droplet Erosion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasi, F.; Mahdipoor, M. S.; Dolatabadi, A.; Medraj, M.; Moreau, C.

    2016-12-01

    Water droplet erosion (WDE) is a phenomenon caused by impingement of water droplets of several hundred microns to a few millimeters diameter at velocities of hundreds of meters per second on the edges and surfaces of the parts used in such services. The solution to this problem is sought especially for the moving compressor blades in gas turbines and those operating at the low-pressure end of steam turbines. Thermal-sprayed tungsten carbide-based coatings have been the focus of many studies and are industrially accepted for a multitude of wear and erosion resistance applications. In the present work, the microstructure, phase analysis and mechanical properties (micro-hardness and fracture toughness) of WC-Co coatings are studied in relation with their influence on the WDE resistance of such coatings. The coatings are deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) processes. The agglomerated tungsten carbide-cobalt powders were in either sintered or non-sintered conditions. The WDE tests were performed using 0.4 mm water droplets at 300 m/s impact velocity. The study shows promising results for this cermet as WDE-resistant coating when the coating can reach its optimum quality using the right thermal spray process and parameters.

  2. The strength and rheology of commercial tungsten carbide cermets used in high-pressure apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting, Ivan C.; Chen, Ganglin; Brown, Jennifer A.

    1993-06-01

    Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves have been measured on a suite of 26 commercial grades of tungsten carbide cermets and three maraging steels of interest for use in high-pressure apparatus. Tests were conducted on cylindrical specimens with a length to diameter ratio of two. Load was applied to the specimens by tungsten carbide anvils padded by extrudable lead disks. Interference fit binding rings of maraging steel were pressed on to the ends of the specimens to inhibit premature corner fractures. Bonded resistance strain gages were used to measure both axial and tangential strains. Deformation was exremely uniform in the central, gauged portion of the specimens. Tests were conducted at a constant engineering strain rate of 1×10-5s-1. The composition of the specimens was principally WC/Co with minor amounts of other carbides in some cases. The Co weight fraction ranged from 2 to 15%. Observed compressive strengths ranged from about 4 to just above 8 GPa. Axial strain amplitude at failure varied from ˜1.5% to ˜9%. Representative stress-strain curves and a ranking of the grades in terms of yield strength and strain at failure are presented. A power law strain hardening relation and the Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain equation were fit to the data. Fits were very good for both functions to axial strain amplitudes of about 2%. The failure of these established functions is accompanied by an abrupt change in the trend of volumetric strain consistent with the onset of substantial microcrack volume.

  3. Effect of bond coat and preheat on the microstructure, hardness, and porosity of flame sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Rooscote, Didi

    2017-06-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are used to improve the surface properties of tool steel materials. Bond coatings are commonly used as intermediate layers deposited on steel substrates (i.e. H13 tool steel) before the top coat is applied in order to enhance a number of critical performance criteria including adhesion of a barrier coating, limiting atomic migration of the base metal, and corrosion resistance. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the effect of nickel bond coat and preheats temperatures (i.e. 200°C, 300°C and 400°C) on microstructure, hardness, and porosity of tungsten carbide coatings sprayed by flame thermal coating. Micro-hardness, porosity and microstructure of tungsten carbide coatings are evaluated by using micro-hardness testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that nickel bond coatings reduce the susceptibility of micro crack formation at the bonding area interfaces. The percentage of porosity level on the tungsten carbide coatings with nickel bond coat decreases from 5.36 % to 2.78% with the increase of preheat temperature of the steel substrate of H13 from 200°C to 400°C. The optimum hardness of tungsten carbide coatings is 1717 HVN in average resulted from the preheat temperature of 300°C.

  4. Laboratory analysis of dental sections made with commercial tungsten carbide burs coated with HFCVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, F [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta (Chile); Aguilera, Y [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta (Chile); Avaria, J [Departamento de OdontologIa, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta (Chile)], E-mail: fdmaass@uantof.cl

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cutting power of diamond burs obtained by the HFCVD deposition process. Diamond was deposited on the active part of each of a series of 10 commonly used Tungsten Carbide (WC) commercial burs. The quality of the section was compared with sections made by commonly used commercial burs, employing fresh human molars and a standard device [1]. Both burs and sections were analysed by using SEM and EDX techniques. The quality and tension of the deposited diamond coatings were analyzed by Raman Spectroscopy. The optimal thickness of the diamond coating which provided the best durability and finish of the sections was determined by comparative observations of results.

  5. Optimization of Tungsten Carbide Opposite Anvils Used in the In Situ High-Pressure Loading Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the structure of anvils, finite element method is used to simulate two kinds of structures, one of which has a support ring but the other one does not. According to the simulated results, it is found that the maximum value of pressure appears at the center of culet when the bevelled angle is about 20°. Comparing the results of these two kinds of structures, we find that the efficiency of pressure transformation for the structure without support ring is larger than that for the structure with support ring. Considering the effect of von Mises stress, two kinds of tungsten carbide opposite anvils have been manufactured with bevelled angle of 10°. The experimental results for these two anvils are in good agreement with the simulation.

  6. Expansion into vacuum of a shocked tungsten carbide-epoxy mixture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott

    2009-03-01

    The behavior of a shocked tungsten carbide / epoxy mixture as it expands into a vacuum has been studied through a combination of experiments and simulations. X-ray radiography of the expanding material as well as the velocity measured for a stood-off witness late are used to understand the physics of the problem. The initial shock causes vaporization of the epoxy matrix, leading to a multi-phase flow situation as the epoxy expands rapidly at around 8 km/s followed by the WC particles moving around 3 km/s. There are also small amounts of WC moving at higher velocities, apparently due to jetting in the sample. These experiments provide important data about the multi-phase flow characteristics of this material.

  7. Enhancement in Tribological and Mechanical Properties of Cemented Tungsten Carbide Substrates using CVD-diamond Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Najar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the influence on the performance characteristics of a cutting tool material notably known as cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co. A comparison has been documented between nanocrystalline diamond (NCD and microcrystalline diamond (MCD coatings deposited on two cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co substrates with the architectures of WC-Co/NCD and WC-Co/MCD, using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD technique. In the present work, the friction characteristics were studied using ball-on-disc type linear reciprocating micro-tribometer, under the application of 1–10 N normal loads, when sliding against smooth alumina (Al2O3 ceramic ball for the total duration of 20 min, under dry sliding condition. Nanoindentation tests were also conducted using Berkovich nanoindenter for the purpose of measurement of hardness and elastic modulus values. However, the average value of friction coefficient (COF corresponding to MCD and NCD coatings decrease from ~0.37–0.32 and ~0.30–0.27, respectively when the load is increased from 1–10 N. However, for conventional WC-Co substrate the average COF increases from ~0.60–0.75, under the same input operating conditions. The wear tracks formed on the surfaces of NCD, MCD and WC-Co, after sliding were characterised using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Therefore, the results will serve breakthrough information for the designer to design the cutting tool or mechanical component using this novel coating procedure.

  8. Nanosized tungsten carbide synthesized by a novel route at low temperature for high performance electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zaoxue; Cai, Mei; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-04-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is a widely used engineering material which is usually prepared at high temperature. A new mechanism for synthesizing nanoscaled WC at ultralow temperature has been discovered. This discovery opens a novel route to synthesize valuable WC and other carbides at a cost-efficient way. The novel formation mechanism is based on an ion-exchange resin as carbon source to locally anchor the W and Fe species. As an intermediate, FeWO4 can be formed at lower temperature, which can be directly converted into WC along with the carbonization of resin. The size of WC can be less than 2 nm. The catalyst made with Pt nanoparticles supported on nanosized WC-GC (WC-graphitized carbon) shows enhanced electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The result also indicates that the Pt nanoparticles deposited on WC-GC are dominated by Pt (111) plane and shows a mass activity of 257.7 mA mg-1Pt@0.9 V.

  9. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Otruba, Vitezslav [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz

    2006-05-15

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm{sup 3}) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between {+-} 3% and {+-} 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed

  10. High Surface Area Tungsten Carbides: Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity towards the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Phosphoric Acid at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás García, Antonio Luis; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten carbide powders were synthesized as a potential electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction in phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures. With ammonium metatungstate as the precursor, two synthetic routes with and without carbon templates were investigated. Through the intermediate...... nitride route and with carbon black as template, the obtained tungsten carbide samples had higher BET area. In 100% H3PO4 at temperatures up to 185°C, the carbide powders showed superior activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction. A deviation was found in the correlation between the BET area...

  11. Chemical vapour deposition diamond coating on tungsten carbide dental cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, H.; Ahmed, W.; Rego, C. A.; Jones, A. N.; Amar, M.; Jackson, M.; Polini, R.

    2003-10-01

    Diamond coatings on Co cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) hard metal tools are widely used for cutting non-ferrous metals. It is difficult to deposit diamond onto cutting tools, which generally have a complex geometry, using a single step growth process. This paper focuses on the deposition of polycrystalline diamond films onto dental tools, which possess 3D complex or cylindrical shape, employing a novel single step chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth process. The diamond deposition is carried out in a hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor with a modified filament arrangement. The filament is mounted vertically with the drill held concentrically in between the filament coils, as opposed to the commonly used horizontal arrangement. This is a simple and inexpensive filament arrangement. In addition, the problems associated with adhesion of diamond films on WC-Co substrates are amplified in dental tools due to the very sharp edges and unpredictable cutting forces. The presence of Co, used as a binder in hard metals, generally causes poor adhesion. The amount of metallic Co on the surface can be reduced using a two step pre-treatment employing Murakami etching followed by an acid treatment. Diamond films are examined in terms of their growth rate, morphology, adhesion and cutting efficiency. We found that in the diamond coated dental tool the wear rate was reduced by a factor of three as compared to the uncoated tool.

  12. Ultralarge Bending Strain and Fracture-Resistance Investigation of Tungsten Carbide Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Chen, Yanmao; Cui, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-08-01

    Hard tungsten carbide (WC) with brittle behavior is frequently applied for mechanical purposes. Here, ultralarge elastic bending deformation is reported in defect-rare WC [0001] nanowires; the tested bending strain reaches a maximum of 20% ± 3.33%, which challenges the traditional understanding of this material. The lattice analysis indicates that the dislocations are confined to the inner part of the WC nanowires. First, the high Peierls-Nabarro barrier hinders the movement of the locally formed dislocations, which causes rapid dislocation aggregation and hinders long-range glide, resulting in a dense distribution of the dislocation network. In this case, the loading is dispersed along multiple points, which is then balanced by the complex internal mechanical field. In the compressive part, the possible dislocations predominantly emerge in the (0001) plane and mainly slip along the axial direction. The disordered shell first forms at the tensile side and prevents the generation of nanocracks at the surface. The novel lattice kinetics make WC nanowires capable of substantial bending strain resistance. Analytical results of the force-displacement (F-d) curves based on the double-clamped beam model exhibit an obvious nonlinear elastic characteristic, which originates fundamentally from the lattice anharmonicity under moderate stress. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Anisotropic electrical transport of flexible tungsten carbide nanostructures: towards nanoscale interconnects and electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sun, Yong; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-11-01

    Due to the coexistence of metal- and ionic-bonds in a hexagonal tungsten carbide (WC) lattice, disparate electron behaviors were found in the basal plane and along the c-axial direction, which may create an interesting anisotropic mechanical and electrical performance. To demonstrate this, low-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires and nanosheets are suitable for investigation because they usually grow in single crystals with special orientations. Herein, we report the experimental research regarding the anisotropic conductivity of [0001] grown WC nanowires and basal plane-expanded nanosheets, which resulted in a conductivity of 7.86 × 103 Ω-1 · m-1 and 7.68 × 104 Ω-1 · m-1 respectively. This conforms to the fact that the highly localized W d state aligns along the c direction, while there is little intraplanar directional bonding in the W planes. With advanced micro-manipulation technology, the conductivity of a nanowire was tested to be approximately constant, even under a considerable bending state. Moreover, the field electron emission of WC was evaluated based on large area emission and single nanowire (nanosheet) emission. A single nanowire exhibits a stable electron emission performance, which can output emission currents >3 uA before fusing. These results provide useful references to assess low-dimensional WC nanostructures as electronic materials in flexible devices, such as nanoscale interconnects and electron emitters.

  14. The high performance of tungsten carbides/porous bamboo charcoals supported Pt catalysts for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-an; Xu, Chenbin; Shi, Meiqin; Song, Guanghui; Lang, Xiaoling

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a kind of environmental friendly and cost-effective bamboo charcoal (BC) is used as catalyst support in DMFCs instead of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which is toxic and expensive. After special treatments, we obtain a sponge-like three-dimensional (3D) BC, which can provide high specific surface area (1264.5 m2 g-1) and porous matrices. Then, tungsten carbide (WC) and Pt are loaded on the BCs with microwave-assisted technique and 3D structural Pt/WC/BCs electro-catalyst is finally fabricated. Subsequently, the catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the further electrochemical investigation, it was found that Pt/WC/BCs catalyst has higher performance (2.76 mA cm-2) and better CO-tolerance for methanol oxidation compared with Pt/WC/CNTs and commercial Pt/C. Herein, we believe that the as-synthesized 3D Pt/WC/BCs catalyst has great promising application in DMFCs.

  15. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A., E-mail: catledge@uab.edu

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A detailed phase analysis after PECVD boriding shows WCoB, CoB and/or W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2}. • EDS of PECVD borides shows boron diffusion into the carbide grain structure. • Nanoindentation hardness and modulus of borides is 23–27 GPa and 600–780 GPa. • Scratch testing shows hard coating with cracking at 40N and spallation at 70N. - Abstract: Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2} with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600–730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  16. Unusual dielectric response in cobalt doped reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Abu Jahid; Gupta, Abhisek; Kumar Shaw, Bikash; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2013-12-09

    Intensive research on cobalt doped reduced graphene oxide (Co-RGO) to investigate the modification in graphene magnetism and spin polarization due to presence of transition metal atom has been carried out, however, its dielectric spectroscopy, particularly, how capacitance changes with impurity levels in graphene is relatively unexplored. In the present work, dielectric spectroscopy along with magneto-dielectric effect are investigated in Co-RGO. Contrary to other materials, here permittivity increases abruptly with frequency in the low frequency region and continues to increase till 10{sup 7} Hz. This unusual behavior is explained on the basis of trap induced capacitance created due to impurity levels.

  17. Valorization of Lignin to Simple Phenolic Compounds over Tungsten Carbide: Impact of Lignin Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiwei; Zhang, Bo; Qi, Zaojuan; Li, Changzhi; Ji, Jianwei; Dai, Tao; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao

    2017-02-08

    Lignins isolated from representative hardwood, softwood, and grass materials were effectively hydrocracked to aromatics catalyzed by tungsten carbide over activated carbon (W2 C/AC). The effects of botanical species and fractionation methods on lignin structure and the activity of W2 C/AC were studied in detail. Gas permeation chromatography (GPC), FTIR, elemental analysis, and 2 D HSQC NMR showed that all the extracted samples shared the basic skeleton of lignin, whereas the fractionation method significantly affected the structure. The organosolv process provided lignin with a structure more similar to the native lignin, which was labile to be depolymerized by W2 C/AC. Softwood lignins (i.e., spruce and pine) possessed higher molecular weights than hardwood lignins (i.e., poplar and basswood); whereas corn stalk lignin that has noncanonical subunits and exhibited the lowest molecular weight owing to its shorter growth period. β-O-4 bonds were the major linkages in all lignin samples, whereas softwood lignins contained more resistant linkages of β-5 and less β-β than corn stalk and hardwood lignins; as a result, lowest hydrocracking efficiency was obtained in softwood lignins, followed by corn stalk and hardwood lignins. 2 D HSQC NMR spectra of lignin and the liquid oil as well as the solid residue showed that W2 C/AC exhibited high activity not only in β-O-4 cleavage, but also in deconstruction of other ether linkages between aromatic units, so that high yield of liquid oil was obtained from lignin. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effect of CVD-diamond coatings on the tribological performance of cemented tungsten carbide substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleem Ahmad Najar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison has been documented between nanocrystalline diamond (NCD and microcrystalline diamond (MCD coatings deposited on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co substrates with architectures of WC-Co/NCD & WC-Co/MCD, using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD technique. In the present work, the frictional characteristics were studied using ball-on-disc type linear reciprocating micro-tribometer, under the application of 1–10N normal loads, when sliding against smooth alumina (Al2O3 ceramic ball for the total duration of 15min, under dry sliding conditions. Nanoindentation tests were also conducted using Berkovich nanoindenter for the purpose of measurement of hardness and elastic modulus values. The average coefficients of friction of MCD and NCD coatings decrease from 0.37 – 0.32 and 0.3 – 0.27 respectively, when the load is increased from 1–10N. However, for conventional WC-Co substrate the average coefficient of friction increases from 0.60–0.75, under the same input operating conditions. The wear tracks formed on the surfaces of CVD-diamond coatings and WC-Co substrate, after friction measurement were characterised using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. However, the compositional analysis for the formation of tribo-layer observed on the wear tracks of CVD-diamond coatings was confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS technique. Therefore, maintaining an appropriate level of normal load and using appropriate type of diamond coating, friction may be kept to some lower value to improve mechanical processes.

  19. Stability of the tungsten diselenide and silicon carbide heterostructure against high energy proton exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Roger C.; Shi, Tan; Jariwala, Bhakti; Jovanovic, Igor; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2017-10-01

    Single layers of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) can be used to construct ultra-thin, high-performance electronics. Additionally, there has been considerable progress in controlled and direct growth of single layers on various substrates. Based on these results, high-quality WSe2-based devices that approach the limit of physical thickness are now possible. Such devices could be useful for space applications, but understanding how high-energy radiation impacts the properties of WSe2 and the WSe2/substrate interface has been lacking. In this work, we compare the stability against high energy proton radiation of WSe2 and silicon carbide (SiC) heterostructures generated by mechanical exfoliation of WSe2 flakes and by direct growth of WSe2 via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These two techniques produce WSe2/SiC heterostructures with distinct differences due to interface states generated during the MOCVD growth process. This difference carries over to differences in band alignment from interface states and the ultra-thin nature of the MOCVD-grown material. Both heterostructures are not susceptible to proton-induced charging up to a dose of 1016 protons/cm2, as measured via shifts in the binding energy of core shell electrons and a decrease in the valence band offset. Furthermore, the MOCVD-grown material is less affected by the proton exposure due to its ultra-thin nature and a greater interaction with the substrate. These combined effects show that the directly grown material is suitable for multi-year use in space, provided that high quality devices can be fabricated from it.

  20. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Roy, Bibhas; Agarwal, Tarun; Giri, Supratim; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S; Maiti, Tapas K; Banerjee, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic-osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co(2+)) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP-OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic-osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microstructural and Mechanical Study of Inconel 625 – Tungsten Carbide Composite Coatings Obtained by Powder Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huebner J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the investigation of fine (~0.54 μm tungsten carbide particles effect on structural and mechanical properties of laser cladded Inconel 625-WC composite. Three powder mixtures with different Inconel 625 – WC weight ratio (10, 20 and 30 weight % of WC were prepared. Coatings were made using following process parameters: laser beam diameter ø ≈ 500 μm, powder feeder rotation speed – 7 m/min, scanning velocity – 10 m/min, laser power – 220 W changed to 320 W, distance between tracks – 1 mm changed to 0.8 mm. Microstructure and hardness were investigated. Coatings produced by laser cladding were crack and pore free, chemically and structurally homogenous. High cooling rate during cladding process resulted in fine microstructure of material. Hardness improved with addition of WC from 396.3 ±10.5 HV for pure Inconel 625, to 469.9 ±24.9 HV for 30 weight % of WC. Tungsten carbide dissolved in Inconel 625 which allowed formation of intergranular eutectic that contains TCP phases.

  2. Evaluation of the apoptogenic potential of hard metal dust (WC-Co), tungsten carbide and metallic cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaert, Noömi; De Boeck, Marlies; Decordier, Ilse; Cundari, Enrico; Lison, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2004-12-01

    The present study aimed at comparing in vitro the apoptogenic properties of metallic cobalt (Co), tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) in conditions known to cause genotoxicity. Human peripheral blood mononucleated cells were incubated with 2.0-6.0 microg/ml of Co alone or mixed with WC particles and 33.3-100.0 microg/ml WC alone for up to 24 h. Under these culture conditions the majority (60%) of the cobalt metal particles were almost immediately solubilised in the culture medium, while WC remained under the form of particles that were progressively phagocytosed by monocytes. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V staining, flow cytometry and analysis of DNA fragmentation by ELISA. Metallic Co-particles induced apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, although so far considered as biologically inert, WC particles also induced apoptosis. When compared with its individual components WC-Co displayed an additive apoptotic effect in the DNA fragmentation assay. Apoptosis induced by WC particles was found largely dependent on caspase-9 activation and occurred presumably in monocytes, while that induced by Co involved both caspase-9 and -8 activation. The data suggest that apoptosis induced by the tested WC-Co mixture results from the additive effects of WC apoptosis induced in monocytes and Co-specific apoptosis in both monocytes and lymphocytes. The apoptogenic properties of these metals may be important in the mechanism of lung pathologies induced by the cobalt-containing particles.

  3. Tungsten Carbide: A Remarkably Efficient Catalyst for the Selective Cleavage of Lignin C-O Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiwei; Zhang, Bo; Li, Changzhi; Peng, Chang; Dai, Tao; Xie, Haibo; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-11-23

    A remarkably effective method for the chemoselective cleavage of the C-O bonds of typical β-O-4 model compounds and the deconstruction of lignin feedstock was developed by using tungsten carbide as the catalyst. High yields of C-O cleavage products (up to 96.8 %) from model compounds and liquid oils (up to 70.7 %) from lignin feedstock were obtained under low hydrogen pressure (0.69 MPa) in methanol. The conversion efficiency was determined to a large extent by solvent effects and was also affected by both the electronic and steric effects of the lignin model compounds. In situ W2 C/activated carbon (AC)-catalyzed hydrogen transfer from methanol to the substrate was proposed to be responsible for the high performance in methanol solvent. The conversion of 2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1-phenylethanol showed that the catalyst could be reused five times without a significant loss in activity for C-O bond cleavage, whereas the selectivity to value-added styrene increased markedly owing to partial oxidation of the W2 C phase according to X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy characterization. 2 D-HSQC-NMR spectroscopy analysis showed that W2 C/AC exhibited high activity not only for β-O-4 cleavage but also for the deconstruction of more resistant α-O-4 and β-β linkages, so that a high yield of liquid oil was obtained from lignin. Corn stalk lignin was more liable to be depolymerized than birch lignin owing to its loosened structure (scanning electron microscopy results), larger surface area (BET results), and lower molecular weight (gel-permeation chromatography results), whereas its liquid oil composition was more complicated than that of birch wood lignin in that the former lignin contained more p-hydroxyphenyl units and the former contained noncanonical units. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Roy, Bibhas [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Agarwal, Tarun [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Giri, Supratim [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S. [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Maiti, Tapas K. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Banerjee, Indranil, E-mail: indraniliit@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic–osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP–OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic–osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Cobalt (Co{sup +2}) doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAp) can be prepared by the wet chemical method. • The concentration of Co{sup +2} influences the physico-chemical properties of HAp. • Co-HAp was found to be biocompatible and osteogenic. • Co-HAp enhanced cellular VEGF secretion through HIF-1α stabilization. • The optimum biological performance of Co-HAp was achieved for 0.33% (w/w) Co{sup +2} doping.

  5. A Hard Sell: Factors Influencing the Interwar Adoption of Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tools in Germany, Britain, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Hermione

    2015-10-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide cutting tools-virtually unknown to historians-came on the market in the late 1920s. Although existing literature alleges that their adoption was rapid and universal, contemporary data indicate that the rate of adoption in fact took many decades and varied greatly between the world's three leading industrialized economies of the time: Germany, England, and the United States. This article suggests that the explanation lies in differing national environments for innovation in the interwar period. It looks at many features that influence adoption by users and argues that the feature emphasized in the literature, increased cutting speed, was not the primary consideration behind adoption, but rather metal shortages. It thereby casts doubt on what measures of national productivity show. The case raises important questions about the use of production efficiency to make international comparisons and about the role of patent monopolies in introducing production innovations.

  6. XPS study of surface chemistry of tungsten carbides nanopowders produced through DC thermal plasma/hydrogen annealing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovskii, Pavel V.; Malinovskaya, Olga S.; Samokhin, Andrey V.; Blagoveshchenskiy, Yury V.; Kazakov, Valery А.; Ashmarin, Artem А.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been employed to characterize the surface composition and bonding of the tungsten carbides nanopowders produced through a DC thermal plasma/hydrogen annealing process. The XPS results were complemented with those from Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and evolved gas analysis. The products of the DC plasma synthesis are the high-surface-area multicarbide mixtures composed mainly of crystalline WC1-x and W2C. The materials are contaminated with a pyrolitic carbonaceous deposit which forms ∼1 nm thick graphitic overlayers on the nanoparticles' surface. The underlying carbides are not oxidized in ambient air, and show no interfacial compounds underneath the graphitic overlayers. When annealed in hydrogen, the multicarbide mixtures undergo transformation into the single-phase WC nanopowders with an average particle size of 50-60 nm. The surface of the passivated and air-exposed WC nanopowders is stabilized by an ultrathin, no more than 0.5 nm in thickness, chemically heterogeneous overlayer, involving graphitic, carbon-to-oxygen, and WO3 bonding. Oxygen presents at coverages above a monolayer preferentially in the bonding configurations with carbon. The surface segregations of carbon are normally observed, even when the bulk content of carbon is below the stoichiometric level.

  7. Ultraviolet-Diode Pump Solid State Laser Removal of Titanium Aluminium Nitride Coating from Tungsten Carbide Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Tian Long; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Royer, Raphael; Metsios, Ioannis; Antar, Mohammad; Marimuthu, Sundar

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coating removal from tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate using a diode pump solid state (DPSS) ultraviolet (UV) laser with maximum average power of 90 W, wavelength of 355 nm and pulse width of 50 ns. The TiAlN coating of 1.5 μm thickness is removed from the WC-Co substrate with laser fluence of 2.71 J/cm2 at 285.6 number of pulses (NOP) and with NOP of 117.6 at 3.38 J/cm2 fluence. Titanium oxide formation was observed on the ablated surface due to the re-deposition of ablated titanium residue and also attributed to the high temperature observed during the laser ablation process. Crack width of around 0.2 μm was observed over both TiAlN coating and WC-Co substrate. The crack depth ranging from 1 to 10 μm was observed and is related to the thickness of the melted carbide. The crack formation is a result of the thermal induced stresses caused by the laser beam interaction with the material as well as the higher thermal conductivity of cobalt compared to WC. Two cleaning regions are observed and is a consequence of the Gaussian distribution of the laser beam energy. The surface roughness of the ablated WC-Co increased with increasing laser fluence and NOP.

  8. Cobalt-doped nanohydroxyapatite: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and hemolytic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tank, Kashmira P., E-mail: kashmira_physics@yahoo.co.in [Saurashtra University, Crystal Growth Laboratory, Physics Department (India); Chudasama, Kiran S.; Thaker, Vrinda S. [Saurashtra University, Bioscience Department (India); Joshi, Mihir J., E-mail: mshilp24@rediffmail.com [Saurashtra University, Crystal Growth Laboratory, Physics Department (India)

    2013-05-15

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}; HAP) is a major mineral component of the calcified tissues, and it has various applications in medicine and dentistry. In the present investigation, cobalt-doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAP) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-mediated approach and characterized by different techniques. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the amount of doping in Co-HAP. The transmission electron microscopy result suggested the transformation of morphology from needle shaped to spherical type on increasing the doping concentration. The powder XRD study indicated the formation of a new phase of brushite for higher concentration of cobalt. The average particle size and strain were calculated using Williamson-Hall analysis. The average particle size was found to be 30-60 nm. The FTIR study confirmed the presence of various functional groups in the samples. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against four organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri as Gram negative as well as Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram positive. The hemolytic test result suggested that all samples were non-hemolytic. The photoluminescence study was carried out to identify its possible applicability as a fluorescent probe.

  9. Structure and property evaluation of a vacuum plasma sprayed nanostructured tungsten-hafnium carbide bulk composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, K. E.; Viswanathan, V.; Kruize, A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; O'Dell, S.; McKechnie, T.; Rajagopalan, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Seal, S.; O’Dell, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) forming of tungsten-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMCs) has shown to be a cost effective and time saving method for the formation of bulk monolithic nanostructured then no-mechanical components. Spray drying of powder feedstock appears to have a significant effect on

  10. Exploration on Wire Discharge Machining Added Powder for Metal-Based Diamond Grinding Wheel on Wire EDM Dressing and Truing of Grinding Tungsten Carbide Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, H. M.; Yang, L. D.; Lin, Y. C.; Lin, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of material removal rate and abrasive grain protrusion on the metal-based diamond grinding wheel were studied to find the optimal parameters for adding powder and wire discharge. In addition, this kind of electric discharge method to add powder on the metal-based diamond grinding wheel on line after dressing and truing will be applied on tungsten carbide to study the grinding material removal rate, grinding wheel wear, surface roughness, and surface micro-hardness.

  11. Variation of index of refraction in cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Amrit; Hari, Parameswar

    2017-10-01

    One dimensional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated using a low temperature chemical bath deposition technique. The ZnO nanorods were doped with cobalt using cobalt nitrate with cobalt concentration varying from 0% to 9%. The scanning electron microscope images of the nanostructures indicate that the diameter of ZnO nanorods increased with the increase in cobalt doping concentration. The optical characterizations of the doped and undoped samples were performed by investigating the variation in the band gap, the Urbach energy, the index of refraction, and the extinction coefficient with cobalt concentration. The dispersion of index of refraction in cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures was modeled based on the Wemple DiDomenico single oscillator model. The interband oscillator energy and the dispersion energy were estimated for different cobalt doped ZnO nanorod samples based on this model.

  12. Catalytic activity of tungsten carbide-carbon (WC@C) core-shell structured for ethanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Gourav, E-mail: gsinghla@gmail.com; Singh, K., E-mail: kusingh@thapar.edu; Pandey, O.P., E-mail: oppandey@thapar.edu

    2017-01-15

    In this study, carbon coated WC (WC@C) was synthesized through solvothermal reactions in the presence of reducing agent magnesium (Mg) by employing tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) as a precursor, acetone (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O) as a carbon source. The formation of WC@C nano particles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the synthesized powder examined in air shows its stability up to 550 °C. In this method, in-situ produced outer carbon layer increase the surface area of materials which is 52.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with pore volume 0.213 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. The Electrocatalytic activity of ethanol oxidation on a synthesized sample with and without Pt nano particles have been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV results show the enhancement in oxidation stability of WC@C in acidic media as well as better CO-tolerance for ethanol oxidation after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles as compared to without Pt nano particles. - Highlights: • Tungsten carbide nano powder was synthesized using acetone as carbon source. • In-situ produced outer carbon layer increase the surface area of materials. • Mesoporous WC with surface areas 52.6 m{sup 2}/g obtained. • Pt modified WC powder showed higher electrochemical stability. • Better CO-tolerance for ethanol oxidation after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles.

  13. Methanol electro-oxidation on platinum modified tungsten carbides in direct methanol fuel cells: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Hu, P; Sun, Shi-Gang; Chu, You-Qun; Ma, Chun-An; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2015-10-14

    In exploration of low-cost electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), Pt modified tungsten carbide (WC) materials are found to be great potential candidates for decreasing Pt usage whilst exhibiting satisfactory reactivity. In this work, the mechanisms, onset potentials and activity for electrooxidation of methanol were studied on a series of Pt-modified WC catalysts where the bare W-terminated WC(0001) substrate was employed. In the surface energy calculations of a series of Pt-modified WC models, we found that the feasible structures are mono- and bi-layer Pt-modified WCs. The tri-layer Pt-modified WC model is not thermodynamically stable where the top layer Pt atoms tend to accumulate and form particles or clusters rather than being dispersed as a layer. We further calculated the mechanisms of methanol oxidation on the feasible models via methanol dehydrogenation to CO involving C-H and O-H bonds dissociating subsequently, and further CO oxidation with the C-O bond association. The onset potentials for the oxidation reactions over the Pt-modified WC catalysts were determined thermodynamically by water dissociation to surface OH* species. The activities of these Pt-modified WC catalysts were estimated from the calculated kinetic data. It has been found that the bi-layer Pt-modified WC catalysts may provide a good reactivity and an onset oxidation potential comparable to pure Pt and serve as promising electrocatalysts for DMFCs with a significant decrease in Pt usage.

  14. Plasma Spraying and Characterization of Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Coatings by the Water-Stabilized System WSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ctibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt powders (WC-17wt% Co were plasma sprayed by a water-stabilized system WSP. Experiments with variable feeding distances and spray distances were carried out. Thinner coatings were deposited on carbon steel substrates and thicker coatings on stainless steel substrates to compare different cooling conditions. Basic characterization of coatings was done by XRD, SEM, and light microscopy plus image analysis. Microhardness was measured on polished cross-sections. The main focus of investigation was resistance against wear in dry as well as wet conditions. The appropriate tests were performed with set-ups based on ASTM G65 and G75, respectively. The influence of spray parameters onto coating wear performance was observed. The results of mechanical tests were discussed in connection with changes of phase composition and with the quality of the coating's microstructure. The results show that for obtaining the best possible WC-17Co coating with WSP process, from the viewpoint of wear resistance, the desired parameters combination is long feeding distance combined with short spray distance.

  15. Cobalt-doped graphitic carbon nitride photocatalysts with high activity for hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pei-Wen; Li, Kui; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-De, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Cobalt-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Co−CN) was synthesized by one-step thermal polycondensation using cobalt phthalocyanine and melamine as precursors. The obtained photocatalysts display high and stable activity for photocatalytic generation of hydrogen through water splitting. - Highlights: • Cobalt-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts were prepared. • High and stable visible light photocatalytic activity for H{sub 2} evolution. • Efficient separation and transfer of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. - Abstract: Cobalt-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Co−CN) was synthesized by one-step thermal polycondensation using cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and melamine as precursors. The π-π interaction between melamine and CoPc promotes cobalt doping into the framework of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The prepared samples were carefully characterized and the results demonstrated that Co-doped graphitic carbon nitride inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride (CN), leading to larger specific surface area (33.1 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and abundant Co-N{sub x} active sites, narrower band gap energy and more efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. 0.46% Co−CN exhibited higher hydrogen evolution rate (28.0 μmol h{sup −1}) under visible light irradiation, which is about 3.0 times of that over the pure CN and about 2.2 times of that over cobalt-doped CN using CoCl{sub 2} ∙ 6H{sub 2}O as a cobalt source. This study provides a valuable strategy to modify CN with enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  16. Microstructural, phase evolution and corrosion properties of silicon carbide reinforced pulse electrodeposited nickel–tungsten composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Swarnima; Sribalaji, M. [Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Navin Government Polytechnic Campus, Patliputra Colony, Patna, Bihar 800013 (India); Wasekar, Nitin P.; Joshi, Srikant; Sundararajan, G. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI) Hyderabad, Balapur P.O., Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500005 (India); Singh, Raghuvir [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831007 (India); Keshri, Anup Kumar, E-mail: anup@iitp.ac.in [Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Navin Government Polytechnic Campus, Patliputra Colony, Patna, Bihar 800013 (India)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pulse electrodeposited Ni–W–SiC coating has been synthesized successfully. • Dome to turtle like structure has been observed on addition of SiC in Ni–W coating. • Formation of W(Ni) solid solution was observed on adding 5 g/l SiC in Ni–W coating. • Corrosion resistance improved for Ni–W–5 g/l SiC coating. • Texture formation and continuous barrier layer enhanced the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) reinforced nickel–tungsten (Ni–W) coatings were successfully fabricated on steel substrate by pulse electrodeposition method (PED) and the amount of SiC was varied as 0 g/l, 2 g/l, and 5 g/l in Ni–W coating. Effect of subsequent addition of SiC on microstructures, phases and on corrosion property of the coating was investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) image of the surface morphology of the coating showed the transformation from the dome like structure to turtle shell like structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of Ni–W–5 g/l SiC showed the disappearance of (220) plane of Ni(W), peak splitting in major peak of Ni(W) and formation of distinct peak of W(Ni) solid solution. Absence of (220) plane, peak splitting and presence of W(Ni) solid solution was explained by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. Tafel polarization plot was used to study the corrosion property of the coatings in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Ni–W–5 g/l SiC coating was showed higher corrosion resistance (i.e. ∼21% increase in corrosion potential, E{sub corr}) compared to Ni–W coating. Two simultaneous phenomena have been identified for the enhanced corrosion resistance of Ni–W–5 g/l SiC coating. (a) Presence of crystallographic texture (b) formation of continuous double barrier layer of NiWO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2}.

  17. Anti-microbial activity of cobalt doped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Targeting water borne bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Oves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were chemically synthesized with cobalt doping and characterized through UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX techniques. Cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles were found to be crystalline having a single phase as confirmed by XRD and SEM. It has been observed that the increase in the percentage of Co from 0% to 5% in ZnO, increases the crystallite size from 20.5 to 25.7 nm and accordingly its band gap varies from 3.22 to 3.30 eV. After treatment morphology of materials was changed from rod to spherical shaped. Further these nanomaterials were applied as a bactericidal agent to control water borne bacterial pathogen. Cobalt doping on zinc oxide and exposure of sunlight enhanced the antibacterial activity against water borne bacterial isolate at 50 μg concentration. Interestingly, most effective bactericidal results were found against Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.

  18. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Cobalt Doped Nanostructured ZnO/p-Si Heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Amrit; Smith, Echo Adcock; Hari, Parameswar; Crunkleton, Daniel; Johannes, Tyler; Otanicar, Todd; Roberts, Kenneth

    In this study we investigated electrical and optical properties of heterojunctions made of cobalt doped ZnO nanorods and Boron doped silicon (p-Si). ZnO nanorods were grown on a seed layer of Zn sputtered on p-Si using a chemical bath deposition technique. Cobalt percentage in the ZnO were varied from 0-20%. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images indicate that the diameter of ZnO nanorods increased with higher cobalt doping. Room temperature photoluminescence shows an increase in the defect peak at 550 nm with increasing doping. Band gap was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy. In addition, we also performed current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage(C-V) measurements on ZnO/p-Si samples under both dark and illumination conditions. I-V characteristics show good rectifying behavior under dark and illumination conditions. The saturation current, diode ideality factor, carrier concentrations, built in potential, and barrier height were calculated from I-V and C-V measurements. We will discuss the implications of the band gap, I-V, and C-V measurements with variations in cobalt doping concentrations in ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions.

  19. Porous Iron-Tungsten Carbide Electrocatalyst with High Activity and Stability toward Oxygen Reduction Reaction: From the Self-Assisted Synthetic Mechanism to Its Active-Species Probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yilin; Xue, Hairong; Fan, Xiaoli; Guo, Hu; Xia, Wei; Gong, Hao; He, Jianping

    2017-02-01

    We synthesized a novel nonprecious metal electrocatalyst by pyrolysis of a colloid mixture consisting of a tungsten source and phenolic resin, with the simultaneous addition of ferric salt. The rationally designed electrocatalyst has a unique structure, with nanosized WC and Fe3W3C uniformly dispersed in a three-dimensional porous carbon framework. WC, which was thought difficult to produce, is successfully prepared at a relatively low temperature of about 750 °C at an inert atmosphere. XRD studies demonstrate the self-assisted effect of Fe, which accelerates the formation of WC, getting around the pathway of direct carbonaceous reduction of tungsten by carbon. The porous iron-tungsten carbide (Fe-W-C) nanocomposite as electrocatalyst shows excellent ORR activity with the onset and half-wave potentials of 0.864 and 0.727 V (vs RHE), respectively, which are close to those of Pt/C (0.976 and 0.820 V vs RHE). Electrochemical measurements show that Fe-W-C follows almost the effective four-electron-transfer pathway and would not be disturbed by methanol. The presence of a protective graphite shell outside the active carbide cores substantially improves the durability of the electrocatalyst. Both the removal of Fe species and the absence of W species would severely degrade the activity, while halide ions Cl- and sulfur-containing species SCN- can significantly suppress the ORR activity by the blocking of Fe species. These facts indicate that the ORR active species of Fe-W-C should be relevant to both W and Fe species.

  20. Microstructure and abrasive wear properties of M(Cr,Fe7C3 carbides reinforced high-chromium carbon coating produced by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner BUYTOZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, high-chromium ferrochromium carbon hypereutectic alloy powder was coated on AISI 4340 steel by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process. The coating layers were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Depending on the gas tungsten arc welding pa-rameters, either hypoeutectic or hypereutectic microstructures were produced. Wear tests of the coatings were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus as function of contact load. Wear rates of the all coating layers were decreased as a function of the loading. The improvement of abrasive wear resistance of the coating layer could be attributed to the high hardness of the hypereutectic M7C3 carbides in the microstruc-ture. As a result, the microstructure of surface layers, hardness and abrasive wear behaviours showed different characteristics due to the gas tungsten arc welding parameters.

  1. Polarization induced conductive AFM on cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pradosh Kumar; Mangamma, G.; Rajesh, A.; Kamruddin, M.; Dash, S.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work cobalt doped ZnO (CZO) nanostructures (NS) have been synthesized by of sol-gel and spin coating process. After the crystal phase confirmation by GIXRD and Raman spectroscopy, Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) measurement was performed on CZO NS which shows the random distribution of electrically conducting zones on the surface of the material exhibiting current in the range 4-170 pA. We provide the possible mechanisms for variation in current distribution essential for quantitative understanding of transport properties of ZnO NS in doped and undoped forms.

  2. Comparison of tungsten carbide and stainless steel ball bearings for grinding single maize kernels in a reciprocating grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reciprocating grinders can grind single maize kernels by shaking the kernel in a vial with a ball bearing. This process results in a grind quality that is not satisfactory for many experiments. Tungesten carbide ball bearings are nearly twice as dense as steel, so we compared their grinding performa...

  3. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation; Oberflaechenmodifikation des Hartmetalls Wolframkarbid-Kobalt durch Bor-Ionenimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-09-07

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and {approx}5.10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co{sub 3}W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load.

  4. Calcium- and Cobalt-doped Yttrium Chromites as an Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Cramer, Carolyn N.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Coffey, Greg W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2010-04-23

    The structural, thermal and electrical characteristics of calcium- and cobalt-doped yttrium chromites were studied for a potential use as the interconnect material in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as well as other high temperature electrochemical and thermoelectric devices. The Y0.8Ca0.2Cr1-xCoxO3±δ (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) compositions had single phase orthorhombic perovskite structures in the wide range of oxygen pressures. Sintering behavior was remarkably enhanced upon cobalt doping and densities 95% and 97% of theoretical density were obtained after sintering at 1300oC in air, when x was 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. The electrical conductivity in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres was significantly improved with cobalt content, and values of 49 and 10 S/cm at 850oC and 55 and 14 S/cm at 950oC in air and forming gas, respectively, were reported for x=0.2. The conductivity increase was attributed to the charge carrier density increase upon cobalt substitution for chromium confirmed with Seebeck measurements. The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) was increased with cobalt content and closely matched to that of an 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte for 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. The chemical compatibility between Y0.8Ca0.2Cr1-xCoxO3±δ and YSZ was evaluated firing the two at 1400oC and no reaction products were found if x value was kept lower than 0.2.

  5. Effects of Increasing Feed Rate on Tool Deterioration and Cutting Force during End Milling of 718Plus Superalloy Using Cemented Tungsten Carbide Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul H. Razak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how feed rate (ft affects tool deterioration during milling of Ni-based superalloys is practically important, but this understanding is currently insufficient. In the present study using a 718Plus Ni-based alloy and cemented tungsten carbide tool inserts, milling experiments were conducted with ft = 0.10 mm/tooth under either dry or wet (with coolant conditions. The results are compared to those based on using ft = 0.05 mm/tooth from previous studies. The milling force (F was monitored, the cutting tool edge was examined and the flank wear (VBmax was measured. As would be expected, an increase in ft increased F. It was found that F correlated well with VBmax for the high ft (0.1 mm/tooth experiments, as opposed to the previously observed poor F-VBmax relationship for the lower ft (0.05 mm/tooth value. This is explained, supported by detailed failure analysis of the cutting tool edges, by the deterioration mode to be dominantly edge chipping with a low occurrence of fracturing along the flank face when the high ft was used. This dominancy of the deterioration mode means that the tool edge and workpiece contact was consistent and thus resulted in a clear F-VBmax relationship. A clear F-VBmax relationship should then mean monitoring VBmax through monitoring F is possible.

  6. Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Magnesium-Matrix Composites with Boron Carbide and Tungsten Nano-powder Inclusions: Modeling and Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvilis, E. S.; Khasanov, O. L.; Gulbin, V. N.; Petyukevich, M. S.; Khasanov, A. O.; Olevsky, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Spark-plasma sintering (SPS) is used to fabricate fully-dense metal-matrix (Al/Mg) composites containing hard ceramic (boron carbide) and refractory metal (tungsten) inclusions. The study objectives include the modeling (and its experimental verification) of the process of the consolidation of the composites consisted of aluminum-magnesium alloy AMg6 (65 wt.%), B4C powder (15 wt.%), and W nano-powder (20 wt.%), as well as the optimization of the composite content and of the SPS conditions to achieve higher density. Discrete element modeling of the composite particles packing based on the particle size distribution functions of real powders is utilized for the determination of the powder compositions rendering maximum mixture packing densities. Two models: a power-law creep model of the high temperature deformation of powder materials, and an empirical logarithmic pressure-temperature-relative density relationship are successfully applied for the description of the densification of the aluminum-magnesium metal matrix powder composite subjected to spark-plasma sintering. The elastoplastic properties of the sintered composite samples are assessed by nanoindentation.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten carbide doped cobalt via gas-solid reaction in rotary bed reactor; Sintese e caracterizacao de carbeto de tungstenio dopado com cobalto via reacao gas-solido em reator de leito rotativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertuliano, R.S.C.; Araujo, C.P.B. de; Frota, A.V.V.M.; Moriyama, A.L.L.; Souza, C.P. de, E-mail: ruasavio@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica

    2016-07-01

    The search for materials with high added value, high applicability and sustainability, motivates innovations in all areas of engineering. In this context, so-called doped carbides, ceramic and metal compounds are included. This work proposes the synthesis and characterization of tungsten carbide doped cobalt (WC-Co) through the gas-solid reaction in a rotating bed reactor. The production stages of the material are: precursor synthesis by wetting, drying at 80 deg C, characterization of the precursor by MEV, DRX and FRX, gas-solid reaction at 750 deg C in a reducing atmosphere of CH{sub 4} / H{sub 2} in a rotary reactor at 34 rpm and characterization of the reaction product by the techniques already mentioned. The results showed that tungsten carbide powders were produced with cobalt inserted into the structure, with high surface area, nanometric grains and with potential for applications in the areas of catalysis, reactors and fuel cells, showing the relevance of this type of research.

  8. Hard coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films on cemented tungsten carbide by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Egiza, Mohamed; Tominaga, Aki; Murasawa, Koki; Gonda, Hidenobu; Sakurai, Masatoshi; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite (UNCD/a-C) films were deposited on cemented carbide containing Co by coaxial arc plasma deposition. With decreasing substrate temperature, the hardness was enhanced accompanied by an enhancement in the sp3/(sp2 + sp3). Energy-dispersive X-ray and secondary ion mass spectrometry spectroscopic measurements exhibited that the diffusion of Co atoms from the substrates into the films hardly occurs. The film deposited at room temperature exhibited the maximum hardness of 51.3 GPa and Young's modulus of 520.2 GPa, which evidently indicates that graphitization induced by Co in the WC substrates, and thermal deformation from sp3 to sp2 bonding are suppressed. The hard UNCD/a-C films can be deposited at a thickness of approximately 3 μm, which is an order larger than that of comparably hard a-C films. The internal compressive stress of the 51.3-GPa film is 4.5 GPa, which is evidently smaller than that of comparably hard a-C films. This is a reason for the thick deposition. The presence of a large number of grain boundaries in the film, which is a structural specific to UNCD/a-C films, might play a role in releasing the internal stress of the films.

  9. A synthesis method for cobalt doped carbon aerogels with high surface area and their hydrogen storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.Y.; Buckley, C.E. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, WA (Australia); CSIRO National Hydrogen Materials Alliance, CSIRO Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Circuit, Steel River Estate, Mayfield West, NSW 2304 (Australia); Sheppard, D.A.; Paskevicius, M. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, WA (Australia); Hanna, N. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Waterford, WA (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon aerogels doped with nanoscaled Co particles were prepared by first coating activated carbon aerogels using a wet-thin layer coating process. The resulting metal-doped carbon aerogels had a higher surface area ({proportional_to}1667 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) and larger micropore volume ({proportional_to}0.6 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}) than metal-doped carbon aerogels synthesised using other methods suggesting their usefulness in catalytic applications. The hydrogen adsorption behaviour of cobalt doped carbon aerogel was evaluated, displaying a high {proportional_to}4.38 wt.% H{sub 2} uptake under 4.6 MPa at -196 C. The hydrogen uptake capacity with respect to unit surface area was greater than for pure carbon aerogel and resulted in {proportional_to}1.3 H{sub 2} (wt. %) per 500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. However, the total hydrogen uptake was slightly reduced as compared to pure carbon aerogel due to a small reduction in surface area associated with cobalt doping. The improved adsorption per unit surface area suggests that there is a stronger interaction between the hydrogen molecules and the cobalt doped carbon aerogel than for pure carbon aerogel. (author)

  10. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstead, Andrea L. [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences Graduate Program, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Arena, Christopher B. [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); E.J. Van Liere Research Program, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Li, Bingyun, E-mail: bili@hsc.wvu.edu [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences Graduate Program, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); E.J. Van Liere Research Program, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggest that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. - Highlights: • Hard metal (WC-Co) particle toxicity was established in lung epithelial cells. • Nano-WC-Co particles caused greater toxicity than micro-WC-Co particles. • Nano- and micro-WC-Co particles were capable of inducing cellular apoptosis. • Nano-WC-Co particles were internalized by lung epithelial cells. • WC-Co particle internalization was mediated by actin dynamics.

  11. Analysis of crystallite size and microdeformation crystal lattice the tungsten carbide milling in mill high energy; Analise do tamanho do cristalito e microdeformacao da rede cristalina do carbeto de tugstenio moidos em moinho de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.T. da; Nunes, M.A.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Oliveira, R.M.V. de; Silva, G.G. da [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Natal (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de; Gomes, U.U. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The tungsten carbide (WC) has wide application due to its properties like high melting point, high hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and good electrical conductivity. The microstructural characteristics of the starting powders influences the final properties of the carbide. In this context, the use of nanoparticle powders is an efficient way to improve the final properties of the WC. The high energy milling stands out from other processes to obtain nanometric powders due to constant microstructural changes caused by this process. Therefore, the objective is to undertake an analysis of microstructural characteristics on the crystallite size and microdeformations of the crystal lattice using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement. The results show an efficiency of the milling process to reduce the crystallite size, leading to a significant deformation in the crystal lattice of WC from 5h milling. (author)

  12. Monolithic cobalt-doped carbon aerogel for efficient catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peidong; Long, Mingce; Bai, Xue; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Caiyun; Fu, Jiajun; Zhou, Baoxue; Zhou, Yongfeng

    2017-06-15

    As an emerging carbonaceous material, carbon aerogels (CAs) display a great potential in environmental cleanup. In this study, a macroscopic three-dimensional monolithic cobalt-doped carbon aerogel was developed by co-condensation of graphene oxide sheets and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin in the presence of cobalt ions, followed by lyophilization, carbonization and thermal treatment in air. Cobalt ions were introduced as a polymerization catalyst to bridge the organogel framework, and finally cobalt species were retained as both metallic cobalt and Co 3 O 4 , wrapped by graphitized carbon layers. The material obtained after a thermal treatment in air (CoCA-A) possesses larger BET specific surface area and pore volume, better hydrophilicity and lower leaching of cobalt ions than that without the post-treatment (CoCA). Despite of a lower loading of cobalt content and a larger mass transfer resistance than traditional powder catalysts, CoCA-A can efficiently eliminate organic contaminants by activation of peroxymonosulfate with a low activation energy. CoCA-A can float beneath the surface of aqueous solution and can be taken out completely without any changes in morphology. The monolith is promising to be developed into an alternative water purification technology due to the easily separable feature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanocrystalline Cobalt-doped SnO2 Thin Film: A Sensitive Cigarette Smoke Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Shriram B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a sensitive cigarette smoke sensor based on Cobalt doped Tin oxide (Co-SnO2 thin films deposited on glass substrate by a conventional Spray Pyrolysis technique. The Co-SnO2 thin films have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX. The XRD spectrum shows polycrystalline nature of the film with a mixed phase comprising of SnO2 and Co3O4. The SEM image depicts uniform granular morphology covering total substrate surface. The compositional analysis derived using EDAX confirmed presence of Co in addition to Sn and O in the film. Cigarette smoke sensing characteristics of the Co-SnO2 thin film have been studied under atmospheric condition at different temperatures and smoke concentration levels. The sensing parameters such as sensitivity, response time and recovery time are observed to be temperature dependent, exhibiting better results at 330 oC.

  14. Characterization of tungsten tips for STM by SEM/AES/XPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.F.; van den Berg, A.H.J.; Kip, Gerhardus A.M.; Hanekamp, L.J.; Hanekamp, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    For the first time, both X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) techniques were applied in analysis of surface contamination of electrochemically etched Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) tungsten tips. Carbon monoxide, graphite, tungsten carbide and tungsten

  15. Highly efficient cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymers for solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with molecular oxygen has been of great interest in catalysis, and the development of highly efficient catalysts for this process is a crucial challenge. A new kind of heterogeneous catalyst, cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymer (g-C3N4, was harnessed for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope revealed that Co species were highly dispersed in g-C3N4 matrix and the characteristic structure of polymeric g-C3N4 can be retained after Co-doping, although Co-doping caused the incomplete polymerization to some extent. Ultraviolet–visible, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further proved the successful Co doping in g-C3N4 matrix as the form of Co(IIN bonds. For the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-doping can markedly promote the catalytic performance of g-C3N4 catalyst due to the synergistic effect of Co species and g-C3N4 hybrid. Furthermore, the content of Co largely affected the activity of Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts, among which the catalyst with 9.0 wt% Co content exhibited the highest yield (9.0% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, as well as a high stability. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism over Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts was elaborated. Keywords: Selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Oxygen oxidant, Carbon nitride, Co-doping

  16. Facile synthesis of cobalt-doped zinc oxide thin films for highly efficient visible light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem, E-mail: ozlemaltintas@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Arslan, Hanife; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey); Nanotechnology R& D Laboratory, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Photocatalytically active Co-ZnO thin film was obtained by sol-gel method. • Co{sup 2+} doping narrowed the band gap of pure ZnO to an extent of 3.18 eV. • Co-ZnO was effective in MB degradation under visible light. • Optimum dopant content to show high performance was 3 at.%. - Abstract: Cobalt-doped zinc oxide (Co:ZnO) thin films with dopant contents ranging from 0 to 5 at.% were prepared using the sol–gel method, and their structural, morphological, optical, and photocatalytic properties were characterized. The effect of the dopant content on the photocatalytic properties of the films was investigated by examining the degradation behavior of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, and a detailed investigation of their photocatalytic activities was performed by determining the apparent quantum yields (AQYs). Co{sup 2+} ions were observed to be substitutionally incorporated into Zn{sup 2+} sites in the ZnO crystal, leading to lattice parameter constriction and band gap narrowing due to the photoinduced carriers produced under the visible light irradiation. Thus, the light absorption range of the Co:ZnO films was improved compared with that of the undoped ZnO film, and the Co:ZnO films exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity (∼92% decomposition of MB after 60-min visible light irradiation for the 3 at.% Co:ZnO film). The AQYs of the Co:ZnO films were greatly enhanced under visible light irradiation compared with that of the undoped ZnO thin film, demonstrating the effect of the Co doping level on the photocatalytic activity of the films.

  17. Study the influence of zinc oxide addition on cobalt doped alkaline earth borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, F., E-mail: F.Ahmad378@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alazhar University (Girls Branch), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Hassan Aly, E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Atef, M.; ElOkr, M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alazhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The glassy system xZnO–(79.9−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–20BaO–0.1Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared by a quenching method. • XRD patterns revealed that the amorphous nature of the present glasses matrix. • The results show that Zn{sup 2+} ions occupy both forming and modifying positions. • Optical parameters are reported as a function of ZnO content. - Abstract: The glasses of the composition 79.9B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–20BaO–0.1Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} doped with different concentrations of ZnO (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol%) were prepared using melt quenching technique. Various studies such as XRD, density, theoretical optical basicity, FT-IR and optical absorption have been carried out to study the role of ZnO on the physical and structural properties of the investigated system. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the glassy nature of all the glassy samples. The density and molar volume of glassy samples showed opposite behavior to each other. An increment of the theoretical optical basicity with increasing ZnO content, which is due to an increase in the polarizability and a decrease in the single bond strength is observed. FT-IR analysis revealed that an increase in non-bridging oxygen’s (NBO’s) up to ZnO ⩽ 15 mol% and then a decrease at ZnO > 15 mol%. The results indicated that the Zn{sup 2+} ions are likely to occupy network modifier positions at a concentration of ZnO ⩽ 15 mol%. Above which these ions occupy network forming positions. From ultraviolet absorption edges calculations, the optical band gap energy and steepness parameter decrease whilst Urbach energy and refractive index increase by the addition of ZnO up to 15 mol% above which then the behavior follows reversal trend. The values of the crystal field strength and the interelectronic repulsion Racah parameter calculated from the optical transitions energies of cobalt doped glassy samples. All prepared samples exhibit blue color, indicating that mostly Co ions are acted upon

  18. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: New evidences from element- and site-specific XMCD analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; LI, J.; Menguy, N.; Arrio, M. A.; Sainctavit, P.; Juhin, A.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Bunau, O.; Otero, E.; Ohresser, P.

    2016-12-01

    Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: New evidences from element- and site-specific XMCD analyses Jinhua Li1,2*, Nicolas Menguy2,3, Marie-Anne Arrio3, Philippe Sainctavit3,4, Amélie Juhin3, Yinzhao Wang1,2, Haitao Chen5, Oana Bunau3, Edwige Otero4, Philippe Ohresser4, Yongxin Pan1,21Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. 2France-China Biomineralization and Nano-structures Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. 3IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Sorbonne Universités, MNHN, UPMC, IRD UMR 206, 75005 Paris, France. 4Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. 5Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China *To whom correspondence may be addressed. Email: lijinhua@mail.iggcas.ac.cnThe biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. However, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remains largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe2+ ions by Co2+ ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study this study indicates a biologically controlled process on cobalt doping and magnetic alteration by MTB system

  19. Extraction Factor Of Tungsten Sources From Tungsten Scraps By Zinc Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition promoting factors and extraction process of tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders in the zinc decomposition process of tungsten scraps which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide and cobalt were evaluated. Zinc volatility was suppressed by the enclosed graphite crucible and zinc volatilization pressure was produced in the reaction graphite crucible inside an electric furnace for ZDP (Zinc Decomposition Process. Decomposition reaction was done for 2hours at 650°, which 100% decomposed the tungsten scraps that were over 30 mm thick. Decomposed scraps were pulverized under 75μm and were composed of tungsten carbide and cobalt identified by the XRD (X-ray Diffraction. To produce the WC(Tungsten Carbide powder directly from decomposed scraps, pulverized powders were reacted with hydrochloric acid to remove the cobalt binder. Also to produce the tungstic acid, pulverized powders were reacted with aqua regia to remove the cobalt binder and oxidize the tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders were identified by XRD and chemical composition analysis.

  20. Transparent cobalt doped MgO -Ga2O3-SiO2 nano-glass-ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X. L.; Yuan, D. R.; Yu, F. P.; Wang, L. H.

    2006-10-01

    Transparent cobalt doped MgO -Ga2O3-SiO2 nano-glass-ceramic composites were prepared from Si, Ga, Mg, and Co molecular precursors by a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy showed that the resulting material is composed of an amorphous silicate network that encloses nanocrystalline MgGa2O4 particles. Analysis of the absorption and luminescence properties indicates that Co ions are, at least partially, trapped in the crystalline phase and located in tetrahedral sites in MgGa2O4 nanocrystals. The absorption section was calculated to be 1.15×10-19cm2.

  1. High Purity Tungsten Spherical Particle Preparation From WC-Co Spent Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was recycled to obtain high purity spherical tungsten powder by a combined hydrometallurgy and physical metallurgy pathway. Selective leaching of tungsten element from hard metal scrap occurs at solid / liquid interface and therefore enlargement of effective surface area is advantageous. Linear oxidation behavior of Tungsten carbide-cobalt and the oxidized scrap is friable to be pulverized by milling process. In this regard, isothermally oxidized Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was mechanically broken into particles and then tungsten trioxide particle was recovered by hydrometallurgical method. Recovered tungsten trioxide was reduced to tungsten particle in a hydrogen environment. After that, tungsten particle was melted and solidified to make a spherical one by RF (Ratio Frequency thermal plasma process. Well spherical tungsten micro-particle was successfully obtained from spent scrap. In addition to the morphological change, thermal plasma process showed an advantage for the purification of feedstock particle.

  2. Ferromagnetism in spin-coated cobalt-doped TiO2 thin films and the role of crystalline phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cuaila, J. L.; Alayo, W.; Avellaneda, César O.

    2017-11-01

    Two sets of Cobalt-doped (1-10% at) TiO2 thin films, for different molar concentrations of the Ti precursor (0.3 and 0.5 mol/L), have been deposited onto Si substrates by combining the Sol Gel process and the Spin Coating technique. The structure of the samples was studied by X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their magnetic properties were analyzed by magnetization measurements as a function of the applied magnetic field. The XRR results provided the thickness and interfacial roughness of the films, while XRD patterns revealed the crystalline phases and lattice parameters. Room temperature ferromagnetic behaviour was observed for some of the atomic Co concentrations by the magnetization measurements. This behaviour has been correlated to the crystalline phases, which were found to be modified by both the molar ratio of Ti precursor and the concentration of the Co dopant. A suppression of ferromagnetism is observed for some atomic Co fractions and it was attributed to the presence of secondary crystalline phases.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Kaliyamoorthy; Rajan Babu, Dhanakotti; Kavya Bai, Mane Prabhu; Supriya, Ravi; Vidya, Radhakrishnan; Madeswaran, Saminathan; Anandan, Pandurangan; Arivanandhan, Mukannan; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311) of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed.

  4. The Mechanical and Tribology Properties of Sputtered Titanium Aluminum Nitride Coating on the Tungsten Carbide Insert Tool in the Dry Turning of Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmar Budi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the sputtering parameters on the mechanical tribology properties of Titanium Aluminum Nitride coating on the tungsten cabide insert tool in the dry turning of tool steel has been investigated. The coating was deposited using a Direct Current magnetron sputtering system with various substrate biases (-79 to -221 V and nitrogen flow rates (30 to 72 sccm. The dry turning test was carried out on a Computer Numeric Code machine using an optimum cutting parameter setting. The results show that the lowest flank wear (~0.4 mm was achieved using a Titanium Aluminum Nitride-coated tool that was deposited at a high substrate bias (-200 V and a high nitrogen flow rate (70 sccm. The lowest flank wear was attributed to high coating hardness.

  5. High-energy, high-rate consolidation of tungsten and tungsten-based composite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunathan, S.K.; Persad, C.; Bourell, D.L.; Marcus, H.L. (Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-01-20

    Tungsten and tungsten-based heavy alloys are well known for their superior mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, unalloyed tungsten is difficult to consolidate owing to its very high melting temperature (3683 K). The additions of small amounts of low-melting elements such as iron, nickel, cobalt and copper, facilitate the powder processing of dense heavy alloys at moderate temperatures. Energetic high-current pulses have been used recently for powder consolidation. In this paper, the use of a homopolar generator as a power source to consolidate selected tungsten and tungsten-based alloys is examined. Various materials were consolidated including unalloyed tungsten, W-Nb, W-Ni, and tungsten heavy alloy with boron carbide. The effect of process parameters such as pressure and specific energy input on the consolidation of different alloy systems is described in terms of microstructure and property relationships. (orig.).

  6. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajoure, Meloud, E-mail: Tajoore2000@yahoo.com [MechanicalEng.,HIHM,Gharian (Libya); Tajouri, Ali, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com [Materials and Metallurgical Eng., UOT, Tripoli (Libya); Akreem, Mosbah, E-mail: makreem@yahoo.com [Industrial Research Centre,Tripoli (Libya)

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  7. Synthesis of cobalt doped titania nano material assisted by gemini surfactant: Characterization and application in degradation of Acid Red under visible light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Devi Chekuri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the synthesis of cobalt doped titania nano material assisted by 1,4-butane sultone anionic gemini surfactant: Co2+-TiO2 (with surfactant. The synthesized nano catalysts were characterized by XRD, UV–Vis DRS, XPS, SEM, FT-IR, HR-TEM and BET-surface area analysis. XRD and UV-DRS studies have indicated that all the catalysts synthesized were in anatase phase and red shift was observed with decrease in the band gap energy. XPS analysis of the catalysts has confirmed the presence of cobalt along with TiO2. SEM analysis indicated change in morphology of the particles without any agglomeration. From FTIR studies frequency shift was observed for TiO2 which was due to doping of cobalt into TiO2 lattice. TEM images have shown reduced particle size of Co2+-TiO2 (with surfactant. BET analysis confirmed increase in surface area of the catalyst. From BET analysis Pore volume and pore size was also analyzed. These results emphasize the important role played by the gemini surfactant on the structure and photocatalytic activity of the catalyst synthesized. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized catalyst was investigated by degradation of Acid Red where degradation was completed within 30 min. Keywords: Cobalt doped titania nanomaterial, Gemini surfactant, Sol–gel method, Photocatalysis, Acid Red

  8. Synthesis and controllable oxidation of monodisperse cobalt-doped wüstite nanoparticles and their core-shell stability and exchange-bias stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Kamali, Saeed; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2015-09-14

    Cobalt-doped wüstite (CWT), Co0.33Fe0.67O, nanoparticles were prepared via the thermal decomposition of CoFe2-oleate complexes in organic solvents. A controllable oxidation process was then performed to obtain Co0.33Fe0.67O/CoFe2O4 core-shell structures with different core-to-shell volume ratios and exchange bias properties. The oxidized core-shell samples with a ∼4 nm CoFe2O4 shell showed good resistance to oxygen transmission. Thus, it is inferred that the cobalt ferrite shell provides a better oxidation barrier performance than magnetite in the un-doped case. The hysteresis loops of the oxidized 19 nm samples exhibited a high exchange bias field (H(E)), an enhanced coercivity field (H(C)), and a pronounced vertical shift, thus indicating the presence of a strong exchange bias coupling effect. More importantly, the onset temperature of H(E) was found to be higher than 200 K, which suggests that cobalt doping increases the Néel temperature (T(N)) of the CWT core. In general, the results show that the homogeneous dispersion of Co in iron precursors improves the stability of the final CWT nanoparticles. Moreover, the CoFe2O4 shells formed following oxidation increase the oxidation resistance of the CWT cores and enhance their anisotropy energy.

  9. Spinodal decomposition of tungsten-containing phases in functional coatings obtained via high-energy implantation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, S. V.; Petrov, E. V.

    2017-08-01

    We have studied structural and phase transformations in tungsten-containing functional coatings of carbon steels obtained during the high-energy processes of implanting tungsten carbide micropowders by the method of complex pulse electromechanical processing and micropowders of tungsten by technology of directed energy of explosion based on the effect of superdeep penetration of solid particles (Usherenko effect). It has been shown that, during thermomechanical action, intensive steel austenization occurs in the deformation zone with the dissolution of tungsten carbide powder, the carbidization of tungsten powder, and the subsequent formation of composite gradient structures as a result of the decay of supercooled austenite supersaturated by tungsten according to the diffusion mechanism and the mechanism of spinodal decomposition. Separate zones of tungsten-containing phases of the alloy are in the liquid-phase state, as well as undergo spinodal decomposition with the formation of highly disperse carbide phases of globular morphology.

  10. Development of a new family of cemented carbides for geothermal drilling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliff, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    The contractor fabricated samples of cemented carbides based on tantalum carbide and niobium carbide with cobalt and nickel binders. These materials were evaluated for use as rock-bit inserts in geothermal drilling. Carbon content in the niobium carbide (NbC/sub x/) and the tantalum carbide (TaC/sub x/) was varied (x is 0.83 to 1.0) and the effect of these changes on the carbides' mechanical properties was examined. Hardness, toughness, and abrasive wear resistance of the new materials were measured and compared to properties of tungsten carbide grades used in rock-bit inserts.

  11. Shock propagation in a cemented tungsten carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appleby-Thomas, G.J.; Hazell, P.J.; Stennett, C.; Cooper, G.; Herlaar, K.; Diederen, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    WC-based ceramic metal composites (cermets) are of great importance in both armor and munition design due to the combination of properties imparted by the presence of two different phases. WC-Co cermets are of interest in this area due to the hardness and strength imparted by the WC phase while the

  12. Quasi-zero-dimensional cobalt-doped CeO2 dots on Pd catalysts for alcohol electro-oxidation with enhanced poisoning-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiang; Zhu, Haiyan; Guo, Shengwu; Chen, Yuanzhen; Jiang, Tao; Shu, Chengyong; Chong, Shaokun; Hultman, Benjamin; Liu, Yongning; Wu, Gang

    2017-08-31

    Deactivation of an anode catalyst resulting from the poisoning of COad-like intermediates is one of the major problems for methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions (MOR & EOR), and remains a grand challenge towards achieving high performance for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). Herein, we report a new approach for the preparation of ultrafine cobalt-doped CeO2 dots (Co-CeO2, d = 3.6 nm), which can be an effective anti-poisoning promoter for Pd catalysts towards MOR and EOR in alkaline media. Compared to Pd/CeO2 and pure Pd, the hybrid Pd/Co-CeO2 nanocomposite catalyst exhibited a much enhanced activity and remarkable anti-poisoning ability for both MOR and EOR. The nanocomposite catalyst showed much higher mass activity (4×) than a state-of-the-art PtRu catalyst. The promotional mechanism was elucidated using extensive characterization and density-functional theory (DFT). A bifunctional effect of the Co-CeO2 dots was discovered to be due to (i) an enhanced electronic interaction between Co-CeO2 and Pd dots and (ii) the increased oxygen storage capacity of Co-CeO2 dots to facilitate the oxidation of COad. Therefore, the Pd/Co-CeO2 nanocomposite appears to be a promising catalyst for advanced DAFCs with low cost and high performance.

  13. Addressing the selectivity issue of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin film iso-butane sensors: Conductance transients and principal component analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Majumder, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Iso-butane (i-C4H10) is one of the major components of liquefied petroleum gas which is used as fuel in domestic and industrial applications. Developing chemi-resistive selective i-C4H10 thin film sensors remains a major challenge. Two strategies were undertaken to differentiate carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and iso-butane gases from the measured conductance transients of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin films. Following the first strategy, the response and recovery transients of conductances in these gas environments are fitted using the Langmuir adsorption kinetic model to estimate the heat of adsorption, response time constant, and activation energies for adsorption (response) and desorption (recovery). Although these test gases have seemingly different vapor densities, molecular diameters, and reactivities, analyzing the estimated heat of adsorption and activation energies (for both adsorption and desorption), we could not differentiate these gases unequivocally. However, we have found that the lower the vapor density, the faster the response time irrespective of the test gas concentration. As a second strategy, we demonstrated that feature extraction of conductance transients (using fast Fourier transformation) in conjunction with the pattern recognition algorithm (principal component analysis) is more fruitful to address the cross-sensitivity of Co doped ZnO thin film sensors. We have found that although the dispersion among different concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide could not be avoided, each of these three gases forms distinct clusters in the plot of principal component 2 versus 1 and therefore could easily be differentiated.

  14. Intrusion features of a high-speed striker of a porous tungsten-based alloy with a strengthening filler in a steel barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanas'eva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Burkin, V. V.; Rogaev, K. S.; Sammel', A. Yu.; Skosyrskii, A. B.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Yugov, N. T.

    2017-09-01

    The complex problem of increasing the penetrating power of strikers based on highly porous tungsten composites is considered by improving their strengthening properties by alloying the hardening components under high-speed collision conditions. Using the method of liquid-phase sintering, we fabricated samples of strikers based on a porous WNiFeCo alloy (tungsten + nickel + iron + cobalt), alloyed with tungsten carbide with cobalt (WCCo8) and titanium-tungsten carbide (TiWC). Dynamic tests of the strikers from the developed alloys were carried out at the collision velocity with a steel barrier of the order of 2800 m/s. The penetration depth of the striker based on a porous WNiFeCo alloy doped with tungsten carbides is 30% higher than the penetration depth of a striker of a monolithic WNiFe-90 alloy (tungsten + nickel + iron with a tungsten content of 90%).

  15. Hydrogen evolution activity and electrochemical stability of selected transition metal carbides in concentrated phosphoric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás García, Antonio Luis; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative catalysts based on carbides of Group 5 (niobium and tantalum) and 6 (chromium, molybdenum and tungsten) metals were prepared as films on the metallic substrates. The electrochemical activities of these carbide electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in concentrated...... phosphoric acid were investigated in a temperature range from 80 to 170°C. A significant dependence of the activities on temperature was observed for all five carbide samples. Through the entire temperature range Group 6 metal carbides showed higher activity than that of the Group 5 metal carbides...

  16. Review on Sintering Process of WC-Co Cemented Carbide in Metal Injection Molding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathabrao, M.; Amin, Sri Yulis M.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview on sintering process of WC-Co cemented carbides in metal injection molding technology. Metal injection molding is an advanced and promising technology in producing cemented nanostructured carbides. Cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) hard metal is known for its high hardness and wear resistance in various applications. Moreover, areas include fine grained materials, alternative binders, and alternative sintering techniques has been discussed in this paper.

  17. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: new evidences from element- and site-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Juhin, Amélie; Wang, Yinzhao; Chen, Haitao; Bunau, Oana; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Pan, Yongxin

    2016-08-01

    The biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science due to the precise morphology of the particles, the chain-like assembly and their unique magnetic properties. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. Despite some successful outcomes, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remain largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe(2+) ions by Co(2+) ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Both XMCD at Fe and Co L2,3 edges, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt occurring either in different particles or inside individual particles. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study also demonstrates that the addition of trace cobalt in the growth medium can significantly improve both the cell growth and the magnetosome formation within M. magneticum AMB-1. Together with the cobalt occupancy within the spinel structure of magnetosomes, this study indicates that MTB may provide a promising biomimetic system for producing chains of metal-doped single-domain magnetite with an appropriate tuning of the magnetic properties for technological and biomedical applications. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Systematic studies of the nucleation and growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates coated with a tungsten layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Jiang, Gerald [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chia-Hao [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang Chi [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-pu; Ting, Jyh-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hsin-Li [Industrial Technology Research Institute - South, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yonhua [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Auciello, Orlando [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We report on effects of a tungsten layer deposited on silicon surface on the effectiveness for diamond nanoparticles to be seeded for the deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Rough tungsten surface and electrostatic forces between nanodiamond seeds and the tungsten surface layer help to improve the adhesion of nanodiamond seeds on the tungsten surface. The seeding density on tungsten coated silicon thus increases. Tungsten carbide is formed by reactions of the tungsten layer with carbon containing plasma species. It provides favorable (001) crystal planes for the nucleation of (111) crystal planes by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) in argon diluted methane plasma and further improves the density of diamond seeds/nuclei. UNCD films grown at different gas pressures on tungsten coated silicon which is pre-seeded by nanodiamond along with heteroepitaxially nucleated diamond nuclei were characterized by Raman scattering, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Exposure assessment in the hard metal manufacturing industry with special regard to tungsten and its compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T; Schramel, P; Schaller, K H; Zöbelein, P; Weber, A; Angerer, J

    2001-10-01

    To assess the exposure to tungsten, cobalt, and nickel in a plant producing hard metals. The main components of hard metals are tungsten carbide and cobalt metal. According to recent studies, these two components may be responsible for both fibrogenic and carcinogenic effects. 87 workers were investigated (86 male, one female) with a median age of 42 (range 22-58) and a mean duration of exposure of 13 years (range 1-27 years). Stationary and personal air sampling, and biological monitoring were carried out. Ambient monitoring yielded maximum tungsten concentrations of 417 microg/m3 in the production of heavy alloys. A maximum cobalt concentration of 343 microg/m3 and a maximum nickel concentration of 30 microg/m3 were found at the sintering workshop. The highest urinary cobalt concentrations were found in the powder processing department. The mean concentration was 28.5 microg/g creatinine and the maximum value was 228 microg/g creatinine. The maximum nickel concentration in urine of 6.3 microg/g creatinine was detected in the department producing heavy alloys. The highest tungsten concentrations excreted in urine were found in grinders and had a mean value of 94.4 microg/g creatinine and a maximum of 169 microg/g creatinine. Due to the different solubility and bioavailability of the substance, there was no correlation between the tungsten concentrations in air and urine on a group basis. Despite its low solubility, tungsten carbide is bioavailable. The different bioavailability of tungsten metal and tungsten compounds has to be considered in the interpretation of ambient and biological monitoring data in the hard metal producing industry. The bioavailability increases in the order: tungsten metal, tungsten carbide, tungstenate. Only if both monitoring strategies are considered in combination can a valid and effective definition of high risk groups be derived.

  20. Tungsten materials as durable catalyst supports for fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchthaler, M.; Ossiander, T.; Juhart, V.; Mitzel, J.; Heinzl, C.; Scheu, C.; Hacker, V.

    2013-12-01

    Durable platinum catalyst support materials, e.g. tungsten carbide (WC), tungsten oxide (WOx) and self-synthesized tungsten oxide (WOxs) were evaluated for the use in High-Temperature Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (HT-PEM) based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte. The support materials and the catalyst loaded support materials were characterized ex-situ by cyclic voltammetry in HClO4, potential cycling, CO-stripping, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. The tungsten oxide and tungsten carbide based supported catalysts were compared to High Surface Area Carbon (HSAC), each coated with platinum via the same in-house manufacturing procedures. The in-house manufacturing procedures resulted in catalyst particle sizes on HSAC of 3-4 nm with a uniform distribution. The in-situ Potential Cycling experiments of WOx or WOxs supported catalysts showed much lower degradation rates compared to High Surface Area Carbons. The formation of WOx species on WC was proven by ex- and in-situ cyclic voltammetric studies and thermogravimetric analyses. X-ray diffraction, ex-situ cyclic voltammetry and in-situ cyclic voltammetry showed that WOx is formed from WC as starting material under oxidizing conditions. Finally a 1000 h durability test with WOx as catalyst support material on the anode was done in a HT-PEM fuel cell with reformed methanol on the anode.

  1. Dissolution of cemented carbide powders in artificial sweat: implications for cobalt sensitization and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2010-10-06

    Skin exposure to cobalt-containing materials can cause systemic immune sensitization and upon repeat contact, elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Data on cobalt dissolution rates are needed to calculate uptake through skin and for development of models to understand risk of sensitization or dermatitis. The purpose of this research was to measure the dissolution kinetics of feedstock and process-sampled powders encountered in the production of hard metal alloys using artificial sweat. The physicochemical properties of each material were characterized prior to evaluation of dissolution behavior. Variations in artificial sweat solvent pH and chemistry were used to understand critical factors in dissolution. Dissolution of cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide was often biphasic with the initial rapid phase being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the latter long-term phase. Artificial sweat pH did not influence dissolution of cobalt or tungsten carbide. Solvent composition had little influence on observed dissolution rates; however, vitamin E suppressed the dissolution of cobalt and tungsten carbide from sintered particles obtained from a chamfer grinder. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution of feedstock cobalt, tungsten, tungsten carbide, and admixture powders. Particle physicochemical properties influenced observed dissolution rates with more cobalt and tungsten carbide dissolving from chamfer grinder particles compared to the feedstock powders or admixture powder. Calculations using the observed dissolution rates revealed that skin exposure concentrations were similar to concentrations known to induce cobalt sensitization and elicit ACD. Observed dissolution rates for cobalt in artificial sweat indicate that dermal uptake may be sufficient to induce cobalt sensitization and allergic dermatitis.

  2. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  3. Simple preparation of tungsten supported carbon nanoreactors for specific applications: Adsorption, catalysis and electrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayani, Vishal J.; Mayani, Suranjana V.; Kim, Sang Wook, E-mail: swkim@dongguk.ac.kr

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Tungsten carbon composites have shown great recognition in catalysis and electrochemistry. • W-carbon composites are prepared by template replication and W-doping on carbon cage. • Nanocomposites offer enormous assurance as adsorbent, electrode and heterogeneous catalyst. - Abstract: Porous carbon supported tungsten carbide nanoreactors, two sizes (∼25 and 170 nm), were designed using economical petroleum pitch residue followed by tungsten (W) doping. X-ray diffractions showed both carbon tungsten composites (CTC-25 and CTC-170) contained tungsten subcarbide (W{sub 2}C) and monocarbide (WC) as the major and minor crystalline phases, respectively. The present study provides a multiple perspective of carbon tungsten composites (CTCs) for methanol oxidation (as an electrode), adsorption (as an adsorbent) and degradation (as a solid catalyst) of methylene blue (MB). The operational electrodes were designed from both CTCs and used as a catalyst in an electrocatalysis process. The electrocatalysts exhibited high and stable catalytic performance (CTCE-25 > CTCE-170) in methanol electro-oxidation. The newly synthesized W-doped carbon nanoreactors were used successfully as an adsorbent for MB and a heterogeneous catalyst for MB oxidation. Ordered CTC-25 and CTC-170 exhibited dynamic MB adsorption within 15 min and complete oxidation of MB in 25–40 min. A synergetic effect between tungsten carbide and the carbon cage framework was noted.

  4. Textbook tests with tungsten

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Warmbein

    2010-01-01

    CERN's linear collider detector group joins forces with CALICE in building the world's first tungsten hadronic calorimeter.   Hadronic calorimeter prototype made of tungsten for the linear collider detector being equipped with CALICE scintillators. In a hall for test beam experiments at CERN, next to the CLOUD climate experiment and an irradiation facility, sits a detector prototype that is in many ways a first. It's the first ever hadronic sandwich calorimeter (HCal) prototype made of tungsten. It's the first prototype for a detector for the Compact Linear Collider Study CLIC, developed by the linear collider detector R&D group (LCD group) at CERN. And it's the first piece of hardware that results directly from the cooperation between CLIC and ILC detector study groups. Now its makers are keen to see first particle showers in their detector. The tungsten calorimeter has just moved from a workshop at CERN, where it was assembled from finely polished tungsten squares and triangles, into the ...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of metal carbides nanoparticles produced by electrical explosion of wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Alexander P; Nazarenko, Olga B; Tikhonov, Dmitriy V

    2012-10-01

    Tungsten, titanium, tantalum, aluminum carbides nanoparticles were produced by electrical explosion of wires. The explosions were carried out in gaseous mixtures of argon and acetylene at different ratios, argon and propane, and in liquids such as benzene, toluene, decane. The effects of the synthesis conditions on the size and phase composition of metal carbide nanoparticles were investigated. The thermal activity of the prepared powders was studied by the method of differential thermal analysis at the heating in air. Thermodynamic analysis of carbides formation during the process of electrical explosion has been made. The output of the chemical compounds depends on their thermal stability: the more thermally stable they are, the higher their output.

  6. Diode Laser Surface Alloying of Armor Steel with Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicki D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composite (MMC surface layers reinforced by WC were fabricated on armor steel ARMOX 500T plates via a laser surface alloying process. The microstructure of the layers was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  7. Tribological performance of laser patterned cemented tungsten carbide parts

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Shiqi; Herrmann, T; Rosenkranz, A; Gachot, C; García Marro, Fernando; Mücklich, Frank; Llanes Pitarch, Luis Miguel; Bähre, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Some tools for machining processes used to be guided by supporting parts while using them for cutting or abrasive machining. For instance, the guide stone is used as supporting part in the honing process, which maintains the concentricity of the rotating axis. The contact surfaces of the supporting parts should exhibit the following properties: adequate combination of hardness, toughness and wear resistance. The damage of contact surfaces can be caused by a combination of friction and adhesio...

  8. Point Defect Calculations in Tungsten

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilowicz, Ronald

    1968-01-01

    .... The vacancy migration energy for tungsten was calculated. The calculated value of 1.73 electron volts, together with experimental data, suggests that vacancies migrate in stage III recovery in tungsten...

  9. Reactive sintering and microstructure development of tungsten carbide-AISI 304 stainless steel cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, C.M. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CEMUC-Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, F.J. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Senos, A.M.R., E-mail: anamor@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-06-01

    Sintering of WC-stainless steel (SS) composites within a typical binder range from 6 up to 15 wt% SS was investigated through constant heating rate dilatometry, in vacuum conditions, complemented by differential thermal analysis and by the study of the high temperature wetting behavior of SS on WC. The densification starts ∼900 °C with a typical densification curve for all compositions, where three distinct regions are discernible: the first one with a slow densification rate, followed by a second region where a sharp increase in the densification rate up to a maximum value dependent on the binder amount is observed and, finally, a third one with a slowdown of the densification rate until the end of the thermal cycle. The attained final density at 1450 °C is dependent on the binder amount, increasing proportionally to its initial content. The final microstructure presents a normal grain size distribution and appreciable amounts of eta-phase, besides the major WC phase and residual iron rich phase. The reactive densification behavior and the role of the liquid phase are interpreted accordingly with structural and kinetic data. - Highlights: • Sintering of WC-AISI304 composites starts ∼900 °C and involves three stages. • Densification is largely dominated by a reactive liquid phase sintering process. • Eta-phase constitutes a transient liquid phase during sintering. • Sintering cycles are dependent on the initial binder content.

  10. OPAL Silicon Tungsten Luminometer

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. The Silicon Tungsten Luminometer was part of OPAL's calorimeter which was used to measure the energy of particles. Most particles end their journey in calorimeters. These detectors measure the energy deposited when particles are slowed down and stopped.

  11. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  12. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bien Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions.

  13. Comparative study of the cutting efficiency and working life of carbide burs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristofaro, Rebecca G Riera; Giner, Lluis; Mayoral, Juan Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the wear and cutting efficiency of tungsten carbide burs from different manufacturers by performing cutting tests with machinable glass ceramic. Cutting tests were performed with 70 tungsten carbide burs from seven manufacturers: (A) Coltene/Whaledent, (B) CEI, (C) Meisinger, (D) Axis, (E) Komet, (F) Kerr, (G) Edenta. All groups were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after the cutting efficiency test for similarities and differences. A specially designed cutting device was used. An electric handpiece was operated at 200,000 rpm with a 120 ml/min coolant water supply rate. The burs were tested under a 165 g constant load using 3 mm wide Macor ceramic as substrate. For each bur the cutting procedure involved a total of five cuts of 3 minutes on every cut, with a total cutting time for each bur of 15 minutes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at 95.0% confidence level. Significant differences (p cutting rates of the different groups. Groups A and B showed the highest cutting rates. Higher cutting rates were associated with a longer bur lifespan. SEM photomicrographs of the burs and substrates revealed significant changes on the surfaces after the cutting process. The morphology characteristics of tungsten carbide burs are related to their effectiveness. The group that presented the worst working life also showed substantial wear on its surface according to the results of SEM. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Microstructural Study of Titanium Carbide Coating on Cemented Carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorinen, S.; Horsewell, Andy

    1982-01-01

    Titanium carbide coating layers on cemented carbide substrates have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural variations within the typically 5µm thick chemical vapour deposited TiC coatings were found to vary with deposit thickness such that a layer structure could...

  15. Frictional Performance Assessment of Cemented Carbide Surfaces Textured by Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, S.; Llanes, L.; Klein, S.; Gachot, C.; Rosenkranz, A.; Bähre, D.; Mücklich, F.

    2017-10-01

    Cemented carbides are advanced engineering materials often used in industry for manufacturing cutting tools or supporting parts in tribological system. In order to improve service life, special attention has been paid to change surface conditions by means of different methods, since surface modification can be beneficial to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces as well as to avoid unintended damage. Laser surface texturing is one of the newly developed surface modification methods. It has been successfully introduced to fabricate some basic patterns on cemented carbide surfaces. In this work, Direct Laser Interference Patterning Technique (DLIP) is implemented to produce special line-like patterns on a cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) based cemented tungsten carbide grade. It is proven that the laser-produced patterns have high geometrical precision and quality stability. Furthermore, tribology testing using a nano-tribometer unit shows that friction is reduced by the line-like patterns, as compared to the polished one, under both lubricated and dry testing regimes, and the reduction is more pronounced in the latter case.

  16. Diallyl disulphide as natural organosulphur friction modifier via the in-situ tribo-chemical formation of tungsten disulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ripoll, Manel; Totolin, Vladimir; Gabler, Christoph; Bernardi, Johannes; Minami, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The present work shows a novel method for generating in-situ low friction tribofilms containing tungsten disulphide in lubricated contacts using diallyl disulphide as sulphur precursor. The approach relies on the tribo-chemical interaction between the diallyl disulphide and a surface containing embedded sub-micrometer tungsten carbide particles. The results show that upon sliding contact between diallyl disulphide and the tungsten-containing surface, the coefficient of friction drops to values below 0.05 after an induction period. The reason for the reduction in friction is due to tribo-chemical reactions that leads to the in-situ formation of a complex tribofilm that contains iron and tungsten components. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicate the presence of tungsten disulphide at the contact interface, thus justifying the low coefficient of friction achieved during the sliding experiments. It was proven that the low friction tribofilms can only be formed by the coexistence of tungsten and sulphur species, thus highlighting the synergy between diallyl disulphide and the tungsten-containing surface. The concept of functionalizing surfaces to react with specific additives opens up a wide range of possibilities, which allows tuning on-site surfaces to target additive interactions.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal carbides and their catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Cheng

    Transition metal (both monometallic and bimetallic) carbides have been synthesized by an amine-metal oxide composite (AMOC) method. The composite reduces the diffusion distances among each element and allows the formation of carbides to take place as low as 610°C, which is significantly lower than traditional carbide synthesis methods (above 1500°C). Additionally, amines act not only as carbon sources and reducing agents, but also morphological templates which helps to make uniform transition metal carbide (TMC) nanocrystals with various shapes. Beyond morphology control, AMOC method can also help to synthesize multiple phases of monometallic carbides, which includes four phases of molybdenum carbides (alpha-MoC1-x, beta-Mo2C, eta-MoC, and gamma-MoC), two phases of tungsten carbides (W2C and WC), and three phases of chromium carbides (Cr3C2-x, Cr7C3, and Cr3C2). Molybdenum carbide has been proposed as a possible alternative to platinum for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Previous studies were limited to only one phase, which is beta-Mo2C with an Fe 2N structure. Here, four molybdenum carbide materials including gamma-MoC with a WC type structure which was stabilized for the first time as a phase pure nanomaterial. Moreover, a wide range of magnetic iron-doped molybdenum carbide (Mo2-xFexC) nanomaterials were also synthesized, which exhibits a better HER activity to non-doped beta-Mo2C. A group of (CrxFe1-x)7C3 (0.2nanomaterials via AMOC method, which demonstrate excellent catalytic activities for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Other carbides/nitrides made from AMOCs include WN1-x, Fe3C, Fe3-xN, Fe3Mo3C, N 2Mo3C, Ni3Mo3C, Ni6Mo 6C, and Mo0.5W0.5C.

  18. ENTIRELY AQUEOUS SOLUTION-GEL ROUTE FOR THE PREPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE, HAFNIUM CARBIDE AND THEIR TERNARY CARBIDE POWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changrui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An entirely aqueous solution-gel route has been developed for the synthesis of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide and their ternary carbide powders. Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O, malic acid (MA and ethylene glycol (EG were dissolved in water to form the aqueous zirconium carbide precursor. Afterwards, this aqueous precursor was gelled and transformed into zirconium carbide at a relatively low temperature (1200 °C for achieving an intimate mixing of the intermediate products. Hafnium and the ternary carbide powders were also synthesized via the same aqueous route. All the zirconium, hafnium and ternary carbide powders exhibited a particle size of ∼100 nm.

  19. Silicon Carbide Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    The status of emerging silicon carbide (SiC) widebandgap semiconductor electronics technology is briefly surveyed. SiC-based electronic devices and circuits are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which conventional semiconductors cannot function. Projected performance benefits of SiC electronics are briefly illustrated for several applications. However, most of these operational benefits of SiC have yet to be realized in actual systems, primarily owing to the fact that the growth techniques of SiC crystals are relatively immature and device fabrication technologies are not yet sufficiently developed to the degree required for widespread, reliable commercial use. Key crystal growth and device fabrication issues that limit the performance and capability of high-temperature and/or high-power SiC electronics are identified. The electrical and material quality differences between emerging SiC and mature silicon electronics technology are highlighted.

  20. Low-chromium reduced-activation chromium-tungsten steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Bainitic microstructures formed during continuous cooling can differ from classical upper and lower bainite formed during isothermal transformation. Two types of non-classical bainite were observed depending on the cooling rate: carbide-free acicular bainite at rapid cooling rates and granular bainite at slower cooling rates. The Charpy impact toughness of the acicular ferrite was found to be considerably better than for the granular bainite. It was postulated that alloying to improve the hardenability of the steel would promote the formation of acicular bainite, just as increasing the cooling rate does. To test this, chromium and tungsten were added to the 2 1/4Cr-2W and 2 1/4Cr-2WV steel compositions to increase their hardenability, and the microstructures and mechanical properties were examined.

  1. Further development of the tungsten-fibre reinforced tungsten composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gietl, Hanns; Hoeschen, Till; Riesch, Johann [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aumann, Martin; Coenen, Jan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IEK4, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Huber, Philipp [Lehrstuhl fuer Textilmaschinenbau und Institut fuer Textiltechnik (ITA), 52062 Aachen (Germany); Neu, Rudolf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For the use in a fusion device tungsten has a unique property combination. The brittleness below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and the embrittlement during operation e.g. by overheating, neutron irradiation are the main drawbacks for the use of pure tungsten. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites utilize extrinsic mechanisms to improve the toughness. After proofing that this idea works in principle the next step is the conceptual proof for the applicability in fusion reactors. This will be done by producing mock-ups and testing them in cyclic high heat load tests. For this step all constituents of the composite, which are fibre, matrix and interface, and all process steps need to be investigated. Tungsten fibres are investigated by means of tension tests to find the optimum diameter and pretreatment. New interface concepts are investigated to meet the requirements in a fusion reactor, e.g. high thermal conductivity, low activation. In addition weaving processes are evaluated for their use in the fibre preform production. This development is accompanied by an extensive investigation of the materials properties e.g. single fibre tension tests.

  2. Graphene Nanoplatelet Reinforced Tantalum Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    et. al. Ultrahigh-pressure consolidation and deformation of tantalum carbide at ambient and high temperatures. Acta Materialia 61-11 (2013) 4001-4009...matrix to reinfor- cement . Al–5BNNT exhibits high deformability as it undergoes 75% thickness reduction in a single pass of cold rolling without...4009Ultrahigh-pressure consolidation and deformation of tantalum carbide at ambient and high temperatures Debrupa Lahiri a, Virendra Singh b, Giovani

  3. Silicon Carbide Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Andrew Trunek has focused on supporting the Sic team through the growth of Sic crystals, making observations and conducting research that meets the collective needs and requirements of the team while fulfilling program commitments. Cancellation of the Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program has had a significant negative impact on resources and research goals. This report highlights advancements and achievements made with this cooperative agreement over the past year. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) continues to make advances in silicon carbide (SiC) research during the past year. Step free surfaces were used as substrates for the deposition of GaN epilayers that yielded very low dislocation densities. Defect free 3C- SiC was successfully nucleated on step free mesas and test diodes were fabricated. Web growth techniques were used to increase the usable surface area of dislocation free SiC by approximately equal to 40%. The greatest advancement has been attained on stepped surfaces of SiC. A metrology standard was developed using high temperature etching techniques titled "Nanometer Step Height Standard". This development culminated in being recognized for a 2004 R&D100 award and the process to produce the steps received a NASA Space Act award.

  4. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co2Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  5. The tungsten metallome of Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevcenco, A.M.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Bol, E.; Krijger, G.C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.; Verhaert, P.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Hagen, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    The tungsten metallome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus has been investigated using electroanalytical metal analysis and native-native 2D-PAGE with the radioactive tungsten isotope W-187 (t(1/2) = 23.9 h). P. furiosus cells have an intracellular tungsten concentration of 29 mu

  6. The tungsten metallome of Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevcenco, A.M.; Pinkse, M.; Bol, E.; Krijgen, G.; Wolterbeek, H.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Hagen, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    The tungsten metallome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus has been investigated using electroanalytical metal analysis and native–native 2D-PAGE with the radioactive tungsten isotope W-187 (t1/2 = 23.9 h). P. furiosus cells have an intracellular tungsten concentration of 29 mM, of

  7. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  8. A Review of Metal Injection Molding- Process, Optimization, Defects and Microwave Sintering on WC-Co Cemented Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbudin, S. N. A.; Othman, M. H.; Amin, Sri Yulis M.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.

    2017-08-01

    This article is about a review of optimization of metal injection molding and microwave sintering process on tungsten cemented carbide produce by metal injection molding process. In this study, the process parameters for the metal injection molding were optimized using Taguchi method. Taguchi methods have been used widely in engineering analysis to optimize the performance characteristics through the setting of design parameters. Microwave sintering is a process generally being used in powder metallurgy over the conventional method. It has typical characteristics such as accelerated heating rate, shortened processing cycle, high energy efficiency, fine and homogeneous microstructure, and enhanced mechanical performance, which is beneficial to prepare nanostructured cemented carbides in metal injection molding. Besides that, with an advanced and promising technology, metal injection molding has proven that can produce cemented carbides. Cemented tungsten carbide hard metal has been used widely in various applications due to its desirable combination of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Moreover, areas of study include common defects in metal injection molding and application of microwave sintering itself has been discussed in this paper.

  9. Silicon carbide as platform for energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syväjärvi, Mikael; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Sun, Jianwu

    Silicon carbide is emerging as a novel material for a range of energy and environmental technologies. Previously, silicon carbide was considered as a material mainly for transistor applications. We have initiated the use of silicon carbide material towards optoelectronics in general lighting and ...

  10. HYDROGEN VACANCY INTERACTION IN TUNGSTEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANSENS, [No Value; ELKERIEM, MSA; PLEITER, F

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen-vacancy interaction in tungsten was investigated by means of the perturbed angular correlation technique, using the isotope In-111 as a probe. Hydrogen trapping at an In-111-vacancy cluster manifests itself as a change of the local electric field gradient, which gives rise to an observable

  11. Tungsten biochemistry of Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten is the heaviest element that exhibits biological activity (atomic number 74), when it is present in an enzyme. It is taken up by cells in the form of tungstate, and it is subsequently processed into an organic cofactor referred to as tungstopterin, which is found as active center in several

  12. Determination of emissivity coefficient of heat-resistant super alloys and cemented carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieruj Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of emissivity engineering materials according to temperature. Experiment is concerned on difficult to machine materials, which may be turned with laser assisting. Cylindrical samples made of nickel-based alloys Inconel 625, Inconel 718, Waspaloy and tungsten-carbides based on cobalt matrix were analyzed. The samples’ temperature in contact method was compared to the temperature measured by non-contact pyrometers. Based on this relative, the value of the emissivity coefficient was adjusted to the right indication of pyrometers.

  13. The high-flux effect on deuterium retention in TiC and TaC doped tungsten at high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zibrov, M.; Bystrov, K.; Mayer, M.; Morgan, T. W.; Kurishita, H.

    2017-01-01

    Samples made of tungsten (W) doped either with titanium carbide (W-1.1TiC) or tantalum carbide (W-3.3TaC) were exposed to a low-energy (40 eV/D), high-flux (1.8–5 × 1023 D/m2s) deuterium (D) plasma at temperatures of about800 K, 1050 K, and 1250 K to a fluence of about1 × 1027 D/m2. The deuterium

  14. Longitudinal and shear wave velocities in pure tungsten and tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. T.; Ando, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Mao, Y.; Riesch, J.; Gietl, H.; Kasada, R.; Hamaji, Y.; Ibano, K.; Ueda, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Longitudinal and shear wave velocities in pure tungsten and tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten (Wf/W) composites were studied by laser ultrasonic measurements. The samples were produced from powders or powder/fiber mixtures by spark plasma sintering process. It was found that sintering temperature, as a processing parameter, has the largest effect. Higher sintering temperatures result in faster wave velocities. For example, longitudinal wave velocities and their standard deviations in sintered W at 1800 °C and 2000 °C were 4834 ± 53 m s-1 and 5043 ± 47 m s-1. In comparison, the average longitudinal wave velocity for a polycrystalline reference W was 5227 ± 5 m s-1. The values for Wf/W composites fall between the two sintered samples. However, the thicker Yttria (Y2O3) fiber/matrix interface resulted in faster wave velocities. The elastic moduli were calculated from the sound velocities using average density measurements. The standard relations for isotropic, homogeneous material were used. It was found that the shear, bulk, Young’s modulus are 80%-90% of the values for polycrystalline tungsten, while the temperature dependency from 25 °C to 450 °C is similar.

  15. Tensile behaviour of drawn tungsten wire used in tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Feichtmayer, A.; Fuhr, M.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Gietl, H.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Neu, R.

    2017-12-01

    In tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) the brittleness problem of tungsten is solved by utilizing extrinsic toughening mechanisms. The properties of the composite are very much related to the properties of the drawn tungsten wire used as fibre reinforcements. Its high strength and capability of ductile deformation are ideal properties facilitating toughening of Wf/W. Tensile tests have been used for determining mechanical properties and study the deformation and the fracture behaviour of the wire. Tests of as-fabricated and straightened drawn wires with a diameter between 16 and 150 μm as well as wire electrochemically thinned to a diameter of 5 μm have been performed. Engineering stress–strain curves and a microscopic analysis are presented with the focus on the ultimate strength. All fibres show a comparable stress–strain behaviour comprising necking followed by a ductile fracture. A reduction of the diameter by drawing leads to an increase of strength up to 4500 MPa as a consequence of a grain boundary hardening mechanism. Heat treatment during straightening decreases the strength whereas electrochemical thinning has no significant impact on the mechanical behaviour.

  16. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications – Joining of tungsten foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Jens, E-mail: jens.reiser@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Rieth, Michael; Möslang, Anton; Dafferner, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Jan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Mrotzek, Tobias; Hoffmann, Andreas [PLANSEE SE, Reutte (Austria); Armstrong, D.E.J.; Yi, Xiaoou [University of Oxford, Department of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    This paper is the fourth in our series on tungsten laminates. The aim of this paper is to discuss laminate synthesis, meaning the joining of tungsten foils. It is obvious that the properties of the tungsten laminate strongly depend on the combination of (i) interlayer and (ii) joining technology, as this combination defines (i) the condition of the tungsten foil after joining (as-received or recrystallised) as well as (ii) the characteristics of the interface between the tungsten foil and the interlayer (wettability or diffusion leading to a solid solution or the formation of intermetallics). From the example of tungsten laminates joined by brazing with (i) an eutectic silver copper brazing filler, (ii) copper, (iii) titanium, and (iv) zirconium, the microstructure will be discussed, with special focus on the interface. Based on our assumptions of the mechanism of the extraordinary ductility of tungsten foil we present three syntheses strategies and make recommendations for the synthesis of high temperature tungsten laminates.

  17. Pathology of silicon carbide pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, S; Bégin, R; Cantin, A

    1988-03-01

    Silicon carbide is a widely used synthetic abrasive manufactured by heating silica and coke in electric furnaces at 2400 degrees C. Until recently it had been considered a relatively inert dust in humans and animals. However, several roentgenologic surveys had revealed lesions similar to low-grade silicosis. A recent epidemiological study has revealed a 35% incidence of pulmonary problems. Tissues from three such workers were available for light microscopy. A mixed pneumoconiosis was found, and lesions can be summarized as follows: (a) abundance of intraalveolar macrophages associated with a mixture of inhaled particles including carbon, silicon, pleomorphic crystals, silicon carbide, and ferruginous bodies showing a thin black central core; (b) nodular fibrosis, generally profuse, containing silica and ferruginous bodies and associated with large amount of carbon pigment; (c) interstitial fibrosis, less prominent than the nodular form; (d) carcinoma in two cases. We believe this pneumoconiosis is sufficiently characteristic to be recognized as a distinct entity. The Stanton hypothesis on fiber properties and carcinogenesis could be applied to silicon carbide dust. At present, it appears that the occupational hazard is limited to the manufacturing process and powdered product used in some industries.

  18. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  19. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  20. Effect of SiC Nanowhisker on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of WC-Ni Cemented Carbide Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine tungsten carbide-nickel (WC-Ni cemented carbides with varied fractions of silicon carbide (SiC nanowhisker (0–3.75 wt.% were fabricated by spark plasma sintering at 1350°C under a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa with the assistance of vanadium carbide (VC and tantalum carbide (TaC as WC grain growth inhibitors. The effects of SiC nanowhisker on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-prepared WC-Ni cemented carbides were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that during spark plasma sintering (SPS Ni may react with the applied SiC nanowhisker, forming Ni2Si and graphite. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that, with the addition of SiC nanowhisker, the average WC grain size decreased from 400 to 350 nm. However, with the additional fractions of SiC nanowhisker, more and more Si-rich aggregates appeared. With the increase in the added fraction of SiC nanowhisker, the Vickers hardness of the samples initially increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum of about 24.9 GPa when 0.75 wt.% SiC nanowhisker was added. However, the flexural strength of the sample gradually decreased with increasing addition fraction of SiC nanowhisker.

  1. Tungsten: A Preliminary Environmental Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Effects on Flora & Fauna • Geochemistry • Soil microbial communities • Plants • Soil invertebrates • Higher order animals • Additional studies BUILDING...Bioaccumulation of Tungsten in Plants Natural Sources • Trees & shrubs in Rocky Mountain region, USA • Siberian pine, willows, mosses & lichen in tungsten

  2. International strategic mineral issues summary report: tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Antony B.T.; Sinclair, W. David; Amey, Earle B.

    1998-01-01

    Scheelite and wolframite are the principal minerals currently mined for tungsten. Both occur in hard-rock deposits; wolframite is also recovered from placer deposits. Most current mine production of tungsten is from vein/stockwork, skarn, porphyry, and strata-bound deposits. Minor amounts are produced from disseminated, pegmatite, breccia, and placer deposits.

  3. Structures and transitions in tungsten grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhu, Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marian, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rudd, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    The objective of this study is to develop a computational methodology to predict structure, energies of tungsten grain boundaries as a function of misorientation and inclination. The energies and the mobilities are the necessary input for thermomechanical model of recrystallization of tungsten for magnetic fusion applications being developed by the Marian Group at UCLA.

  4. Development of Tungsten Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    CONTENTS Section Title Page 1 INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY .............................. 1 2 MATERIAL SELECTION .................................. 3 3...Metallographic Examination .. 41 - iv - 1. INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY This is the. Final Report on a Phase I SBIR Program entitled "Development of Tungsten Based...m = - -𔃺 S (l- 1- =11 = (t) 011CU ’a . 4) woj .- :2 01w c L .0 u .-. 0C 0 goa - L 0d MCDM . 3 -X - z 1 m- L. S.1 MCDM -z3-2: S - m 1 o. 01 In 0,10Lnw

  5. Properties of powders of a tungsten-free alloy produced by explosion mechanochemical synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, A.A.; Maslyuk, V.A. [Far East Polytechnic Institute, Vladivostok (Ukraine)

    1994-07-01

    Intensified milling is used extensively in conventional technology of production of tungsten-free hard alloys to produce a homogeneous mixture of titanium carbide with a binding component. The refining process lasts tens of hours and is energy-consuming. However, intensified milling can also be used for other purposes, in particulra for explosion mechanochemical synthesis (EMS). In this case, the role of mechanical activation is to initiate an exothermic reaction which then takes place spontaneously. It was shown that in mechanoactivation of the Ti-C-Ni composition in an enregy-stressed vibromill it is possible to synthesize a tungsten-free hard alloy over a short period of time (20-30 min). EMS of a tungsten-free hard alloy is characterized by the generation of a large amount of heat sufficient for melting the metallic binder - nickel, cobalt, and iron. Therefore, the resultant powder should differ from the powder produced by conventional technology, both in its structure and properties. The aim of this work was to examine these special features.

  6. Effect of metallic coating on the properties of copper-silicon carbide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, M.; Pietrzak, K.; Teodorczyk, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Jarząbek, D.; Zybała, R.; Bazarnik, P.; Lewandowska, M.; Strojny-Nędza, A.

    2017-11-01

    In the presented paper a coating of SiC particles with a metallic layer was used to prepare copper matrix composite materials. The role of the layer was to protect the silicon carbide from decomposition and dissolution of silicon in the copper matrix during the sintering process. The SiC particles were covered by chromium, tungsten and titanium using Plasma Vapour Deposition method. After powder mixing of components, the final densification process via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method at temperature 950 °C was provided. The almost fully dense materials were obtained (>97.5%). The microstructure of obtained composites was studied using scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. The microstructural analysis of composites confirmed that regardless of the type of deposited material, there is no evidence for decomposition process of silicon carbide in copper. In order to measure the strength of the interface between ceramic particles and the metal matrix, the micro tensile tests have been performed. Furthermore, thermal diffusivity was measured with the use of the laser pulse technique. In the context of performed studies, the tungsten coating seems to be the most promising solution for heat sink application. Compared to pure composites without metallic layer, Cu-SiC with W coating indicate the higher tensile strength and thermal diffusitivy, irrespective of an amount of SiC reinforcement. The improvement of the composite properties is related to advantageous condition of Cu-SiC interface characterized by well homogenity and low porosity, as well as individual properties of the tungsten coating material.

  7. The DAMPE silicon tungsten tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Valentina; Asfandiyarov, R; Azzarello, P; Bernardini, P; Bertucci, B; Bolognini, A; Cadoux, F; Caprai, M; Domenjoz, M; Dong, Y; Duranti, M; Fan, R; Franco, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gong, K; Guo, D; Husi, C; Ionica, M; Lacalamita, N; Loparco, F; Marsella, G; Mazziotta, M N; Mongelli, M; Nardinocchi, A; Nicola, L; Pelleriti, G; Peng, W; Pohl, M; Postolache, V; Qiao, R; Surdo, A; Tykhonov, A; Vitillo, S; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wu, D; Wu, X; Zhang, F; De Mitri, I; La Marra, D

    2017-01-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite has been successfully launched on the 17th December 2015. It is a powerful space detector designed for the identification of possible Dark Matter signatures thanks to its capability to detect electrons and photons with an unprecedented energy resolution in an energy range going from few GeV up to 10 TeV. Moreover, the DAMPE satellite will contribute to a better understanding of the propagation mechanisms of high energy cosmic rays measuring the nuclei flux up to 100 TeV. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is made of twelve layers of single-sided AC-coupled silicon micro-strip detectors for a total silicon area of about 7 $m^2$ . To promote the conversion of incident photons into electron-positron pairs, tungsten foils are inserted into the supporting structure. In this document, a detailed description of the STK constructi...

  8. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd), P.O. Box 27420, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  9. Hydroxide catalysis bonding of silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, A.A. van; Ende, D.A. van den; Bogenstahl, J.; Rowan, S.; Cunningham, W.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    For bonding silicon carbide optics, which require extreme stability, hydroxide catalysis bonding is considered [Rowan, S., Hough, J. and Elliffe, E., Silicon carbide bonding. UK Patent 040 7953.9, 2004. Please contact Mr. D. Whiteford for further information: D.Whiteford@admin.gla.ac.uk]. This

  10. Effects of heat treatment on mechanical properties and microstructure of tungsten fi ber reinforced grey cast iron matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng jianHong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grey cast iron matrix composites reinforced by different volume fractions of tungsten fibers (Vr = 0.95 %, 1.90 %, 2.85 %, 3.80 % were investigated in as-cast and under the heat treatment temperatures of 1,000℃ and 1,100℃. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were analyzed and tested by means of SEM, micro-hardness tester and three-point bend testing. The results show that with increasing of the volume fraction of tungsten fibers, the composites reinforced by the tungsten fiber have higher fl exural strength and modulus than that of cast iron without reinforcement, and the fl exural strength increases with the increasing of heat treatment temperatures. Due to diffusion reaction between matrix and reinforcing phases, the process of heat treatment, the number of graphite fl akes in the matrix seemingly becomes lower; and some hard carbide particles are formed around the residual tungsten fi bers. Not only does the hardness of both matrix and reinforcement change tremendously, but also the region of reinforcement is also extended from the original 0.11 mm to 0.19 mm in radius.

  11. Analysis and Comparison of Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints Between Metal Inert Gas Welding and Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Guan, Yingchun; Wang, Qiang; Cong, Baoqiang; Qi, Bojin

    2015-09-01

    Surface contamination usually occurs during welding processing and it affects the welds quality largely. However, the formation of such contaminants has seldom been studied. Effort was made to study the contaminants caused by metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes of aluminum alloy, respectively. SEM, FTIR and XPS analysis was carried out to investigate the microstructure as well as surface chemistry. These contaminants were found to be mainly consisting of Al2O3, MgO, carbide and chromium complexes. The difference of contaminants between MIG and TIG welds was further examined. In addition, method to minimize these contaminants was proposed.

  12. Combined Photoemission Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Study of a Mixture of (Oxy)carbides as Potential Innovative Supports and Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Laura; Valero-Vidal, Carlos; Agnoli, Stefano; Sezen, Hikmet; Rüdiger, Celine; Kunze-Liebhäuser, Julia; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2016-08-03

    Active and stable non-noble metal materials, able to substitute Pt as catalyst or to reduce the Pt amount, are vitally important for the extended commercialization of energy conversion technologies, such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. Here, we report a fundamental study of nonstoichiometric tungsten carbide (WxC) and its interaction with titanium oxycarbide (TiOxCy) under electrochemical working conditions. In particular, the electrochemical activity and stability of the WxC/TiOxCy system toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction (EOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are investigated. The chemical changes caused by the applied potential are established by combining photoemission spectroscopy and electrochemistry. WxC is not active toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction at room temperature but it is highly stable under these conditions thanks to the formation of a passive thin film on the surface, consisting mainly of WO2 and W2O5, which prevents the full oxidation of WxC. In addition, WxC is able to adsorb ethanol, forming ethoxy groups on the surface, which constitutes the first step for the ethanol oxidation. The interaction between WxC and TiOxCy plays an important role in the electrochemical stability of WxC since specific orientations of the substrate are able to stabilize WxC and prevent its corrosion. The beneficial interaction with the substrate and the specific surface chemistry makes tungsten carbide a good electrocatalyst support or cocatalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells. However, WxC is active toward the HER and chemically stable under hydrogen reduction conditions, since no changes in the chemical composition or dissolution of the film are observed. This makes tungsten carbide a good candidate as electrocatalyst support or cocatalyst for the electrochemical production of hydrogen.

  13. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Jay L. [Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755 (United States)], E-mail: Jay.L.Clausen@erdc.usace.army.mil; Korte, Nic [1946 Clover Ct., Grand Junction, Colorado, 81506 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth-at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (< 1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use.

  14. Surface science and electrochemical studies of metal-modified carbides for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas Glenn

    Carbides of the early transition metals have emerged as low-cost catalysts that are active for a wide range of reactions. The surface chemistry of carbides can be altered by modifying the surface with small amounts of admetals. These metal-modified carbides can be effective replacements for Pt-based bimetallic systems, which suffer from the drawbacks of high cost and low thermal stability. In this dissertation, metal-modified carbides were studied for reactions with applications to renewable energy technologies. It is demonstrated that metal-modified carbides possess high activity for alcohol reforming and electrochemical hydrogen production. First, the surface chemistry of carbides towards alcohol decomposition is studied using density functional theory (DFT) and surface science experiments. The Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used to calculate the binding energies of alcohols and decomposition intermediates on metal-modified carbides. The calculated binding energies were then correlated to reforming activity determined experimentally using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the case of methanol decomposition, it was found that tungsten monocarbide (WC) selectively cleaved the C-O bond to produce methane. Upon modifying the surface with a single layer of metal such as Ni, Pt, or Rh, the selectivity shifted towards scission of the C-H bonds while leaving the C-O bond intact, producing carbon monoxide (CO) and H2. High resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to examine the bond breaking sequence as a function of temperature. From HREELS, it was shown that the surfaces followed an activity trend of Rh > Ni > Pt. The Au-modified WC surface possessed too low of a methanol binding energy, and molecular desorption of methanol was the most favorable pathway on this surface. Next, the ability of Rh-modified WC to break the C-C bond of C2 and C3 alcohols was demonstrated. HREELS showed that ethanol decomposed through an acetaldehyde

  15. Inelastic deformation and failure of tungsten carbide under ballistic-loading conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazell, P.J.; Appleby-Thomas, G.J.; Herlaar, K.; Painter, J.

    2010-01-01

    High-speed photography has been used to investigate the dynamic behaviour of similar grades of WC-Co hardmetals during ballistic impacts with velocities in the range of 28-484. m/s. Key features of the failure of similar grades of WC-Co materials during complimentary impacts have been observed and

  16. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications – Tensile test properties of tungsten foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Jens, E-mail: jens.reiser@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Rieth, Michael; Möslang, Anton; Dafferner, Bernhard [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Hoffmann, Andreas [PLANSEE SE, Reutte (Austria); Yi, Xiaoou; Armstrong, D.E.J. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    This paper is the third part of our series on tungsten foil laminates. Within the tungsten laminate project we have succeeded in ductilizing tungsten by synthesizing a tungsten laminate made of tungsten foil, which is ductile. By assembling and joining several layers of tungsten foil, the ductile properties of the foil can be extended to the bulk. The aim of this paper is to present the results of tensile tests on 100-μm-thick tungsten foil in as-received and recrystallized conditions (1 h at 2000 °C). The results show that the mechanical properties of tungsten foil are anisotropic and can be explained by considering (i) the texture of the tungsten foil of {1 0 0}〈0 1 1〉, (ii) the anisotropic grain shape (0.5 μm × 3 μm × 15 μm), (iii) the preferred slip direction of body-centered cubic (bcc) metals, the 〈1 1 1〉 direction, as well as the preferred cleavage plane of tungsten at room temperature, the {1 0 0} plane. Furthermore, the results give further hints for the sources and mechanism of the extraordinary ductility of tungsten foil such as the ‘foil effect’, which is the dislocation annihilation at the free surface. In particular, the ductile material behavior of tungsten foil in the recrystallized condition seems to benefit from the foil effect and this is how a plastic strain of about 30% in a tensile test at 600 °C can be explained.

  17. Processes and applications of silicon carbide nanocomposite fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D. G.; Cho, K. Y.; Jin, E. J.; Riu, D. H.

    2011-10-01

    Various types of SiC such as nanowires, thin films, foam, and continuous fibers have been developed since the early 1980s, and their applications have been expanded into several new applications, such as for gas-fueled radiation heater, diesel particulate filter (DPF), ceramic fiber separators and catalyst/catalyst supports include for the military, aerospace, automobile and electronics industries. For these new applications, high specific surface area is demanded and it has been tried by reducing the diameter of SiC fiber. Furthermore, functional nanocomposites show potentials in various harsh environmental applications. In this study, silicon carbide fiber was prepared through electrospinning of the polycarbosilane (PCS) with optimum molecular weight distribution which was synthesized by new method adopting solid acid catalyst such as ZSM-5 and γ-Al2O3. Functional elements such as aluminum, titanium, tungsten and palladium easily doped in the precursor fiber and remained in the SiC fiber after pyrolysis. The uniform SiC fibers were produced at the condition of spinning voltage over 20 kV from the PCS solution as the concentration of 1.3 g/ml in DMF/Toluene (3:7) and pyrolysis at 1200°C. Pyrolyzed products were processed into several interesting applications such as thermal batteries, hydrogen sensors and gas filters.

  18. Metal and Metal Carbide Nanoparticle Synthesis Using Electrical Explosion of Wires Coupled with Epoxide Polymerization Capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Elseddik M; Jelliss, Paul A; Buckner, Steven W

    2015-06-15

    In this study, metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs) were produced using electrical explosion of wires (EEW) in organic solvents. The explosion chamber was constructed from Teflon to withstand the shockwave, allow growth and reaction of the incipient NPs in various organic solvents containing dissolved ligands, and allow a constant flow of argon to maintain an inert environment. A survey of different transition d-block metals was conducted with metals from groups 4-8, affording metal carbide NPs, while metals from groups 9-12 gave elemental metallic NPs. Tungsten carbide phase WC1-x, which has not been previously isolated as a single-phase material, was exclusively formed during EEW. We used polymerization initiation by electron-rich metallic nanoparticles (PIERMEN) as a capping technique for the nascent NPs with an alkyl epoxide employed as the monomers. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles with the metallic core embedded in a polymer matrix with predominantly smaller particles (100 nm). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) was used to confirm the identity of the metallic NPs. The capping agents were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. No evidence is observed for the formation of crystalline oxides during EEW for any metals used. Differential scanning calorimetry/thermal gravimetric analysis was used to study the NP's behavior upon heating under an air flow up to 800 °C with the product oxides characterized by PXRD. The bifurcation between metal-carbide NPs and metal NPs correlates with the enthalpy of formation of the product carbides. We observed PIERMEN capping of elemental metal NPs only when the metal has negative standard electrode potentials (relative to a bis(biphenyl) chromium(I)/(0) reference electrode).

  19. Characterization of a Cobalt-Tungsten Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Caspersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A ferritic steel interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell must be coated in order to prevent chromium evaporation from the steel substrate. The Technical University of Denmark and Topsoe Fuel Cell have developed an interconnect coating based on a cobalt-tungsten alloy. The purpose of the coating...... is to act both as a diffusion barrier for chromium and provide better protection against high temperature oxidation than a pure cobalt coating. This work presents a characterization of a cobalt-tungsten alloy coating electrodeposited on the ferritic steel Crofer 22 H which subsequently was oxidized in air...... of oxidation time. The coating had completely oxidized during the 300 h oxidation time. GDOES measurements showed that the tungsten was located in an inner zone in the coating/substrate interface. The outer layer of the coating did not contain any tungsten after oxidation but consisted mainly of cobalt...

  20. Uranium Carbide Powder Ignition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthinier, C.; Coullomb, S.; Rado, C.; Le Guyadec, F. [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SDTC, LEME, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Chatillon, C.; Blanquet, E.; Boichot, R. [SIMAP, Sciences et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, INPG-CNRS-UJF ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 St Martin-d' Heres (France)

    2009-06-15

    Mixed (U, Pu) carbide, constituted by means of 80% of uranium monocarbide (UC), is considered as a possible fuel material for future gas fast reactors or sodium fast reactor. However, UC undergoes a strong exothermic reaction with air and fine powders of UC are pyrophoric. Thus, it is necessary to understand this high reactivity in order to determine safe handling conditions for the production and reprocessing of carbide fuels. UC powder was obtained by arc melting and milling. The reactivity of uranium carbide was studied in oxidizing atmosphere and different experimental devices were used to determine ignition temperatures. The phases formed at the various observed stages of the oxidation process were determined by post-mortem X ray diffraction analysis. Studies were first performed using small quantities of UC powder (around 50 mg) in Differential Thermal Analysis / Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTA/TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Experiments were realized using different parameters, such as heating rate and gas flow rate and composition, to determine their influence on pyro-phoricity. Results obtained with small quantities (tens of milligrams) revealed that UC powder is highly reactive in air in the range 200- 250 deg. C. Studies were also performed in the 'Pyro' test facility multi-function furnace allowing CCD camera recording, during heating and ignition, through view-ports. Lower ignition temperatures, around 100 deg. C, were obtained using around 1 g UC powder samples. Results are discussed and analysed with theory of burning curve ignition and numerical simulations. Simulations aim to understand the influence of the different parameters on pyro-phoricity. Small scale simulations (on a spherical grain) confirm the influence of UC grains size, heat rate and gas composition on powder ignition temperature with small quantities. The issue is now to understand the influence of grain pile form factor and volume on the pyro-phoricity of

  1. Tungsten metallizing alumina--yttria ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, R.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1977-03-01

    The ease with which high-alumina bodies may be metallized with tungsten is improved by additions of yttria to the alumina. Mechanisms of this bonding process were studied by use of optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and tensile tests. Variables studied included yttria content of the body and the firing temperature during metallizing. The study showed that a reaction between the tungsten and the yttrogarnet grain boundary phase markedly improved adherence.

  2. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications - Analyses and characterisation of tungsten foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Jens, E-mail: jens.reiser@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Rieth, Michael; Dafferner, Bernhard [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Hoffmann, Andreas [PLANSEE SE, Reutte (Austria); Yi Xiaoou; Armstrong, David E.J. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    It has been attempted for several years to synthesise a tungsten material with a low brittle-to-ductile transition temperature and a high fracture toughness that can be used for structural parts. It was shown in our previous work that tungsten foil is ductile at room temperature and that this ductility can be transformed to bulk by synthesising a tungsten laminate. In this work we want to focus on tungsten foil and assess the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties of the foil. The assessment of the microstructure of 0.1 mm tungsten foil will be performed using electron microscopy. It will be shown that the grains of the tungsten foil have a dimension of 0.5 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 3 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 15 {mu}m and a clear texture in (1 0 0) Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 0 1 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket . This texture becomes even more pronounced by annealing. Three-point-bending tests with tungsten foil, as-received, will define the barriers: ductile at room temperature and brittle in liquid nitrogen (-196 Degree-Sign C). This shows that the ductility is a thermally activated process. Recrystallised tungsten foil (annealed for 1 h/2700 Degree-Sign C) shows ductile material behaviour at 200 Degree-Sign C. The paper closes with a discussion on the reasons of the ductility of 0.1 mm tungsten foil. These might be the ultra fine grained (UFG) microstructure or, in other words, a nano microstructure (see tungsten foil as-received), the high amount of mobile edge dislocations, and/or the foil effect, which means that dislocations can move to the surface and are annihilated (see tungsten foil recrystallised).

  3. Thermal Expansion of Hafnium Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1960-01-01

    Since hafnium carbide (HfC) has a melting point of 7029 deg. F, it may have many high-temperature applications. A literature search uncovered very little information about the properties of HfC, and so a program was initiated at the Lewis Research Center to determine some of the physical properties of this material. This note presents the results of the thermal expansion investigation. The thermal-expansion measurements were made with a Gaertner dilatation interferometer calibrated to an accuracy of +/- 1 deg. F. This device indicates expansion by the movement of fringes produced by the cancellation and reinforcement of fixed wave-length light rays which are reflected from the surfaces of two parallel quartz glass disks. The test specimens which separate these disks are three small cones, each approximately 0.20 in. high.

  4. Deuterium retention in tungsten and tungsten-tantalum alloys exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachuk, Y.; Hoen, M. H. J. 't; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Uytdenhouwen, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2012-01-01

    A direct comparison of deuterium retention in samples of tungsten and two grades of tungsten-tantalum alloys-W-1% Ta and W-5% Ta, exposed to deuterium plasmas (ion flux similar to 10(24) m(-2) s(-1), ion energy at the biased target similar to 50 eV) at the plasma generator Pilot-PSI was performed

  5. Atomically Thin Heterostructures Based on Single-Layer Tungsten Diselenide and Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yu-Chuan

    2014-11-10

    Heterogeneous engineering of two-dimensional layered materials, including metallic graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, presents an exciting opportunity to produce highly tunable electronic and optoelectronic systems. In order to engineer pristine layers and their interfaces, epitaxial growth of such heterostructures is required. We report the direct growth of crystalline, monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) on epitaxial graphene (EG) grown from silicon carbide. Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning tunneling microscopy confirm high-quality WSe2 monolayers, whereas transmission electron microscopy shows an atomically sharp interface, and low energy electron diffraction confirms near perfect orientation between WSe2 and EG. Vertical transport measurements across the WSe2/EG heterostructure provides evidence that an additional barrier to carrier transport beyond the expected WSe2/EG band offset exists due to the interlayer gap, which is supported by theoretical local density of states (LDOS) calculations using self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green\\'s function (NEGF).

  6. Ductile-Phase-Toughened Tungsten for Plasma-Facing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin Hawkins

    A variety of processing approaches were employed to fabricate ductile-phase-toughened (DPT) tungsten (W) composites. Mechanical testing and analytical modeling were used to guide composite development. This work provides a basis for further development of W composites to be used in structural divertor components of future fusion reactors. W wire was tested in tension, showing significant ductility and strength. Coatings of copper (Cu) or tungsten carbide (WC) were applied to the W wire via electrodeposition and carburization, respectively. Composites were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) to consolidate W powders together with each type of coated W wire. DPT behavior, e.g. crack arrest and crack bridging, was not observed in three-point bend testing of the sintered composites. A laminate was fabricated by hot pressing W and Cu foils together with W wires, and subsequently tested in tension. This laminate was bonded via hot pressing to thick W plate as a reinforcing layer, and the composite was tested in three-point bending. Crack arrest was observed along with some fiber pullout, but significant transverse cracking in the W plate confounded further fracture toughness analysis. The fracture toughness of thin W plate was measured in three-point bending. W plates were brazed with Cu foils to form a laminate. Crack arrest and crack bridging were observed in three-point bend tests of the laminate, and fracture resistance curves were successfully calculated for this DPT composite. An analytical model of crack bridging was developed using the basis described by Chao in previous work by the group. The model uses the specimen geometry, matrix properties, and the stress-displacement function of a ductile reinforcement ("bridging law") to calculate the fracture resistance curve (R-curve) and load-displacement curve (P-D curve) for any test specimen geometry. The code was also implemented to estimate the bridging law of an arbitrary composite using R-curve data

  7. Electroanalytical determination of tungsten and molybdenum in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, P.L.; Slot, van 't P.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Hagen, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent crystal structure determinations accelerated the progress in the biochemistry of tungsten-containing enzymes. In order to characterize these enzymes, a sensitive determination of this metal in protein-containing samples is necessary. An electroanalytical tungsten determination has

  8. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  9. Structure of superhard tungsten tetraboride: a missing link between MB2 and MB12 higher borides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-03-17

    Superhard metals are of interest as possible replacements with enhanced properties over the metal carbides commonly used in cutting, drilling, and wear-resistant tooling. Of the superhard metals, the highest boride of tungsten--often referred to as WB4 and sometimes as W(1-x)B3--is one of the most promising candidates. The structure of this boride, however, has never been fully resolved, despite the fact that it was discovered in 1961--a fact that severely limits our understanding of its structure-property relationships and has generated increasing controversy in the literature. Here, we present a new crystallographic model of this compound based on refinement against time-of-flight neutron diffraction data. Contrary to previous X-ray-only structural refinements, there is strong evidence for the presence of interstitial arrangements of boron atoms and polyhedral bonding. The formation of these polyhedral--slightly distorted boron cuboctahedra--appears to be dependent upon the defective nature of the tungsten-deficient metal sublattice. This previously unidentified structure type has an intermediary relationship between MB2 and MB12 type boride polymorphs. Manipulation of the fractionally occupied metal and boron sites may provide insight for the rational design of new superhard metals.

  10. Impact of residual by-products from tungsten film deposition on process integration due to nonuniformity of the tungsten film

    CERN Document Server

    Sidhwa, A; Gandy, T; Melosky, S; Brown, W; Ang, S; Naseem, H; Ulrich, R

    2002-01-01

    The effects of residual by products from a tungsten film deposition process and their impact on process integration due to the nonuniformity of the tungsten film were investigated in this work. The tungsten film deposition process involves three steps: nucleation, stabilization, and tungsten bulk fill. Six experiments were conducted in search for a solution to the problem. The resulting data suggest that excess nitrogen left in the chamber following the tungsten nucleation step, along with residual by products, causes a shift in the tungsten film uniformity during the tungsten bulk fill process. Data reveal that, due to the residual by products, an abnormal grain growth occurs causing a variation in the tungsten thickness across the wafer during the bulk fill step. Although several possible solutions were revealed by the experiments, potential integration problems limited the acceptable solutions to one. The solution chosen was the introduction of a 10 s pumpdown immediately following the nucleation step. Thi...

  11. Carcinogenicity of Embedded Tungsten Alloys in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    2010 ProofNo: 1 UN CO RR EC TE D PR OO F 228 cating that the observed DU effects were not the result of foreign-body carcinogen- esis ( Brand et al...describing adverse health effects due to exposure to tungsten and tungsten-based materials. As part of an initiation rite, a French artillery...soldier drank 250 ml of a beer and wine mixture that had been used to rinse a gun barrel. Shortly after, he suffered seizures and was comatose for 24 h

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2000-11-01

    The main objective of this program was to develop an efficient and economically viable microwave processing technique to process cobalt cemented tungsten carbide with improved properties for drill-bits for advanced drilling operations for oil, gas, geothermal and excavation industries. The program was completed in three years and successfully accomplished all the states goals in the original proposal. In three years of the program, we designed and built several laboratory scale microwave sintering systems for conducting experiments on Tungsten carbide (WC) based composites in controlled atmosphere. The processing conditions were optimized and various properties were measured. The design of the system was then modified to enable it to process large commercial parts of WC/Co and in large quantities. Two high power (3-6 kW) microwave systems of 2.45 GHz were built for multi samples runs in a batch process. Once the process was optimized for best results, the technology was successfully transferred to our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. We helped them to built couple of prototype microwave sintering systems for carbide tool manufacturing. It was found that the microwave processed WC/Co tools are not only cost effective but also exhibited much better overall performance than the standard tools. The results of the field tests performed by Dennis Tool Co. showed remarkable advantage and improvement in their overall performance. For example: wear test shows an increase of 20-30%, corrosion test showed much higher resistance to the acid attack, erosion test exhibited about 15% better resistance than standard sinter-HIP parts. This proves the success of microwave technology for WC/Co based drilling tools. While we have successfully transferred the technology to our industrial partner Dennis Tool Co., they have signed an agreement with Valenite, a world leading WC producer of cutting and drilling tools and wear parts, to push aggressively the new microwave technology in

  13. In vitro genotoxic effects of different combinations of cobalt and metallic carbide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Marlies; Lombaert, Noömi; De Backer, Sofie; Finsy, Robert; Lison, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2003-03-01

    Occupational exposure to hard metal dust, consisting of tungsten carbide (WC) and metallic cobalt particles (Co), is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, while no increased risk was observed in workers exposed to Co alone. In vitro, in human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC), we previously demonstrated that WC-Co is more genotoxic than Co and WC alone. A possible mechanism underlying this higher genotoxicity is a specific physicochemical interaction between Co and WC particles leading to the enhanced short-term formation of active oxygen species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity of other combinations of Co with metal carbide particles in comparison with WC-Co. The ability of Cr(3)C(2), Mo(2)C and NbC and of their powder mixtures with Co to induce DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites was assessed by the alkaline Comet assay and their potential to induce chromosome(/genome) mutations by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test on human PBMC from two donors. PBMC were treated in vitro for 15 min, 24 h after the onset of PHA stimulation. In the micronucleus test, while the metal carbides alone did not increase the micronucleus frequency, Co alone and the four tested carbide-Co mixtures induced a statistically significant concentration-dependent increase in micronucleated binucleates. In addition to WC, NbC and Cr(3)C(2) particles were able to interact with Co, producing a higher mutagenic effect than the individual metal particles. Mo(2)C particles did not display interactive mutagenicity with Co in the micronucleus test, possibly related to their small specific surface area, compactness and/or spherical shape. With the Comet assay, applied directly at the end of the treatment, less clear results, due to inter-experimental and inter-donor variation, were obtained. These data indicate that particular interaction of a metal carbide with Co leading to enhanced mutagenicity is not specific for WC.

  14. Silicon Carbide From a Carbon Nodule in the Canyon Diablo Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, I. S.; Winston, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Canyon Diablo Meteorite fell in the Arizona desert 50,000 years ago, giving rise to the well-preserved Meteor Crater. Irons of various sizes were scattered around the crater rim and on the surrounding plains. We studied a rusty specimen containing a carbon nodule. We dug out small blocks of sooty carbon by means of a sharp tungsten carbide tip. These carbon materials contain traces of silicon carbide (SiC) and diamond/lonsdaleite. We report here our findigs of two groups of SiC grains. (1) Relatively large crystals, about 80-90 microns in size. Their colors are in shades of blue, green and neutral. One of the grains are composed of a cluster of 3 crystals of the 3C polytype, whereas, 7 other individual crystals are of hexagonal structure. All crystals in this group have dark, rounded resorption rims. (2) Small crystals, about 30-50 microns in size. They are pale blue in color, and they lack dark-colored rims. These two distinct groups probably have different modes of origin. The large crystals seem to be early-formed, but had been reheated or partially melted, as indicated by the bead-like rims. The complexities displayed by these SiC crystals might have resulted from a long residence time in the meteorite while it was still in space. Their origin might be akin to that of SiC occurring in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles.

  15. Silicon Carbide Etching Using Chlorine Trifluoride Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Oda, Satoko; Fukai, Yasushi; Fukae, Katsuya; Takeuchi, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko

    2005-03-01

    The etch rate, chemical reactions and etched surface of β-silicon carbide are studied in detail using chlorine trifluoride gas. The etch rate is greater than 10 μm min-1 at 723 K with a flow rate of 0.1 \\ell min-1 at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal reactor. The maximum etch rate at a substrate temperature of 773 K is 40 μm min-1 with a flow rate of 0.25 \\ell min-1. The step-like pattern that initially exists on the β-silicon carbide surface tends to be smoothed; the root-mean-square surface roughness decreases from its initial value of 5 μm to 1 μm within 15 min; this minimum value is maintained for more than 15 min. Therefore, chlorine trifluoride gas is considered to have a large etch rate for β-silicon carbide associated with making a rough surface smooth.

  16. CALICE silicon–tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Abstract. A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter prototype based on tungsten absorber and sampling units equipped with silicon pads as sensitive devices for signal collection is under construction. The full prototype will have in total 30 layers and be read out by about 10000 Si cells of 1 × 1 cm2.

  17. Superhard Rhenium/Tungsten Diboride Solid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Lei, Jialin; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-11-02

    Rhenium diboride (ReB 2 ), containing corrugated layers of covalently bonded boron, is a superhard metallic compound with a microhardness reaching as high as 40.5 GPa (under an applied load of 0.49 N). Tungsten diboride (WB 2 ), which takes a structural hybrid between that of ReB 2 and AlB 2 , where half of the boron layers are planar (as in AlB 2 ) and half are corrugated (as in ReB 2 ), has been shown not to be superhard. Here, we demonstrate that the ReB 2 -type structure can be maintained for solid solutions of tungsten in ReB 2 with tungsten content up to a surprisingly large limit of nearly 50 atom %. The lattice parameters for the solid solutions linearly increase along both the a- and c-axes with increasing tungsten content, as evaluated by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. From micro- and nanoindentation hardness testing, all of the compositions within the range of 0-48 atom % W are superhard, and the bulk modulus of the 48 atom % solid solution is nearly identical to that of pure ReB 2 . These results further indicate that ReB 2 -structured compounds are superhard, as has been predicted from first-principles calculations, and may warrant further studies into additional solid solutions or ternary compounds taking this structure type.

  18. Gas tungsten arc welder with electrode grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  19. OPAL Example Segment of Silicon Tungsten Luminometer

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. The Silicon Tungsten Luminometer was part of OPAL's calorimeter which was used to measure the energy of particles. Most particles end their journey in calorimeters. These detectors measure the energy deposited when particles are slowed down and stopped.

  20. Titanium tungsten coatings for bioelectrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Amato, Letizia; Łopacińska, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of titanium tungsten (TiW) coatings and their applicability as components of biosensing systems. The focus is put on using TiW as an electromechanical interface layer between carbon nanotube (CNT) forests and silicon nanograss (SiNG) cell scaffolds. Cytotoxicity...

  1. Silicon carbide microsystems for harsh environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wijesundara, Muthu B J

    2011-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Microsystems for Harsh Environments reviews state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) technologies that, when combined, create microsystems capable of surviving in harsh environments, technological readiness of the system components, key issues when integrating these components into systems, and other hurdles in harsh environment operation. The authors use the SiC technology platform suite the model platform for developing harsh environment microsystems and then detail the current status of the specific individual technologies (electronics, MEMS, packaging). Additionally, methods

  2. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braida, Washington [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)], E-mail: wbraida@stevens.edu; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); O' Connor, Gregory [US Army, Environmental Technology Division, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States)

    2007-11-19

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu.

  3. Computer simulations for thorium doped tungsten crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, Bernd

    2009-07-17

    Tungsten has the highest melting point among all metals in the periodic table of elements. Furthermore, its equilibrium vapor pressure is by far the lowest at the temperature given. Thoria, ThO{sub 2}, as a particle dopant, results in a high temperature creep resistant material. Moreover, thorium covered tungsten surfaces show a drastically reduced electronic work function. This results in a tremendous reduction of tip temperatures of cathodes in discharge lamps, and, therefore, in dramatically reduced tungsten vapor pressures. Thorium sublimates at temperatures below those of a typical operating cathode. For proper operation, a diffusional flow of thorium atoms towards the surface has to be maintained. This atomic flux responds very sensitively on the local microstructure, as grain boundaries as well as dislocation cores offer ''short circuit paths'' for thorium atoms. In this work, we address some open issues of thoriated tungsten. A molecular dynamics scheme (MD) is used to derive static as well as dynamic material properties which have their common origin in the atomistic behavior of tungsten and thorium atoms. The interatomic interactions between thorium and tungsten atoms are described within the embedded atom model (EAM). So far, in literature no W-Th interaction potentials on this basis are described. As there is no alloying system known between thorium and tungsten, we have determined material data for the fitting of these potentials using ab-initio methods. This is accomplished using the full potential augmented plane wave method (FLAPW), to get hypothetical, i.e. not occurring in nature, ''alloy'' data of W-Th. In order to circumvent the limitations of classical (NVE) MD schemes, we eventually couple our model systems to external heat baths or volume reservoirs (NVT, NPT). For the NPT ensemble, we implemented a generalization of the variable cell method in combination with the Langevin piston, which results in a

  4. Gas-driven permeation of deuterium through tungsten and tungsten alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenauer, Dean A., E-mail: dabuche@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Fang, Zhigang Zak; Ren, Chai [University of Utah, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Oya, Yasuhisa [Shizuoka University, Graduate School of Science, Shizuoka (Japan); Otsuka, Teppei [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Third Division of Quantum Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sapporo (Japan); Whaley, Josh A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We have designed and performed initial studies on a high temperature gas-driven permeation cell capable of operating at temperatures up to 1150 °C and at pressures between 0.1–1 atm. • Permeation measurements on ITER grade tungsten compare well with past studies by Frauenfelder and Zahkarov in the temperature range from 500 to 1000 °C. • First permeation measurements on Ti dispersoid-strengthened ultra-fine grained tungsten show higher permeation at 500 °C, but very similar permeation with ITER tungsten at 1000 °C. Diffusion along grain boundaries may be playing a role for this type of material. - Abstract: To address the transport and trapping of hydrogen isotopes, several permeation experiments are being pursued at both Sandia National Laboratories (deuterium gas-driven permeation) and Idaho National Laboratories (tritium gas- and plasma-driven tritium permeation). These experiments are in part a collaboration between the US and Japan to study the performance of tungsten at divertor relevant temperatures (PHENIX). Here we report on the development of a high temperature (≤1150 °C) gas-driven permeation cell and initial measurements of deuterium permeation in several types of tungsten: high purity tungsten foil, ITER-grade tungsten (grains oriented through the membrane), and dispersoid-strengthened ultra-fine grain (UFG) tungsten being developed in the US. Experiments were performed at 500–1000 °C and 0.1–1.0 atm D{sub 2} pressure. Permeation through ITER-grade tungsten was similar to earlier W experiments by Frauenfelder (1968–69) and Zaharakov (1973). Data from the UFG alloy indicates marginally higher permeability (< 10×) at lower temperatures, but the permeability converges to that of the ITER tungsten at 1000 °C. The permeation cell uses only ceramic and graphite materials in the hot zone to reduce the possibility for oxidation of the sample membrane. Sealing pressure is applied externally, thereby allowing for elevation

  5. Sol–gel processing of carbidic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Carbon incorporation into the silicate network results in the formation of rigid carbidic glasses with improved physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This generated great interest in the development of these heteroatom structured materials through different processing routes. In the present studies, sol–gel.

  6. Sol–gel processing of carbidic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon incorporation into the silicate network results in the formation of rigid carbidic glasses with improved physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This generated great interest in the development of these heteroatom structured materials through different processing routes. In the present studies, sol–gel processing ...

  7. Producing Silicon Carbide/Silicon Nitride Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Manufacturing process makes CxSiyNz fibers. Precursor fibers spun from extruding machine charged with polycarbosilazane resin. When pyrolyzed, resin converted to cross-linked mixture of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, still in fiber form. CxSiyNz fibers promising substitutes for carbon fibers in high-strength, low-weight composites where high electrical conductivity unwanted.

  8. Casimir forces from conductive silicon carbide surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi Ghozotkhar, Mehdi; Svetovoy, V. B.; Broer, W. H.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of conductive silicon carbide (SiC), which is a promising material due to its excellent properties for devices operating in severe environments, were characterized with the atomic force microscope for roughness, and the optical properties were measured with ellipsometry in a wide range of

  9. Silicon Carbide Power Devices and Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Samsel, Isaak; LaBel, Ken; Chen, Yuan; Ikpe, Stanley; Wilcox, Ted; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Topper, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the NASA NEPP Program Silicon Carbide Power Device subtask is given, including the current task roadmap, partnerships, and future plans. Included are the Agency-wide efforts to promote development of single-event effect hardened SiC power devices for space applications.

  10. Visible light emission from porous silicon carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang

    2017-01-01

    Light-emitting silicon carbide is emerging as an environment-friendly wavelength converter in the application of light-emitting diode based white light source for two main reasons. Firstly, SiC has very good thermal conductivity and therefore a good substrate for GaN growth in addition to the small...

  11. Mechanical characteristics of microwave sintered silicon carbide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In firing of products by conventionally sintered process, SiC grain gets oxidized producing SiO2 (∼ 32 wt%) and deteriorates the quality of the product substantially. Partially sintered silicon carbide by such a method is a useful material for a varieties of applications ranging from kiln furniture to membrane material.

  12. Ligand sphere conversions in terminal carbide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul; Reinholdt, Anders; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Metathesis is introduced as a preparative route to terminal carbide complexes. The chloride ligands of the terminal carbide complex [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] (RuC) can be exchanged, paving the way for a systematic variation of the ligand sphere. A series of substituted complexes, including the first...... demonstrates that details of the coordination geometry affect the carbide chemical shift equally as much as variations in the nature of the auxiliary ligands. Furthermore, the kinetics of formation of the sqaure pyramidal dicyano complex, trans-[RuC(CN)2(PCy3)2], from RuC has been examined and the reaction...... found to be quite sluggish and of first order in both RuC and cyanide with a rate constant of k = 0.0104(6) M–1 s–1. Further reaction with cyanide leads to loss of the carbide ligand and formation of trans-[Ru(CN)4(PCy3)2]2–, which was isolated and structurally characterized as its PPh4+ salt....

  13. Pyrotechnic Smoke Compositions Containing Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    approach the performance of the AN-M8 HC composition (Al/ZnO/C2Cl6). 15. SUBJECT TERMS smoke, pyrotechnic, boron carbide 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION ...reduction of phosphate. This hypothesis was confirmed in an unexpected and alarming way, when the strong fishy- garlic odor of phosphorus and phosphines

  14. Hardening of self ion implanted tungsten and tungsten 5-wt% rhenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.E.J., E-mail: david.armstrong@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Yi, X. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Marquis, E.A. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, MI 48109 (United States); Roberts, S.G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer W{sup +} ion implantation was used to simulate neutron damage in W and W-5 wt%Re. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Hardness increase in pure tungsten was seen to saturate by 0.4 dpa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM of pure W shows little change in damage levels between 0.4 and 33 dpa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer W-5 wt%Re alloy shows a hardness saturation between 0.07 dpa and 1.2 dpa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above 13 dpa rhenium clusters are seen by APT and hardness rapidly increases. - Abstract: Tungsten is one of the most promising materials for high temperature components in any future nuclear fusion tokamak. In this study tungsten-ion implantation has been used to simulate the damage caused by neutrons in pure tungsten and tungsten 5 wt% rhenium. This damaged layer is only 300 nm deep so conventional mechanical tests cannot be used to investigate it. Nanoindentation has been used to measure the change in hardness as a function of six damage levels (0 dpa, 0.07 dpa, 0.4 dpa, 1.2 dpa, 13 dpa and 33 dpa). In pure tungsten the hardness increase is seen to saturate by 0.4 dpa at Almost-Equal-To 0.8 GPa. Transmission electron microscopy of the damage structure sees a similar saturation of the loop volume number density at the same damage level. In the tungsten 5 wt% rhenium the increase in hardness is constant between 0.07 and 1.2 dpa, Almost-Equal-To 0.85 GPa. The loop volume number density as measured using TEM is also shows little change in this region. At a damage level of 33 dpa the hardness increase is 2.88 GPa; this corresponds with the formation of small 3-5 nm rhenium clusters as observed using atom probe tomography.

  15. Synergistic methods for the production of high-strength and low-cost boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Charles Schenck

    2011-12-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a non-oxide ceramic in the same class of nonmetallic hard materials as silicon carbide and diamond. The high hardness, high elastic modulus and low density of B4C make it a nearly ideal material for personnel and vehicular armor. B4C plates formed via hot-pressing are currently issued to U.S. soldiers and have exhibited excellent performance; however, hot-pressed articles contain inherent processing defects and are limited to simple geometries such as low-curvature plates. Recent advances in the pressureless sintering of B4C have produced theoretically-dense and complex-shape articles that also exhibit superior ballistic performance. However, the cost of this material is currently high due to the powder shape, size, and size distribution that are required, which limits the economic feasibility of producing such a product. Additionally, the low fracture toughness of pure boron carbide may have resulted in historically lower transition velocities (the projectile velocity range at which armor begins to fail) than competing silicon carbide ceramics in high-velocity long-rod tungsten penetrator tests. Lower fracture toughness also limits multi-hit protection capability. Consequently, these requirements motivated research into methods for improving the densification and fracture toughness of inexpensive boron carbide composites that could result in the development of a superior armor material that would also be cost-competitive with other high-performance ceramics. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of titanium and carbon additives on the sintering and mechanical properties of inexpensive B4C powders. The boron carbide powder examined in this study was a sub-micron (0.6 mum median particle size) boron carbide powder produced by H.C. Starck GmbH via a jet milling process. A carbon source in the form of phenolic resin, and titanium additives in the form of 32 nm and 0.9 mum TiO2 powders were selected. Parametric studies of

  16. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D. [STMicroelectronics, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Thermal stability of warm-rolled tungsten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso Lopez, Angel

    , and recrystallization fitted to JMAK recrystallization kinetics, which in turn allowed thecalculation of recrystallization activation energies. Much faster recovery and recrystallizationkinetics were found for the plate warm-rolled to 90% thickness reduction, as compared to the platewarm-rolled to 67% thickness...... and recrystallization occur in tungsten, and quantifying the kinetics and microstructuralaspects of these restoration processes. Two warm-rolled tungsten plates are annealed attemperatures between 1100 °C and 1350 °C, under vacuum conditions or argon atmosphere. Theeffects of annealing on the microstructure...... reduction. An initial incubation time before recrystallization wasfound for both plates warm-rolled to 67% and 90% thickness reductions. The different Avramiexponents found for the two plates were explained microstructurally in terms of nucleation. The microstructural evolution during recovery...

  18. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  19. Stability of stacking faults in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranova, Z.I.; Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul' ko, V.B.; Mikhailovskii, I.M.

    1979-12-01

    The atomic configuration of planar lattice defects in tungsten was investigated by field-ion microscopy and thermal etching. Stable stacking faults were observed throughout the investigated temperature range 78--1700/sup 0/K. These faults were studied by field-ion microscopy and mathematical modeling methods. It was found that the existence of stacking faults in bcc crystals was not associated with the action of strong omnidirectional tensile stresses. The crystallographic characteristics of the faults were determined.

  20. Pressures produced by gas tungsten arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. L.; Eagar, T. W.

    1986-09-01

    The pressure of gas tungsten welding arcs has been measured for currents from 300 to 600 amperes using argon and helium gases. Although the measurements are generally consistent with previous results at lower currents, the present work shows that the pressure exerted by helium is a strong function of arc length. Several different scaling laws for the maximum pressure as a function of arc current and electrode tip angle are discussed.

  1. Epitaxial growth of tungsten nanoparticles on alumina and spinel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Suarez, T; Lopez-Esteban, S; Pecharroman, C; Esteban-Cubillo, A; Moya, J S [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Diaz, L A; Torrecillas, R [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Center (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas (CSIC), C/ Francisco Pintado Fe 26, 33011, Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Gremillard, L [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, Villeurbanne F-69621 (France)], E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es

    2008-05-28

    Isolated tungsten nanoparticles ({alpha}-W and {beta}-W phase) were synthesized and epitaxially grown on alumina and spinel particle surfaces with an average tungsten size of {<=}20 nm for a low tungsten content (of {<=}1.5 vol%). Using tungsten (VI) ethoxide alcoholic solutions, tungsten trioxide hydrated precursors were attached to a ceramic grains surface as a nanoparticle coating. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs showed epitaxial interfaces between alumina, spinel and metallic tungsten. This epitaxial growth is assumed to be due to the effect of water vapour on the sublimation of ortho-tungstic acid during the reduction process in a hydrogen atmosphere. The planes involved in the epitaxy were found to be (22-bar 0){sub Al2O3} parallel (121){sub W} and (311){sub MgAl2O4} parallel (110){sub W}.

  2. Processing development of 4 tantalum carbide-hafnium carbide and related carbides and borides for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballa, Osama Gaballa Bahig

    Carbides, nitrides, and borides ceramics are of interest for many applications because of their high melting temperatures and good mechanical properties. Wear-resistant coatings are among the most important applications for these materials. Materials with high wear resistance and high melting temperatures have the potential to produce coatings that resist degradation when subjected to high temperatures and high contact stresses. Among the carbides, Al4SiC4 is a low density (3.03 g/cm3), high melting temperature (>2000°C) compound, characterized by superior oxidation resistance, and high compressive strength. These desirable properties motivated this investigation to (1) obtain high-density Al4SiC4 at lower sintering temperatures by hot pressing, and (2) to enhance its mechanical properties by adding WC and TiC to the Al4SiC4. Also among the carbides, tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide have outstanding hardness; high melting points (3880°C and 3890°C respectively); good resistance to chemical attack, thermal shock, and oxidation; and excellent electronic conductivity. Tantalum hafnium carbide (Ta4HfC 5) is a 4-to-1 ratio of TaC to HfC with an extremely high melting point of 4215 K (3942°C), which is the highest melting point of all currently known compounds. Due to the properties of these carbides, they are considered candidates for extremely high-temperature applications such as rocket nozzles and scramjet components, where the operating temperatures can exceed 3000°C. Sintering bulk components comprised of these carbides is difficult, since sintering typically occurs above 50% of the melting point. Thus, Ta4 HfC5 is difficult to sinter in conventional furnaces or hot presses; furnaces designed for very high temperatures are expensive to purchase and operate. Our research attempted to sinter Ta4HfC5 in a hot press at relatively low temperature by reducing powder particle size and optimizing the powder-handling atmosphere, milling conditions, sintering

  3. Chemical vapour deposition of tungsten and tungsten silicide layers for applications in novel silicon technology

    CERN Document Server

    Li, F X

    2002-01-01

    This work was a detailed investigation into the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) of tungsten and tungsten silicide for potential applications in integrated circuit (IC) and other microelectronic devices. These materials may find novel applications in contact schemes for transistors in advanced ICs, buried high conductivity layers in novel Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology and in power electronic devices. The CVD techniques developed may also be used for metal coating of recessed or enclosed features which may occur in novel electronic or electromechanical devices. CVD of tungsten was investigated using the silicon reduction reaction of WF sub 6. W layers with an optimum self-limiting thickness of 100 nm and resistivity 20 mu OMEGA centre dot cm were produced self-aligned to silicon. A hydrogen passivation technique was developed as part of the wafer pre-clean schedule and proved essential in achieving optimum layer thickness. Layers produced by this approach are ideal for intimate contact to shallow junct...

  4. Electronic state of europium atoms on surface of oxidized tungsten

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The energy scheme of the europium atoms adsorption system on the tungsten surface, coated with the oxygen monolayer, is considered. The evaluations of the europium adatoms charged state on the oxidized tungsten surface are performed. It is established, that europium, adsorbed at the oxidized tungsten surface, is a positive ion with the charge close to the unit. The zonal scheme of the Eu-O/W adsorption system for the europium low and high concentrations is proposed

  5. Carbide and boride laser modification of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Boguslaw; Ebner, Reinhold

    1997-10-01

    Microstructure modification by laser remelting or laser alloying was studied on carbon Ck45 and high speed steels. Laser remelting of Ck45 by overlapping laser tracks led to a great refinement of martensitic structure, especially in the heat affected zone of subsequent laser track. High speed steel (HSS) M2 after laser remelting showed, beside the tetragonal martensite, the diffraction lines of cubic carbides of the M6C and M12C types. Laser alloying of M2 HSS using vanadium carbide (VC) additions caused increasing of eutectic in the interdendritic space, which was accompanied with reduction of the M6C and rising of the MC. M2 HSS laser alloyed with molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) showed formation of the M6C for the hipereutectic compositions while at the highest concentrations of molybdenum, primary dendrites of the M2C and stabilized ferrite were stated. High additions of borides: CrB or VB2; developed formation of the primary borides of blocky type containing a high amount of W, Cr or W, V, respectively. Laser alloying of Ck45 by means of: CrB, VB2 and B4C showed: in the case of CrB an eutectic (alpha) '/M3(C,B)/M2B as well as primary precipitates of the M2B phase for hipereutectic compositions; by adding VB2, the M3B2 and M2B phases were identified experimentally for hipereutectic concentrations; for alloying using B4C, the cellular dendritic structure together with primary borides of the (tau) -M23(C,B)6 phase were stated for hipereutectic compositions. The phase diagrams of M2 HSS + (VC or Mo2C) as well as Ck45 + B4C systems were calculated to predict changes of the constitutions due to laser alloying. Comparison of the solidification structures established experimentally with the calculated phase diagrams revealed a good correlation for the carbides, especially.

  6. Manufacturing technology for contacts to silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryk Ya.Ya.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors classified the results of investigations of resistivity of ohmic contacts to silicon carbide made without any semiconductor surface modification. A set of contacts with better parameters were analysed. From the results of this analysis, some recommendations were made concerning optimal contact-forming layers for p- and n-SiC types of 4H, 6H, 3C, 15R, 21R polytypes.

  7. Low blow Charpy impact of silicon carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H.; Chandan, H. C.; Bradt, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The room-temperature impact resistance of several commercial silicon carbides was examined using an instrumented pendulum-type machine and Charpy-type specimens. Energy balance compliance methods and fracture toughness approaches, both applicable to other ceramics, were used for analysis. The results illustrate the importance of separating the machine and the specimen energy contributions and confirm the equivalence of KIc and KId. The material's impact energy was simply the specimen's stored elastic strain energy at fracture.

  8. Stereology of carbide phase in modified hypereutectic chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In paper are presented results of studies of carbide phase stereology modified hypereutectic wear resistance chromium cast iron which contains carbon about 3,5% and chromium about 25%. Three substances were applied to the modification: boron carbide (B4C, ferroniobium (FeNb and mixture of ferroniobium and rare-earth (RE. The measurements of geometrical features of carbides were conducted on microsection taken from castings wich were cooled with various velocities.

  9. Silicon Carbide Corrugated Mirrors for Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) proposes technology development to manufacture monolithic, lightweight silicon carbide corrugated mirrors (SCCM) suitable for...

  10. Carbides in Nodular Cast Iron with Cr and Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In these paper results of elements microsegregation in carbidic nodular cast iron have been presented. A cooling rate in the centre of the cross-section and on the surface of casting and change of moulding sand temperature during casting crystallization and its self-cooling have been investigated. TDA curves have been registered. The linear distribution of elements concentration in an eutectic grain, primary and secondary carbides have been made. It was found, that there are two kinds of carbides: Cr and Mo enriched. A probable composition of primary and secondary carbides have been presented.

  11. Characterization of silicon-silicon carbide ceramic derived from carbon-carbon silicon carbide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Vijay K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Krenkel, Walter [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany). Dept. of Ceramic Materials Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The main objective of the present work is to process porous silicon - silicon carbide (Si - SiC) ceramic by the oxidation of carboncarbon silicon carbide (C/C - SiC) composites. Phase studies are performed on the oxidized porous composite to examine the changes due to the high temperature oxidation. Further, various characterization techniques are performed on Si- SiC ceramics in order to study the material's microstructure. The effects of various parameters such as fiber alignment (twill weave and short/chopped fiber) and phenolic resin type (resol and novolak) are characterized.

  12. Tritium decay helium-3 effects in tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (T implanted by plasmas diffuses into bulk material, especially rapidly at elevated temperatures, and becomes trapped in neutron radiation-induced defects in materials that act as trapping sites for the tritium. The trapped tritium atoms will decay to produce helium-3 (3He atoms at a half-life of 12.3 years. 3He has a large cross section for absorbing thermal neutrons, which after absorbing a neutron produces hydrogen (H and tritium ions with a combined kinetic energy of 0.76 MeV through the 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the 3He produced in tungsten by tritium decay compared to the neutron-induced helium-4 (4He produced in tungsten. This is important given the fact that helium in materials not only creates microstructural damage in the bulk of the material but alters surface morphology of the material effecting plasma-surface interaction process (e.g. material evolution, erosion and tritium behavior of plasma-facing component materials. Effects of tritium decay 3He in tungsten are investigated here with a simple model that predicts quantity of 3He produced in a fusion DEMO FW based on a neutron energy spectrum found in literature. This study reveals that: (1 helium-3 concentration was equilibrated to ∼6% of initial/trapped tritium concentration, (2 tritium concentration remained approximately constant (94% of initial tritium concentration, and (3 displacement damage from 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction became >1 dpa/year in DEMO FW.

  13. Microstructure and tensile properties of tungsten at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tielong; Dai, Yong; Lee, Yongjoong

    2016-01-01

    In order to support the development of the 5 MW spallation target for the European Spallation Source, the effect of fabrication process on microstructure, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), tensile and fracture behaviour of powder-metallurgy pure tungsten materials has been investigated. A hot-rolled (HR) tungsten piece of 12 mm thickness and a hot-forged (HF) piece of about 80 mm thickness were used to simulate the thin and thick blocks in the target. The two tungsten pieces were characterized with metallography analysis, hardness measurement and tensile testing. The HR piece exhibits an anisotropic grain structure with an average size of about 330 × 140 × 40 μm in rolling, long transverse and short transverse (thickness) directions. The HF piece possesses a bimodal grain structure with about 310 × 170 × 70 μm grain size in deformed part and about 25 μm sized grains remained from sintering process. Hardness (HV0.2) of the HR piece is slightly greater than that of the HF one. The ductility of the HR tungsten specimens is greater than that of the HF tungsten. For the HF tungsten piece, specimens with small grains in gauge section manifest lower ductility but higher strength. The DBTT evaluated from the tensile results is 250-300 °C for the HR tungsten and about 350 °C for the HF tungsten.

  14. Page 1 Index Tungsten diselenide Photoelectrochemical solar cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tungsten diselenide. Photoelectrochemical solar cell fabrication with tungsten diselenide single crystals 163. YBa2Cu3O7-3. Oxygen-enrichment of YBa2Cu307-; using the fluidization technique 63. YBazCu3O. Effect of oxide additives on the properties of high temperature superconductor, YBaCuO. 513. Zero-flux plane.

  15. Dioxobridged complexes of molybdenum (IV) and tungsten (IV) with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Six new dioxobridged complexes of molybdenum (IV) and tungsten (IV) with N-alkylphenothiazines having the general formula M2O4(L)2(H2O)2 [where M = molybdenum or tungsten and L = N-alkylphenothiazines] have been synthesised. The complexes have been characterised on the basis of analytical, molar ...

  16. New spectroscopic data for atomic tungsten XIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineri, M.; Reyna Almandos, J.; Gallardo, M.; Pagan, C. J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The thirteen times ionized tungsten is isoelectronic with PmI. Wavelengths and transition probabilities for the 5s-5p and 5p-5d transitions of WXIV, identifying the ground state as 4f13 5s2 2F7/2 were calculated. Both, a relativistic Hartree Fock approach, including core-polarization effects, and a purely relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method were used for the calculations. Particularly, 5s-5p transitions were compared with experimental results obtained with VUV electron beam ion trap (EBIT) spectroscopy.

  17. Study of properties of tungsten irradiated in hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Skakov, M.; Baklanov, V.; Koyanbayev, E.; Miniyazov, A.; Kulsartov, T.; Ponkratov, Yu.; Gordienko, Yu.; Zaurbekova, Zh.; Kukushkin, I.; Nesterov, E.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the experiments with DF (double forged) tungsten samples irradiated at the WWR-K research reactor in hydrogen and helium atmospheres. The irradiation time was 3255 h (135.6 d). After reactor irradiation, W samples have been subjected to investigations of their activity level, hardness, and microstructure, as well as x-ray and texture observations. The hydrogen yield released from irradiated tungsten samples have been measured using TDS-method. The hydrogen concentration in the tungsten samples irradiated in hydrogen was higher than that in the samples irradiated in helium atmosphere. It is shown that the surface microstructure of tungsten samples irradiated in hydrogen is characterized by micro-pits, inclusions and blisters in the form of bubbles, which were not observed earlier for tungsten irradiated in hydrogen.

  18. Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2011-01-01

    This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

  19. The high-flux effect on deuterium retention in TiC and TaC doped tungsten at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibrov, Mikhail; Bystrov, Kirill; Mayer, Matej; Morgan, Thomas W.; Kurishita, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    Samples made of tungsten (W) doped either with titanium carbide (W-1.1TiC) or tantalum carbide (W-3.3TaC) were exposed to a low-energy (40 eV/D), high-flux (1.8-5 × 1023 D/m2s) deuterium (D) plasma at temperatures of about800 K, 1050 K, and 1250 K to a fluence of about1 × 1027 D/m2. The deuterium (D) inventory in the samples was examined by nuclear reaction analysis and thermal desorption spectroscopy. At 800 K the D bulk concentrations and total D inventories in W-1.1TiC and W-3.3TaC were more than one order of magnitude higher compared to that in pure polycrystalline W. At 1050 K and 1250 K the D concentrations in all types of samples were very low (≤10-5 at. fr.); however the D inventories in W-1.1TiC were significantly higher compared to those in W-3.3TaC and pure W. It is suggested that D trapping inside the carbide precipitates and at their boundaries is essential at high temperatures and high incident fluxes, especially in W-1.1TiC.

  20. An experimental study of the influence of oxygen on silicide formation with tungsten deposited from tungsten hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Smith, U.; Buchta, R.; Östling, M.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten disilicide (WSi2) was formed by annealing tungsten films deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition on -silicon substrates. The influence of oxygen on the silicidation rate was studied. Si wafers with different oxygen content in the form of Czochralski, float-zone, and epitaxial wafers were used. Oxygen was also ion implanted into either the silicon substrate or the as-deposited tungsten film. The Rutherford backscattering technique was used to follow the progress of the silicidation. The silicidation rate was found to be dependent on the oxygen content of the Si substrates. The rate was lowest for Czochralski substrates and highest for float-zone substrates. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to study the oxygen and fluorine profiles in the films prior to and after silicidation. Growth of WSi2 was found to be retarded concurrently with a pile-up of fluorine at the tungsten side of the W/WSi2 interface and a gettering of oxygen from the annealing atmosphere at the interface. Growth of WSi2 was then transferred to the tungsten surface. Oxygen implantation into silicon and tungsten, respectively, reduced the rate of silicide formation. Oxygen implantation into tungsten altered the distribution of fluorine and suppressed WSi2 growth at the tungsten surface. The observations led to a conceptual model, which ascribes the retardation in the growth of the inner WSi2 to a``poisoning'' effect caused by the increase of oxygen and fluorine levels at the interface.

  1. Characterization of Nanometric-Sized Carbides Formed During Tempering of Carbide-Steel Cermets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article of this paper is to present issues related to characterization of nanometric-sized carbides, nitrides and/or carbonitrides formed during tempering of carbide-steel cermets. Closer examination of those materials is important because of hardness growth of carbide-steel cermet after tempering. The results obtained during research show that the upswing of hardness is significantly higher than for high-speed steels. Another interesting fact is the displacement of secondary hardness effect observed for this material to a higher tempering temperature range. Determined influence of the atmosphere in the sintering process on precipitations formed during tempering of carbide-steel cermets. So far examination of carbidesteel cermet produced by powder injection moulding was carried out mainly in the scanning electron microscope. A proper description of nanosized particles is both important and difficult as achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnology confirm the significant influence of nanocrystalline particles on material properties even if its mass fraction is undetectable by standard methods. The following research studies have been carried out using transmission electron microscopy, mainly selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The obtained results and computer simulations comparison were made.

  2. Deuterium desorption from tungsten using laser heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retention and desorption of hydrogenic species need to be accurately modeled to predict the tritium inventory of next generation fusion devices, which is needed both for tritium fuel recovery and for tritium safety concerns. In this paper, experiments on thermal desorption of deuterium from intrinsic polycrystalline tungsten defects using laser heating are compared to TMAP-7 modeling. The samples during deuterium plasma exposure were at a temperature of 373K for this benchmark study with ion fluence of 0.7–1.0 ×1024Dm−2. Following plasma exposure, a fiber laser (λ= 1100nm heated the samples to peak surface temperatures ranging from ∼500 to 1400K with pulse widths from 10ms to 1s, and 1 to 10 pulses applied to each sample. The remaining deuterium retention was measured using temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Results show that > 95% of deuterium is desorbed when the peak surface temperature reached ∼950K for > 1s. TMAP-7 is used to predict deuterium desorption from tungsten for a range of surface temperatures and heating durations, and is compared to previous work on desorption from beryllium codeposits.

  3. Effect of volume fraction of (Cr, Fe7C3 carbides on corrosion resistance of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys at Cr/C=6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Sabet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, three different chemical compositions of Fe-Cr-C alloys were fabricated on AISI 1010 steel substrates by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW. The optical emission spectroscopy (OES, optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, techniques and corrosion test were used for determining chemical composition studying the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the Fe-Cr-C alloys. The OM and SEM results show that the microstructure of these alloys consisted of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides with austenite, and by increasing of the carbon and chromium content in hardfacing alloys, the volume fraction of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides in microstructure was increased. The polarization curves of the corrosion tests show that the increase of the volume fraction of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides in the microstructure promotes the corrosion resistance of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys. The corrosion mechanism of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys was intergranular and galvanic corrosion.

  4. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    structure with 12-atom icosahedral clusters which are linked by direct covalent bonds and through three-atom interico- sahedral chains. Boron carbide has single phase ... in nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption co- efficient (Sinha et al 2002). Boron carbide can be prepared by reaction of elemental boron and ...

  5. Production of nano structured silicon carbide by high energy ball ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size, shape and texture of the fresh as well as nano structured Silicon carbide powder were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The fresh Silicon carbide powder particles were mostly angular in shape. The shape of the 50h milled particles is irregular and the surface morphology is rough.

  6. SEM investigation of minor constituents of carbide materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shungite is a black, precambrian poorly crystalline minera- loid composed mainly of a natural mixture of amorphous carbon and silicate minerals, mainly quartz, .... Microchemical analysis of carbide composite material prepared from a mixture of carbidized shungite and alumina. Pointa. Elemental composition (EDS data)b ...

  7. Stochastic Distribution of Wear of Carbide Tools during Machining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing awareness of wear of carbide tools during machining operation has created doubts about the ability of this tool material to withstand stress and strain induced by the machining process. Manufacturers are beginning to question their dependence on carbide tools, seeing that they no longer meet their expected ...

  8. Size dependence of nanoscale wear of silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyapat Tangpatjaroen; David Grierson; Steve Shannon; Joseph E. Jakes; Izabela Szlufarska

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale, single-asperity wear of single-crystal silicon carbide (sc- SiC) and nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-SiC) is investigated using single-crystal diamond nanoindenter tips and nanocrystalline diamond atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips under dry conditions, and the wear behavior is compared to that of single-crystal silicon with both thin and thick native...

  9. White light emission from engineered silicon carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide indirect bandgap semiconductor. The light emission efficiency is low in nature. But this material has very unique physical properties like good thermal conductivity, high break down field etc in addition to its abundance. Therefore it is interesting to engineer its...... is demonstrated. After optimizing the passivation conditions, strong blue-green emission from porous SiC is demonstrated as well. When combining the yellow emission from co-doped SiC and blue-green from porous SiC, a high color rendering index white light source is achieved....

  10. Silicon carbide nanowires: synthesis and cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huczko, Andrzej; Dabrowska, Agnieszka [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University (Poland); Savchyn, Volodymyr; Karbovnyk, Ivan [Department of Electronics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Popov, Anatoli I. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2009-12-15

    Silicon carbide nanowires have been synthesized via a combustion synthesis route. Structural studies showed that obtained SiC nanowires belong dominantly to 3C polytype with zincblend structure. Cathodoluminescence spectra from these nanostructures within the temperature range of 77..300 K, show obvious differences with respect to the bulk materials. The exciton band of the bulk 3C-SiC is significantly damped and the prevailing line is found to be at 1.99 eV (77 K), proving the key role of defect centers in optical properties of the investigated nanomaterial. Purified SiC nanowires. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Supported molybdenum carbide for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Chiarello, Gian Luca

    2013-01-01

    carbide, while the selectivity to methanol follows the opposite trend. The effect of Mo2C loading on the alcohol selectivity at a fixed K/Mo molar ratio of 0.14 could be related to the amount of K2CO3 actually on the active Mo2C phase and the size, structure and composition of the supported carbide......Molybdenum carbide supported on active carbon, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide, and promoted by K2CO3, has been prepared and tested for methanol and higher alcohol synthesis from syngas. At optimal conditions, the activity and selectivity to alcohols (methanol and higher alcohols) over...... supported molybdenum carbide are significantly higher compared to the bulk carbide. The CO conversion reaches a maximum, when about 20wt% Mo2C is loaded on active carbon. The selectivity to higher alcohols increases with increasing Mo2C loading on active carbon and reaches a maximum over bulk molybdenum...

  12. Structure of superhard tungsten tetraboride: A missing link between MB2 and MB12 higher borides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T.; Turner, Christopher L.; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Superhard metals are of interest as possible replacements with enhanced properties over the metal carbides commonly used in cutting, drilling, and wear-resistant tooling. Of the superhard metals, the highest boride of tungsten—often referred to as WB4 and sometimes as W1–xB3—is one of the most promising candidates. The structure of this boride, however, has never been fully resolved, despite the fact that it was discovered in 1961—a fact that severely limits our understanding of its structure–property relationships and has generated increasing controversy in the literature. Here, we present a new crystallographic model of this compound based on refinement against time-of-flight neutron diffraction data. Contrary to previous X-ray–only structural refinements, there is strong evidence for the presence of interstitial arrangements of boron atoms and polyhedral bonding. The formation of these polyhedra—slightly distorted boron cuboctahedra—appears to be dependent upon the defective nature of the tungsten-deficient metal sublattice. This previously unidentified structure type has an intermediary relationship between MB2 and MB12 type boride polymorphs. Manipulation of the fractionally occupied metal and boron sites may provide insight for the rational design of new superhard metals. PMID:25733870

  13. Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, Michael Arthur

    2015-04-30

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) will play a crucial role in future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants, since they will be subject to high energy and particle loads, but at the same time have to ensure long lifetimes and a low tritium retention. These requirements will most probably necessitate the use of high-Z materials such as tungsten for the wall materials, since their erosion properties are very benign and, unlike carbon, capture only little tritium. The drawback with high-Z materials is, that they emit strong line radiation in the core plasma, which acts as a powerful energy loss mechanism. Thus, the concentration of these high-Z materials has to be controlled and kept at low levels in order to achieve a burning plasma. Understanding the transport processes in the plasma edge is essential for applying the proper impurity control mechanisms. This control can be exerted either by enhancing the outflux, e.g. by Edge Localized Modes (ELM), since they are known to expel impurities from the main plasma, or by reducing the influx, e.g. minimizing the tungsten erosion or increasing the shielding effect of the Scrape Off Layer (SOL). ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been successfully operating with a full tungsten wall for several years now and offers the possibility to investigate these edge transport processes for tungsten. This study focused on the disentanglement of the frequency of type-I ELMs and the main chamber gas injection rate, two parameters which are usually linked in H-mode discharges. Such a separation allowed for the first time the direct assessment of the impact of each parameter on the tungsten concentration. The control of the ELM frequency was performed by adjusting the shape of the plasma, i.e. the upper triangularity. The radial tungsten transport was investigated by implementing a modulated tungsten source. To create this modulated source, the linear dependence of the tungsten erosion rate at the Ion Cyclotron Resonance

  14. Advanced smart tungsten alloys for a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.

    2017-06-01

    The severe particle, radiation and neutron environment in a future fusion power plant requires the development of advanced plasma-facing materials. At the same time, the highest level of safety needs to be ensured. The so-called loss-of-coolant accident combined with air ingress in the vacuum vessel represents a severe safety challenge. In the absence of a coolant the temperature of the tungsten first wall may reach 1200 °C. At such a temperature, the neutron-activated radioactive tungsten forms volatile oxide which can be mobilized into atmosphere. Smart tungsten alloys are being developed to address this safety issue. Smart alloys should combine an acceptable plasma performance with the suppressed oxidation during an accident. New thin film tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys feature an impressive 105 fold suppression of oxidation compared to that of pure tungsten at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. Oxidation behavior at temperatures up to 1200 °C, and reactivity of alloys in humid atmosphere along with a manufacturing of reactor-relevant bulk samples, impose an additional challenge in smart alloy development. First exposures of smart alloys in steady-state deuterium plasma were made. Smart tungsten-chroimium-titanium alloys demonstrated a sputtering resistance which is similar to that of pure tungsten. Expected preferential sputtering of alloying elements by plasma ions was confirmed experimentally. The subsequent isothermal oxidation of exposed samples did not reveal any influence of plasma exposure on the passivation of alloys.

  15. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (δ186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display δ186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in

  16. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second annual technical report entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, and includes work performed during the period February 16, 1986 to February 15, 1987. The program is conducted for NASA under contract NAS3-24384. The objective is the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. The fabrication methods used are to be adaptable for mass production of such parts on an economically sound basis. Injection molding is the forming method selected. This objective is to be accomplished in a two-phase program: (1) to achieve a 20 percent improvement in strength and a 100 percent increase in Weibull modulus of the baseline material; and (2) to produce a complex shaped part, a gas turbine rotor, for example, with the improved mechanical properties attained in the first phase. Eight tasks are included in the first phase covering the characterization of the properties of a baseline material, the improvement of those properties and the fabrication of complex shaped parts. Activities during the first contract year concentrated on two of these areas: fabrication and characterization of the baseline material (Task 1) and improvement of material and processes (Task 7). Activities during the second contract year included an MOR bar matrix study to improve mechanical properties (Task 2), materials and process improvements (Task 7), and a Ford-funded task to mold a turbocharger rotor with an improved material (Task 8).

  17. Ultrasmall Carbide Nanospheres - Formation and Electronic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Petra; Monazami, Ehsan; McClimon, John

    2015-03-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are highly coveted but are subject to rapid Ostwald ripening even at moderate temperatures limiting study of their properties. Ultrasmall transition metal carbide ``nanospheres'' are synthesized by a solid-state reaction between fullerene as carbon scaffold, and a W surface. This produces nanospheres with a narrow size distribution below 2.5 nm diameter. The nanosphere shape is defined by the scaffold and densely packed arrays can be achieved. The metal-fullerene reaction is temperature driven and progresses through an intermediate semiconducting phase until the fully metallic nanospheres are created at about 350 C. The reaction sequence is observed with STM, and STS maps yield the local density of states. The reaction presumably progresses by stepwise introduction of W-atoms in the carbon scaffold. The results of high resolution STM/STS in combination with DFT calculations are used to unravel the reaction mechanism. We will discuss the transfer of this specific reaction mechanism to other transition metal carbides. The nanospheres are an excellent testbed for the physics and chemistry of highly curved surfaces.

  18. Dense Pure Tungsten Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianzheng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing using tungsten, a brittle material, is difficult because of its high melting point, thermal conductivity, and oxidation tendency. In this study, pure tungsten parts with densities of up to 18.53 g/cm3 (i.e., 96.0% of the theoretical density were fabricated by selective laser melting. In order to minimize balling effects, the raw polyhedral tungsten powders underwent a spheroidization process before laser consolidation. Compared with polyhedral powders, the spherical powders showed increased laser absorptivity and packing density, which helped in the formation of a continuous molten track and promoted densification.

  19. Thermal expansion method for lining tantalum alloy tubing with tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Mattson, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A differential-thermal expansion method was developed to line T-111 (tantalum - 8 percent tungsten - 2 percent hafnium) tubing with a tungsten diffusion barrier as part of a fuel element fabrication study for a space power nuclear reactor concept. This method uses a steel mandrel, which has a larger thermal expansion than T-111, to force the tungsten against the inside of the T-111 tube. Variables investigated include lining temperature, initial assembly gas size, and tube length. Linear integrity increased with increasing lining temperature and decreasing gap size. The method should have more general applicability where cylinders must be lined with a thin layer of a second material.

  20. Remobilization of tungsten dust from castellated plasma-facing components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De Angeli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of tungsten dust remobilization from castellated plasma-facing components can shed light to whether gaps constitute a dust accumulation site with important implications for monitoring but also removal. Castellated structures of ITER relevant geometry that contained pre-adhered tungsten dust of controlled deposition profile have been exposed in the Pilot-PSI linear device. The experiments were performed under steady state and transient plasma conditions, as well as varying magnetic field topologies. The results suggest that dust remobilization from the plasma-facing monoblock surface can enhance dust trapping in the gaps and that tungsten dust is efficiently trapped inside the gaps.

  1. Electrode potentials of tungsten in fused alkali chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Volkovich, V. A.; Poskryakov, D. A.; Vasin, B. D.; Griffiths, T. R.

    2016-09-01

    Anodic dissolution of tungsten was studied at 823-1173 K in the melts based on NaCl-CsCl, NaCl-KCl-CsCl and LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic mixtures. The process results in the formation of W(IV) ions. Prolonged contact with silica results in oxidation W(IV) ions and decreasing tungsten concentration in the electrolyte due to formation of volatile higher oxidation state chloro- and oxychloro-species. Tungsten electrode potentials were measured in NaCl-CsCl and NaCl-KCl-CsCl based melts using potentiometry.

  2. Influence of stress state and strain rate on structural amorphization in boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Subhash, Ghatu; Zheng, James Q.; Halls, Virginia

    2012-03-01

    The reduced performance of B4C armor plate for impact against tungsten carbide penetrators beyond a critical velocity has been attributed in the literature to localized amorphization. However, it is unclear if this reduction in strength is a consequence of high pressure or high velocity. Despite numerous fundamental studies of B4C under indentation and impact, the roles of strain rate and pressure on amorphization have not been fully established. Toward this end, rate dependent uniaxial compressive strength and rate dependent indentation hardness, along with Raman spectroscopy, have been employed to show that high strain rate deformation alone (without concurrent high pressure) cannot trigger localized amorphization in B4C. Based on our analysis, it is also suggested that rate dependent indentation hardness can be used to reveal if a given B4C ceramic exhibits amorphization under high pressure and high strain rate loading. It is argued that when amorphization does occur in B4C, its dynamic inelastic properties degrade more severely than its static properties. Finally, it is suggested that dynamic hardness, in conjunction with static hardness, can be used as a measurable mechanical property to reveal the incidence of amorphization in B4C without the need for postmortem TEM or Raman spectroscopy analyses.

  3. An all optical system for studying temperature induced changes in polycrystalline diamond deposited on a tungsten carbide substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available such that uniform temperature gradients can be created, thus allowing the study of thermal effects in the absence of thermal stresses. They make use of the known grey body emission from polycrystalline diamond (PCD). They show that uniform temperature alone can...

  4. Analysis of cobalt, tantalum, titanium, vanadium and chromium in tungsten carbide by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archer, M

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available -mail: Marcher@csir.co.za bDepartment of Chemistry and Physics, Technikon Pretoria, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia 0007, South Africa. E-mail: McCrindle@techpta.ac.za cDepartment of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. E...-mail: Erohwer@postino.up.ac.za Received 29th August 2003, Accepted 17th October 2003 First published as an Advance Article on the web 14th November 2003 Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to measure the concentrations...

  5. Rhenium alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, A.; Jerman, G.; German, R.M.

    1989-06-01

    Alloying experiments have been performed using rhenium additions to a classic 90 mass% tungsten heavy alloy. The mixed powder system was liquid phase sintered to full density at 1500/sup 0/C in 60 min. The rhenium modified alloys exhibited a smaller grain size, higher hardness, higher strength, and lower ductility than the unalloyed system. For an alloy with a composition of 84W-6Re-8Ni-2Fe, the sintered density was 17,4 Mg/m/sup 3/ with a yield strength of 815 MPa, tensile strength of 1180 MPa, and elongation to failure of 13%. This property combination results from the aggregate effects of grain size reduction and solid solution hardening due to rhenium. In the unalloyed system these properties require post-sintering swaging and aging; thus, alloying with rhenium is most attractive for applications where netshaping is desired, such as by powder injection molding. (orig.).

  6. Rhenium alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, R.M.; Bose, A.; Jerman, G.

    1989-01-01

    Alloying experiments were performed using rhenium additions to a classic 90 mass % tungsten heavy alloy. The mixed-powder system was liquid phase sintered to full density at 1500 C in 60 min The rhenium-modified alloys exhibited a smaller grain size, higher hardness, higher strength, and lower ductility than the unalloyed system. For an alloy with a composition of 84W-6Re-8Ni-2Fe, the sintered density was 17, 4 Mg/m{sup 3} with a yield strength of 815 MPa, tensile strength of 1180 MPa, and elongation to failure of 13%. This property combination results from the aggregate effects of grain size reduction and solid solution hardening due to rhenium. In the unalloyed system these properties require post-sintering swaging and aging; thus, alloying with rhenium is most attractive for applications where net shaping is desired, such as by powder injection molding.

  7. On getter action of tungsten for methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyoh, Bunkei; Uchida, Kumao (Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology); Imoto, Shosuke

    1990-07-01

    The tungsten filament was electrically heated in methane atmosphere, and its getter action for methane has been investigated. The rapid adsorption of methane occurred during gettering at methane pressures between 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -5} Pa. When compared to the absorbed amount at higher temperature (above 200degC) was about 1/10 smaller than at room temperature. Desorption of methane from W getter film was hardly observed, but hydrogen was desorbed and the amount increased with temperature. About 16% carbon was found in the W film after gettering, of which the crystal structure differed according to the substrate ({beta}-W on glass sub., {alpha}-W on W sub.). (author).

  8. Hydrogen isotope recycling at a tungsten target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, M., E-mail: sakamoto@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Higashizono, Y. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ogawa, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School for Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hosoi, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Rusinov, A. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School for Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeda, H.; Akabane, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Hydrogen recycling has been studied focusing on the neutral behavior in front of tungsten target in the plasma–wall interaction simulator APSEDAS and the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. The line intensity of hydrogen Balmer series decreased toward the target corresponding to a decrease in the electron density in APSEDAS. The relative population of n = 3 and n = 4 increased and that of n = 5 and n = 6 decreased just in front of the target (Z < 5 mm). This might be attributed to the reflected atom or reemitted molecule from the target. In GAMMA 10, the intensity of hydrogen Balmer (H{sub α}) line decreased exponentially with distance from the target with two decay lengths: ∼16 mm and ∼53 mm. These two short decay lengths are attributed to the fact that a fraction of the reflected atoms and atoms dissociated from molecules are at excited energy states.

  9. A Study of Tungsten-Technetium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, J. W.

    1965-01-01

    Technetium is a sister element to rhenium and has many properties that are similar to rhenium. It is predicted that technetium will have about the same effects on tungsten as rhenium in regard to increase in workability, lowered ductile to brittle transition temperature, and improved ductility. The objectives of the current work are to recover technetium from fission product wastes at Hanford Atomic Products Operation and reduce to purified metal; prepare W-Tc alloys containing up to 50 atomic% Tc; fabricate the alloy ingots to sheet stock, assessing the effect of technetium on workability; and perform metallurgical and mechanical properties evaluation of the fabricated alloys. Previous reports have described the separation and purification of 800 g of technetium metal powder, melting of technetium and W-Tc alloys, and some initial observation of the alloy material.

  10. Ferromagnetism in exfoliated tungsten disulfide nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional-layered transition metal dichalcogenides nanosheets have attracted tremendous attention for their promising applications in spintronics because the atomic-thick nanosheets can not only enhance the intrinsic properties of their bulk counterparts, but also give birth to new promising properties. In this paper, ultrathin tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets were gotten by liquid exfoliation route from its bulk form using dimethylformamide (DMF). Compared to the antiferromagnetism bulk WS2, ultrathin WS2 nanosheets show intrinsic room-temperature ferromagnetism (FM) with the maximized saturation magnetization of 0.004 emu/g at 10 K, where the appearance of FM in the nanosheets is partly due to the presence of zigzag edges in the magnetic ground state at the grain boundaries. PMID:24134699

  11. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, T.J., E-mail: tjpetty@liv.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Khan, A. [Pariser Building-G11, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Heil, T. [NiCaL, Block C Waterhouse Building, 1-3 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL (United Kingdom); Bradley, J.W., E-mail: j.w.bradley@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10{sup 23}–3.0 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ{sup 1/2} relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  12. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  13. Precipitation behavior of carbides in high-carbon martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao; Shi, Chang-min [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy; Li, Ji-hui [Yang Jiang Shi Ba Zi Group Co., Ltd, Guangdong (China)

    2017-01-15

    A fundamental study on the precipitation behavior of carbides was carried out. Thermo-calc software, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the precipitation and transformation behaviors of carbides. Carbide precipitation was of a specific order. Primary carbides (M7C3) tended to be generated from liquid steel when the solid fraction reached 84 mol.%. Secondary carbides (M7C3) precipitated from austenite and can hardly transformed into M23C6 carbides with decreasing temperature in air. Primary carbides hardly changed once they were generated, whereas secondary carbides were sensitive to heat treatment and thermal deformation. Carbide precipitation had a certain effect on steel-matrix phase transitions. The segregation ability of carbon in liquid steel was 4.6 times greater that of chromium. A new method for controlling primary carbides is proposed.

  14. A silicon carbide array for electrocorticography and peripheral nerve recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Botia, C. A.; Luna, L. E.; Neely, R. M.; Chamanzar, M.; Carraro, C.; Carmena, J. M.; Sabes, P. N.; Maboudian, R.; Maharbiz, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Current neural probes have a limited device lifetime of a few years. Their common failure mode is the degradation of insulating films and/or the delamination of the conductor-insulator interfaces. We sought to develop a technology that does not suffer from such limitations and would be suitable for chronic applications with very long device lifetimes. Approach. We developed a fabrication method that integrates polycrystalline conductive silicon carbide with insulating silicon carbide. The technology employs amorphous silicon carbide as the insulator and conductive silicon carbide at the recording sites, resulting in a seamless transition between doped and amorphous regions of the same material, eliminating heterogeneous interfaces prone to delamination. Silicon carbide has outstanding chemical stability, is biocompatible, is an excellent molecular barrier and is compatible with standard microfabrication processes. Main results. We have fabricated silicon carbide electrode arrays using our novel fabrication method. We conducted in vivo experiments in which electrocorticography recordings from the primary visual cortex of a rat were obtained and were of similar quality to those of polymer based electrocorticography arrays. The silicon carbide electrode arrays were also used as a cuff electrode wrapped around the sciatic nerve of a rat to record the nerve response to electrical stimulation. Finally, we demonstrated the outstanding long term stability of our insulating silicon carbide films through accelerated aging tests. Significance. Clinical translation in neural engineering has been slowed in part due to the poor long term performance of current probes. Silicon carbide devices are a promising technology that may accelerate this transition by enabling truly chronic applications.

  15. Carbide inclusions in delta-phase plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baros, T. (Thomas); Davis, C. C. (Charles C.); Hawkins, H. T. (Heather T.); Ruggiero, M. J. (Matthew J.); Valentine, S. J. (Scott J.); Storey, B. G. (Bradford G.); Roybal, L. (Lawrence)

    2004-01-01

    Inclusions in plutonium alloys are common and depend on the processing parameters and age of the material. Plutonium-bearing compounds frequently observed as inclusions include: hydrides, nitrides, oxides, and carbides. Optical metallography and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to characterize plutonium carbide (PuC) inclusions in delta-phase plutonium. The structural complexities of plutonium combined with its radioactivity, pyrophoric nature, and toxicity create a unique challenge to revealing and interpreting its microstructures. Samples of delta-phase Pu-239 were used in this study. Note that the delta phase is stabilized to room temperature by the addition of {approx}1 wt% gallium. After samples are cut, mounted in epoxy, ground, and polished, they are then electropolished at 40 V in an etchant of 10 vol.% nitric acid and 90 vol.% dimethylformamide and electroetched at 6 V in the same etchant. Optical micrographs were collected using an inverted metallograph equipped with a digital camera. Back-scattered electron images and elemental maps of the plutonium, carbon, and gallium content were collected using an EPMA equipped with wavelength dispersive spectrometers. After reviewing our data and consulting work done by Cramer and Bergin it was determined that the inclusions were acicular plutonium carbides and were formed during the casting process at the time the material was manufactured. It is believed that these inclusions would affect the high strain-rate properties. The response of plutonium alloys during implosion is critical to the performance and reliability of a nuclear weapon. We plan to further investigate these inclusions to gather information about orientation, composition, structure, and concentration. An x-ray diffractometer with a 10 {micro}m beam diameter will be used to gather information on the orientation and structure of individual inclusions. A field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a WDS will be used at low

  16. Refractory metals welded or brazed with tungsten inert gas equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, J. P.

    1965-01-01

    Appropriate brazing metals and temperatures facilitate the welding or brazing of base metals with tungsten inert gas equipment. The highest quality bond is obtained when TIG welding is performed in an inert atmosphere.

  17. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, Dennis E. [Applied Research Associates, Southwest Division, 4300 San Mateo Blvd NE, A-220, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110-129 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20–60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable

  18. The all boron carbide diode neutron detector: Comparison with theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); College of Engineering, N245 Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Dowben, P.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States) and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States)]. E-mail: pdowben@unl.edu; Balkir, S. [Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, 237N Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Schemm, Nathan [Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, 237N Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-11-25

    A boron carbide diode detector, fabricated from two different polytypes of semiconducting boron carbide, will detect neutrons in reasonable agreement with theory. Small deviations from the model calculations occur due to the detection efficiencies of the {sup 10}B capture products Li plus {alpha} sum signal differing somewhat from expectation in the thin diodes. The performance of the all boron carbide neutron detector does depart from the behavior of devices where a boron rich neutron capture layer is distinct from the diode charge collection region (i.e. a conversion layer solid state detector), as is expected.

  19. Separation of Nuclear Fuel Surrogates from Silicon Carbide Inert Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ronald Baney

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this project has been to identify a process for separating transuranic species from silicon carbide (SiC). Silicon carbide has become one of the prime candidates for the matrix in inert matrix fuels, (IMF) being designed to reduce plutonium inventories and the long half-lives actinides through transmutation since complete reaction is not practical it become necessary to separate the non-transmuted materials from the silicon carbide matrix for ultimate reprocessing. This work reports a method for that required process.l

  20. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Paena, Massimilano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten’s ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased ...

  1. Metallic Tungsten Nanostructures and Highly Nanostructured Thin Films by Deposition of Tungsten Oxide and Subsequent Reduction in a Single Hot-Wire CVD Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harks, P.P.R.M.L.; Houweling, Z.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/251874486; de Jong, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325844208; Kuang, Y; Geus, J.W.; Schropp, R.E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of metallic tungsten nanostructures and highly nanostructured thin films is presented. Crystalline tungsten oxide nanostructures are deposited on glassy carbon substrates kept at 700 100 8C by oxidizing resistively heated tungsten filaments in an air flow under subatmospheric

  2. Stable field emission from nanoporous silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Gyu; Lezec, Henri J.; Sharifi, Fred

    2013-02-01

    We report on a new type of stable field emitter capable of electron emission at levels comparable to thermal sources. Such an emitter potentially enables significant advances in several important technologies which currently use thermal electron sources. These include communications through microwave electronics, and more notably imaging for medicine and security where new modalities of detection may arise due to variable-geometry x-ray sources. Stable emission of 6 A cm-2 is demonstrated in a macroscopic array, and lifetime measurements indicate these new emitters are sufficiently robust to be considered for realistic implementation. The emitter is a monolithic structure, and is made in a room-temperature process. It is fabricated from a silicon carbide wafer, which is formed into a highly porous structure resembling an aerogel, and further patterned into an array. The emission properties may be tuned both through control of the nanoscale morphology and the macroscopic shape of the emitter array.

  3. Silicon carbide devices for radiation hard applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullin, P.G.; Barrett, D.L.; Hopkins, R.H.; Spitznagel, J.A. (Westinghouse Sciences and Technology Center, 1310 Beulah Road, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 (United States)); Powell, J.A. (NASA Lewis Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland Ohio 44135 (United States)); Thome, F.V. (Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    Silicon carbide has long been recognized as a favorable material for applications at high temperatures and in radiation environments, but device development has been hindered by lack of adequate substrates. This paper reviews the current Westinghouse material development effort aimed at the growth of high quality 6H boules and describes 6H SiC devices fabricated on Westinghouse substrates. MESFET and MOSFET transistors were made in a microwave power design layout. The MESFET and MOSFET transistors were subjected to a total gamma irradiation of 1 megaGray (100 megarad) and exhibited threshold voltage shifts of about 0.4 and 1.2 Volts respectively with little change in bulk material parameters.

  4. Silicon carbide devices for radiation hard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Paul G.; Barrett, Donovan L.; Hopkins, Richard H.; Spitznagel, John A.; Powell, J. Anthony; Thome, Frank V.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon carbide has long been recognized as a favorable material for applications at high temperatures and in radiation environments, but device development has been hindered by lack of adequate substrates. This paper reviews the current Westinghouse material development effort aimed at the growth of high quality 6H boules and describes 6H SiC devices fabricated on Westinghouse substrates. MESFET and MOSFET transistors were made in a microwave power design layout. The MESFET and MOSFET transistors were subjected to a total gamma irradiation of 1 megaGray (100 megarad) and exhibited threshold voltage shifts of about 0.4 and 1.2 Volts respectively with little change in bulk material parameters.

  5. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density ({minus}10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique ({minus}45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation ({minus}45%), and standard Vickers hardness ({minus}24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C.

  6. Arsenic carbide monolayer: First principles prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb

    2017-11-01

    Using the first principles calculation, a new pentagonal indirect band gap semiconductor namely arsenic carbide monolayer (As2C) is predicted. The calculated cohesive energy of -5.69 eV/atom the thermodynamic stability of the predicted monolayer. Furthermore, the kinetic stability of the monolayer is examined by phonon dispersion calculation, where the absence of imaginary modes and high value of maximum phonon frequency confirms the high dynamic stability of the proposed monolayer. Investigating in the electronic properties of the As2C monolayer indicates that it is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.62 eV. Analyzing the optical properties of the As2C monolayer imply that the monolayer has high UV light absorption, however, it has an almost zero absorption in visible region of electromagnetic spectra. The specific electronic and optical properties imply that As2C monolayer may be used in new generation of nano-optoelectronic technology design.

  7. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  8. Tungsten oxide thin films: detection and trapping of hazardous gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rhushikesh; Vedpathak, Amol; Godbole, Vijay; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2017-07-01

    Synthesis of tungsten (W) and tungsten tri-oxide (WO3) thin films on alumina substrate by a peculiar Red-ox reaction route using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique is described. The resulting tungsten and tungsten oxide films were characterized using various techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results revealed the complete conversion of cubic phase of pure tungsten into monoclinic phase of tungsten oxide. Raman spectroscopic analysis also confirmed the formation of WO3. SEM images show considerable alteration in morphology from well faceted particles to wafers when pure W-film was converted to WO3 film. The wafer like morphology of WO3 films is found to be suitable for gas sensing towards hazardous gases such as NO2 and NH3. The WO3 films showcased their highly responsive nature towards NO2 gas with exceptionally high gas sensitivity ~32. WO3 film demonstrated longer recovery time towards NO2 gas unlike NH3 gas making them attractive for their utilization in ‘Newer application’ such as a catalyst support material in catalytic converter devices which are potential representatives to arrest pollutant gases (NO2) getting flown into the living environment.

  9. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. M.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.; Byun, T. S.; Reiser, J.; Rieth, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410-780 °C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02-9.0 × 1025 n/m2, E > 0.1 MeV, 0.0039-1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22 °C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22 °C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile.

  10. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L. M.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.; Byun, T. S.; Reiser, J.; Rieth, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410-780°C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02-9.0×1025 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV, 0.0039-1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22°C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22°C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile.

  11. Development of Low Thermal Expansion Tungsten UO 2 Cermet Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, M O; Kaznoff, A I

    1970-03-31

    An attempt was made to develop a tungsten-uranium dioxide cermet of high fue 1 loading with thermal expansion approaching that of tungsten and with good dimensional stability on thermal cycling. These goals were sought through the use of tungsten-coated uranium dioxide particles with sufficient locally available void volume to accommodate the difference in thermal expansion between the uranium dioxide and the tungsten matrix and through limitation of plastic deformation in the particles during fabrication to avoid mechanical keying of the particles and the matrix. The particles were vibratorily compacted prior to hot pressing. The thermal expansion of the cermets was determined and they were thermal cycle tested. The thermal expansion of the cermets was considerably closer to that of tungsten than was observed with previously reported specimens of similar composition. However, the thermal cycling of the cermets resulted in intolerable growth. This growth could be accounted for by the agglomeration of gases trapped in the uranium dioxide particles during deposition of the tungsten coating.

  12. Helium behaviour in implanted boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When boron carbide is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, large quantities of helium are produced. To simulate the gas behaviour, helium implantations were carried out in boron carbide. The samples were then annealed up to 1500 °C in order to observe the influence of temperature and duration of annealing. The determination of the helium diffusion coefficient was carried out using the 3He(d,p4He nuclear reaction (NRA method. From the evolution of the width of implanted 3He helium profiles (fluence 1 × 1015/cm2, 3 MeV corresponding to a maximum helium concentration of about 1020/cm3 as a function of annealing temperatures, an Arrhenius diagram was plotted and an apparent diffusion coefficient was deduced (Ea = 0.52 ± 0.11 eV/atom. The dynamic of helium clusters was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples implanted with 1.5 × 1016/cm2, 2.8 to 3 MeV 4He ions, leading to an implanted slab about 1 μm wide with a maximum helium concentration of about 1021/cm3. After annealing at 900 °C and 1100 °C, small (5–20 nm flat oriented bubbles appeared in the grain, then at the grain boundaries. At 1500 °C, due to long-range diffusion, intra-granular bubbles were no longer observed; helium segregates at the grain boundaries, either as bubbles or inducing grain boundaries opening.

  13. Oxidation behaviour of boron carbide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.Q. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, New Model Road 5, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)]. E-mail: Li.Yuanqiang@nims.go.jp; Qiu, T. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, New Model Road 5, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)

    2007-01-25

    Isothermal oxidation behaviour of powdered boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) with the fine (1.52 {mu}m), medium (22.5 {mu}m) and coarse (59.6 {mu}m) particle size has been studied in air ranging from 500 to 800 deg. C. The oxidation rate strongly depends on the particle size of boron carbide and temperature. The smaller particle size the higher oxidation rate of B{sub 4}C powder due to its larger surface area. When B{sub 4}C powder is oxidized in air, a B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass film is formed on the surface of B{sub 4}C grain which retards the further oxidation reaction. The oxidation kinetics is approximately fitted to the diffusion-controlled rate law which can be described by the Jander's equation. The apparent activation energy for the fine-, medium- and coarse-B{sub 4}C powders is 209.4 {+-} 11.4, 212.7 {+-} 35.8 and 219.2 {+-} 45.3 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, slightly varying with the impurity content of B{sub 4}C powders. The type of rate law suggests that the diffusion of oxygen through the oxide layer is the rate-limiting step in the oxidation reactions. In addition, the change in the oxidation process at higher oxidation fraction might associate with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} volatilization at higher temperatures.

  14. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  15. Stereological Analysis of Carbides in Hypoeutectic Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gromczyk M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on stereological parameters of carbides in modified hypoeutectic chromium cast iron were shown in the paper. The effect of distance the casting heat centre of casting to the carbide phase morphology was examined. The samples for metallographic examination were taken from various locations of the model casting prepared in a special tester. This model casting was designed to simulate the solidification of heavy castings. Using the proposed methodology the relation of the distance from the model mould and the size, perimeter, length, width and the shape factor of carbides was examined. During the analysis, the values of stereological parameters of carbides changed on various sections of the model casting.

  16. Exploring a novel approach to fabricate vanadium carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -shell structure; composite materials; mesoporous material; solid-state reaction. ... A novel approach to the fabrication of vanadium carbide encapsulated into carbon nanotube (VC@C) core-shell structured composite by thermal treatment with ...

  17. Process for preparing fine-grain metal carbide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C.R.; Jeffers, F.P.

    Fine-grain metal carbide powder suitable for use in the fabrication of heat resistant products is prepared by coating bituminous pitch on SiO/sub 2/ or Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ particles, heating the coated particles to convert the bituminous pitch to coke, and then heating the particles to a higher temperature to convert the particles to a carbide by reaction of said coke therewith.

  18. Stability of MC Carbide Particles Size in Creep Resisting Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodopivec, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis of the dependence microstructure creep rate. Discussion on the effects of carbide particles size and their distribution on the base of accelerated creep tests on a steel X20CrMoV121 tempered at 800 °C. Analysis of the stability of carbide particles size in terms of free energy of formation of the compound. Explanation of the different effect of VC and NbC particles on accelerated creep rate.

  19. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  20. Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Rumman Md Raihanuzzaman; Lee Chang Chuan; Zonghan Xie; Reza Ghomashchi

    2015-01-01

    Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used to prepare a wide range of materials including ceramics. A deep understanding ...

  1. Growth and structure analysis of tungsten oxide nanorods using environmental TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Kawamoto, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kenta; Nakamura, Naohiro; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Kuroda, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2012-01-25

    WO3 nanorods targeted for applications in electric devices were grown from a tungsten wire heated in an oxygen atmosphere inside an environmental transmission electron microscope, which allowed the growth process to be observed to reveal the growth mechanism of the WO3 nanorods. The initial growth of the nanorods did not consist of tungsten oxide but rather crystal tungsten. The formed crystal tungsten nanorods were then oxidized, resulting in the formation of the tungsten oxide nanorods. Furthermore, it is expected that the nanorods grew through cracks in the natural surface oxide layer on the tungsten wire.

  2. Nanomechanics of Single Crystalline Tungsten Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Cimalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystalline tungsten nanowires were prepared from directionally solidified NiAl-W alloys by a chemical release from the resulting binary phase material. Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD proves that they are single crystals having identical crystallographic orientation. Mechanical investigations such as bending tests, lateral force measurements, and mechanical resonance measurements were performed on 100–300 nm diameter wires. The wires could be either directly employed using micro tweezers, as a singly clamped nanowire or in a doubly clamped nanobridge. The mechanical tests exhibit a surprisingly high flexibility for such a brittle material resulting from the small dimensions. Force displacement measurements on singly clamped W nanowires by an AFM measurement allowed the determination of a Young's modulus of 332 GPa very close to the bulk value of 355 GPa. Doubly clamped W nanowires were employed as resonant oscillating nanowires in a magnetomotively driven resonator running at 117 kHz. The Young's modulus determined from this setup was found to be higher 450 GPa which is likely to be an artefact resulting from the shift of the resonance frequency by an additional mass loading.

  3. Tungsten-enhanced growth of Methanosphaera stadtmanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dridi Bédis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methanogenic Archaea Methanosphaera stadtmanae has been detected in the human gut microbiota by both culture and culture-independent methods. Its growth reaches an exponential phase after 5 to 7-day culture in medium 322 (10% vol. Our recent successful isolation of Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, a tungstate-selenite-requiring Archaea sharing similar metabolism characteristics with M. stadtmanae prompted us to study the effects of tungsten and selenium on M. stadtmanae growth. Findings Addition of 0.2 mg/L sodium tungstate to medium 322 yielded, 48 hours after inoculation, a growth rate equivalent to that obtained after 6 days with control culture as measured by methane monitoring and optical density measurement. Addition of 50 μg/mL sodium selenate had no effect on M. stadtmanae growth. Quantitative real-time PCRs targeting the M. stadtmanae 16S rRNA confirmed these data. Conclusions These data provide new information regarding the poorly known nutritional requirements of the human gut colonizing organismsM. stadtmanae. Adding sodium tungstate to basal medium may facilitate phenotypic characterization of this organism and additionally aid the isolation of new Archaeafrom complex host microbiota.

  4. Signal Analysis of Gas Tungsten Arc Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding is a process in which the input parameters such as current, voltage and travel speed, can be easily controlled and/or monitored. However, weld quality is not solely a function of these parameters. An adaptive method of observing weld quality is desired to improve weld quality assurance. The use of dynamic electrical properties of the welding arc as a weld quality monitor was studied. The electrical properties of the arc are characterized by the current voltage transfer function. The hardware and software necessary to collect the data at a maximum rate of 45 kHz and to allow the off-line processing of this data are tested. The optimum input current waveform is determined. Bead-on-plate welds to observe such characteristics of the weld as the fundamental frequency of the puddle are studied. Future work is planned to observe changes of the arc response with changes in joint geometry, base metal chemistry, and shielding gas composition are discussed.

  5. The DAMPE silicon–tungsten tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzarello, P., E-mail: philipp.azzarello@unige.ch [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Ambrosi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Asfandiyarov, R. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Cadoux, F. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Caprai, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); De Mitri, I. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Domenjoz, M. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Dong, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Duranti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Fan, R. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); and others

    2016-09-21

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a spaceborne astroparticle physics experiment, launched on 17 December 2015. DAMPE will identify possible dark matter signatures by detecting electrons and photons in the 5 GeV–10 TeV energy range. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100 TeV, for the study of the high energy cosmic ray origin and propagation mechanisms. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon–tungsten tracker–converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is composed of six tracking planes of 2 orthogonal layers of single-sided micro-strip detectors, for a total detector surface of ca. 7 m{sup 2}. The STK has been extensively tested for space qualification. Also, numerous beam tests at CERN have been done to study particle detection at silicon module level, and at full detector level. After description of the DAMPE payload and its scientific mission, we will describe the STK characteristics and assembly. We will then focus on some results of single ladder performance tests done with particle beams at CERN.

  6. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Mixed Uranium-Refractory Carbide/Refractory Carbide Cer-Cer Fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal a new carbide-based fuel is introduced with outstanding potential to eliminate the loss of uranium, minimizes the loss of uranium, and retains...

  8. Carbides and possible hydrogen irreversible trapping sites in ultrahigh strength round steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X Y; Li, H; Cheng, X B

    2017-12-01

    The carbides in ultrahigh strength round steel have been investigated by using laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) in this paper. Two kinds of carbides are found and one is iron carbide M6C, where carbide formation elements Cr, Mn and Mo replace partial Fe, while the other is niobium carbide MC, where M includes V and Mo besides Nb. These two carbides, due to their different evaporation field, have various densities in reconstructed image of APT. After correction, the hydrogen content within these two carbides illustrates that M6C cannot trap hydrogen, while MC can. The different behaviors in trapping hydrogen between these two carbides may result from elements Fe or Cr in M6C carbide having weaker affinity for hydrogen than Nb and V have in MC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC-based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation

  10. Effect of tungsten and carbon surface mixed layer on deuterium permeation in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.Y., E-mail: penghanyee_8388@st.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Lee, H.T.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Deuterium ion-driven permeation in tungsten under mixed deuterium and carbon irradiation at 1 keV was studied to investigate the incident flux dependency on deuterium permeation. Permeation experiments were performed at three temperatures (T{sub w} = 610 K, 710 K, 850 K) under incident flux of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The variation of incident flux leads to similar temperature-dependent increase in steady-state deuterium permeation flux under mixed deuterium and carbon irradiation as observed in previous study. It is also found that the rise in permeation at high temperature larger than 800 K cannot be explained by changes in front diffusivity of W–C mixed layer. Also, the incident flux dependency in deuterium permeation cannot be explained only by the hydrogen transport theory of Doyle and Brice. It is deducted that a mixed deuterium and carbon irradiation could cause an oversaturation state of deuterium in tungsten at temperature lower than 700 K.

  11. Chemically deposited tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten – The way to a mock-up for divertor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Riesch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced materials is essential for sophisticated energy systems like a future fusion reactor. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W utilize extrinsic toughening mechanisms and therefore overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten at low temperature and its sensitivity to operational embrittlement. This material has been successfully produced and tested during the last years and the focus is now put on the technological realisation for the use in plasma facing components of fusion devices. In this contribution, we present a way to utilize Wf/W composites for divertor applications by a fabrication route based on the chemical vapour deposition (CVD of tungsten. Mock-ups based on the ITER typical design can be realized by the implementation of Wf/W tiles. A concept based on a layered deposition approach allows the production of such tiles in the required geometry. One fibre layer after the other is positioned and ingrown into the W-matrix until the final sample size is reached. Charpy impact tests on these samples showed an increased fracture energy mainly due to the ductile deformation of the tungsten fibres. The use of Wf/W could broaden the operation temperature window of tungsten significantly and mitigate problems of deep cracking occurring typically in cyclic high heat flux loading. Textile techniques are utilized to optimise the tungsten wire positioning and process speed of preform production. A new device dedicated to the chemical deposition of W enhances significantly, the available machine time for processing and optimisation. Modelling shows that good deposition results are achievable by the use of a convectional flow and a directed temperature profile in an infiltration process.

  12. Recovery of Tungsten and Molybdenum from Low-Grade Scheelite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongli; Yang, Jinhong; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2017-10-01

    With most high-quality tungsten ores being exhausted, the enhancement of low-grade scheelite concentrates processing has attracted a great deal of attention. The objective of this study is to develop a method to maximize the recovery tungsten and molybdenum from a low-grade scheelite via a new acid leaching process followed by solvent extraction. Under optimal conditions (350 g/L H2SO4, 95°C, and 2 h), approximately 99.8% of tungsten and 98% of molybdenum were leached out. In the subsequent solvent extraction process, more than 99% of the tungsten and molybdenum were extracted with a co-extraction system (50% TBP, 30% HDEHP, and 10% 2-octanol in kerosene) using a three-stage cross-flow extraction. The raffinate can be recycled for the next leaching process after replenishing the H2SO4 to the initial value (approximately 350 g/L). Based on these results, a conceptual flowsheet is presented to recover tungsten and molybdenum from the low-grade scheelite.

  13. 75 FR 75694 - Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits using tungsten metallization... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing... Manufacturing Corporation of China; Integrated Device Technology, Inc. of San Jose, California; and Nanya...

  14. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, L. L.; Hay, J. C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides the properties of bulk stoichiometric silicon carbide which has been amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60°C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 × 10 25 n/m 2. Amorphization was seen in both materials as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density (-10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique (-45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation (-45%), and standard Vickers hardness (-24%). Similar property changes are observed for the amorphized CVD SiC. Using measured thermal conductivity data for the CVD SiC sample, the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than ˜125°C.

  15. Pristine Samples of Silicon Carbide Separated From the Canyon Diablo Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, I. S.; Winston, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Canyon Diablo is an iron meteorite whose collision with Earth created Meteor Crater in Arizona. In a study of a large block (53 kg) of this meteorite, Henri Moissan reported his findings of green, hexagonal crystals of silicon carbide (SiC) which was given the name moissanite the following year by George Kunz (1905). Moissan did not report finding the cubic form of SiC. Subsequently, many erroneous reports appeared when the polishing compound (synthetic SiC) was mistakenly considered by researchers as a natural mineral associated with, rather than a contaminant of many rock types. Hence, the occurrence of SiC in the Canyon Diablo remains in doubt, and any proposal to investigate this problem was discouraged and regarded as predictably unproductive. This notion hampered further work on abundant materials housed in museums. SiC grains have been found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Some have been identified as presolar grains. The significance of SiC in the Canyon Diablo cannot be revealed unless we have abundant data from pristine samples, enough for us to classify them into presolar or other types. We report here a simple method we used to separate SiC crystals from the meteorite. We chose samples containing a carbon nodule composed of graphite, diamond-lonsdaleite, and SiC grains in the iron matrix. We broke up the carbon nodule with a sharp tungsten carbide chisel and hammer. After removing the large metal fragments, we put a small amount of the fine black grains in a Petri dish with acetone, then swerved the dish to scatter the grains sparingly on the bottom of the dish. Under a binocular microscope, SiC crystals can be spotted easily by their adamantine luster, color (blue, green, beige, etc.), and high birefringence when placed between crossed polarizers of a petrographic microscope. We also X-rayed individual grains, and have identified several hexagonal polytype structures as well as the cubic form (3C polytype).

  16. Feasibility study of fluxless brazing cemented carbides to steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Sievers, N.

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important brazing processes is the joints between cemented carbides and steel for the tool industry such as in rotary drill hammers or saw blades. Even though this technique has already been used for several decades, defects in the joint can still occur and lead to quality loss. Mostly, the joining process is facilitated by induction heating and the use of a flux to enhance the wetting of the filler alloy on the surface of the steel and cemented carbide in an ambient atmosphere. However, although the use of flux enables successful joining, it also generates voids within the joint, which reduces the strength of the connection while the chemicals within the flux are toxic and polluting. In this feasibility study, a fluxless brazing process is used to examine the joint between cemented carbides and steel for the first time. For this, ultrasound is applied during induction heating to enable the wetting between the liquid filler metal and the surfaces of the cemented carbide and steel. The ultrasound generates cavitations within the liquid filler metal, which remove the oxides from the surface. Several filler metals such as a silver based alloy Ag449, pure Zn, and an AlSi-alloy were used to reduce the brazing temperature and to lower the thermal residual stresses within the joint. As a result, every filler metal successfully wetted both materials and led to a dense connection. The ultrasound has to be applied carefully to prevent a damage of the cemented carbide. In this regard, it was observed that single grains of the cemented carbide broke out and remained in the joint. This positive result of brazing cemented carbides to steel without a flux but using ultrasound, allows future studies to focus on the shear strength of these joints as well as the behavior of the thermally induced residual stresses.

  17. Study of Tungsten effect on CFETR performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengyu; Xiang Gao Collaboration; Guoqiang Li Collaboration; Nan Shi Collaboration; Vincent Chan Collaboration; Xiang Jian Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    An integrated modeling workflow using OMFIT/TGYRO is constructed to evaluate W impurity effects on China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) performance. Self-consistent modeling of tungsten(W) core density profile, accounting for turbulence and neoclassical transport, is performed based on the CFETR steady-state scenario developed by D.Zhao (ZhaoDeng, APS, 2016). It's found that the fusion performance degraded in a limited level with increasing W concentration. The main challenge arises in sustainment of H-mode with significant W radiation. Assuming the power threshold of H-L back transition is approximately the same as that of L-H transition, using the scaling law of Takizuka (Takizuka etc, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 2004), it is found that the fractional W concentration should not exceed 3e-5 to stay in H-mode for CFETR phase I. A future step is to connect this requirement to W wall erosion modeling. We are grateful to Dr. Emiliano Fable and Dr. Thomas Pütterich and Ms. Emily Belli for very helpful discussions and comments. We also would like to express our thanks to all the members of the CFETR Physics Group, and we appreciate the General Atomic Theory Group for permission to use the OMFIT framework and GA code suite, and for their valuable technical support. Numerical computations were performed on the ShenMa High Performance Computing Cluster in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This work was mainly supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014GB110001, 2014GB110002, 2014GB110003) and supported in part by the National ITER Plans Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013GB106001, 2013GB111002, 2015GB110001).

  18. Mathematical Modelling of the Process of Tungsten Fluorides Reduction by Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Brendakov Roman; Shvab Alexander; Brendakov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The process of tungsten fluorides reduction by hydrogen is a component part of Fluoride technology of tungsten conversion. Nowadays the researchers are definitely interested in studying this process. It is connected with common use of metal tungsten products in different sectors of the economy, which is the result of unique qualities of this metal. With the help of physical and mathematical modelling of the process of tungsten hexafluoride reduction by hydrogen, it becomes possible to create ...

  19. Tungsten erosion at low energy impact under steady state plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, N.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Center `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khripunov, B.I. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Center `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Petrov, V.B. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Center `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapkin, V.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Center `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pistunovich, V.I. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Center `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    Tungsten is considered as one of the candidate materials for application in future fusion devices for plasma facing components. The calculated threshold energy of deuterium for physical sputtering of tungsten is rather high [3] (341 eV). Thus one could expect that tungsten surface sputtering would be absent in pure hydrogen edge plasma with low temperature. Continuous deuterium plasma conditions were used in these experiments to investigate the tungsten erosion characteristics. ((orig.)).

  20. Reactions of water and C1 molecules on carbide and metal-modified carbide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weiming; Tackett, Brian M; Chen, Jingguang G

    2017-04-03

    The formation of carbides can significantly modify the physical and chemical properties of the parent metals. In the current review, we summarize the general trends in the reactions of water and C1 molecules over transition metal carbide (TMC) and metal-modified TMC surfaces and thin films. Although the primary focus of the current review is on the theoretical and experimental studies of reactions of C1 molecules (CO, CO2, CH3OH, etc.), the reactions of water will also be reviewed because water plays an important role in many of the C1 transformation reactions. This review is organized by discussing separately thermal reactions and electrochemical reactions, which provides insights into the application of TMCs in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, respectively. In thermal reactions, we discuss the thermal decomposition of water and methanol, as well as the reactions of CO and CO2 over TMC surfaces. In electrochemical reactions, we summarize recent studies in the hydrogen evolution reaction, electrooxidation of methanol and CO, and electroreduction of CO2. Finally, future research opportunities and challenges associated with using TMCs as catalysts and electrocatalysts are also discussed.

  1. Material properties of very thin electroless silver-tungsten films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogush, V.; Inberg, A.; Croitoru, N.; Dubin, V.; Shacham-Diamand, Y

    2003-02-24

    Thin electroless silver-tungsten (Ag-W) films were deposited on silicon dioxide substrate from the benzoate solution. The layer composition and microstructure as well as the film deposition rate were studied as a function of the bath formulation. The tungsten concentration in the deposit was up to {approx}2.1 atm% with corresponding oxygen concentration approximately 4 atm%. It was found that electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of Ag-W films depend on the W content in the deposit. Ag-W films of sub 120 nm thickness with {approx}0.6 atm% tungsten and 1.8 atm% oxygen have demonstrated the resistivity of {approx}4 {mu}{omega}{center_dot}cm. Finally, the possibility to use the Ag-W thin films for microelectronic metallization is discussed.

  2. [Radiation protection provided by tungsten bismuth caps during interventional cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Avasola, Sergio; Díaz, Natalia; Roldán, Reynaldo; Gamarra, Jorge; Catalán, Mónica

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness against radiation of tungsten bismuth caps, used in interventional cardiology is not well known. To determine the degree of radiation protection conferred by these caps in real work conditions. We compared the gross electric charges received at brain lobe levels by three occupationally exposed professionals who participated in 22 consecutive procedures, inside and outside of the tungsten bismuth cap. The median electric charges outside and inside the cap were 3.71 (range 1.46-5.62) and 2.2 (range 1.29-3.93) nC, which correspond to a 40% radiation attenuation. However, the protection was heterogeneous. Tungsten bismuth caps provide an adequate attenuation, but its degree is heterogeneous.

  3. Synthesis of Tungsten Diselenide Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Condensation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Tolochko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline tungsten diselenide (WSe2 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a gas phase reaction using tungsten hexacarbonyl and elemental selenium as precursors. The WSe2 nanoparticle morphology varies from the spherical shape to flake-like layered structures. Mean size in smaller dimension are less than 5 nm and the number of layers decreased linearly with decreasing of reaction time and concentration of carbonyl in the gas phase. The mean value of interlayer distance in <0001> direction is comparable with the microscopic values. The selenium-to-tungsten atomic ratios of 2.07, 2.19 and 2.19 were determined respectively, approach to the stoichiometric ratio of 2:1. Main impurities are oxygen and carbon and strongly interrelated with carbonyl concentration in the gas phase.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7356

  4. Study of ion-irradiated tungsten in deuterium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, B.I., E-mail: boris@nfi.kiae.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Gureev, V.M.; Koidan, V.S.; Kornienko, S.N.; Latushkin, S.T.; Petrov, V.B.; Ryazanov, A.I.; Semenov, E.V.; Stolyarova, V.G.; Danelyan, L.S. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.S.; Zatekin, V.V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Unezhev, V.N. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    Experimental study aimed at investigation of neutron induced damage influence on fusion reactor plasma facing materials is reported. Displacement damage was produced in tungsten by high-energy helium and carbon ions at 3–10 MeV. The reached level of displacement damage ranged from several dpa to 600 dpa. The properties of the irradiated tungsten were studied in steady-state deuterium plasma on the LENTA linear divertor simulator. Plasma exposures were made at 250 eV of ion energy to fluence 10{sup 21}–10{sup 22} ion/cm{sup 2}. Erosion dynamics of the damaged layer and deuterium retention were observed. Surface microstructure modifications and important damage of the 5 μm layer shown. Deuterium retention in helium-damaged tungsten (ERD) showed its complex behavior (increase or decrease) depending on implanted helium quantity and the structure of the surface layer.

  5. Synthetic approaches toward tungsten photonic crystals for thermal emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Nicholas R.; Han, Sangjin; Turgeon, Ryan T.; Lytle, Justin C.; Norris, David J.; Stein, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of standard incandescent light sources is limited by strong thermal emission in the infrared regime. It is possible that emission of light may be more efficient when the conventional tungsten filament is replaced by metallic photonic crystals that have large photonic band gaps in the infrared and can suppress the thermal emission of blackbody emitters. One approach toward fabricating photonic crystal structures with highly ordered periodic features on an optical length scale involves colloidal crystal templating to produce inverse opals. Metallic inverse opals were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and wet chemical methods capable of producing granules, thin films and monolithic pieces. Thin films were prepared by infiltrating silica opal films with tungsten hexacarbonyl in a CVD process, reducing tungsten in hydrogen and removing the silica template by HF etching. A range of soluble metal precursors, including tungsten(VI) chloride, tungsten(V) ethoxide and acetylated peroxotungstic acid, were infiltrated into self-assembled, colloidal crystal arrays comprised of monodisperse poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres. The infiltrated composites were processed under reducing conditions to produce metallic inverse replicas of the template. The influence of processing conditions on structural properties, including thickness of skeletal walls, window openings and solid filling fraction, was studied. A monolithic tungsten inverse opal with dimensions of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.2 cm was resistively heated in an inert atmosphere and thermal emission was observed. The wet chemical methods provide a low cost alternative to expensive nanolithographic methods for the fabrication of three-dimensional periodic metallic structures.

  6. Effect of neon plasma pre-irradiation on surface morphology and deuterium retention of tungsten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; De Temmerman, G.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Ji, G.; Zhou, H. B.; Wang, B.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Neon and deuterium plasma irradiation of polycrystalline tungsten targets have been performed at high fluxes of ∼1024 ions m−2 s−1 to study the interaction of neon with tungsten and the influence of neon on deuterium retention. Tungsten exposure to neon plasma leads to the

  7. Deuterium retention and surface modifications of nanocrystalline tungsten films exposed to high-flux plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hoen, M.H.J.; Dellasega, D.; Pezzoli, A.; Passoni, M.; Kleyn, A.W.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium retention studies are presented for nanostructured tungsten films exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas. Thin tungsten films of similar to 1 mu m thickness were deposited with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on bulk tungsten. Surface modifications were studied with scanning electron

  8. Characterisation of Tungsten Nitride Layers and their Erosion under Plasma Exposure in NANO-PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alegre, D.; Acsente, T.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Oyarzabal, E.; Tabares, F. L.; Dinescu, G.; De Temmerman, G.; Birjega, R.; Logofatu, C.; Kovac, J.; Mozetic, M.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of tungsten nitride thin films deposited by both reactive RF-magnetron sputtering from tungsten targets in Argon/N-2, and RF generated nitrogen ions bombardment of previously sequentially deposited tungsten layers have been investigated. Films exhibited smaller erosion than pure

  9. Deuterium retention and surface modifications of nanocrystalline tungsten films exposed to high-flux plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, M. H. J. 't; Dellasega, D.; Pezzoli, A.; Passoni, M.; Kleyn, A. W.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Deuterium retention studies are presented for nanostructured tungsten films exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas. Thin tungsten films of ∼1 μm thickness were deposited with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on bulk tungsten. Surface modifications were studied with scanning electron

  10. Quantum-Accurate Molecular Dynamics Potential for Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Mitchell; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this short contribution is to report on the development of a Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential (SNAP) for tungsten. We have focused on the characterization of elastic and defect properties of the pure material in order to support molecular dynamics simulations of plasma-facing materials in fusion reactors. A parallel genetic algorithm approach was used to efficiently search for fitting parameters optimized against a large number of objective functions. In addition, we have shown that this many-body tungsten potential can be used in conjunction with a simple helium pair potential1 to produce accurate defect formation energies for the W-He binary system.

  11. Temperature and distortion transients in gas tungsten-arc weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Friedman, E.

    1979-10-01

    An analysis and test program to develop a fundamental understanding of the gas tungsten-arc welding process has been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to develop techniques to determine and control the various welding parameters and weldment conditions so as to result in optimum weld response characteristics. These response characteristics include depth of penetration, weld bead configuration, weld bead sink and roll, distortion, and cracking sensitivity. The results are documented of that part of the program devoted to analytical and experimental investigations of temperatures, weld bead dimensions, and distortions for moving gas tungsten-arc welds applied to Alloy 600 plates.

  12. A review of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical properties of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys are reviewed with particular emphasis on high-temperature strength and low-temperature ductility. Precipitate strengthening is highly effective at 0.4 to 0.8 times the melting temperature in these metals, with HfC being most effective in tungsten and molybdenum, and Ta(B,C) most effective in chromium. Low-temperature ductility can be improved by alloying to promote rhenium ductilizing or solution softening. The low-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys appear related to electronic interactions rather than to the usual metallurgical considerations.

  13. Dislocation mechanism of deuterium retention in tungsten under plasma implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinko, V I; Grigorev, P; Bakaev, A; Terentyev, D; van Oost, G; Gao, F; Van Neck, D; Zhurkin, E E

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a new theoretical model for deuterium (D) retention in tungsten-based alloys on the basis of its being trapped at dislocations and transported to the surface via the dislocation network with parameters determined by ab initio calculations. The model is used to explain experimentally observed trends of D retention under sub-threshold implantation, which does not produce stable lattice defects to act as traps for D in conventional models. Saturation of D retention with implantation dose and effects due to alloying of tungsten with, e.g. tantalum, are evaluated, and comparison of the model predictions with experimental observations under high-flux plasma implantation conditions is presented.

  14. Tool life of ceramic wedges during precise turning of tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legutko Stanislaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties, application and machinability of tungsten and its alloys have been demonstrated. The comparison of the tool life and wear of the wedges made of SiAlON and whisker ceramics during the precise turning at different cutting parameters have been presented. The CNC lathe DMG CTX 310 Ecoline and tungsten of 99.7 % purity were used during the experiments. Only the wedge of whisker ceramics has proved to be sufficiently suitable and only for relatively low cutting speeds.

  15. Effects of sequential tungsten and helium ion implantation on nano-indentation hardness of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D. E. J.; Edmondson, P. D.; Roberts, S. G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-24

    To simulate neutron and helium damage in a fusion reactor first wall sequential self-ion implantation up to 13 dpa followed by helium-ion implantation up to 3000 appm was performed to produce damaged layers of {approx}2 {mu}m depth in pure tungsten. The hardness of these layers was measured using nanoindentation and was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Substantial hardness increases were seen in helium implanted regions, with smaller hardness increases in regions which had already been self-ion implanted, thus, containing pre-existing dislocation loops. This suggests that, for the same helium content, helium trapped in distributed vacancies gives stronger hardening than helium trapped in vacancies condensed into dislocation loops.

  16. Heat-Resistance of the Powder Cobalt Alloys Reinforced by Niobium or Titanium Carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Cherepova, T.S.; Dmitrieva, G.P.; V.K. Nosenko

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of heat-resistance of powder cobalt alloys at 1100 °C were investigated. These alloys were developed for the protection of workers banding shelves GTE blades from wear. The alloys were prepared by hot pressing powders of cobalt, chromium, aluminum, iron and niobium or titanium carbides. The values of heat resistance alloys containing carbides between 30 and 70% (vol.) depend on the type made of carbide alloys: alloys with titanium carbide superior in heat-resistant alloy o...

  17. Dilatometry Analysis of Dissolution of Cr-Rich Carbides in Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuliang; Volkova, Olena; Biermann, Horst; Mola, Javad

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution of Cr-rich carbides formed in the martensitic constituent of a 13 pct Cr stainless steel was studied by dilatometry and correlative electron channeling contrast examinations. The dissolution of carbides subsequent to the martensite reversion to austenite was associated with a net volume expansion which in turn increased the dilatometry-based apparent coefficient of thermal expansion (CTEa) during continuous heating. The effects of carbides fraction and size on the CTEa variations during carbides dissolution are discussed.

  18. Tungsten-molybdenum fractionation in estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerin, T. Jade; Helz, George R.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2016-03-01

    Dissolved tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) concentrations were measured in surface waters and sediment pore waters of Terrebonne Bay, a shallow estuary in the Mississippi River delta, to investigate the biogeochemical processes that fractionate these Group 6 elements relative to one another during transit from weathering to sedimentary environments. Although many of the chemical properties of W and Mo are similar, the two elements behave autonomously, and the fractionation mechanisms are only partly understood. In sulfidic pore waters, dissolved Mo is depleted relative to river water-seawater mixtures, whereas dissolved W is >10-fold enriched. Reductive dissolution of poorly crystalline phases like ferrihydrite, which is a preferential host of W relative to Mo in grain coatings on river-borne particles, can explain the dissolved W enrichment. Dissolved W becomes increasingly enriched as H2S(aq) rises above about 60 μM due to transformation of WO42- to thiotungstates as well as to additional reductive dissolution of phases that host W. In contrast, as rising sulfide transforms MoO42- to thiomolybdates in pore waters, dissolved Mo is suppressed, probably owing to equilibration with an Fe-Mo-S phase. This putative phase appears to control the aqueous ion product, Q = [Fe2+][MoS42-]0.6 [H2S0]0.4/[H+]0.8, at a value of 10-7.78. Concentrations of dissolved W and Mo in pore waters bear no relation to concentrations in surface waters of the same salinity. In surface waters, dissolved Mo is nearly conserved in the estuarine mixing zone. Dissolved W appears also to be conserved except for several cases where W may have been enhanced by exchange with underlying, W-rich pore waters. With increasing salinity, the molar Mo/W ratio rises from about 10 to about 1000 in surface waters whereas it is mostly sequestration on river-borne particles and its subsequent release to sulfidic pore waters after the particles are deposited in the delta and become subject to reductive

  19. Elastic and piezoresistive properties of nickel carbides from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Jeffrey; Zahn, Peter; Schuster, Jörg; Gemming, Sibylle

    2017-01-01

    The nickel-carbon system has received increased attention over the past years due to the relevance of nickel as a catalyst for carbon nanotube and graphene growth, where nickel carbide intermediates may be involved or carbide interface layers form in the end. Nickel-carbon composite thin films comprising Ni3C are especially interesting in mechanical sensing applications. Due to the metastability of nickel carbides, formation conditions and the coupling between mechanical and electrical properties are not yet well understood. Using first-principles electronic structure methods, we calculated the elastic properties of Ni3C ,Ni2C , and NiC , as well as changes in electronic properties under mechanical strain. We observe that the electronic density of states around the Fermi level does not change under the considered strains of up to 1%, which correspond to stresses up to 3 GPa . Relative changes in conductivity of Ni3C range up to maximum values of about 10%.

  20. Structure-Property Relationship in Metal Carbides and Bimetallic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguan [University of Delaware

    2014-03-04

    The primary objective of our DOE/BES sponsored research is to use carbide and bimetallic catalysts as model systems to demonstrate the feasibility of tuning the catalytic activity, selectivity and stability. Our efforts involve three parallel approaches, with the aim at studying single crystal model surfaces and bridging the “materials gap” and “pressure gap” between fundamental surface science studies and real world catalysis. The utilization of the three parallel approaches has led to the discovery of many intriguing catalytic properties of carbide and bimetallic surfaces and catalysts. During the past funding period we have utilized these combined research approaches to explore the possibility of predicting and verifying bimetallic and carbide combinations with enhanced catalytic activity, selectivity and stability.

  1. Analysis of carbides and inclusions in high speed tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, K.T.; Dahl, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    The fracture surfaces of fatigued specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The aim was to quantify the distribution of cracked carbides and non-metallic inclusions on the fracturesurfaces as well as on polished cross...... sections. The specimens were made of Böhler P/M steel grade 390s and 690s in both micro-clean and conventional grades. The results show that the content of non-metallic inclusions are higher in the conventionalgrades than in the microclean grades, but there were found to be no link between non-metallic...... inclusions and the crack initiation. Surprisingly, no differences were found between the carbide size distributions of the micro-clean and conventional grades.Also, the distribution of the fractured carbides was found to be the same regardless of steel type, manufacturing method or location on the specimen....

  2. Ordering of carbon atoms in boron carbide structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, V. I., E-mail: i2212@yandex.ru; Kovalev, I. D.; Konovalikhin, S. V.; Vershinnikov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    Boron carbide crystals have been obtained in the entire compositional range according to the phase diagram by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Based on the results of X-ray diffraction investigations, the samples were characterized by the unit-cell metric and reflection half-width in the entire range of carbon concentrations. A significant spread in the boron carbide unit-cell parameters for the same carbon content is found in the data in the literature; this spread contradicts the structural concepts for covalent compounds. The SHS samples have not revealed any significant spread in the unit-cell parameters. Structural analysis suggests that the spread of parameters in the literary data is related to the unique process of ordering of carbon atoms in the boron carbide structure.

  3. Sintering of nano crystalline α silicon carbide by doping with boron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Sinterable nano silicon carbide powders of mean particle size (37 nm) were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type alpha silicon carbide having mean particle size of 0⋅39 µm. (390 nm). Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of boron carbide of 0⋅5 wt ...

  4. Sintering of nano crystalline α silicon carbide by doping with boron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sinterable nano silicon carbide powders of mean particle size (37 nm) were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type alpha silicon carbide having mean particle size of 0.39 m (390 nm). Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of boron carbide of 0.5 wt% together ...

  5. Core tungsten radiation diagnostic calibration by small shell pellet injection in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Alexander, N.; Bykov, I.; Moser, A. L.; Thomas, D.; Victor, B. S.

    2017-10-01

    Injection of small (outer diameter = 0.8 mm) plastic pellets carrying embedded smaller (10 μg) tungsten grains is used to check calibrations of core tungsten line radiation diagnostics in support of the 2016 tungsten ring campaign in the DIII-D tokamak. Observed total brightness (1 eV-10 keV) and soft x-ray (1 keV-10 keV) brightness are found to be reasonably well (core (extreme ultra-violet/soft x-ray) tungsten line brightness appears to be somewhat less reliable (factor 2-4) for the prediction of core tungsten concentration.

  6. Formation of Silicon Carbide in the Silicomanganese Process

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsen, Jens Erik

    2011-01-01

    As the silicon content in a silicomanganese alloy increase, silicon carbide becomes the stable carbon phase. Little work is published on the formation of silicon carbide in the SiMn process. This thesis examines the formation of SiC through the reaction between slag, metal and coke. The goal of the thesis has been to determine where and how SiC is formed in the silicomanganese process. Focus has been given to formation through liquid-solid reactions.The investigation was carried out by heatin...

  7. Fluorescent silicon carbide materials for white LEDs and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan; Wellmann, Peter

    the luminescence appears in the visible region which is used to produce a white LED with pure white light without need of phosphors [2]. The cubic silicon carbide polytype is challenging to master, and we have explored the growth of this crystal structure. It has a lower bandgap, and by a similar doping concept...... in cubic silicon carbide. The impurity photovoltaic effect could lead to devices with efficiencies comparable to those of tandem systems, and could open a new road for very-high-efficiency solar cells. Such high performance can be reached only if the host material has a large energy gap, like cubic silicon...

  8. Nanofibre growth from cobalt carbide produced by mechanosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barriga-Arceo, L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico); Orozco, E [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364 CP 01000, DF (Mexico); Garibay-Febles, V [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico); Bucio-Galindo, L [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364 CP 01000, DF (Mexico); Mendoza Leon, H [FM-UPALM, IPN, Apartado Postal 75-395 CP 07300, DF (Mexico); Castillo-Ocampo, P [UAM-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-334 CP 09340, DF (Mexico); Montoya, A [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-06-09

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare cobalt carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy methods. In order to produce carbon nanotubes, the cobalt carbide was precipitated after heating at 800 and 1000 deg. C for 10 min. Nanofibres of about 10-50 nm in diameter, 0.04-0.1 {mu}m in length and 20-200 nm in diameter and 0.6-1.2 {mu}m in length were obtained after heating at 800 and 1000 deg. C, respectively, by means of this process.

  9. Ultrathin fiber poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, modified by silicon carbide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhov, A. A.; Krutikova, A. A.; Goldshtrakh, M. A.; Staroverova, O. V.; Iordanskii, A. L.; Ischenko, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the results of studies the composite fibrous material based on poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and nano-size silicon carbide obtained by the electrospinning method. Size distribution of the silicon carbide nanoparticles in the fiber was estimated by X-ray diffraction technique. It is shown that immobilization of the SiC nanoparticles to the PHB fibers contributes to obtaining essentially smaller diameter of fibers, high physical-mechanical characteristics and increasing resistance to degradation in comparison with the fibers of PHB.

  10. Comparative evaluation of tungsten inert gas and laser beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, the bead-on-plate welds were made on AA5083-H321 alloy plates using both tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and laser beam (LB) welding pro- cesses to study the enhancement of mechanical properties such as weld yield strength and hardness. The low heat input of laser beam welding effectively ...

  11. Measurements of tungsten migration in the DIII-D divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, W. R.; Rudakov, D. L.; Watkins, J. G.; McLean, A. G.; Unterberg, E. A.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    An experimental study of migration of tungsten in the DIII-D divertor is described, in which the outer strike point of L-mode plasmas was positioned on a toroidal ring of tungsten-coated metal inserts. Net deposition of tungsten on the divertor just outside the strike point was measured on graphite samples exposed to various plasma durations using the divertor materials evaluation system. Tungsten coverage, measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), was found to be low and nearly independent of both radius and exposure time closer to the strike point, whereas farther from the strike point the W coverage was much larger and increased with exposure time. Depth profiles from RBS show this was due to accumulation of thicker mixed-material deposits farther from the strike point where the plasma temperature is lower. These results are consistent with a low near-surface steady-state coverage on graphite undergoing net erosion, and continuing accumulation in regions of net deposition. This experiment provides data needed to validate, and further improve computational simulations of erosion and deposition of material on plasma-facing components and transport of impurities in magnetic fusion devices. Such simulations are underway and will be reported later.

  12. Comparative evaluation of tungsten inert gas and laser beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the bead-on-plate welds were made on AA5083-H321 alloy plates using both tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and laser beam (LB) welding processes to study the enhancement of mechanical properties such as weld yield strength and hardness. The low heat input of laser beam welding effectively reduced the ...

  13. Self-Passivation Tungsten Alloys for Plasma Facing Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Su; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Compared with other materials, tungsten has many advantageous properties in a plasma environments. For examples, tungsten has the merit of very low sputter erosion under bombardment by energetic particles like D, T, He ions from the plasma. And it also is high melting point and high thermal conductivity which is good properties for resisting to high thermal load. A potential problem with using pure tungsten in a fusion reactor is the formation of WO3 which is radioactive and highly volatile compound and there is possibility that it may get released under accidental scenario. A feasible way for avoiding this is developing a self-passivating oxide layer at the surface of tungsten. W-based self-passivation bulk alloys were successfully fabricated by the high energy planetary ball milling and simple mixing. And also spark plasma sintering is good for fabricating them. As compared to simple mixing samples, mechanical alloying samples have better mechanical properties. Especially PCr10 sample exhibits impressive performance in terms of compressive strength. In oxidation test, there were no significant difference between simple mixing samples and mechanical alloying samples.

  14. Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yinyue; Cui, Yanxia; Ding, Fei

    2017-01-01

    : We show theoretically that an array of tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cones placed on top of a reflective substrate can absorb light at the wavelength range from 0.3 μm to 9 μm with an average absorption efficiency approaching 98%. It is found that the excitation of multiple orders of slow...

  15. New tungsten alloy has high strength at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten-hafnium-carbon alloy has tensile strengths of 88,200 psi at 3000 deg F and 62,500 psi at 3500 deg F. Possible industrial applications for this alloy would include electrical components such as switches and spark plugs, die materials for die casting steels, and heating elements.

  16. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Plasma Arc Cutting. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This welding curriculum guide treats two topics in detail: the care of tungsten electrodes and the entire concept of contamination control and the hafnium electrode and its importance in dual-air cutting systems that use compressed shop air for plasma arc cutting activities. The guide contains three units of instruction that cover the following…

  17. Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. II. Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerbacher, B.; Egede Christensen, N.

    1974-01-01

    Energy-distribution spectra of photoelectrons emitted normal to three single-crystal faces of tungsten have been measured for photon energies between 7.7 and 21.2 eV. The results are interpreted in terms of one-dimensional electronic properties along the symmetry lines in k space that correspond...

  18. Formation of nanoscale tungsten oxide structures and colouration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, pH dependent evolution of tungsten oxide (WO3) nanostructures is being reported along with physical characteristics. The synthesis was carried out via an inexpensive solvothermal cum chemical reduction route, with sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (C19H42NBr) as main ...

  19. Molybdenum incorporation in tungsten aldehyde oxidoreductase enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevcenco, A.M.; Bevers, L.E.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Krijger, G.C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Hagen, W.R.; Hagedoorn, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus expresses five aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) enzymes, all containing a tungsto-bispterin cofactor. The growth of this organism is fully dependent on the presence of tungsten in the growth medium. Previous studies have suggested that molybdenum is

  20. Ion beam analysis of tungsten layers in EUROFER model systems and carbon plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ström, Petter, E-mail: pestro@kth.se [Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Petersson, Per; Rubel, Marek [Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Primetzhofer, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Kreter, Arkadi; Unterberg, Bernhard; Sergienko, Gennady [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Deuterium sputtered model samples for EUROFER studied by ToF-MEIS. • Tungsten enrichment by preferential sputtering quantified and depth profiled. • Iodine and chlorine beams compared for tungsten analysis. - Abstract: The tungsten enriched surface layers in two fusion-relevant EUROFER steel model samples, consisting of an iron–tungsten mixture exposed to sputtering by deuterium ions, were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and medium energy ion scattering. Exposure conditions were the same for the two samples and the total amount of tungsten atoms per unit area in the enriched layers were similar (2 · 10{sup 15} and 2.4 · 10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2} respectively), despite slightly different initial atomic compositions. A depth profile featuring exponential decrease in tungsten content towards higher depths with 10–20 at.% of tungsten at the surface and a decay constant between 0.05 and 0.08 Å{sup −1} was indicated in one sample, whereas only the total areal density of tungsten atoms was measured in the other. In addition, two different beams, iodine and chlorine, were employed for elastic recoil detection analysis of the deposited layer on a polished graphite plate from a test limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak following experiments with tungsten hexafluoride injection. The chlorine beam was preferred for tungsten analysis, mainly because it (as opposed to the iodine beam) does not give rise to problems with overlap of forward scattered beam particles and recoiled tungsten in the spectrum.

  1. High temperature heterogeneous reaction kinetics and mechanisms of tungsten oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Justin L.

    Tungsten, which is a material used in many high temperature applications, is limited by its susceptibility to oxidation at elevated temperatures. Although tungsten has the highest melting temperature of any metal, at much lower temperatures volatile oxides are formed during oxidation with oxygen containing species. This differs from many heterogeneous oxidation reactions involving metals since most reactions form very stable oxides that have higher melting or boiling points than the pure metal (e.g., aluminum, iron). Understanding heterogeneous oxidation and vaporization processes may allow for the expansion and improvement of high temperature tungsten applications. In order to increase understanding of the oxidation processes of tungsten, there is a need to develop reaction mechanisms and kinetics for oxidation processes involving oxidizers and environmental conditions of interest. Tungsten oxidation was thoroughly studied in the past, and today there is a good phenomenological understanding of these processes. However, as the design of large scale systems increasingly relies on computer modeling there becomes a need for improved descriptions of chemical reactions. With the increase in computing power over the last several decades, and the development of quantum chemistry and physics theories, heterogeneous systems can be modeled in detail at the molecular level. Thermochemical parameters that may not be measured experimentally may now be determined theoretically, a tool that was previously unavailable to scientists and engineers. Additionally, chemical kinetic modeling software is now available for both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. This study takes advantage of these new theoretical tools, as well as a thermogravimetric (TG) flow reactor developed as part of this study to learn about mechanisms and kinetics of tungsten oxidation. Oxidizers of interest are oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), water (H2O), and other oxidizers present in combustion and

  2. Study of PVD AlCrN Coating for Reducing Carbide Cutting Tool Deterioration in the Machining of Titanium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Natalia L; Cue-Sampedro, Rodrigo; Siller, Héctor R; Arizmendi-Morquecho, Ana M; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Di-Nardo, Santiago

    2013-05-24

    The manufacture of medical and aerospace components made of titanium alloys and other difficult-to-cut materials requires the parallel development of high performance cutting tools coated with materials capable of enhanced tribological and resistance properties. In this matter, a thin nanocomposite film made out of AlCrN (aluminum-chromium-nitride) was studied in this research, showing experimental work in the deposition process and its characterization. A heat-treated monolayer coating, competitive with other coatings in the machining of titanium alloys, was analyzed. Different analysis and characterizations were performed on the manufactured coating by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the coating was evaluated through hardness test and tribology with pin-on-disk to quantify friction coefficient and wear rate. Finally, machinability tests using coated tungsten carbide cutting tools were executed in order to determine its performance through wear resistance, which is a key issue of cutting tools in high-end cutting at elevated temperatures. It was demonstrated that the specimen (with lower friction coefficient than previous research) is more efficient in machinability tests in Ti6Al4V alloys. Furthermore, the heat-treated monolayer coating presented better performance in comparison with a conventional monolayer of AlCrN coating.

  3. Study of PVD AlCrN Coating for Reducing Carbide Cutting Tool Deterioration in the Machining of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Natalia L.; Cue-Sampedro, Rodrigo; Siller, Héctor R.; Arizmendi-Morquecho, Ana M.; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I.; Di-Nardo, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The manufacture of medical and aerospace components made of titanium alloys and other difficult-to-cut materials requires the parallel development of high performance cutting tools coated with materials capable of enhanced tribological and resistance properties. In this matter, a thin nanocomposite film made out of AlCrN (aluminum–chromium–nitride) was studied in this research, showing experimental work in the deposition process and its characterization. A heat-treated monolayer coating, competitive with other coatings in the machining of titanium alloys, was analyzed. Different analysis and characterizations were performed on the manufactured coating by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the coating was evaluated through hardness test and tribology with pin-on-disk to quantify friction coefficient and wear rate. Finally, machinability tests using coated tungsten carbide cutting tools were executed in order to determine its performance through wear resistance, which is a key issue of cutting tools in high-end cutting at elevated temperatures. It was demonstrated that the specimen (with lower friction coefficient than previous research) is more efficient in machinability tests in Ti6Al4V alloys. Furthermore, the heat-treated monolayer coating presented better performance in comparison with a conventional monolayer of AlCrN coating. PMID:28809266

  4. Highly permeable and mechanically robust silicon carbide hollow fiber membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Patrick; Kappert, Emiel; Lohaus, T.; Wessling, Matthias; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) membranes have shown large potential for applications in water treatment. Being able to make these membranes in a hollow fiber geometry allows for higher surface-to-volume ratios. In this study, we present a thermal treatment procedure that is tuned to produce porous silicon

  5. stabilization of ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Laterite obtained from Ikpayongo was stabilized with 2-10 % cement and 2-10 % Calcium Carbide waste, for use as pavement material. Atterberg's limits test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural laterite and the treated soil specimens. The plasticity ...

  6. Erratum to: Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 39, No. 4, August 2016, p. 961. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12034-016-1267-y. Erratum to: Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by. HFCVD method. S H MORTAZAVI. ∗. , M GHORANNEVISS, M DADASHBABA and R ALIPOUR. Plasma Physics Research Center, ...

  7. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology,. Cochin University of Science and Technology. [32] Perez J M, Echeverria J M, Oliet M, Alonso M V and. Rodriguez F 2007 BioResources 2 270. [33] Janz S 2006 Amorphous silicon carbide for photovoltaic applications (Masters Thesis). Fakultät für Physik Universität.

  8. Erratum to: Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Erratum to: Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by HFCVD method. S H MORTAZAVI M GHORANNEVISS M DADASHBABA R ALIPOUR. Volume 39 Issue 4 August 2016 pp 961-961 ...

  9. On Measurement and Interpretation of Toughness Behaviour of Carbide Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, H.J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The actual significance of any definition of toughness behaviour of carbide tools depends on the existence of an interrelation between the quality as defined and the occurrence of chipping and premature failure in cutting. While at present there is no adequate analysis available and the existing

  10. Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by HFCVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by HFCVD ... Also Mountains Map Premium (64-bit version)software is used to investigate morphological features of samples. In this context, the analysis of the motifs, depth histograms, statistical ...

  11. Indentation fatigue in silicon nitride, alumina and silicon carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Repeated indentation fatigue (RIF) experiments conducted on the same spot of different structural ceramics viz. a hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN), sintered alumina of two different grain sizes viz. 1 m and 25 m, and a sintered silicon carbide (SSiC) are reported. The RIF experiments were conducted using a Vicker's ...

  12. Stabilization of Ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laterite obtained from Ikpayongo was stabilized with 2-10 % cement and 2-10 % Calcium Carbide waste, for use as pavement material. Atterberg's limits test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural laterite and the treated soil specimens. The plasticity ...

  13. RICE-HUSK ASH-CARBIDE-WASTE STABILIZATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present results of the laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of carbide waste and rice husk ash stabilized reclaimed asphalt pavement waste with a view to determine its suitability for use as flexible pavement material. The mixtures were subjected to British Standard heavy compactive effort to determine the ...

  14. Carbide-fluoride-silver self-lubricating composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material is described for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900 C in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  15. Carbide/fluoride/silver self-lubricating composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900.degree. C. in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  16. SEM investigation of minor constituents of carbide materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is revealed that the noble metals phases occur as separate microsized grains, most of which have been indicated as Au–Ag–Hg amalgam and rarely as Pt-rich compounds. The obtained data can be mainly used to advance technologies for manufacturing carbide-based composite materials from natural carbonaceous ...

  17. Sintering of nano crystalline o silicon carbide doping with

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sinterable silicon carbide powders were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type -SiC. Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of aluminium nitride together with carbon. Nearly 99% sintered density was obtained. The mechanism of sintering was studied by ...

  18. Protective infrared antireflection coating based on sputtered germanium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Des; Waddell, Ewan; Placido, Frank

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes optical, durablility and environmental performance of a germanium carbide based durable antireflection coating. The coating has been demonstrated on germanium and zinc selenide infra-red material however is applicable to other materials such as zinc sulphide. The material is deposited using a novel reactive closed field magnetron sputtering technique, offering significant advantages over conventional evaporation processes for germanium carbide such as plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The sputtering process is "cold", making it suitable for use on a wide range of substrates. Moreover, the drum format provide more efficient loading for high throughput production. The use of the closed field and unbalanced magnetrons creates a magnetic confinement that extends the electron mean free path leading to high ion current densities. The combination of high current densities with ion energies in the range ~30eV creates optimum thin film growth conditions. As a result the films are dense, spectrally stable, supersmooth and low stress. Films incorporate low hydrogen content resulting in minimal C-H absorption bands within critical infra-red passbands such as 3 to 5um and 8 to 12um. Tuning of germanium carbide (Ge(1-x)Cx) film refractive index from pure germanium (refractive index 4) to pure germanium carbide (refractive index 1.8) will be demonstrated. Use of film grading to achieve single and dual band anti-reflection performance will be shown. Environmental and durability levels are shown to be suitable for use in harsh external environments.

  19. Silicon Carbide and Magnetorresistive Technologies for Solid State Power Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigós A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make an introduction, review and preliminary investigation tasks of the application of Silicon Carbide (SiC power semiconductors and magnetoresistive (MR current sensors for Solid State Power Controllers (SSPCs and controlled switches, especially for high temperature environment and/or high voltage applications.

  20. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tribological performance, improving their strength, stiffness and abrasive properties. The best results were obtained for 1 wt% nSiC, proving that this value is the optimum nanometric silicon carbide content. The results indicate that these materials could be effectively used to obtain ablative or carbon–carbon composites in ...

  1. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  2. Synthesis of carbon fibre-reinforced, silicon carbide composites by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pyrolysis (PIP), liquid silicon infiltration (LSI), sol–gel, reaction hot-pressing, have been used for ... resin matrix and is then infiltrated with molten silicon (Krenkel 2001); but the presence of free silicon may act as a ... and (iv) finally carbothermal reduction of oxides to carbides/borides at 1873 and 1973 K for 3 h as shown by ...

  3. Heat-Resistance of the Powder Cobalt Alloys Reinforced by Niobium or Titanium Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepova, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of heat-resistance of powder cobalt alloys at 1100 °C were investigated. These alloys were developed for the protection of workers banding shelves GTE blades from wear. The alloys were prepared by hot pressing powders of cobalt, chromium, aluminum, iron and niobium or titanium carbides. The values of heat resistance alloys containing carbides between 30 and 70% (vol. depend on the type made of carbide alloys: alloys with titanium carbide superior in heat-resistant alloy of niobium carbide. The most significant factor affecting on the heat-resistant alloys, is porosity: with its increase the parameters decline regardless of the type and content of carbide. The optimum composition of powder heat resisting alloys of titanium carbide with a melting point above 1300 °C were determined for use in the aircraft engine.

  4. Formation mechanism of spheroidal carbide in ultra-low carbon ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-guo Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The formation mechanism of the spheroidal carbide in the ultra-low carbon ductile cast iron fabricated by the metal mold casting technique was systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that the spheroidal carbide belonged to eutectic carbide and crystallized in the isolated eutectic liquid phase area. The formation process of the spheroidal carbide was related to the contact and the intersection between the primary dendrite and the secondary dendrite of austenite. The oxides of magnesium, rare earths and other elements can act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the spheroidal carbide. It was also found that the amount of the spheroidal carbide would increase with an increase in carbon content. The cooling rate has an important influence on the spheroidal carbide under the same chemical composition condition.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization, and Enhanced Magnetic Properties of Iron Carbide Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent M.

    Permanent magnets are classified as hard magnetic materials with the main purpose of generating flux for applications such as electric motors, turbines, and hard drives. High coercivity, magnetic remanence, and saturation values with high stability are some of the requirements for permanent magnets. Rare-earth magnets including neodymium and samarium based magnets are known to have superior magnetic properties due to their high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. However, due to the price of rare-earth materials development of alternate permanent magnets composed of inexpensive materials is an ongoing process. Previously cobalt carbide (CoxC) have shown promise as a potential rare-earth free magnet alternative with magnetic properties comparable to that of hexaferrite materials. Unfortunately, CoxC magnets have a low magnetic saturation (50 emu g-1) which drastically lowers its energy product. Alternatively, iron carbide has a rather high bulk magnetization value of 140 emu g-1 and is composed of naturally abundant materials. The sole issue of iron carbide is that it is considered an intermediate magnet with properties between those of a hard and a soft magnetic material. The main focus of this work is the enhancement of the hard magnetic properties of iron carbide through size effect, shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange anisotropy. First a wet synthesis method was developed which utilized hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride to control particle size, shape, and crystal structure to manipulate the magnetic properties of iron carbide. With this method a semi-hard 50 nm orthorhombic Fe3C phase and a magnetically soft single crystal hexagonal Fe7C3 structure with texture-induced magnetic properties were developed. The properties for both materials were further enhanced through formation of exchange bias Fe3C/CoO nanoaggregates and spring exchange coupling of the ferromagnetically hard and soft phases of Fe7C3/SrFe 12O19. A 33% increase in coercivity

  6. Coarsening of carbides during different heat treatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaok21@126.com; He, Yanlin, E-mail: ylhe@staff.shu.edu.cn; Zhu, Naqiong; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaogang; Li, Lin

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides was quantitatively described in detail. • Cooling mode is a key factor to the simulation for the coarsening of carbides. • Coarsening of above spherical carbides can be calculated by Ostwald ripening model. • The interfacial energy between the γ matrix with M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides are 0.7 J/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: Coarsening of carbides in 1# Fe-5.96Cr-0.35C (wt.%) alloy and 2# Fe-0.5V-0.53C (wt.%) alloy during different heat treatment conditions was investigated by carbon replica, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM techniques. The equilibrium phases at 850 °C constitute of austenitic matrix (γ) + M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and austenite matrix (γ) + V{sub 4}C{sub 3} for 1# and 2# alloy respectively. Morphology of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides was mainly determined by cooling mode due to the different nucleation sites and growth mechanisms. Under directly aging condition, most carbides nucleate in the grain boundaries and grow into rod-shaped or flake-shaped particles by discontinuous growth mechanism. These particles turn out to be excluded during coarsening simulation using Oswald ripening model to give a more reasonable result. In addition, interfacial energy between M{sub 7}C{sub 3}/γ and V{sub 4}C{sub 3}/γ for the coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} during aging at 850 °C is evaluated by fitting experimental data using thermodynamic and kinetic calculations. The interfacial energy is determined to be 0.7 J/m{sup 2} for the coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} in austenitic matrix.

  7. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-07-19

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm{sup -2} at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced

  8. Dendrite growth within supercooled liquid tungsten and tungsten-tantalum isomorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Wang, W. L.; Yang, S. J.; Li, L. H.; Geng, D. L.; Wang, L.; Wei, B.

    2017-02-01

    The dendrite growth in both supercooled liquid pure W and binary W-Ta isomorphous alloys has been observed and measured by an electrostatic levitation technique. The liquid W and W-x%Ta (x = 25, 50, 75) alloys were substantially supercooled by up to 733 K (0.2 Tm) and 773 K (0.23TL), respectively. The measured density and the ratio of specific heat to emissivity displayed a linearly increasing tendency versus supercooling. The thermal dendrites in supercooled liquid tungsten achieved a maximum growing velocity of 41.3 m.s-1, and the concurrent recalescence process exhibited Johnson-Mehl-Avrami type kinetics. Liquid W-Ta alloys showed stronger supercoolability but a lower maximum dendrite growth velocity of only 35.2 m.s-1. The dendritic growth kinetics was always characterized by a power function relation to liquid supercooling. The microstructure of equiaxed grains transforms to the well-developed dendrites with the increase of supercooling. The grain refinement effect resulting from dendrite fragmentation took place in a moderate supercooling regime in rapidly solidified W-Ta alloys.

  9. Surface modification of tungsten and tungsten-tantalum alloys exposed to high-flux deuterium plasma and its impact on deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachuk, Y.; Hoen, M. H. J. 't; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Terentyev, D.; Uytdenhouwen, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of tungsten and tungsten-tantalum alloy (with 5 mass per cent of Ta) were exposed to high-flux deuterium plasma at different fluences. The surface modification was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and deuterium retention was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). In the

  10. Selective-area laser deposition (SALD) Joining of silicon carbide with silicon carbide filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Shay Llewellyn

    Selective Area Laser Deposition (SALD) is a gas-phase, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process that utilizes a laser-driven, pyrolytic gas reaction to form a desired solid product. This solid product only forms in the heated zone of the laser beam and thus can be selectively deposited by control of the laser position. SALD Joining employs the SALD method to accomplish 'welding' of ceramic structures together. The solid reaction product serves as a filler material to bond the two parts. The challenges involved with ceramic joining center around the lack of a liquid phase, little plastic deformation and diffusivity and poor surface wetting for many ceramic materials. Due to these properties, traditional metal welding procedures cannot be applied to ceramics. Most alternative ceramic welding techniques use some form of a metal addition to overcome these material limitations. However, the metal possesses a lower ultimate use temperature than the ceramic substrate and therefore it decreases the temperature range over which the joined part can be safely used. SALD Joining enjoys several advantages over these ceramic welding procedures. The solid filler material chemistry can be tailored to match the type of ceramic substrate and therefore fabricate monolithic joints. The SALD filler material bonds directly to the substrate and the joined structure is made in a one step process, without any post-processing. The research documented in this dissertation focused on SALD Joining of silicon carbide structures with silicon carbide filler material. A historical progression of gas-phase SFF research and a literature review of the most prominent ceramic joining techniques are provided. A variety of SiC substrates were examined, as were various conditions of gas precursor pressures and mixtures, laser beam scan speed and joint configuration. The SALD material was characterized for composition and structure by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic

  11. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, L.D.

    1982-03-25

    The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  12. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for characterizing neutron irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.N. Taylor; M. Shimada; D.W. Akers; M.W. Drigert; B.J. Merrill; Y. Hatano

    2013-05-01

    Tungsten samples (6 mm diameter, 0.2 mm thick) were irradiated to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa with neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Samples were then exposed to deuterium plasma in the tritium plasma experiment (TPE) at 100, 200 and 500ºC to a total fluence of 1 x 1026 m-2. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Doppler broadening positron annihilation spectroscopy (DB-PAS) were performed at various stages to characterize damage and retention. We present the first known results of neutron damaged tungsten characterized by DB-PAS in order to study defect concentration. Two positron sources, 22Na and 68Ge, probe ~58 µm and through the entire 200 µm thick samples, respectively. DB-PAS results reveal clear differences between the various irradiated samples. These results, and the calibration of DB-PAS to NRA data are presented.

  13. A comparison of interatomic potentials for modeling tungsten nanocluster structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jiannan; Shu, Xiaolin, E-mail: shuxlin@buaa.edu.cn; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Xuesong; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-02-15

    Molecular dynamic simulation is utilized to study the nanocluster and the fuzz structure on the PFM surface of tungsten. The polyhedral and linear cluster structures based on the icosahedron, cuboctahedron and rhombic dodecahedron are built up. Three interatomic potentials are used in calculating the relationship between the cluster energy and the number of atoms. The results are compared with first-principles calculation to show each potential’s best application scale. Furthermore, the transition between the icosahedral and the cuboctahedral clusters is observed in molecular dynamic simulation at different temperatures, which follows a critical curve for different numbers of atoms. The linear structures are proved to be stable at experimental temperatures by thermodynamics. The work presents a selection of interatomic potentials in simulating tungsten cluster systems and helps researchers understand the growth and evolution laws of clusters and the fuzz-like structure formation process in fusion devices.

  14. Terminal tungsten pnictide complex formation through pnictaethynolate decarbonylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Maximilian; Transue, Wesley J; Cummins, Christopher C

    2017-09-26

    Tungsten(iv) tetrakis(2,6-diisopropylphenoxide) (1) has been demonstrated to be a competent platform for decarbonylative formation of anionic terminal pnictide complexes upon treatment with pnictaethynolate anions: cyanate, 2-phosphaethynolate, and 2-arsaethynolate. These transformations constitute the first examples of terminal phosphide and arsenide complex formation at a transition metal center from OCP- and OCAs-, respectively. The phosphide and arsenide complexes are also the first to be isolated in a tetragonal, all-oxygen ligand environment. The scalar NMR coupling constants between tungsten-183 and nitrogen-15 or phosphorus-31 have been measured and contextualized using natural bond orbital (NBO) methods in terms of s orbital character in the σ bonding orbital and pnictide lone pair.

  15. Field electron emission from dense array of microneedles of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, F.; Aoyagi, M.; Kitai, T.; Ishikawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    Characteristics of field electron emission from the dense array of microneedles of tungsten prepared on a 10-..mu..m tungsten filament were measured at an environmental pressure of approx.1 x 10/sup -8/ Torr (1.33 x 10/sup -6/ Pa). Electron emission was not uniform over the filament surface, but the variation of emission current with applied voltage explicitly obeyed the Fowler-Nordheim relationship. At an emission current of approx.10/sup -4/ A, a vacuum arc was induced that led to a permanent change in current-voltage characteristic. Current fluctuation was dependent on emitter temperature and applied voltage, and the lowest fluctuation of about 4% was routinely obtained at approx.550 K and at applied voltages several percent lower than the arc-inducing voltage. Macroscopic current density amounted to approx.20-80 mA/cm/sup 2/ at the best stability.

  16. Interaction of hydrogen plasma with carbon-tungsten composite layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, Alenka, E-mail: alenka.vesel@guest.arnes.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mozetic, Miran; Panjan, Peter [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hauptman,; Klanjsek-Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Balat-Pichelin, Marianne [CNRS-PROMES, Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux and Energie Solaire, UPR 8521, 7 rue du four solaire, F-66120 Font Romeu, Odeillo (France)

    2011-04-15

    Interaction of neutral hydrogen atoms with the layer of hydrogenated carbon-tungsten composite was studied. A 1 {mu}m thick layer was prepared by sputter deposition from C and WC-targets in Ar/C{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas mixture. After deposition the samples were treated in weakly ionized highly dissociated hydrogen plasma created in a microwave discharge at a power of 1 kW. The gas flow was 13 l/h and pressure was 90 Pa. Temperature of the samples during treatment was about 850 K. After plasma treatment the samples were analyzed by AES (Auger electron spectroscopy) depth profiling, XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). It was found that during hydrogen plasma treatment selective etching of the C-W layer occurred. Carbon was preferentially removed from the C-W layer, and after about 10 min of treatment practically only tungsten with a huge porosity was detected.

  17. STATUS OF HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR IRRADIATION OF SILICON CARBIDE/SILICON CARBIDE JOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Koyanagi, Takaaki [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Cetiner, Nesrin [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel [ORNL

    2014-09-01

    Development of silicon carbide (SiC) joints that retain adequate structural and functional properties in the anticipated service conditions is a critical milestone toward establishment of advanced SiC composite technology for the accident-tolerant light water reactor (LWR) fuels and core structures. Neutron irradiation is among the most critical factors that define the harsh service condition of LWR fuel during the normal operation. The overarching goal of the present joining and irradiation studies is to establish technologies for joining SiC-based materials for use as the LWR fuel cladding. The purpose of this work is to fabricate SiC joint specimens, characterize those joints in an unirradiated condition, and prepare rabbit capsules for neutron irradiation study on the fabricated specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Torsional shear test specimens of chemically vapor-deposited SiC were prepared by seven different joining methods either at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or by industrial partners. The joint test specimens were characterized for shear strength and microstructures in an unirradiated condition. Rabbit irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated for neutron irradiation of these joint specimens at an LWR-relevant temperature. These rabbit capsules, already started irradiation in HFIR, are scheduled to complete irradiation to an LWR-relevant dose level in early 2015.

  18. Refining waste hardmetals into tungsten oxide nanosheets via facile method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhifei; Zheng, Guangwei; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Li, Hongyi, E-mail: lhy06@bjut.edu.cn; Wu, Junshu; Du, Yucheng [Beijing University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-04-15

    A new hydrothermal system has been designed to recycle waste WC–Co hardmetal with low cobalt (Co) content (3 %). In the solution system, nitric acid was designed to dissolve Co, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} served as oxidant to accelerate the oxidation of the WC–Co hardmetals, and fluorine (F{sup −}) was designed to dissolve and recrystallize generated tungsten oxides, which were found to possess a layered structure using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained tungsten oxides were identified as WO{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O by X-ray diffraction and their specific surface area was measured as 89.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} via N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption techniques. The present layered structure tungsten oxides exhibited a promising capability for removing lead ion (Pb{sup 2+}) and organic species, such as methyl blue. The adsorption model was found to be in agreement with Langmuir isotherm model. Given the facile synthesis procedure and promising properties of final products, this new approach should have great potential for refining some other waste hardmetals or tungsten products.Graphical AbstractA new hydrothermal system was designed to recycle waste hardmetal with low cobalt content. Through this method, waste hardmetal was refined into WO{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O nanosheets which shows excellent adsorption capacities toward methylene blue and lead ion (Pb{sup 2+}).

  19. Erosion of nanostructured tungsten by laser ablation, sputtering and arcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogyun Hwangbo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of nanostructured tungsten, which was formed by helium plasma irradiation, due to laser ablation, sputtering, and arcing was investigated. Below the helium sputtering energy threshold (200eV. Reduction in sputtering on nanostructured surface was observed. Arcing was initiated using laser pulses, and the erosion rate by arcing was measured. The erosion rate increased with arc current, while the erosion per Coulomb was not affected by arc current.

  20. Rhenium, Molybdenum, Tungsten - Prospects for Production and Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-18

    production E .A .Pirm atov ..................................................... 93 Use of surface-active agents in hydrometallurgy of tungsen E.A.Pirmatov...products to be ensured by using state-of- the-art technologies, such as ion-exchange processes in hydrometallurgy , plasma chemical processes in powder...the use as complex fertilizer enriched in microelements. USE OF SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS IN HYDROMETALLURGY OF TUNGSTEN E.A. Pirmatov, B.D.Dyusebekov

  1. Tungsten quasispherical wire loads with a profiled mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V., E-mail: jvv88@triniti.ru; Oleinik, G. M.; Rodionov, R. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Wire arrays made from micrometer tungsten wires with linear mass profiled along their height are developed for experiments on the generation of X-ray radiation upon pinch compression with a current of ∼3 MA at a pulse duration of ∼100 ns. Wires are imaged with a scanning electron microscope, and their diameter is determined. It is shown that the arrays have such a profile of height distribution of linear mass that allows for compact spherical compression upon current implosion.

  2. Mechanical recrystallization of ultra-strength tungsten nanoneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilova, T. I.; Ksenofontov, V. A.; Voyevodin, V. N.; Sadanov, E. V.; Mikhailovskij, I. M.

    2011-04-01

    We present field-ion microscopy observation and crystallographic analysis which shows that plastic deformation mode in the tungsten nanotip in the field of high mechanical stresses occur by combining formations of strain localization bands and crystal lattice reorientations. Nanomechanical tensile tests in situ at about 15 GPa have revealed the large-angle reorientations of grains corresponding to the coincident site lattice with Σ = 33, which can be regarded as a result of reactions between lattice dislocations.

  3. Microstructure and Impurity Effects on Tungsten Heavy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-12

    UNCJ.AWSSIFIED MASTER COPY & - FOR REPRODUCTION PURPOSES SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE garn CoPY la. REPORT SECURITY...7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) Troy , NY 12180-3590 P. 0. Box 12211 -- Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ba. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING... Troy , New York 12180-3590 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED R. M. German 2 Microstructure and Impurity Effects on Tungsten Heavy Alloys

  4. Precipitation and Evolution Behavior of Carbide During Heat Treatments of GCr15 Bearing Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Chao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution behavior of carbides in GCr15 bearing steels after spheroidization annealing, austenitization quenching and low temperature tempering was investigated by the method of quantitative metallography. Numerical simulations on the dissolution kinetics of carbide size and composition during austenitization were performed by ThermoCalc software. The results indicate that the carbide particles formed after spheroidization annealing have a multimodal distribution whilst their size distribution changes to have a single peak after austenitization and tempering, and Cr content increases slightly after austenitization; the carbide particles appear to have larger size with higher Cr content; C rich austenite is formed during austenitization through solid solution by carbides after spheroidization annealing, and then high carbon martensite is formed after quenching and results in the high hardness; Cr atoms can partition from austenite to carbide during the dissolution of carbide, lead to the increasing Cr content of rest carbide particles; the numerical simulations indicate that the carbide particles with the diameter of 200nm cannot completely be dissolved during austenitization even if its Cr content is close to the nominal Cr content of steel, and the undissolved ones may affect the precipitation of carbides during the subsequent tempering.

  5. Analysis of surface morphological change in PET films induced by tungsten ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, G., E-mail: guzhou@bnu.edu.c [Analysis and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, R.; Zhang, T.H. [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Surface morphological changes and metal nanograin formation of polyethylene terephthalate films with tungsten ion implantation were studied. Tungsten ions were accelerated with a voltage of 40 kV and implanted at fluences from 5 x 10{sup 16} to 2 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} using a metal vapor vacuum arc implanter. Scanning electron micrographs at the highest fluence show semi-spherical hills, indicating formation of tungsten nanograins on the polymer. The tungsten nanograin formation in the polymer film is confirmed by cross-sectional observation using transmission electron microscopy. Depth profiles of tungsten atoms obtained from energy dispersive X-ray spectra indicate densification and sputtering of the polymer surface layer during implantation. These results indicate that surface morphological change is related with the effects of a critical fluence and tungsten nanograin formation.

  6. Development and Processing of Nickel Aluminide-Carbide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Timothy Scott

    1996-01-01

    With the upper temperature limit of the Ni-based superalloys attained, a new class of materials is required. Intermetallics appear as likely candidates because of their attractive physical properties. With a relatively low density, high thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance, high melting point, and simple crystal structure, nickel aluminide (NiAl) appears to be a potential candidate. However, NiAl is limited in structural applications due to its low room temperature fracture toughness and poor elevated temperature strength. One approach to improving these properties has been through the application of eutectic composites. Researchers have shown that containerless directional solidification of NiAl-based eutectic alloys can provide improvement in both the creep strength and fracture toughness. Although these systems have shown improvements in the mechanical properties, the presence of refractory metals increases the density significantly in some alloys. Lower density systems, such as the carbides, nitrides, and borides, may provide NiAl-based eutectic structure. With little or no information available on these systems, experimental investigation is required. The objective of this research was to locate and develop NiAl-carbide eutectic alloys. Exploratory arc-melts were performed in NiAl-refractory metal-C systems. Refractory metal systems investigated included Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr. Systems containing carbides with excellent stability (i.e.,HfC, NbC, TaC, TiC, and ZrC) produced large blocky cubic carbides in an NiAl matrix. The carbides appeared to have formed in the liquid state and were randomly distributed throughout the polycrystalline NiAl. The Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and W systems contained NiAl dendrites with a two-phase interdendritic microconstituent present. Of these systems, the NiAl-Mo-C system had the most promising microstructure for in-situ composites. Three processing techniques were used to evaluate the NiAl-Mo-C system

  7. Novel fabrication of silicon carbide based ceramics for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar

    Advances in nuclear reactor technology and the use of gas-cooled fast reactors require the development of new materials that can operate at the higher temperatures expected in these systems. These materials include refractory alloys based on Nb, Zr, Ta, Mo, W, and Re; ceramics and composites such as SiC--SiCf; carbon--carbon composites; and advanced coatings. Besides the ability to handle higher expected temperatures, effective heat transfer between reactor components is necessary for improved efficiency. Improving thermal conductivity of the fuel can lower the center-line temperature and, thereby, enhance power production capabilities and reduce the risk of premature fuel pellet failure. Crystalline silicon carbide has superior characteristics as a structural material from the viewpoint of its thermal and mechanical properties, thermal shock resistance, chemical stability, and low radioactivation. Therefore, there have been many efforts to develop SiC based composites in various forms for use in advanced energy systems. In recent years, with the development of high yield preceramic precursors, the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method has aroused interest for the fabrication of ceramic based materials, for various applications ranging from disc brakes to nuclear reactor fuels. The pyrolysis of preceramic polymers allow new types of ceramic materials to be processed at relatively low temperatures. The raw materials are element-organic polymers whose composition and architecture can be tailored and varied. The primary focus of this study is to use a pyrolysis based process to fabricate a host of novel silicon carbide-metal carbide or oxide composites, and to synthesize new materials based on mixed-metal silicocarbides that cannot be processed using conventional techniques. Allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS), which is an organometal polymer, was used as the precursor for silicon carbide. Inert gas pyrolysis of AHPCS produces near-stoichiometric amorphous

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and structure of reduced tungsten chalcogenide cluster complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaobing, Xie [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-17

    Over the previous twenty years, ternary molybdenum chalcogenides of the general formula MxMo6Y8 (M = ternary metal cation; Y = chalcogenide), known as Chevrel phases, have been extensively studied. Many of these compounds have been found to have superconductivity, catalytic activity and ionic conductivity. The rich chemistry of the Chevrel phases raises considerable interest in finding the tungsten analogues of these phases. However, no such analogue has ever been synthesized, although the Chevrel phases are usually prepared directly from elements at high temperatures above 1000{degrees}C. The absence of the tungsten analogues may be caused by their thermodynamic instability at such high temperatures. Thus it might be necessary to avoid high-temperature synthetic procedures in order to establish the ternary and binary tungsten chalcogenides. A major focus of the McCarley research group has been on the preparation of M6Y8L6 (M = Mo, W; Y = S, Se, Te) cluster complexes as low temperature pathways to the Chevrel phases.

  9. Experimental study of cyclic action of plasma on tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. V.; Aleksandrov, A. E.; Ber, B. Ya.; Brunkov, P. N.; Bormatov, A. A.; Gusev, V. K.; Demina, E. V.; Novokhatskii, A. N.; Pavlov, S. I.; Prusakova, M. D.; Sotnikova, G. Yu.; Yagovkina, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    We report on experimental results on multiple action of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium plasmas produced by a plasma gun and the Globus-M tokamak on tungsten. The surface temperature in the course of irradiation is measured with a bichromatic pyrometer with a time resolution of ⩾1 μs. The morphology of the surface layer is investigated and X-ray structure analysis of tungsten exposed to multiple radiations by the plasma under various conditions is carried out. A slight decrease in the lattice parameter in the sample subjected to the maximal number of irradiation cycles is detected. It is shown that the morphology of the tungsten surface irradiated by the hydrogen plasma from the gun and by the deuterium plasma from the Globus-M tokamak changes (the structure becomes smoother). The characteristic depth of the layer in which impurities have been accumulated exceeds 0.5 μm. This depth was the largest for the sample exposed to 1000 shots from the gun and 2370 shots from the tokamak. It is shown that the helium jet from the plasma gun makes it possible to simulate the action of helium ions on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) diverter, producing a layer of submicrometer particles (bubbles).

  10. Photoionization of the valence shells of the neutral tungsten atom

    CERN Document Server

    Ballance, Connor P

    2015-01-01

    Results from large-scale theoretical cross section calculations for the total photoionization of the 4f, 5s, 5p and 6s orbitals of the neutral tungsten atom using the Dirac Coulomb R-matrix approximation (DARC: Dirac-Atomic R-matrix codes) are presented. Comparisons are made with previous theoretical methods and prior experimental measurements. In previous experiments a time-resolved dual laser approach was employed for the photo-absorption of metal vapours and photo-absorption measurements on tungsten in a solid, using synchrotron radiation. The lowest ground state level of neutral tungsten is $\\rm 5p^6 5d^4 6s^2 \\; {^5}D_{\\it J}$, with $\\it J$=0, and requires only a single dipole matrix for photoionization. To make a meaningful comparison with existing experimental measurements, we statistically average the large-scale theoretical PI cross sections from the levels associated with the ground state $\\rm 5p^6 5d^4 6s^2 \\; {^5}D_{\\it J}[{\\it J}=0,1,2,3,4]$ levels and the $\\rm 5d^56s \\; ^7S_3$ excited metastable...

  11. Extraction Factor Of Pure Ammonium Paratungstate From Tungsten Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical oxidation process of tungsten scraps was modified by the rotary kiln with oxygen burner to increase the oxidation rate of tungsten scraps. Also to accelerate the solubility of solid oxidized products, the hydrothermal reflux method was adapted. By heating tungsten scraps in rotary kiln with oxygen burner at around 900° for 2hrs, the scraps was oxidized completely. Then oxidized products (WO3 and CoWO4 was fully dissolved in the solution of NaOH by hydrothermal reflux method at 150° for 2hrs. The dissolution rate of oxidized products was increased with increasing the reaction temperature and concentration of NaOH. And then CaWO4 and H2WO4 could be generated from the aqueous sodium tungstate solution. Ammonium paratungstate (APT also could be produced from tungstic acid using by aqueous ammonium solution. The morphologies (cubic and plate types of APT was controlled by the stirring process of purified solution of ammonium paratungstate.

  12. Gas-driven hydrogen permeation through tungsten-coated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubeva, A.V., E-mail: anna-golubeva@yandex.ru [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Ac. Kurchatov sq., 1/1, Moscow RU-123182 (Russian Federation); Spitsyn, A.V., E-mail: spitsyn@nfi.kiae.ru [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Ac. Kurchatov sq., 1/1, Moscow RU-123182 (Russian Federation); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cherkez, D.I. [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Ac. Kurchatov sq., 1/1, Moscow RU-123182 (Russian Federation); Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Koch, F.; Lindig, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Skovoroda, A.A. [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Ac. Kurchatov sq., 1/1, Moscow RU-123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-01

    Hydrogen gas-driven permeation through graphite coated with different types of tungsten coatings with thicknesses up to 200 {mu}m has been investigated. The substrate material was fine-grain graphite R5710 and R6710, which properties with respect to hydrogen transport are well known . Magnetron-sputtered W coatings of thicknesses 1 and 3 {mu}m and two coatings of ASDEX Upgrade were investigated: A 3 {mu}m thick layer of tungsten deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD-W) and 200 {mu}m thick layers of tungsten deposited by plasma-spaying in vacuum (VPS-W). The gas-driven permeation was investigated at a pressure gradient of 10{sup -2}-150 Pa. The gas-driven permeation occurs through the carbon base-materials by hydrogen molecular gas flow through the internal porosity network rather than hydrogen atom diffusion through the graphite lattice. It was found that W coatings with thicknesses up to 3 {mu}m are transparent for hydrogen gas penetration and do not influence the permeability of coated fine-grain graphite, because the open porosity system of graphite remains open. Even a 200 {mu}m thick layer of VPS-W has an open system of connected pores, which connects the front and rear surfaces of the deposited layer.

  13. SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. DENNIS NAGLE; DR. DAJIE ZHANG

    2009-03-26

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials are prime candidates for high temperature heat exchangers for next generation nuclear reactors due to their refractory nature and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. This research has focused on demonstrating the potential of liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) for making SiC to achieve this goal. The major advantage of this method over other ceramic processing techniques is the enhanced capability of making high dense, high purity SiC materials in complex net shapes. For successful formation of net shape SiC using LSI techniques, the carbon preform reactivity and pore structure must be controlled to allow the complete infiltration of the porous carbon structure which allows complete conversion of the carbon to SiC. We have established a procedure for achieving desirable carbon properties by using carbon precursors consisting of two readily available high purity organic materials, crystalline cellulose and phenolic resin. Phenolic resin yields a glassy carbon with low chemical reactivity and porosity while the cellulose carbon is highly reactive and porous. By adjusting the ratio of these two materials in the precursor mixtures, the properties of the carbons produced can be controlled. We have identified the most favorable carbon precursor composition to be a cellulose resin mass ratio of 6:4 for LSI formation of SiC. The optimum reaction conditions are a temperature of 1800 C, a pressure of 0.5 Torr of argon, and a time of 120 minutes. The fully dense net shape SiC material produced has a density of 2.96 g cm{sup -3} (about 92% of pure SiC) and a SiC volume fraction of over 0.82. Kinetics of the LSI SiC formation process was studied by optical microscopy and quantitative digital image analysis. This study identified six reaction stages and provided important understanding of the process. Although the thermal conductivity of pure SiC at elevated temperatures is very high, thermal conductivities of most commercial Si

  14. An update to the toxicological profile for water-soluble and sparingly soluble tungsten substances

    OpenAIRE

    Lemus, Ranulfo; Carmen F. Venezia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tungsten is a relatively rare metal with numerous applications, most notably in machine tools, catalysts, and superalloys. In 2003, tungsten was nominated for study under the National Toxicology Program, and in 2011, it was nominated for human health assessment under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System. In 2005, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) issued a toxicological profile for tungsten, identifying several da...

  15. Mapping the Global Flow of Tungsten to Identify Key Material Efficiency and Supply Security Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Ayala, David R.; Allwood, Julian M.; Petavratzi, Evi; Brown, Teresa J; Gunn, Gus

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten is an economically important metal with diverse applications ranging from wear resistant cutting tools to its use in specialized steels and alloys. Concerns about its supply security have been raised by various studies in literature, mostly due to trade disputes arising from supply concentration and exports restrictions in China and its lack of viable substitutes. Although tungsten material flows have been analysed for specific regions, a global mass flow analysis of tungsten is stil...

  16. Predicting the performance of tungsten in a fusion environment: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Abernethy, RG

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten has been proposed for use in the divertor of future fusion devices. In this environment, it will be exposed to high heat fluxes, neutron damage and hydrogen and helium implantation. This review covers previous experimental and modelling work to establish our ability to predict the performance of tungsten in a fusion environment. Surrogates for high-energy neutrons have been used to predict the change in mechanical properties of tungsten, including fission neutron and self-ion exposur...

  17. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J., E-mail: n.hodges@bham.ac.uk

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  18. Electrodeposition mechanism and corrosion behavior of multilayer nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allahyarzadeh, M.H.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour

    2017-01-01

    Multilayer nickel-tungsten coatings were deposited on carbon steel using the pulse reverse current technique. Nickel-tungsten layered structure coatings were developed using the continuous and alternative variation of pulse duty cycle at two specific and fixed values. In these coatings, the multi......Multilayer nickel-tungsten coatings were deposited on carbon steel using the pulse reverse current technique. Nickel-tungsten layered structure coatings were developed using the continuous and alternative variation of pulse duty cycle at two specific and fixed values. In these coatings...

  19. Direct Growth of Crystalline Tungsten Oxide Nanorod Arrays by a Hydrothermal Process and Their Electrochromic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Hao; Hon, Min Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Transparent crystalline tungsten oxide nanorod arrays for use as an electrochromic layer have been directly prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass via a facile tungsten film-assisted hydrothermal process using aqueous tungsten hexachloride solution. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the phase and morphology of the grown nanostructures. Arrays of tungsten oxide nanorods with diameter of ˜22 nm and length of ˜240 nm were obtained at 200°C after 8 h of hydrothermal reaction. We propose a growth mechanism for the deposition of the monoclinic tungsten oxide phase in the hydrothermal environment. The tungsten film was first oxidized to tungsten oxide to provide seed sites for crystal growth and address the poor connection between the growing tungsten oxide and substrate. Aligned tungsten oxide nanorod arrays can be grown by a W thin film-assisted heterogeneous nucleation process with NaCl as a structure-directing agent. The fabricated electrochromic device demonstrated optical modulation (coloration/bleaching) at 632.8 nm of ˜41.2% after applying a low voltage of 0.1 V for 10 s, indicating the potential of such nanorod array films for use in energy-saving smart windows.

  20. Preparation of size-controlled tungsten oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of their adsorption performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidayat, Darmawan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Wang, Wei-Ning [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Okuyama, Kikuo, E-mail: okuyama@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The present study investigated the effects of particle size on the adsorption performance of tungsten oxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticles 18-73 nm in diameter were prepared by evaporation of bulk tungsten oxide particles using a flame spray process. Annealing plasma-made tungsten oxide nanoparticles produced particles with diameters of 7-19 nm. The mechanism of nanoparticle formation for each synthetic route was examined. The low-cost, solid-fed flame process readily produced highly crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles with controllable size and a remarkably high adsorption capability. These nanoparticles are comparable to those prepared using the more expensive plasma process.

  1. Ion beam analysis of tungsten layers in EUROFER model systems and carbon plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, Petter; Petersson, Per; Rubel, Marek; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Kreter, Arkadi; Unterberg, Bernhard; Sergienko, Gennady; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    The tungsten enriched surface layers in two fusion-relevant EUROFER steel model samples, consisting of an iron-tungsten mixture exposed to sputtering by deuterium ions, were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and medium energy ion scattering. Exposure conditions were the same for the two samples and the total amount of tungsten atoms per unit area in the enriched layers were similar (2 · 1015 and 2.4 · 1015 atoms/cm2 respectively), despite slightly different initial atomic compositions. A depth profile featuring exponential decrease in tungsten content towards higher depths with 10-20 at.% of tungsten at the surface and a decay constant between 0.05 and 0.08 Å-1 was indicated in one sample, whereas only the total areal density of tungsten atoms was measured in the other. In addition, two different beams, iodine and chlorine, were employed for elastic recoil detection analysis of the deposited layer on a polished graphite plate from a test limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak following experiments with tungsten hexafluoride injection. The chlorine beam was preferred for tungsten analysis, mainly because it (as opposed to the iodine beam) does not give rise to problems with overlap of forward scattered beam particles and recoiled tungsten in the spectrum.

  2. Solution and diffusion of hydrogen isotopes in tungsten-rhenium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Yin, Wen; Yu, Quanzhi; Jia, Xuejun; Zhao, Zongfang; Wang, Baotian

    2017-08-01

    Rhenium is one of the main transmutation elements forming in tungsten under neutron irradiation. Therefore, it is essential to understand the influence of rhenium impurity on hydrogen isotopes retention in tungsten. First-principle calculations were used to study the properties of hydrogen solution and diffusion in perfect tungsten-rhenium lattice. The interstitial hydrogen still prefers the tetrahedral site in presence of rhenium, and rhenium atom cannot act directly as a trapping site of hydrogen. The presence of rhenium in tungsten raises the solution energy and the real normal modes of vibration on the ground state and the transition state, compared to hydrogen in pure tungsten. Without zero point energy corrections, the presence of rhenium decreases slightly the migration barrier. It is found that although the solution energy would tend to increase slightly with the rising of the concentration of rhenium, but which does not influence noticeably the solution energy of hydrogen in tungsten-rhenium alloy. The solubility and diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in perfect tungsten and tungsten-rhenium alloy have been estimated, according to Sievert's law and harmonic transition state theory. The results show the solubility of hydrogen in tungsten agrees well the experimental data, and the presence of Re would decrease the solubility and increase the diffusivity for the perfect crystals.

  3. Determination of thorium in plutonium-thorium oxides and carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    Thorium is determined in (PuTh)C and (PuTh)O/sub 2/ by complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) following separation on anion-exchange resin. Carbides are first oxidized by ignition in air at about 800/sup 0/C. Oxide or oxidized carbide samples are dissolved in acids by the sealed-reflux technique or by heating in beakers. The plutonium is selectively sorbed from the 12M hydrochloric acid solution of the fuel on a Bio-Rad AG1-X2 anion-exchange resin column, and the eluted thorium is titrated with EDTA using xylenol orange as the indicator. The average recovery of thorium in 20 samples is 99.98% with a relative standard deviation of 0.07%.

  4. PREPARATION OF TANTALUM CARBIDE FROM AN ORGANOMETALLIC PRECURSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUZA C. P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have synthesized an organometallic oxalic precursor from tantalum oxide. This oxide was solubilized by heating with potassium hydrogen sulfate. In order to precipitate Ta2O5.nH2O, the fused mass obtained was dissolved in a sulfuric acid solution and neutralized with ammonia. The hydrated tantalum oxide precipitated was dissolved in an equimolar solution of oxalic acid/ammonium oxalate. The synthesis and the characterization of the tantalum oxalic precursor are described. Pyrolysis of the complex in a mixture of hydrogen and methane at atmospheric pressure was studied. The gas-solid reaction made it possible to obtain tantalum carbide, TaC, in the powder form at 1000oC. The natural sintering of TaC powder in an inert atmosphere at 1400°C during 10 hours, under inert atmosphere made it possible to densify the carbide to 96% of the theoretical value.

  5. Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Irvine, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Dongping; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The first observation is reported of the electrooptic effect of cubic silicon carbide (beta-SiC) grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using the hydrogen, silane, and propane gas system. At a wavelength of 633 nm, the value of the electrooptic coefficient r41 in beta-SiC is determined to be 2.7 +/- 0.5 x 10 (exp-12) m/V, which is 1.7 times larger than that in gallium arsenide measured at 10.6 microns. Also, a half-wave voltage of 6.4 kV for beta-SiC is obtained. Because of this favorable value of electrooptic coefficient, it is believed that silicon carbide may be a promising candidate in electrooptic applications for high optical intensity in the visible region.

  6. Scalable Quantum Photonics with Single Color Centers in Silicon Carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulaski, Marina; Widmann, Matthias; Niethammer, Matthias; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzén, Erik; Ohshima, Takeshi; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Vučković, Jelena

    2017-03-08

    Silicon carbide is a promising platform for single photon sources, quantum bits (qubits), and nanoscale sensors based on individual color centers. Toward this goal, we develop a scalable array of nanopillars incorporating single silicon vacancy centers in 4H-SiC, readily available for efficient interfacing with free-space objective and lensed-fibers. A commercially obtained substrate is irradiated with 2 MeV electron beams to create vacancies. Subsequent lithographic process forms 800 nm tall nanopillars with 400-1400 nm diameters. We obtain high collection efficiency of up to 22 kcounts/s optical saturation rates from a single silicon vacancy center while preserving the single photon emission and the optically induced electron-spin polarization properties. Our study demonstrates silicon carbide as a readily available platform for scalable quantum photonics architecture relying on single photon sources and qubits.

  7. Functionalization and cellular uptake of boron carbide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Björkdahl, O.; Sørensen, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present surface modification strategies of boron carbide nanoparticles, which allow for bioconjugation of the transacting transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and fluorescent dyes. Coated nanoparticles can be translocated into murine EL4 thymoma cells and B16 F10 malignant...... melanoma cells in amounts as high as 0.3 wt. % and 1 wt. %, respectively. Neutron irradiation of a test system consisting of untreated B16 cells mixed with B16 cells loaded with boron carbide nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferative capacity of untreated cells, showing that cells loaded...... with boron-containing nanoparticles can hinder the growth of neighboring cells upon neutron irradiation. This could provide the first step toward a T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy....

  8. Scalable Quantum Photonics with Single Color Centers in Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulaski, Marina; Widmann, Matthias; Niethammer, Matthias; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzén, Erik; Ohshima, Takeshi; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Vučković, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Silicon carbide is a promising platform for single photon sources, quantum bits (qubits) and nanoscale sensors based on individual color centers. Towards this goal, we develop a scalable array of nanopillars incorporating single silicon vacancy centers in 4H-SiC, readily available for efficient interfacing with free-space objective and lensed-fibers. A commercially obtained substrate is irradiated with 2 MeV electron beams to create vacancies. Subsequent lithographic process forms 800 nm tall nanopillars with 400-1,400 nm diameters. We obtain high collection efficiency, up to 22 kcounts/s optical saturation rates from a single silicon vacancy center, while preserving the single photon emission and the optically induced electron-spin polarization properties. Our study demonstrates silicon carbide as a readily available platform for scalable quantum photonics architecture relying on single photon sources and qubits.

  9. Alternative catalytic materials: carbides, nitrides, phosphides and amorphous boron alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Anne-Marie; Hargreaves, Justin S J

    2010-11-01

    Catalysts generated by the addition of carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus to transition metals have interesting properties and potential applications. The addition of carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus can lead to substantial modification of the catalytic efficacy of the parent metal and some carbides and nitrides are claimed to be comparable to noble metals in their behaviour. Amorphous boron transition metal alloys are also a class of interesting catalyst, although their structures and phase composition are more difficult to define. In this critical review, the preparation of these catalysts is described and brief details of their application given. To date, attention has largely centred upon the application of these materials as alternatives for existing catalysts. However, novel approaches towards their utilisation can be envisaged. For example, the extent to which it is possible to utilise the "activated" carbon and nitrogen species within the host lattices of carbides and nitrides, respectively, as a reactant remains largely unexplored (195 references).

  10. Anodic etching of p-type cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G. L.; Fekade, K.; Wongchotigul, K.

    1992-01-01

    p-Type cubic silicon carbide was anodically etched using an electrolyte of HF:HCl:H2O. The etching depth was determined versus time with a fixed current density of 96.4 mA/sq cm. It was found that the etching was very smooth and very uniform. An etch rate of 22.7 nm/s was obtained in a 1:1:50 HF:HCl:H2O electrolyte.

  11. Silicon Carbide as a Material for Biomedical Microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Zorman, Ch.,

    2009-01-01

    ISBN: 978-2-35500-009-6; Silicon Carbide (SiC) is emerging as an enabling material for biomedical microsystems due to its uniquecombination of electrical, mechanical and chemical properties combined with its compatibility with Simicromachining techniques. This paper presents an overview of the latest advancements in this areaincluding on-going research to develop SiC for biosensing, bio-microdevice packaging, bio-filtering,biomedical imaging and other related biomedical applications.

  12. Method of making carbide/fluoride/silver composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor); Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A composition containing 30 to 70 percent chromium carbide, 5 to 20 percent soft noble metal, 5 to 20 percent metal fluorides, and 20 to 60 percent metal binder is used in a powdered metallurgy process for the production of self-lubricating components, such as bearings. The use of the material allows the self-lubricating bearing to maintain its low friction properties over an extended range of operating temperatures.

  13. Progress in Studies on Carbon and Silicon Carbide Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide nanofiber and carbon nanotubes are introduced. The structure and application of nanotubers (nanofibers in carbon/carbon composites are emphatically presented. Due to the unique structure of nanotubers (nanofibers, they can modify the microstructure of pyrocarbon and induce the deposition of pyrocarbon with high text in carbon/carbon composites. So the carbon/carbon composites modified by CNT/CNF have more excellent properties.

  14. Catalytic Conversion of Syngas into Higher Alcohols over Carbide Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the use of the bulk carbides Mo2C, WC, and NbC as catalysts for the conversion of syngas into higher alcohols. K2CO3/WC produces mainly CH3OH and CH4 with a low activity. NbC has a very low activity in CO hydrogenation. K2CO3/Mo2C produces mixed alcohols with a reasonable...

  15. Epitaxial Growth of Silicon Carbide by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ishwara B.

    The properties of silicon carbide materials are first reviewed, with special emphasis on properties related to power device applications. Epitaxial growth methods for SiC are then discussed with emphasis on recent results for epitaxial growth by the hot-wall chemical vapor deposition method. The growth mechanism for maintaining the polytype, namely step-controlled epitaxy, is discussed. Also described is the selective epitaxial growth carried out on SiC at the author's laboratory, including some unpublished work.

  16. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron carbide (B4C) powder has been produced by carbothermal reduction of boric acid–citric acid gel. Initially a gel of boric acid–citric acid is prepared in an oven at 100°C. This gel is pyrolyzed in a high temperature furnace over a temperature range of 1000–1800°C. The reaction initiation temperature range for B4C ...

  17. Phonon spectrum, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientı´ficas y Técnicas (Argentina); Jaroszewicz, S. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientı´ficas y Técnicas (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    In this work, we study, by means of density functional perturbation theory and the pseudopotential method, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide. These properties are derived from the lattice dynamics in the quasi-harmonic approximation. The phonon spectrum of ThC presented in this article, to the best authors’ knowledge, have not been studied, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. We compare mechanical properties, volume thermal expansion and molar specific capacities with previous results and find a very good agreement.

  18. Adhesion of CVD coatings on new cemeted carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Bojestig, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Steel turning inserts cemented carbides have a binder phase consisting of cobalt (Co). However, in recent years a study from the United States National Toxicity Program (NTP) found that cobalt powder is carcinogenic upon inhalation. The European Union's REACH have therefore also classified cobalt powder as carcinogenic upon inhalation. The worldwide search to find a replacement has therefore lately intensified. It is important that the alternative binder phase has no negative effects on the p...

  19. Microstructural studies of carbides in MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotok, A.; Rodak, K.

    2012-05-01

    Carbides play an important role in the strengthening of microstructures of nickel-based superalloys. Grain boundary carbides prevent or retard grain-boundary sliding and make the grain boundary stronger. Carbides can also tie up certain elements that would otherwise promote phase instability during service. Various types of carbides are possible in the microstructure of nickel-based superalloys, depending on the superalloy composition and processing. In this paper, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies of carbides occurring in the microstructure of polycrystalline MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy were carried out. In the present work, MC and M23C6 carbides in the MAR-M247 microstructure were examined.

  20. Effect of Cement Replacement with Carbide Waste on the Strength of Stabilized Clay Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cement is commonly used for soil stabilization and many other ground improvement techniques. Cement is believed to be very good to improve the compressive and split-tensile strength of clay subgrades. In some application cement could be partly or fully replaced with carbide waste. This research is to study the effectiveness of the cement replacement and to find the maximum carbide waste content to be allowed for a clay subgrade. The quantities of cement replaced with the carbide waste were 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% by its mass. The results show that replacing the cement with carbide waste decreased both the compressive and split tensile strength. Replacing cement content with carbide waste reduced its ability for stabilization. The carbide waste content should be less than 70% of the cement to provide a sufficient stabilizing effect on a clay subgrade.

  1. Nanoscale fullerene compression of an yttrium carbide cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyuan; Fuhrer, Tim; Fu, Wujun; Ge, Jiechao; Bearden, Daniel W; Dallas, Jerry; Duchamp, James; Walker, Kenneth; Champion, Hunter; Azurmendi, Hugo; Harich, Kim; Dorn, Harry C

    2012-05-23

    The nanoscale parameters of metal clusters and lattices have a crucial influence on the macroscopic properties of materials. Herein, we provide a detailed study on the size and shape of isolated yttrium carbide clusters in different fullerene cages. A family of diyttrium endohedral metallofullerenes with the general formula of Y(2)C(2n) (n = 40-59) are reported. The high field (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and density functional theory (DFT) methods are employed to examine this yttrium carbide cluster in certain family members, Y(2)C(2)@D(5)(450)-C(100), Y(2)C(2)@D(3)(85)-C(92), Y(2)C(2)@C(84), Y(2)C(2)@C(3v)(8)-C(82), and Y(2)C(2)@C(s)(6)-C(82). The results of this study suggest that decreasing the size of a fullerene cage with the same (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster results in nanoscale fullerene compression (NFC) from a nearly linear stretched geometry to a constrained "butterfly" structure. The (13)C NMR chemical shift and scalar (1)J(YC) coupling parameters provide a very sensitive measure of this NFC effect for the (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster. The crystal structural parameters of a previously reported metal carbide, Y(2)C(3) are directly compared to the (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster in the current metallofullerene study.

  2. Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Integrated Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heon, Min

    Active RFID tags, which can communicate over tens or even hundreds of meters, MEMS devices of several microns in size, which are designed for the medical and pharmaceutical purposes, and sensors working in wireless monitoring systems, require microscale power sources that are able to provide enough energy and to satisfy the peak power demands in those applications. Supercapacitors have not been an attractive candidate for micro-scale energy storage, since most nanoporous carbon electrode materials are not compatible with micro-fabrication techniques and have failed to meet the requirements of high volumetric energy density and small form factor for power supplies for integrated circuits or microelectronic devices or sensors. However, supercapacitors can provide high power density, because of fast charging/discharging, which can enable self-sustaining micro-modules when combined with energy-harvesting devices, such as solar cell, piezoelectric or thermoelectric micro-generators. In this study, carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films were synthesized via vacuum decomposition of carbide substrates and gas etching of sputtered carbide thin films. This approach allowed manufacturing of porous carbon films on SiC and silicon substrates. CDC films were studied for micro-supercapacitor electrodes, and showed good double layer capacitance. Since the gas etching technique is compatible with conventional micro-device fabrication processes, it can be implemented to manufacture integrated on-chip supercapacitors on silicon wafers.

  3. Palladium-defect complexes in diamond and silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiona, A. A., E-mail: adurafimihan.abiona@gmail.com; Kemp, W.; Timmers, H. [University of New South Wales, Canberra, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia); Bharuth-Ram, K. [Durban University of Technology, Physics Department (South Africa)

    2015-04-15

    Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) studies, supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling, have shown that palladium atoms in silicon and germanium pair with vacancies. Building on these results, here we present DFT predictions and some tentative TDPAC results on palladium-defect complexes and site locations of palladium impurities in diamond and silicon carbide. For both diamond and silicon carbide, the DFT calculations predict that a split-vacancy V-PdBI-V complex is favoured, with the palladium atom on a bond-centred interstitial site having a nearest-neighbour semi-vacancy on either side. Consistent with experimental results, this configuration is also assigned to palladium complexes in silicon and germanium. For silicon carbide, the DFT modelling predicts furthermore that a palladium atom in replacing a carbon atom moves to a bond-centred interstitial site and pairs with a silicon vacancy to form a complex that is more stable than that of a palladium atom which replaces a silicon atom and then moves to a bond-centred interstitial site pairings with a carbon vacancy. These two competing alternatives differ by 8.94 eV. The favourable pairing with a silicon vacancy is also supported independently by TRIM Monte Carlo calculations, which predict that more silicon vacancies than carbon vacancies are created during heavy ion. implantation.

  4. Synthesis of a Mo/Nb mixed carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira da Silva, V.L. [NUCAT/PEQ/COPPE/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68502, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-21945-970 (Brazil)]|[Environmental Catalysis and Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Schmal, M. [NUCAT/PEQ/COPPE/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68502, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-21945-970 (Brazil); Schwartz, V.; Oyama, S.T. [Environmental Catalysis and Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Molybdenum and niobium carbides ({beta}{endash}Mo{sub 2}C, NbC), as well as mixed carbides of molybdenum and niobium, were synthesized by the temperature-programmed carburization method (TPC) using a 20 vol.thinsp{percent} CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gas mixture. The starting materials were MoO{sub 3}, B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and physical mixtures of B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/MoO{sub 3} with Nb/(Nb+Mo) atomic ratios varying from 0.2 to 0.8, respectively. Results from catalytic and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) measurements indicate that during the carburization of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/MoO{sub 3} physical mixture with Nb/(Nb+Mo)=0.8 there is, besides {beta}{endash}Mo{sub 2}C and NbC formation, the appearance of a carbidic phase not detectable by x-ray diffraction (XRD). This phase appears to be highly active and selective for the dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  5. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures....... The optimal loadings of both molybdenum carbide and the K2CO3 promoter on active carbon have been investigated. The catalysts were characterized using BET surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Additionally, in-situ X-ray diffraction and in-situ X-ray absorption...

  6. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy characterization of boron- and nitrogen-doped 6H silicon carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Liu, Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Boron - and nitrogen-doped 6H silicon carbide epilayers grown on low off-axis 6H silicon carbide substrates have been characterized by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Combined with secondary ion mass spectrometry results, preferable doping type and optimized concentration could be propo......Boron - and nitrogen-doped 6H silicon carbide epilayers grown on low off-axis 6H silicon carbide substrates have been characterized by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Combined with secondary ion mass spectrometry results, preferable doping type and optimized concentration could...

  7. Thermal Analysis of Tantalum Carbide-Hafnium Carbide Solid Solutions from Room Temperature to 1400 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thermogravimetric analysis on TaC, HfC, and their solid solutions has been carried out in air up to 1400 °C. Three solid solution compositions have been chosen: 80TaC-20 vol % HfC (T80H20, 50TaC-50 vol % HfC (T50H50, and 20TaC-80 vol % HfC (T20H80, in addition to pure TaC and HfC. Solid solutions exhibit better oxidation resistance than the pure carbides. The onset of oxidation is delayed in solid solutions from 750 °C for pure TaC, to 940 °C for the T50H50 sample. Moreover, T50H50 samples display the highest resistance to oxidation with the retention of the initial carbides. The oxide scale formed on the T50H50 sample displays mechanical integrity to prevent the oxidation of the underlying carbide solid solution. The improved oxidation resistance of the solid solution is attributed to the reaction between Ta2O5 and HfC, which stabilizes the volume changes induced by the formation of Ta2O5 and diminishes the generation of gaseous products. Also, the formation of solid solutions disturbs the atomic arrangement inside the lattice, which delays the reaction between Ta and O. Both of these mechanisms lead to the improved oxidation resistances of TaC-HfC solid solutions.

  8. Study on fragmentation and dissolution behavior of carbide in a hot-rolled hypereutectic high chromium cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yehua, E-mail: jiangyehua@kmust.edu.cn; Xiao, Han; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The method to prepare Carbon steel/High chromium iron is totally new. • High chromium iron can achieve small plastic deformation during hot rolling process. • Carbides in high chromium irons are crushed, refined obviously and becoming isolated, which is benefit to improve the impact toughness. • The carbide fragmentation and dissolution behavior of the hot-rolled HCCI were analyzed. - Abstract: A sandwich-structured composite containing a hypereutectic high chromium cast iron (HCCI) and low carbon steel (LCS) claddings was newly fabricated by centrifugal casting, then the blank was hot-rolled into composite plate. The carbide fragmentation and dissolution behavior of the hot-rolled HCCI were analyzed. During hot rolling, significant refinement of carbides was discovered in hot-rolled HCCI specimens. The carbides were broken and partly dissolved into the austenite matrix. The results show that carbides are firstly dissolved under the action of stress. There are grooves appeared at the boundaries of the carbides. The grooves reduce the cross section of the carbide. When the cross section of the carbide reaches to the required minimum critical cross section, the carbide breaks through the tensile force. After break, carbides continue to dissolve since more interfaces between the matrix and carbides are generated. The secondary carbides precipitated due to the dissolution are index as fcc and stacking faults parallel to the {1 1 1} are observed.

  9. Potential irradiation of Cu alloys and tungsten samples in DONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, F.; Palermo, I.; Laces, S.; Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-12-01

    Tungsten and Cu alloys are currently proposed as reference candidate material for ITER and DEMO first wall and divertor. Tungsten is proposed for its high fusion temperature and CuCrZr alloys for their high thermal conductivity together with good mechanical properties. However its behaviour under the extreme irradiation conditions as expected in ITER or DEMO fusion reactors is still unknown. Due to the determinant role of H and He played in the material behaviour any irradiation experiment must take into account the amount of these gases produced during the irradiation in Fusion reactors with high-energy neutrons. DONES (DEMO oriented neutron source) has been conceived as a simplified IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) like plant to provide in a reduced time scale and with a reduced budget—both compared to IFMIF—the basic information on materials damage. The objective of DONES-IFMIF in its first stage will be to test structural materials under similar neutron irradiation nuclear fusion conditions as expected in fusion reactors. These tests will be carried out with specimens irradiated in the so called high flux test module (HFTM). The objective of this paper is to assess on the potential use of DONES to irradiate copper (Cu) alloys and tungsten (W) in the HFTM together with reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel like for example EUROFER (9%-Cr-steel). The presence of Cu alloys or W specimens may have an effect in the irradiation parameters of the EUROFER samples placed also in the HFTM and in the samples of the creep fatigue test module (CFTM). McDeLicious code is used for neutron transport calculations. Damage dose rate and H and He production are analysed in the different locations and compared with the irradiation conditions in first wall and divertor in fusion machines.

  10. Exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide and sulphur dioxide in the norwegian silicon carbide industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Føreland, S; Bye, E; Bakke, B; Eduard, W

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess personal exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide (SiC) and sulphur dioxide in the Norwegian SiC industry. Approximately 720 fibre samples, 720 respirable dust samples and 1400 total dust samples were collected from randomly chosen workers from the furnace, processing and maintenance departments in all three Norwegian SiC plants. The respirable dust samples were analysed for quartz, cristobalite and non-fibrous SiC content. Approximately 240 sulphur dioxide samples were collected from workers in the furnace department. The sorting operators from all plants, control room and cleaning operators in Plant A and charger, charger/mix and payloader operators in Plant C had a geometric mean (GM) of fibre exposure above the Norwegian occupational exposure limit (OEL) (0.1 fibre cm(-3)). The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable quartz (20 mug m(-3)). The charger/mix operators in Plant C had the highest GM exposure to respirable cristobalite (38 mug m(-3)) and the refinery crusher operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to non-fibrous SiC (0.65 mg m(-3)). Exposure to the crystalline silica and non-fibrous SiC was generally low and between 0.4 and 2.1% of the measurements exceeded the OELs. The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable dust (1.3 mg m(-3)) and total dust (21 mg m(-3)). GM exposures for respirable dust above the Norwegian SiC industry-specific OEL of 0.5 mg m(-3) were also found for refinery crusher operators in all plants and mix, charger, charger/mix and sorting operators in Plant C. Only 4% of the total dust measurements exceeded the OEL for nuisance dust of (10 mg m(-3)). Exposure to sulphur dioxide was generally low. However, peaks in the range of 10-100 p.p.m. were observed for control room and crane operators in Plants A and B and for charger and charger/mix operators in Plant C. Workers in the SiC industry are exposed to a mixture of

  11. Mathematical Modelling of the Process of Tungsten Fluorides Reduction by Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendakov Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of tungsten fluorides reduction by hydrogen is a component part of Fluoride technology of tungsten conversion. Nowadays the researchers are definitely interested in studying this process. It is connected with common use of metal tungsten products in different sectors of the economy, which is the result of unique qualities of this metal. With the help of physical and mathematical modelling of the process of tungsten hexafluoride reduction by hydrogen, it becomes possible to create an import substitution technology of metal tungsten conversion. Fluoride technology of tungsten conversion allows putting different coverings and make tungsten products of different shapes, which is impossible to get traditionally. The process of tungsten fluorides reduction by hydrogen can be referred to CVD processes (Chemical Vapor Deposition. Common use of CVD technologies for getting metal products and coverings is limited by definite problems, connected with access difficulties to initial components of research and the lack of information about their basic thermal characteristics. Therefore, mathematical description of the initial components mass-moving process, which provides with optimal value of their concentration in gas flow and in precipitation zone, is a question of current importance.

  12. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Groenland, A.W.; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Kumar Chinthaginjala, J.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution

  13. Growth Process Conditions of Tungsten Oxide Thin Films Using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Z.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/251874486; Geus, J.W.; de Jong, M.; Harks, P.P.R.M.L.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2011-01-01

    We report the growth conditions of nanostructured tungsten oxide (WO3−x) thin films using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Two tungsten filaments were resistively heated to various temperatures and exposed to an air flow at various subatmospheric pressures. The oxygen partial pressure was

  14. pH-controllable synthesis of unique nanostructured tungsten oxide aerogel and its sensitive glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang-Qiang; Xu, Maowen; Bao, Shu-Juan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a controllable synthesis of nanowire-networked tungsten oxide aerogels, which was performed by varying the pH in a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted hydrothermal process. An enzyme-tungsten oxide aerogel co-modified electrode shows high activity and selectivity toward glucose oxidation, thus holding great promise for applications in bioelectronics.

  15. Thermal shock behaviour of tungsten after high flux H-plasma loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, M.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; De Temmerman, G.; Wright, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transient thermal shock loads induce crack networks on tungsten samples especially at low base temperatures. To achieve test conditions which are more relevant for the performance of tungsten-armoured plasma facing components in next step thermonuclear fusion devices

  16. The influence of high grain boundary density on helium retention in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, G., E-mail: gonzalovallesalberdi@hotmail.es [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); González, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, Oviedo (Spain); Martin-Bragado, I. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/ Enric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Iglesias, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, Oviedo (Spain); Perlado, J.M.; Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Comparison between monocrystalline and nanostructured irradiated tungsten. • OKMC parameterization published and new DFT data. • Important role of grain boundary density on defect evolution. • Cluster pressurization much lower in nanostructured tungsten. • Promising expectations on nanocrystalline tungsten in view of results. - Abstract: In order to study the influence of a high grain boundary density on the amount, size and distribution of defects produced by pulsed helium (625 keV) irradiation in tungsten, we have carried out Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations in both monocrystalline and nanocrystalline tungsten. The parameterization of the OKMC code (MMonCa) includes binding energies obtained with our in-house Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In the interior of a grain in nanocrystalline tungsten the mixed He{sub n}V{sub m} clusters are larger and have a lower He/V ratio. Thus, they are less pressurized clusters. The total elastic strain energy remains almost constant with the increasing number of pulses, contrary to its increase in monocrystalline tungsten. A better response to helium irradiation is therefore expected in nanocrystalline tungsten, opening a new path to investigate these nanostructured materials for fusion purposes.

  17. Deciphering surface behavior and deuterium retention in tin-lithium-coated fuzzy tungsten substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten will be used as plasma-facing material in the divertor in ITER, but it undergoes detrimental surface-subsurface morphological changes under irradiation. One type of tungsten that may mitigate such morphologies is porous tungsten due to higher defect sink areal density. While surface nanostructures such as fuzz may compromise plasma performance, their intrinsic porosity offers a proxy for a porous material and strategies to prevent high-Z impurity emission. Liquid metal coatings have been proposed as plasma facing materials to counteract the erosion issues faced by tungsten. Tin-lithium eutectics are an understudied class of potential liquid metal coatings for their low melting points and reduced erosion and fuel retention compared to pure lithium coatings. A 95 at.% tin-lithium eutectic was deposited on fuzzy tungsten samples and exposed to 250 eV deuterium ions at 250 °C and varying fluences. Mitigation of fuzz erosion and deuterium retention were examined post-mortem with SEM and secondary mass ion spectroscopy (SIMS of tungsten samples and witness samples used to collect eroded material. The SnLi film persisted after irradiation and protected underlying fuzz. SIMS results demonstrate surface mixing of the liquid metal and tungsten substrate and increased lithium erosion at high fluence and non-structured surfaces. The highest concentration and deepest penetration of retained deuterium was observed in the sample exposed to the lowest fluence. Results may indicate intercalation of liquid metal with tungsten tendrils at elevated temperatures.

  18. Optically Polarized Conduction-Band Electrons in Tungsten Observed by Spin-Polarized Photoemission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zürcher, P.; Meier, F.; Christensen, N. E.

    1979-01-01

    Along the (100) direction of tungsten, interband transitions induced by circularly polarized light of energy 1.5 eV......Along the (100) direction of tungsten, interband transitions induced by circularly polarized light of energy 1.5 eV...

  19. Efficient emission of positronium atoms from an Na-coated polycrystalline tungsten surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terabe, H.; Iida, S.; Wada, K.; Hyodo, T.; Yagishita, A.; Nagashima, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Time-of-flight spectra for the ortho-positronium emitted from clean and Na-coated tungsten surfaces have been measured using the pulsed slow positron beam at KEK-IMSS slow positron facility. Emission efficiency of positronium from the Na-coated sample was found to be several times greater than that from uncoated tungsten surfaces.

  20. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Unterberg, B.; M. Reinhart,; Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Van Oost, G.; Möller, S.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER - relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER - like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux

  1. pH-controllable synthesis of unique nanostructured tungsten oxide aerogel and its sensitive glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang-Qiang; Xu, Maowen; Bao, Shu-Juan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-03-20

    This work presents a controllable synthesis of nanowire-networked tungsten oxide aerogels, which was performed by varying the pH in a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted hydrothermal process. An enzyme-tungsten oxide aerogel co-modified electrode shows high activity and selectivity toward glucose oxidation, thus holding great promise for applications in bioelectronics.

  2. Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Quarterly technical status report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Pride, J.D.; Howard, J.B.; Tester, J.W.; Peters, W.A.

    1995-02-01

    Scoping runs with up to 0.125 cfm methane in 1 cfm (ambient temperature) of argon and 12g/min of MgO were performed in October using a graphite anode and tungsten cathode in the new plasma reactor. A GC analysis of the gas sample from the cooling chamber and of the head space gas above the hydrolyzed solid sample revealed the presence of C{sub 3}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, which suggests the formation of magnesium carbide. However, a similar run performed with MgO feeding into a pure argon plasma gave similar results, indicating possible reaction of the graphite electrode with the MgO to form carbides and/or direct formation of C{sub 3}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in the arc. A GC analysis of the gas sample taken from the cooling chamber from a run in an argon plasma without MgO feeding did no yield any C{sub 3}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, suggesting that the MgO powder is hydrated and is a probable hydrogen source. Thus far, the main obstacle to performing a 100% methane/MgO scoping run is the instability of the methane plasma. Two approaches are being taken to address this issue: increasing the open circuit voltage of the power supply to permit operation of an arc at higher voltage levels and magnetically rotating the arc with a solenoid around the plasma reactor. The latter approach is currently being pursued.

  3. Vanadium Doped Tungsten Oxide Material - Electrical Physical and Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin N. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical physical and sensing (to VOCs and inorganic gases properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide in the regions of phase transition temperature were investigated. Vanadium oxide (II dimerization was observed in the doped material, corresponding to new phase transition. The extreme sensitivity and selectivity to chemically active gases and vapors in small concentrations: CO, NOx, NH3 acetone, ethanol near phase transitions temperature was found. Sensor elements were manufactured for the quantitative detection (close to 1 ppm of alcohol and ammonia.

  4. High temperature indentation of helium-implanted tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, James S.K.-L., E-mail: james.gibson@materials.ox.ac.uk [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Roberts, Steve G. [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Armstrong, David E.J. [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    Nanoindentation has been performed on tungsten, unimplanted and helium-implanted to ~600 appm, at temperatures up to 750 °C. The hardening effect of the damage was 0.90 GPa at 50 °C, but is negligible above 450 °C. The hardness value at a given temperature did not change on re-testing after heating to 750 °C. This suggests that the helium is trapped in small vacancy complexes that are stable to at least 750 °C, but which can be bypassed due to increased dislocation mobility (cross slip or climb) above 450 °C.

  5. First-principles study of Frenkel pair recombination in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shi-Yao; Jin, Shuo, E-mail: jinshuo@buaa.edu.cn; Li, Yu-Hao; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-02-15

    The recombination of one Frenkel pair in tungsten has been investigated through first-principles simulation. Two different recombination types have been identified: instantaneous and thermally activated. The small recombination barriers for thermally activated recombination cases indicate that recombination can occur easily with a slightly increased temperature. For both of the two recombination types, recombination occurs through the self-interstitial atom moving towards the vacancy. The recombination process can be direct or through replacement sequences, depending on the vertical distance between the vacancy and the 〈1 1 1〉 line of self-interstitial atom pair.

  6. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebsz, Melinda [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Kollender, Jan Philipp [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    In the present work, which is aimed to monitor in situ the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten by using a Flow-Type Scanning Droplet Cell Microscope (FT-SDCM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), novel results are reported. The anodic oxide growth and its dissolution on the surface of W have been monitored in situ. The results of this current study show the importance of coupling electrochemical experiments to ICP-MS. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. First-principles study of Frenkel pair recombination in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shi-Yao; Jin, Shuo; Li, Yu-Hao; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-02-01

    The recombination of one Frenkel pair in tungsten has been investigated through first-principles simulation. Two different recombination types have been identified: instantaneous and thermally activated. The small recombination barriers for thermally activated recombination cases indicate that recombination can occur easily with a slightly increased temperature. For both of the two recombination types, recombination occurs through the self-interstitial atom moving towards the vacancy. The recombination process can be direct or through replacement sequences, depending on the vertical distance between the vacancy and the line of self-interstitial atom pair.

  8. Evaluation of stable tungsten isotopes in the resolved resonance region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillebeeckx P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade benchmark experiments and simulations, together with newly obtained neutron cross section data, have pointed out deficiencies in evaluated data files of W isotopes. The role of W as a fundamental structural material in different nuclear applications fully justifies a new evaluation of 182, 183, 184, 186W neutron resonance parameters. In this regard transmission and capture cross section measurements on natural and enriched tungsten samples were performed at the GELINA facility of the EC-JRC-IRMM. A resonance parameter file used as input in the resonance shape analysis was prepared based on the available literature and adjusted in first instance to transmission data.

  9. Transient induced tungsten melting at the Joint European Torus (JET).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coenen, J.W.; Matthews, G.F.; Krieger, K.; Iglesias, D.; Bunting, P.; Corre, Y.; Silburn, S.; Balboa, I.; Bazylev, B.; Conway, N.; Coffey, I.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gauthier, E.; Gaspar, J.; Jachmich, S.; Jepu, I.; Makepeace, C.; Scannell, R.; Stamp, M.; Petersson, P.; Pitts, R.A.; Wiesen, S.; Widdowson, A.; Heinola, K.; Baron-Wiechec, A.

    T170, December (2017), č. článku 014013. ISSN 0031-8949. [PFMC 2017: 16th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications. Düsseldorf, 16.05.2017-19.05.2017] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * melting * plasma wall interaction * tungsten * plasma facing components Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1402-4896/aa8789/meta

  10. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  11. Effects of carbon impurity on deuterium retention in VPS-tungsten coatings exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, M.; Nakano, T.; Itami, K.; Wada, T.; Ueda, Y.; Tanabe, T.

    2011-08-01

    Carbon eroded from carbon armor tiles during plasma discharge was implanted into and accumulated in tungsten coating exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas. The D/C ratio of 0.06 ± 0.02 evaluated in the tungsten coating was half to one-quarter that in carbon codeposits formed at similar temperature of the tungsten coating. These results suggest that simultaneous use of carbon and tungsten coating would enhance tritium retention in the tungsten coating in future deuterium-tritium fusion devices. To investigate the carbon diffusion mechanism in the tungsten coating exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas, the carbon diffusion coefficient in tungsten coating was measured by tracer methods. Using the apparent carbon diffusion coefficient obtained in this study (˜8 × 10-19 m2/s), the carbon diffusion length in the tungsten coating exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas was evaluated to ˜100 nm. This diffusion length was quite shorter than that observed in the tungsten coating exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas. Therefore, it remains possible that diffusion of implanted carbon in tungsten coating would be enhanced by other diffusion mechanisms which did not arise in the diffusion experiments or heat loads to the tungsten coating during transient events and plasma discharges with a strike point positioned on the tungsten-coated tiles.

  12. A molecular dynamics study of melting and dissociation of tungsten nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the melting and dissociation of free tungsten nanoparticles. For the various interatomic potentials applied, the melting points of the tungsten nanoparticles increased with increasing nanoparticle diameter. Combining these results with the melting point of bulk tungsten in the experiment, the melting point of nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 4 to 12 nm could be determined. As the temperature increases, free nanoparticles are subject to dissociation phenomena. The dissociation rate was observed to follow Arrhenius behavior, and the Meyer–Neldel rule was obeyed. These results are useful in understanding the behavior of tungsten dust generated in nuclear fusion devices as well as for the preparation, formation, and application of tungsten powders.

  13. Self-castellation of tungsten monoblock under high heat flux loading and impact of material properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panayotis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the full-tungsten divertor qualification program at ITER Organization, macro-cracks, so called self-castellation were found in a fraction of tungsten monoblocks during cyclic high heat flux loading at 20MW/m2. The number of monoblocks with macro-cracks varied with the tungsten products used as armour material. In order to understand correlation between the macro-crack appearance and W properties, an activity to characterize W monoblock materials was launched at the IO. The outcome highlighted that the higher the recrystallization resistance, the lower the number of cracks detected during high heat flux tests. Thermo-mechanical finite element modelling demonstrated that the maximum surface temperature ranges from 1800 °C to 2200 °C and in this range recrystallization of tungsten occurred. Furthermore, it indicated that loss of strength due to recrystallization is responsible for the development of macro-cracks in the tungsten monoblock.

  14. Recent developments toward the use of tungsten as armour material in plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitteau, R. [Euratom-CEA, Direction des sciences de matiere, departement de recherches sur la fusion controlee, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul les Durances (France)], E-mail: Raphael.mitteau@cea.fr; Missiaen, J.M. [LTPCM, UMR CNRS 5614, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Brustolin, P. [Institut de Soudure, YUTZ (France); Ozer, O. [LTPCM, UMR CNRS 5614, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Durocher, A. [Euratom-CEA, Direction des sciences de matiere, departement de recherches sur la fusion controlee, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul les Durances (France); Ruset, C.; Lungu, C.P. [NILPRP, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Courtois, X. [Euratom-CEA, Direction des sciences de matiere, departement de recherches sur la fusion controlee, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul les Durances (France); Dominicy, C. [CP2M, Universite d' Aix Marseille III, Marseille (France); Maier, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Garching (Germany); Grisolia, C. [Euratom-CEA, Direction des sciences de matiere, departement de recherches sur la fusion controlee, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul les Durances (France); Piazza, G. [EFDA JET, Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom); Chappuis, P. [Euratom-CEA, Direction des sciences de matiere, departement de recherches sur la fusion controlee, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul les Durances (France)

    2007-10-15

    Future fusion experiments will rely on tungsten armour tile for their plasma facing components. In order to sustain steady state operation, the components need to be cooled through an attachment to a heat sink. All current reference concepts rely on contact bonds, unfavourable for long-term application (high temperature service, cycle fatigue, thermal shocks). Three routes toward the development of thick tungsten bonds are presented here, namely functionally graded tungsten copper assembly, electron beam welding of tungsten, and coating processes. All present favourable prospects, and tend to indicate that a thick bond is possible with tungsten. Dedicated programs as well as industrial implication are however required if such concepts are to be used actually for the fabrication of large components series.

  15. MICROSTRUCTURE, THERMO-PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF IN-SITU FORMED BORON CARBIDE - ZIRCONIUM DIBORIDE COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. R. Ch. Murthy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure, thermos-physical, mechanical and wear properties of in-situ formed B₄C- ZrB₂ composite were investigated. Coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity and electrical resistivity of the composite were measured at different temperatures up to 1000 °C in inert atmosphere. Flexural strength was measured up to 900 °C in air. Friction and wear properties have been studied at different loads under reciprocative sliding, using a counter body (ball of cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co at ambient conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA confirmed the formation of ZrB₂ as the reaction product in the composite. Electrical resistivity was measured as 3.02 x 10-4Ω.m at 1000°C. Thermal conductivity measured at temperatures between 25°C and 1000 °C was in the range of 8 to 10 W/m-K. Flexural strength of the composite decreased with increase in temperature and reached a value of 92 MPa at 900°C. The average value of coefficient of friction (COF was measured as 0.15 at 20 N load and 10 Hz frequency. Increase of load from 5 N to 20 N resulted in decrease in COF from 0.24 to 0.15 at 10 Hz frequency. Specific wear rate data observed was of the order of 10-6 mm³/N-m. Both abrasive and tribo-chemical reaction wear mechanisms were observed on the worn surface of flat and counter body materials. At higher loads (≥10 N a tribo-chemical reaction wear mechanism was dominant.

  16. Microstructure analysis and comparison of tungsten alloy rod and [001] oriented columnar-grained tungsten rod ballistic penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappu, S.; Kennedy, C.; Murr, L.E. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Magness, L.S. [US Army Research Lab., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Kapoor, D. [US Army Armament, Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) penetrator rods (93% W particles in a matrix of 4.9% Ni and 2.1% Fe) were compared with [001] columnar-grained W penetrator rods in the as-fabricated condition, and after penetration into thick targets at impact velocities of 1 and 1.5 km s{sup -1}, respectively. Light metallography and transmission electron microscopy revealed the initial W microstructures to be similar arrangements of predominantly a left angle 111 right angle /2 screw dislocations. The in-target (deformed) microstructures were characterized by recovered and elongated sub-grains having misorientations ranging from 1 to 5 . (orig.) 22 refs.

  17. Terawatt laser system irradiation of carbon/tungsten bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungu, C.P.; Marcu, A.; Porosnicu, C.; Jepu, I.; Lungu, A.M.; Chiru, P.; Luculescu, C.; Banici, R.; Ursescu, D.; Dabu, R. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Feraru, I.D.; Grigorescu, C.E.A. [National Institute R and D for Optoelectronics, INOE 2000, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Iacobescu, G.; Osiac, M. [University of Craiova, Faculty of Physics, Craiova 200585 (Romania); Kovac, J. [Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nemanic, V. [Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hinkov, I. [Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Farhat, S.; Gicquel, A.; Brinza, O. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Materiaux et des Procedes, LSPM, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2012-09-15

    Using the original thermionic vacuum arc method (TVA), carbon films with the thickness of about 2500 nm were coated on top of 200 nm tungsten films deposited on fine grain graphite substrates. The carbon/tungsten bilayers were irradiated using a terawatt laser system (TEWALAS), 360 ps and 100 fs pulse duration, 110-150 mJ pulse energy. The analysis of the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern allowed the identification of rhomboedral structures corresponding to diamond. The Raman scattering measurements were also performed on the produced craters and the specific peak at 1330 cm{sup -1} corresponding to diamond was observed. The C-C sp{sup 3} bonding content increased to 39.4% in the irradiated region compared to 30.8% in the ''as deposited'' zone, as shown by XPS. The craters produced by the laser irradiation were morphologically studied using optical imaging and scanning electron microscopy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Tungsten based Anisotropic Metamaterial as an Ultra-broadband Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yinyue; Ding, Fei; Fung, Kin Hung; Ji, Ting; Li, Dongdong; Hao, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    The trapped rainbow effect has been mostly found on tapered anisotropic metamaterials (MMs) made of low loss noble metals, such as gold, silver, etc. In this work, we demonstrate that an anisotropic MM waveguide made of high loss metal tungsten can also support the trapped rainbow effect similar to the noble metal based structure. We show theoretically that an array of tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cones placed on top of a reflective substrate can absorb light at the wavelength range from 0.3 micrometer to 9 micrometer with an average absorption efficiency approaching 98%. It is found that the excitation of multiple orders of slow-light resonant modes is responsible for the efficient absorption at wavelengths longer than 2 micrometer, and the anti-reflection effect of tapered lossy material gives rise to the near perfect absorption at shorter wavelengths. The absorption spectrum suffers a small dip at around 4.2 micrometer where the first order and second order slow-light modes get overlapped, but we ca...

  19. Photocatalysis and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Tungsten Trioxide Nanostructured Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten trioxide (WO3 possesses a small band gap energy of 2.4–2.8 eV and is responsive to both ultraviolet and visible light irradiation including strong absorption of the solar spectrum and stable physicochemical properties. Thus, controlled growth of one-dimensional (1D WO3 nanotubular structures with desired length, diameter, and wall thickness has gained significant interest. In the present study, 1D WO3 nanotubes were successfully synthesized via electrochemical anodization of tungsten (W foil in an electrolyte composed of 1 M of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4 and ammonium fluoride (NH4F. The influence of NH4F content on the formation mechanism of anodic WO3 nanotubular structure was investigated in detail. An optimization of fluoride ions played a critical role in controlling the chemical dissolution reaction in the interface of W/WO3. Based on the results obtained, a minimum of 0.7 wt% of NH4F content was required for completing transformation from W foil to WO3 nanotubular structure with an average diameter of 85 nm and length of 250 nm within 15 min of anodization time. In this case, high aspect ratio of WO3 nanotubular structure is preferred because larger active surface area will be provided for better photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical (PEC reactions.

  20. Simulations of thermionic suppression during tungsten transient melting experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komm, M.; Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; Dejarnac, R.; Gunn, J. P.; Krieger, K.; Podolnik, A.; Pitts, R. A.; Panek, R.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma-facing components receive enormous heat fluxes under steady state and especially during transient conditions that can even lead to tungsten (W) melting. Under these conditions, the unimpeded thermionic current density emitted from the W surfaces can exceed the incident plasma current densities by several orders of magnitude triggering a replacement current which drives melt layer motion via the {\\boldsymbol{J}}× {\\boldsymbol{B}} force. However, in tokamaks, the thermionic current is suppressed by space-charge effects and prompt re-deposition due to gyro-rotation. We present comprehensive results of particle-in-cell modelling using the 2D3V code SPICE2 for the thermionic emissive sheath of tungsten. Simulations have been performed for various surface temperatures and selected inclinations of the magnetic field corresponding to the leading edge and sloped exposures. The surface temperature dependence of the escaping thermionic current and its limiting value are determined for various plasma parameters; for the leading edge geometry, the results agree remarkably well with the Takamura analytical model. For the sloped geometry, the limiting value is observed to be proportional to the thermal electron current and a simple analytical expression is proposed that accurately reproduces the numerical results.

  1. Electrochromic study on amorphous tungsten oxide films by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan, E-mail: cli10@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China); Hung, Ming-Tsung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Huang, B.Q. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-31

    Tungsten oxide films under different oxygen flow rates are deposited by DC sputtering. The voltage change at target and analyses for the deposited films by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible-near infrared spectroscopy consistently indicate that low oxygen flow rate (5 sccm) only creates metal-rich tungsten oxide films, while higher oxygen flow rate (10–20 sccm) assures the deposition of amorphous WO{sub 3} films. To explore the electrochromic function of deposited WO{sub 3} films, we use electrochemical tests to perform the insertion of lithium ions and electrons into films. The WO{sub 3} films switch between color and bleach states effectively by both potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry. Quantitative evaluation on electrochemical tests indicates that WO{sub 3} film with composition close to its stoichiometry is an optimal choice for electrochromic function. - Highlights: • Amorphous WO{sub 3} films are deposited by DC sputtering under different O{sub 2} flow rates. • Higher oxygen flow rate (> 10 sccm) assures the deposition of amorphous WO{sub 3} films. • Both potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry make WO{sub 3} films switch its color. • An optimal electrochromic WO{sub 3} is to make films close to its stoichiometry.

  2. Monolayer Iron Carbide Films on Au(111) as a Fischer–Tropsch Model Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannie, Gilbère; Lammich, Lutz; Li, Yong-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we characterize the atomic-scale details of ultrathin films of iron carbide (FexCy) on Au(111) synthesized as a potential model system for the active iron carbide phase in iron Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts. The experiments show that room...

  3. Microstructural evaluation of the NbC-20Ni cemented carbides during sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, D. [BRATS Sintered Filters and Metallic Powders, Cajamar, SP (Brazil); Cannizza, E. [EHT Cannizza Consultoria Em Engenharia Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Fine carbides in a metallic matrix (binder) form the microstructure of the cemented carbides. Grain size and binder content are the main variables to adjust hardness and toughness. These products are produced by Powder Metallurgy, and traditional route involves mixing carbides with binder by high energy milling, pressing and sintering. During sintering, a liquid phase promotes densification, and a final relative density higher than 99% is expected. Sintering is carried out at high temperatures, and dissolution of the carbides changes the chemical composition of the binder. To control grain growth of the main carbide, which reduces hardness, small quantities of secondary carbides are used. These additives limit dissolution and precipitation of the main carbides reducing the final grain size. This paper focused the structural and chemical evolution during sintering using NbC-20Ni cermets. Mixtures of very fine NbC carbides and carbonyl Ni powders were produce by intense milling. These mixtures were pressed using uniaxial pressures from 50 to 200MPa. Shrinkage was evaluated using dilatometric measurements under an atmosphere of dynamic argon. Samples were also sintered under vacuum in high temperature industrial furnace. The sintered samples were characterized in terms of density hardness, toughness and microstructure. DRX was the main tool used to evaluate the structural evolution of the binder. In situ chemical analysis helped to understand the dissolution mechanisms. (author)

  4. Plasma-Chemical Synthesis of Nanosized Powders-Nitrides, Carbides, Oxides, Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerina, Zaharieva; Gheorghi, Vissokov; Janis, Grabis; Slavcho, Rakovsky

    2012-11-01

    In this article the plasma-chemical synthesis of nanosized powders (nitrides, carbides, oxides, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes) is reviewed. Nanosized powders - nitrides, carbides, oxides, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes have been successfully produced using different techniques, technological apparatuses and conditions for their plasma-chemical synthesis.

  5. Natural precursor based hydrothermal synthesis of sodium carbide for reactor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, M. S.; Saritha Devi, H. V.; Sebastian, Riya; Ambadas, G.; Sankararaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Carbides are a class of materials with high mechanical strength and refractory nature which finds a wide range of applications in industries and nuclear reactors. The existing synthesis methods of all types of carbides have problems in terms of use of toxic chemical precursors, high-cost, etc. Sodium carbide (Na2C2) which is an alkali metal carbide is the least explored one and also that there is no report of low-cost and low-temperature synthesis of sodium carbide using the eco-friendly, easily available natural precursors. In the present work, we report a simple low-cost, non-toxic hydrothermal synthesis of refractory sodium carbide using the natural precursor—Pandanus. The formation of sodium carbide along with boron carbide is evidenced by the structural and morphological characterizations. The sample thus synthesized is subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet (UV)—visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, and photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopic techniques.

  6. Properties and characterization of multilayers of carbides and diamond-like carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strondl, C.; Kolk, G.J. van der; Hurkmans, T.; Fleischer, W.; Trinh, T.; Marcolino Carvalho, Nuno; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    Metal containing diamond-like carbon (Me-DLC) coatings are widely applied in industrial applications. Normally, the coatings are produced with small inclusions of carbide forming elements like the 3d, 4d or 5d metals, or Si or B. The small carbide islands have sizes of approximately 2-20 nm. The

  7. Stereological parameters of carbides on section of casting made from modified chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of stereological parameters of carbides on the section of the model castingmade from modified (the mixture FeNb+FeV+RE wear resistance chromium cast iron was introduced in the article. The jump change of some stereological parameters of carbides in certain distance from the surface of the casting was observed.

  8. Development of a Robust Tri-Carbide Fueled Reactor for Multimegawatt Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim Anghaie; Travis W. Knight; Johann Plancher; Reza Gouw

    2004-08-11

    An innovative reactor core design based on advanced, mixed carbide fuels was analyzed for nuclear space power applications. Solid solution, mixed carbide fuels such as (U,Zr,Nb)c and (U,Zr, Ta)C offer great promise as an advanced high temperature fuel for space power reactors.

  9. Synthesis of nanoparticles of vanadium carbide in the ferrite of nodular cast iron

    CERN Document Server

    Fras, E; Guzik, E; Lopez, H

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis method of nanoparticles of vanadium carbide in nodular cast iron is presented. After introduction of this method, the nanoparticles with 10-70 nm of diameter was obtained in the ferrite. The diffraction investigations confirmed that these particles are vanadium carbides of type V/sub 3/C/sub 4/.

  10. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cv. ... photosynthetic rate, final fruit drop, yield per plant, fruit weight, fruit volume, pulp weight, peel weight, juice weight and fruit skin color were significantly affected by the calcium carbide treatment while number of new flushes per branch, ...

  11. Synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from calcium carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhewang; Yu, Dingyi; Sum, Yin Ngai; Zhang, Yugen

    2012-04-01

    AHA Erlebnis: CaC(2), used to produce acetylene until several decades ago, is re-emerging as a cheap, sustainable resource synthesized from coal and lignocellulosic biomass. We report efficient catalytic protocols for the synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from CaC(2) through aldehyde, alkyne, and amine (AAA) as well as alkyne, haloalkane, and amine (AHA) couplings, and in addition demonstrate its use in click and Sonogashira chemistry, showing that calcium carbide is a sustainable and cost-efficient carbon source. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

    1994-07-26

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

  13. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  14. Surface coating metrology of carbides of cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, V. D.; Basova, G. D.

    2017-10-01

    The coatings were studied by their main sign of the micrometric thickness by means of coating destruction and electron microscopical study of cleavage surfaces. Shock stress ruptures of heated carbides of cutting tools were performed. The discovery of the coating technology and creation of the coating structure for nonuniform and nonequilibrium conditions of the cutting process were dealt with. Multifracture microdestruction of nitride coatings, caused by complex external influences, was analysed to reveal the mechanism of interaction of elementary failures. Positive results were obtained in the form of improving the strength and wear resistance of the product, crack resistance increasing.

  15. Improvement of contact resistances on plasma-exposed silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, R.; Hay, J.; van der Drift, E.; Gao, W.

    2000-11-01

    We demonstrate improvements in the specific contact resistance of unannealed ohmic contacts by at least one order of magnitude on undoped 6H-SiC (silicon carbide, SiC). The improved contacts with a specific resistance of 0.3 Ω cm 2 have been fabricated on SiC surfaces exposed to an argon plasma at -80 V for 2.5 min. Under these plasma conditions, the top monolayers of the plasma-exposed SiC surface is silicon rich as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the surface roughness is decreased by a factor of 2 from atomic force microscopy analysis.

  16. Growth of Vanadium Carbide by Halide-Activated Pack Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    The present work investigates growth of vanadium carbide (VC) layers by the pack diffusion method on a Vanadis 6 tool steel. The VC layers were produced by pack diffusion at 1000°C for 1, 4 and 16 hours. The VC layers were characterized with optical and electron microscopy, Vickers hardness tests...... and X-ray diffraction. Homogeneous VC mono-phase layers with Vickers hardness of more than 2400 HV were obtained. Hardening and tempering of the vanadized Vanadis 6 steel did not affect the VC layers....

  17. High-Temperature Electronic Materials: Silicon Carbide and Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Magnus; Friesel, Milan; Wahab, Qamar-Ul; Straumal, Boris

    The physical and chemical properties of wide-band-gap semiconductors make these materials an ideal choice for device fabrication for applications in many different areas, e.g. light emitters, high-temperature and high-power electronics, high-power microwave devices, micro-electromechanical system (MEM) technology, and substrates for semiconductor preparation. These semiconductors have been recognized for several decades as being suitable for these applications, but until recently the low material quality has not allowed the fabrication of high-quality devices. In this chapter, we review the wide-band-gap semiconductors, silicon carbide and diamond.

  18. Characterization of plastic and boron carbide additive manufactured neutron collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M. B.; Siddel, D. H.; Elliott, A. M.; Anderson, D.; Abernathy, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques allow for the production of materials with complicated geometries with reduced costs and production time over traditional methods. We have applied this technique to the production of neutron collimators for use in thermal and cold neutron scattering instrumentation directly out of boron carbide. We discuss the design and generation of these collimators. We also provide measurements at neutron scattering beamlines which serve to characterize the performance of these collimators. Additive manufacturing of parts using neutron absorbing material may also find applications in radiography and neutron moderation.

  19. ɛ-Iron carbide as a low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Sun, Bo; Lin, Jun; Wen, Wen; Pei, Yan; Yan, Shirun; Qiao, Minghua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zong, Baoning

    2014-12-01

    ɛ-Iron carbide has been predicted to be promising for low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (LTFTS) targeting liquid fuel production. However, directional carbidation of metallic iron to ɛ-iron carbide is challenging due to kinetic hindrance. Here we show how rapidly quenched skeletal iron featuring nanocrystalline dimensions, low coordination number and an expanded lattice may solve this problem. We find that the carbidation of rapidly quenched skeletal iron occurs readily in situ during LTFTS at 423-473 K, giving an ɛ-iron carbide-dominant catalyst that exhibits superior activity to literature iron and cobalt catalysts, and comparable to more expensive noble ruthenium catalyst, coupled with high selectivity to liquid fuels and robustness without the aid of electronic or structural promoters. This finding may permit the development of an advanced energy-efficient and clean fuel-oriented FTS process on the basis of a cost-effective iron catalyst.

  20. ε-Iron carbide as a low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Sun, Bo; Lin, Jun; Wen, Wen; Pei, Yan; Yan, Shirun; Qiao, Minghua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zong, Baoning

    2014-12-12

    ε-Iron carbide has been predicted to be promising for low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (LTFTS) targeting liquid fuel production. However, directional carbidation of metallic iron to ε-iron carbide is challenging due to kinetic hindrance. Here we show how rapidly quenched skeletal iron featuring nanocrystalline dimensions, low coordination number and an expanded lattice may solve this problem. We find that the carbidation of rapidly quenched skeletal iron occurs readily in situ during LTFTS at 423-473 K, giving an ε-iron carbide-dominant catalyst that exhibits superior activity to literature iron and cobalt catalysts, and comparable to more expensive noble ruthenium catalyst, coupled with high selectivity to liquid fuels and robustness without the aid of electronic or structural promoters. This finding may permit the development of an advanced energy-efficient and clean fuel-oriented FTS process on the basis of a cost-effective iron catalyst.